WorldWideScience

Sample records for resolution spectrograph hrs

  1. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.

    1977-08-01

    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  2. Spectroscopic Characterisation of CARMENES Target Candidates from FEROS, CAFE and HRS High-Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passegger, Vera Maria; Reiners, Ansgar; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Wende, Sebastian; Schöfer, Patrick; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Montes, David; Mundt, Reinhard; Ribas, Ignasi; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) started a new planet survey on M-dwarfs in January this year. The new high-resolution spectrographs are operating in the visible and near-infrared at Calar Alto Observatory. They will perform high-accuracy radial-velocity measurements (goal 1 m s-1) of about 300 M-dwarfs with the aim to detect low-mass planets within habitable zones. We characterised the candidate sample for CARMENES and provide fundamental parameters for these stars in order to constrain planetary properties and understand star-planet systems. Using state-of-the-art model atmospheres (PHOENIX-ACES) and χ2-minimization with a downhill-simplex method we determine effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity [Fe/H] for high-resolution spectra of around 480 stars of spectral types M0.0-6.5V taken with FEROS, CAFE and HRS. We find good agreement between the models and our observed high-resolution spectra. We show the performance of the algorithm, as well as results, parameter and spectral type distributions for the CARMENES candidate sample, which is used to define the CARMENES target sample. We also present first preliminary results obtained from CARMENES spectra.

  3. Spectroscopic Characterization of GEO Satellites with Gunma LOW Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.; Hashimoto, O.

    The spectroscopic observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. We present here the results of an investigation of energy spectra of GEO satellites obtained from a groundbased optical telescope. The spectroscopic observations were made from April to June 2016 with the Gunma LOW resolution Spectrograph and imager (GLOWS) at the Gunma Astronomical Observatory (GAO) in JAPAN. The observation targets consist of eleven different satellites: two weather satellites, four communications satellites, and five broadcasting satellites. All the spectra of those GEO satellites are inferred to be solar-like. A number of well-known absorption features such as H-alpha, H-beta, Na-D,water vapor and oxygen molecules are clearly seen in thewavelength range of 4,000 - 8,000 Å. For comparison, we calculated the intensity ratio of the spectra of GEO satellites to that of the Moon which is the natural satellite of the earth. As a result, the following characteristics were obtained. 1) Some variations are seen in the strength of absorption features of water vapor and oxygen originated by the telluric atmosphere, but any other characteristic absorption features were not found. 2) For all observed satellites, the intensity ratio of the spectrum of GEO satellites decrease as a function of wavelength or to be flat. It means that the spectral reflectance of satellite materials is bluer than that of the Moon. 3) A characteristic dip at around 4,800 Å is found in all observed spectra of a weather satellite. Based on these observations, it is indicated that the characteristics of the spectrum are mainly derived from the solar panels because the apparent area of the solar cell is probably larger than that of the satellite body.

  4. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex

  5. bHROS: A New High-Resolution Spectrograph Available on Gemini South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheim, S. J.; Gemini bHROS Team

    2005-12-01

    The Gemini bench-mounted High-Resolution Spectrograph (bHROS) is available for science programs beginning in 2006A. bHROS is the highest resolution (R=150,000) optical echelle spectrograph optimized for use on an 8-meter telescope. bHROS is fiber-fed via GMOS-S from the Gemini South focal plane and is available in both a dual-fiber Object/Sky mode and a single (larger) Object-only mode. Instrument characteristics and sample data taken during commissioning will be presented.

  6. Performances of X-shooter, the new wide-band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.; Mason, E.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Finger, G.; Fischer, G.; Kerber, F.; Kern, L.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Mainieri, V.; Modigliani, A.; Patat, F.; Ramsay, S.; Santin, P.; Vidali, M.; Groot, P.; Guinouard, I.; Hammer, F.; Kaper, L.; Kjærgaard-Rasmussen, P.; Navarro, R.; Randich, S.; Zerbi, F.

    2010-01-01

    X-shooter is the first second-generation instrument newly commissioned a the VLT. It is a high efficiency single target intermediate resolution spectrograph covering the range 300 - 2500 nm in a single shot. We summarize the main characteristics of the instrument and present its performances as

  7. X-shooter, the new wide band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.; Kaper, L.; Kjaergaard, P.; Hammer, F.; Randich, S.; Zerbi, F.; Groot, P.J.; Hjorth, J.; Guinouard, I.; Navarro, R.; Adolfse, T.; Albers, P.W.; Amans, J.-P.; Andersen, J.J.; Andersen, M.I.; Binetruy, P.; Bristow, P.; Castillo, R.; Chemla, F.; Christensen, L.; Conconi, P.; Conzelmann, R.; Dam, J.; De Caprio, V.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Finger, G.; Fischer, G.; Flores, H.; François, P.; Goldoni, P.; Guglielmi, L.; Haigron, R.; Hanenburg, H.; Hendriks, I.; Horrobin, M.; Horville, D.; Jessen, N.C.; Kerber, F.; Kern, L.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kleszcz, P.; Klougart, J.; Kragt, J.; Larsen, H.H.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Mainieri, V.; Manuputy, R.; Martayan, C.; Mason, E.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Modigliani, A.; Moehler, S.; Møller, P.; Norup Sørensen, A.; Nørregaard, P.; Péroux, C.; Patat, F.; Pena, E.; Pragt, J.; Reinero, C.; Rigal, F.; Riva, M.; Roelfsema, R.; Royer, F.; Sacco, G.; Santin, P.; Schoenmaker, T.; Spano, P.; Sweers, E.; ter Horst, R.; Tintori, M.; Tromp, N.; van Dael, P.; van Vliet, H.; Venema, L.; Vidali, M.; Vinther, J.; Vola, P.; Winters, R.; Wistisen, D.; Wulterkens, G.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-01-01

    X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300 to

  8. X-shooter, the new wide band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.

    2011-01-01

    X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300 t...

  9. Optical design of a versatile FIRST high-resolution near-IR spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-01

    We report the update optical design of a versatile FIRST high resolution near IR spectrograph, which is called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST). This spectrograph uses cross-dispersed echelle design with white pupils and also takes advantage of the image slicing to increase the spectra resolution, while maintaining the instrument throughput. It is an extremely high dispersion R1.4 (blazed angle of 54.74°) silicon immersion grating with a 49 mm diameter pupil is used as the main disperser at 1.4μm -1.8μm to produce R=72,000 while an R4 echelle with the same pupil diameter produces R=60,000 at 0.8μm -1.35μm. Two cryogenic Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings are used as cross-dispersers to allow simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.8μm -1.8μm. The butterfly mirrors and dichroic beamsplitters make a compact folding system to record these two wavelength bands with a 2kx2k H2RG array in a single exposure. By inserting a mirror before the grating disperser (the SIG and the echelle), this spectrograph becomes a very efficient integral field 3-D imaging spectrograph with R=2,000-4,000 at 0.8μm-1.8μm by coupling a 10x10 telescope fiber bundle with the spectrograph. Details about the optical design and performance are reported.

  10. PEPSI, the High-Resolution Optical-IR Spectrograph for the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Michael; Strassmeier, Klaus; Hoffman, Axel; Woche, Manfred; Spano, Paolo

    PEPSI is a high resolution fibre feed optical-IR polarimetric echelle spectrograph for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). PEPSI utilizes the two 8.4m LBT apertures to simultaneously record four polarization states at a resolution of 120.000. The extension of the coverage towards the IR is mainly motivated by the larger Zeeman splitting of IR lines, which would allow to study weaker/fainter magnetic structures on stars. The two optical arms, which also have an integral light mode with R up to 300.000, are under construction, while the IR arm is being designed.

  11. Design of FHiRE: the Fiber High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Michael J.; McLane, Jacob N.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Kobulnicky, Henry; Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    The enormous success of the Kepler mission in the discovery of transiting exoplanets implies that the majority of stars have planetary systems. NASA's upcomming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is designed to survey the brightest stars over the entire sky, systems that are accessible to spectroscopic follow-up with mid-sized telescopes. We have undertaken the development of a precision radial velocity spectrograph with the goal of providing ground-based suppoert for TESS. The instrument, known as FHiRE (Fiber High Resolution Echelle spectrograph), is being developed in collaboration with Indiana University and will deployed at the 2.3-meter telescope of the Wyoming InfraRed Observatory (WIRO). FHiRE features a traditional white pupil echelle design with R ~ 60,000 that is fed via two optical fibers from the telescope. Both the science fiber and a simultaneously sampled Thorium-Argon comparison fiber will make use of double mode scramblers. FHiRE itself will be housed within a vacuum enclosure in order to minimize any temperatue variations of the instrument and maximize its radial velocity precision. Together, these two features should enable FHiRE to reach a long-term velocity precision of < 1 m/s. We present the design of FHiRE and its expected performance. In a companion poster (Jang-Condell et al.) we will present the exoplanet science goals of the project.

  12. The assembly, calibration, and preliminary results from the Colorado high-resolution Echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Schultz, Ted; Beasley, Matthew; Green, James; Kulow, Jen; Kersgaard, Eliot; Fleming, Brian

    2014-07-01

    The Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS) is a far ultraviolet (FUV) rocket-borne experiment designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent interstellar clouds. CHESS is an objective echelle spectrograph operating at f/12.4 and resolving power of 120,000 over a band pass of 100 - 160 nm. The echelle flight grating is the product of a research and development project with LightSmyth Inc. and was coated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Al+LiF. It has an empirically-determined groove density of 71.67 grooves/mm. At the Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA) at the University of Colorado (CU), we measured the efficiencies of the peak and adjacent dispersion orders throughout the 90 - 165 nm band pass to characterize the behavior of the grating for pre-flight calibrations and to assess the scattered-light behavior. The crossdispersing grating, developed and ruled by Horiba Jobin-Yvon, is a holographically-ruled, low line density (351 grooves/mm), powered optic with a toroidal surface curvature. The CHESS cross-disperser was also coated at GSFC; Cr+Al+LiF was deposited to enhance far-UV efficiency. Results from final efficiency and reflectivity measurements of both optics are presented. We utilize a cross-strip anode microchannel plate (MCP) detector built by Sensor Sciences to achieve high resolution (25 μm spatial resolution) and data collection rates (~ 106 photons/second) over a large format (40mm round, digitized to 8k x 8k) for the first time in an astronomical sounding rocket flight. The CHESS instrument was successfully launched from White Sands Missile Range on 24 May 2014. We present pre-flight sensitivity, effective area calculations, lab spectra and calibration results, and touch on first results and post-flight calibration plans.

  13. A High Resolution Solar Spectrograph for the Berkeley Undergraduate Astronomy Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, R.; Bresloff, C.; Graham, J.

    2005-05-01

    The discovery of extra-solar planets has stimulated interest amongst undergraduates. The Doppler method for detecting exoplanets requires extraction of signals at the 1/1000 of a pixel level. To illustrate this technique, we used a newly built spectrometer to extract sub-pixel Doppler shifts in the solar photosphere. We have used this spectrograph to measure the velocity gradient across the sun and hence infer the solar radius. The limb-to-limb Doppler shift is only 1.8 km/s. A spectral resolution > 100,000 would be required to manifest this motion. Achieving such high spectral resolution is unnecessary since even a small telescope can record high SNR (> 100) spectra. Within a few seconds it is possible to discern solar rotational Doppler shifts at resolutions as low as 10,000. We must also understand coordinate transformation to convert the Doppler signal along the observed diameter to the equatorial rotation speed assuming solid body rotation. The spectrograph system includes an 8-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain stationary telescope; a 100-micron diameter multi-mode fiber; aspheric f-number reformatting optics; a collimating lens; a 110 mm, 80 grooves/mm, θ blaze = 64.5 degree replica echelle grating; and an Apogee 1024 x 1024 thermo-electrically cooled CCD. The spectrometer optics are mounted on a 5-ft x 3-ft optical bench. Operating the spectrometer remotely using VNC and a wireless laptop, we pointed the telescope so that the fiber scanned across a diameter of the solar disk while the CCD took repeated exposures. Although we were "guinea pigs," using the spectrograph for the first time in a class, it worked remarkably well. Combining measurement of the solar radius with observation of the rotation period from sunspots, the earth-sun distance can be deduced. In the future, students may measure the eccentricity of earth's orbit by measuring the sun's radial velocity over the course of a year. This work was supported by the NSF through award DUE-0311536.

  14. KiwiSpec - an advanced spectrograph for high resolution spectroscopy: prototype design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Steve; Barnes, Stuart I.; Hearnshaw, John; Nield, Kathryn; Cochrane, Dave; Grobler, Deon

    2012-09-01

    A new advanced high resolution spectrograph has been developed by Kiwistar Optics of Industrial Research Ltd., New Zealand. The instrument, KiwiSpec R4-100, is bench-mounted, bre-fed, compact (0.75m by 1.5m footprint), and is well-suited for small to medium-sized telescopes. The instrument makes use of several advanced concepts in high resolution spectrograph design. The basic design follows the classical white pupil concept in an asymmetric implementation and employs an R4 echelle grating illuminated by a 100mm diameter collimated beam for primary dispersion. A volume phase holographic grating (VPH) based grism is used for cross-dispersion. The design also allows for up to four camera and detector channels to allow for extended wavelength coverage at high eciency. A single channel prototype of the instrument has been built and successfully tested with a 1m telescope. Targets included various spectrophotometric standard stars and several radial velocity standard stars to measure the instrument's light throughput and radial velocity capabilities. The prototype uses a 725 lines/mm VPH grism, an off-the-shelf camera objective, and a 2k×2k CCD. As such, it covers the wavelength range from 420nm to 660nm and has a resolving power of R ≍ 40,000. Spectrophotometric and precision radial velocity results from the on-sky testing period will be reported, as well as results of laboratory-based measurements. The optical design of KiwiSpec, and the various multi-channel design options, will be presented elsewhere in these proceedings.

  15. Optical design of the PEPSI high-resolution spectrograph at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Michael I.; Spano, Paolo; Woche, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Beckert, Erik

    2004-09-01

    PEPSI is a high-resolution, fiber fed echelle spectrograph with polarimetric capabilities for the LBT. In order to reach a maximum resolution R=120.000 in polarimetric mode and 300.000 in integral light mode with high efficiency in the spectral range 390-1050~nm, we designed a white-pupil configuration with Maksutov collimators. Light is dispersed by an R4 31.6 lines/mm monolithic echelle grating mosaic and split into two arms through dichroics. The two arms, optimized for the spectral range 390-550~nm and 550-1050~nm, respectively, consist of Maksutov transfer collimators, VPH-grism cross dispersers, optimized dioptric cameras and 7.5K x 7.5K 8~μ CCDs. Fibers of different core sizes coupled to different image-slicers allow a high throughput, comparable to that of direct feed instruments. The optical configuration with only spherical and cylindrical surfaces, except for one aspherical surface in each camera, reduces costs and guarantees high optical quality. PEPSI is under construction at AIP with first light expected in 2006.

  16. Use of an ultra-high resolution magnetic spectrograph for materials research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, DO; Arnoldbik, WM; Wolfswinkel, W; Balogh, AG; Walter, G

    1997-01-01

    A brief description is given of a magnetic spectrograph for RBS and ERD analysis with MeV beams, delivered by a Tandem accelerator. With a number of examples of thin layer analysis it is shown that the spectrograph is uniquely suited for the measurement of concentration depth profiles up to a depth

  17. KiwiSpec: The Design and Performance of a High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Steven Ross

    This document describes the design, analysis, construction and testing of KiwiSpec, a fibre-fed, high resolution astronomical spectrograph of an asymmetric white pupil design. The instrument employs an R4, 31.6 groove mm-1 échelle grating for primary dispersion and a 725 lines mm-1 volume phase holographic (VPH) based grism for cross-dispersion. Two versions of the prototype were designed and constructed: an 'in-air' prototype, and a prototype featuring a vacuum chamber (to increase the stability of the instrument). The KiwiSpec optical design is introduced, as well as a description of the theory behind a cross-dispersed échelle spectrograph. The results of tolerancing the optical design are reported for alignment, optical fabrication, and optical surface quality groups of parameters. The optical windows of an iodine cell are also toleranced. The opto-mechanical mounts of both prototypes are described in detail, as is the design of the vacuum chamber system. Given the goal of 1 m/s radial velocity stability, analyses were undertaken to determine the allowable amount of movement of the vacuum windows, and to determine the allowable changes in temperature and pressure within and outside of the vacuum chamber. The spectral efficiency of the instrument was estimated through a predictive model; this was calculated for the as-built instrument and also for an instrument with ideal, high-efficiency coatings. Measurements of the spectral efficiency of various components of the instrument are reported, as well as a description of the measurement system developed to test the efficiency of VPH gratings. On-sky efficiency measurements from use of KiwiSpec on the 1-m McLellan telescope at Mt John University Observatory are reported. Two possible exposure meter locations are explored via an efficiency model, and also through the measurement of the zero-order reflectivity of the échelle grating. Various stability aspects of the design are investigated. These include the

  18. PEPSI: The high-resolution échelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Barnes, S. I.; Bauer, S.-M.; Beckert, E.; Bittner, W.; Bredthauer, R.; Carroll, T. A.; Denker, C.; Dionies, F.; DiVarano, I.; Döscher, D.; Fechner, T.; Feuerstein, D.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Harnisch, G.; Hofmann, A.; Lesser, M.; Paschke, J.; Pankratow, S.; Plank, V.; Plüschke, D.; Popow, E.; Sablowski, D.

    2015-05-01

    PEPSI is the bench-mounted, two-arm, fibre-fed and stabilized Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument for the 2×8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Three spectral resolutions of either 43 000, 120 000 or 270 000 can cover the entire optical/red wavelength range from 383 to 907 nm in three exposures. Two 10.3k×10.3k CCDs with 9-μm pixels and peak quantum efficiencies of 94-96 % record a total of 92 échelle orders. We introduce a new variant of a wave-guide image slicer with 3, 5, and 7 slices and peak efficiencies between 92-96 %. A total of six cross dispersers cover the six wavelength settings of the spectrograph, two of them always simultaneously. These are made of a VPH-grating sandwiched by two prisms. The peak efficiency of the system, including the telescope, is 15 % at 650 nm, and still 11 % and 10 % at 390 nm and 900 nm, respectively. In combination with the 110 m2 light-collecting capability of the LBT, we expect a limiting magnitude of ≈ 20th mag in V in the low-resolution mode. The R = 120 000 mode can also be used with two, dual-beam Stokes IQUV polarimeters. The 270 000-mode is made possible with the 7-slice image slicer and a 100-μm fibre through a projected sky aperture of 0.74 arcsec, comparable to the median seeing of the LBT site. The 43 000-mode with 12-pixel sampling per resolution element is our bad seeing or faint-object mode. Any of the three resolution modes can either be used with sky fibers for simultaneous sky exposures or with light from a stabilized Fabry-Pérot étalon for ultra-precise radial velocities. CCD-image processing is performed with the dedicated data-reduction and analysis package PEPSI-S4S. Its full error propagation through all image-processing steps allows an adaptive selection of parameters by using statistical inferences and robust estimators. A solar feed makes use of PEPSI during day time and a 500-m feed from the 1.8 m VATT can be used when the LBT is busy otherwise. In this paper, we

  19. The science case of the PEPSI high-resolution echelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Pallavicini, R.; Rice, J. B.; Andersen, M. I.

    2004-05-01

    We lay out the scientific rationale for and present the instrumental requirements of a high-resolution adaptive-optics Echelle spectrograph with two full-Stokes polarimeters for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona. Magnetic processes just like those seen on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth are now well recognized in many astrophysical areas. The application to other stars opened up a new field of research that became widely known as the solar-stellar connection. Late-type stars with convective envelopes are all affected by magnetic processes which give rise to a rich variety of phenomena on their surface and are largely responsible for the heating of their outer atmospheres. Magnetic fields are likely to play a crucial role in the accretion process of T-Tauri stars as well as in the acceleration and collimation of jet-like flows in young stellar objects (YSOs). Another area is the physics of active galactic nucleii (AGNs) , where the magnetic activity of the accreting black hole is now believed to be responsible for most of the behavior of these objects, including their X-ray spectrum, their notoriously dramatic variability, and the powerful relativistic jets they produce. Another is the physics of the central engines of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful explosions in the universe, for which the extreme apparent energy release are explained through the collimation of the released energy by magnetic fields. Virtually all the physics of magnetic fields exploited in astrophysics is somehow linked to our understanding of the Sun's and the star's magnetic fields.

  20. Opto-mechanical design of a new cross dispersion unit for the CRIRES+ high resolution spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Klein, Barbara; Oliva, Ernesto; Löwinger, Tom; Anglada Escude, Guillem; Baade, Dietrich; Bristow, Paul; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Grunhut, Jason; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Ives, Derek; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Lockhart, Matt; Marquart, Thomas; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jerome; Piskunov, N.; Pozna, Eszter; Reiners, Ansgar; Smette, Alain; Smoker, Jonathan; Seemann, Ulf; Stempels, Eric; Valenti, Elena

    2014-07-01

    CRIRES is one of the few IR (0.92-5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrographs in operation at the VLT since 2006. Despite good performance it suffers a limitation that significantly hampers its ability: a small spectral coverage per exposure. The CRIRES upgrade (CRIRES+) proposes to transform CRIRES into a cross-dispersed spectrograph while maintaining the high resolution (100000) and increasing the wavelength coverage by a factor 10 compared to the current capabilities. A major part of the upgrade is the exchange of the actual cryogenic pre-disperser module by a new cross disperser unit. In addition to a completely new optical design, a number of important changes are required on key components and functions like the slit unit and detectors units. We will outline the design of these new units fitting inside a predefined and restricted space. The mechanical design of the new functions including a description and analysis will be presented. Finally we will present the strategy for the implementation of the changes.

  1. The third flight of the Colorado high-resolution echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS): improvements, calibrations, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Nicholas; Nell, Nicholas; France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri; Fleming, Brian; Kane, Robert; Ulrich, Stefan; Egan, Arika; Beatty, Dawson

    2017-08-01

    In this proceeding, we describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Colorado HighResolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), focusing on the hardware advancements and testing of components for the third launch of the payload (CHESS-3). CHESS is a far ultraviolet rocket-borne instrument designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent cloud regions in the interstellar medium. CHESS is an objective echelle spectrograph, which uses a mechanically-ruled echelle and a powered (f/12.4) crossdispersing grating, and is designed to achieve a resolving power R > 100,000 over the bandpass λλ 1000-1600 Å. Results from final efficiency and reflectivity measurements for the optical components of CHESS-3 are presented. An important role of sounding rocket experiments is the testing and verification of the space flight capabilities of experimental technologies. CHESS-3 utilizes a 40mm-diameter cross-strip anode microchannel plate detector fabricated by Sensor Sciences LLC, capable of achieving high spatial resolution and a high global count rate (˜1 MHz). We present pre-flight laboratory spectra and calibration results, including wavelength solution and resolving power of the instrument. The fourth launch of CHESS (CHESS-4) will demonstrate a δ-doped CCD, assembled in collaboration with the Microdevices Laboratory at JPL and Arizona State University. In support of CHESS-4, the CHESS-3 payload included a photomultiplier tube, used as a secondary confirmation of the optical alignment of the payload during flight. CHESS-3 launched on 26 June 2017 aboard NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.323 UG. We present initial flight results for the CHESS-3 observation of the β1 Scorpii sightline.

  2. Spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with spectrographic analysis and the analytical methods based on it. The theory of spectrographic analysis is discussed as well as the layout of a spectrometer system. The infrared absorption spectrum of a compound is probably its most unique property. The absorption of infrared radiation depends on increasing the energy of vibration and rotation associated with a covalent bond. The infrared region is intrinsically low in energy thus the design of infrared spectrometers is always directed toward maximising energy throughput. The article also considers atomic absorption - flame atomizers, non-flame atomizers and the source of radiation. Under the section an emission spectroscopy non-electrical energy sources, electrical energy sources and electrical flames are discussed. Digital computers form a part of the development on spectrographic instrumentation

  3. Spitzer/infrared spectrograph investigation of mipsgal 24 μm compact bubbles: low-resolution observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Département de Physique, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 61 Avenue du Président Wilson, F-94235 Cachan (France); Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Van Dyk, S. D. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Billot, N. [Instituto de Radio Astronomía Milimétrica, Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Local 20, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Paladini, R., E-mail: mathias.nowak@ens-cachan.fr [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution observations of 11 compact circumstellar bubbles from the MIPSGAL 24 μm Galactic plane survey. We find that this set of MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) is divided into two categories and that this distinction correlates with the morphologies of the MBs in the mid-infrared (IR). The four MBs with central sources in the mid-IR exhibit dust-rich, low-excitation spectra, and their 24 μm emission is accounted for by the dust continuum. The seven MBs without central sources in the mid-IR have spectra dominated by high-excitation gas lines (e.g., [O IV] 26.0 μm, [Ne V] 14.3 and 24.3 μm, and [Ne III] 15.5 μm), and the [O IV] line accounts for 50% to almost 100% of the 24 μm emission in five of them. In the dust-poor MBs, the [Ne V] and [Ne III] line ratios correspond to high-excitation conditions. Based on comparisons with published IRS spectra, we suggest that the dust-poor MBs are highly excited planetary nebulae (PNs) with peculiar white dwarfs (e.g., Wolf-Rayet [WR] and novae) at their centers. The central stars of the four dust-rich MBs are all massive star candidates. Dust temperatures range from 40 to 100 K in the outer shells. We constrain the extinction along the lines of sight from the IRS spectra. We then derive distance, dust masses, and dust production rate estimates for these objects. These estimates are all consistent with the nature of the central stars. We summarize the identifications of MBs made to date and discuss the correlation between their mid-IR morphologies and natures. Candidate Be/B[e]/luminous blue variable and WR stars are mainly 'rings' with mid-IR central sources, whereas PNs are mostly 'disks' without mid-IR central sources. Therefore we expect that most of the 300 remaining unidentified MBs will be classified as PNs.

  4. X-shooter: UV-to-IR intermediate-resolution high-efficiency spectrograph for the ESO VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Odorico, S.; Andersen, M.I.; Conconi, P.; De Caprio, V.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dekker, H.; Downing, M.D.; Finger, G.; Groot, P.; Hanenburg, H.H.; Hammer, F.; Horville, D.; Hjorth, J.; Kaper, L.; Klougart, J.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Marteaud, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Rigal, F.; Santin, P.; Norup Soerensen, A.; Spano, P.; Venema, L.; Vola, P.; Zerbi, F.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    X-shooter is a single target spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. It covers in a single exposure the spectral range from the UV to the H band with a possible extension into part of the K band. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through the

  5. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  6. The re-flight of the Colorado high-resolution Echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS): improvements, calibrations, and post-flight results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin; Kruczek, Nicholas; Fleming, Brian; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Swanson, Jack; Green, James; Erickson, Nicholas; Wilson, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    In this proceeding, we describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Colorado High- resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), focusing on the hardware advancements and testing supporting the second flight of the payload (CHESS-2). CHESS is a far ultraviolet (FUV) rocket-borne instrument designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent cloud regions in the interstellar medium (ISM). CHESS is an objective f/12.4 echelle spectrograph with resolving power > 100,000 over the band pass 1000 - 1600 Å. The spectrograph was designed to employ an R2 echelle grating with "low" line density. We compare the FUV performance of experimental echelle etching processes (lithographically by LightSmyth, Inc. and etching via electron-beam technology by JPL Microdevices Laboratory) with traditional, mechanically-ruled gratings (Bach Research, Inc. and Richardson Gratings). The cross-dispersing grating, developed and ruled by Horiba Jobin-Yvon, is a holographically-ruled, "low" line density, powered optic with a toroidal surface curvature. Both gratings were coated with aluminum and lithium fluoride (Al+LiF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Results from final efficiency and reflectivity measurements for the optical components of CHESS-2 are presented. CHESS-2 utilizes a 40mm-diameter cross-strip anode readout microchannel plate (MCP) detector fabricated by Sensor Sciences, Inc., to achieve high spatial resolution with high count rate capabilities (global rates 1 MHz). We present pre-flight laboratory spectra and calibration results. CHESS-2 launched on 21 February 2016 aboard NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.297 UG. We observed the intervening ISM material along the sightline to epsilon Per and present initial characterization of the column densities, temperature, and kinematics of atomic and molecular species in the observation.

  7. The Low-Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. II. Observations of Quasar Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. P.; Hill, Gary J.; Fan, X.; Ramsey, L. W.; MacQueen, P. J.; Weedman, D. W.; Booth, J. A.; Eracleous, M.; Gunn, J. E.; Lupton, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes spectra of quasar candidates acquired during the commissioning phase of the Low-Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The objects were identified as possible quasars from multicolor image data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The 10 sources had typical r' magnitudes of 19-20, except for one extremely red object with r ' ≅23. The data, obtained with exposure times between 10 and 25 minutes, reveal that the spectra of four candidates are essentially featureless and are not quasars, five are quasars with redshifts between 2.92 and 4.15 (including one broad absorption line quasar), and the red source is a very late M star or early L dwarf. (c) (c) 2000. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific

  8. Princeton Cyclotron QDDD spectrograph system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A review of experiments involving the Princeton Quadrupole-Dipole-Dipole- Dipole (QDDD) spectrograph is given. The QDDD is a high resolution, large solid angle device which is combined with the azymuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron. Some reactions involving 3 He beams are discussed

  9. HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V.K. Umrao, VKU

    2017-01-01

    The HortFlora Research Spectrum (HRS), is an international-peer reviewed, open access journal that serves as a forum for the exchange and dissemination of R & D advances and innovations in all facets of Horticultural Science (Pomology, Olericulture, Floriculture, Post Harvest Technology, Plant Biotechnology, and Medicinal & Aromatic Plants etc.) and its allied branches on an international level. HRS is officially published quarterly (March, June, September and December) every year, in Engl...

  10. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.; Martínez, G.; Madesis, I.; Laoutaris, A.; Dimitriou, A.; Fernández-Martín, M.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  11. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, O., E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Martínez, G. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Madesis, I. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Laoutaris, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Department of Applied Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR, 15780 Athens (Greece); Dimitriou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Fernández-Martín, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zouros, T.J.M. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  12. LRS2: A New Integral Field Spectrograph for the HET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Tonnesen, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Here we present LRS2 (Low Resolution Spectrograph) and highlight early science opportunities with the newly upgraded Hobby Eberly telescope (HET). LRS2 is a four-channel optical wavelength (370nm - 1micron) spectrograph based on two VIRUS unit spectrographs. This fiber-fed integral field spectrograph covers a 12" x 6" field of view, switched between the two units (one blue, and one red) at R~2000. We highlight design elements, including the fundamental modification to grisms (from VPH gratings in VIRUS) to access the higher resolution. We discuss early science opportunities, including investigating nearby "blue-bulge" spiral galaxies and their anomalous star formation distribution.

  13. Armadillo Repeat Containing 8α Binds to HRS and Promotes HRS Interaction with Ubiquitinated Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Koji; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Yang, Jun; Yamamoto, Masaki; Takeno, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we reported that a complex with an essential role in the degradation of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in yeast is well conserved in mammalian cells; we named this mammalian complex C-terminal to the Lissencephaly type-1-like homology (CTLH) complex. Although the function of the CTLH complex remains unclear, here we used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) as a protein binding to a key component of CTLH complex, Armadillo repeat containing 8 (ARMc8) α. The association was confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid assay and a co-immunoprecipitation assay. The proline-rich domain of HRS was essential for the association. As demonstrated through immunofluorescence microscopy, ARMc8α co-localized with HRS. ARMc8α promoted the interaction of HRS with various ubiquitinated proteins through the ubiquitin-interacting motif. These findings suggest that HRS mediates protein endosomal trafficking partly through its interaction with ARMc8α. PMID:20224683

  14. Toward a Global Bundle Adjustment of SPOT 5 - HRS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massera, S.; Favé, P.; Gachet, R.; Orsoni, A.

    2012-07-01

    The HRS (High Resolution Stereoscopic) instrument carried on SPOT 5 enables quasi-simultaneous acquisition of stereoscopic images on wide segments - 120 km wide - with two forward and backward-looking telescopes observing the Earth with an angle of 20° ahead and behind the vertical. For 8 years IGN (Institut Géographique National) has been developing techniques to achieve spatiotriangulation of these images. During this time the capacities of bundle adjustment of SPOT 5 - HRS spatial images have largely improved. Today a global single block composed of about 20,000 images can be computed in reasonable calculation time. The progression was achieved step by step: first computed blocks were only composed of 40 images, then bigger blocks were computed. Finally only one global block is now computed. In the same time calculation tools have improved: for example the adjustment of 2,000 images of North Africa takes about 2 minutes whereas 8 hours were needed two years ago. To reach such a result a new independent software was developed to compute fast and efficient bundle adjustments. In the same time equipment - GCPs (Ground Control Points) and tie points - and techniques have also evolved over the last 10 years. Studies were made to get recommendations about the equipment in order to make an accurate single block. Tie points can now be quickly and automatically computed with SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) techniques. Today the updated equipment is composed of about 500 GCPs and studies show that the ideal configuration is around 100 tie points by square degree. With such an equipment, the location of the global HRS block becomes a few meters accurate whereas non adjusted images are only 15 m accurate. This paper will describe the methods used in IGN Espace to compute a global single block composed of almost 20,000 HRS images, 500 GCPs and several million of tie points in reasonable calculation time. Many advantages can be found to use such a block. Because the

  15. The deterministic optical alignment of the HERMES spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers, Luke; Staszak, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) is a four channel, VPH-grating spectrograph fed by two 400 fiber slit assemblies whose construction and commissioning has now been completed at the Anglo Australian Telescope (AAT). The size, weight, complexity, and scheduling constraints of the system necessitated that a fully integrated, deterministic, opto-mechanical alignment system be designed into the spectrograph before it was manufactured. This paper presents the principles about which the system was assembled and aligned, including the equipment and the metrology methods employed to complete the spectrograph integration.

  16. First light results from the Hermes spectrograph at the AAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheinis, A.; Barden, S.; Birchall, M.; Carollo, D.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brzeski, J.; Case, S.; Cannon, R.; Churilov, V.; Couch, W.; Dean, R.; De Silva, G.; D'Orazi, V.; Farrell, T.; Fiegert, K.; Freeman, K.; Frost, G.; Gers, L.; Goodwin, M.; Gray, D.; Heald, R.; Heijmans, J.A.C.; Jones, D.; Keller, S.; Klauser, U.; Kondrat, Y.; Lawrence, J.; Lee, S.; Mali, S.; Martell, S.; Mathews, D.; Mayfield, D.; Miziarski, S.; Muller, R.; Pai, N.; Patterson, R.; Penny, E.; Orr, D.; Shortridge, K.; Simpson, J.; Smedley, S.; Smith, G.; Stafford, D.; Staszak, N.; Vuong, M.; Waller, L.; Wylie de Boer, E.; Xavier, P.; Zheng, J.; Zhelem, R.; Zucker, D.

    2014-01-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph, HERMES is an facility-class optical spectrograph for the AAT. It is designed primarily for Galactic Archeology [21], the first major attempt to create a detailed understanding of galaxy formation and evolution by studying the history of

  17. Improved Emission Spectrographic Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, C.R.; Lethco, A.J.; Hosken, G.B.; Geckeler, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    The Savannah River Plant's original Emission Spectrographic Laboratory for radioactive samples had been in operation for 25 years. Due to the deteriorated condition and the fire hazard posed by the wooden glove box trains, a project to update the facility was funded. The new laboratory improved efficiency of operation and incorporated numerous safety and contamination control features

  18. Vacuum Predisperser For A Large Plane-Grating Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engleman, R.; Palmer, B. A.; Steinhaus, D. W.

    1980-11-01

    A plane grating predisperser has been constructed which acts as an "order-sorter" for a large plane-grating spectrograph. This combination can photograph relatively wide regions of spectra in a single exposure with no loss of resolution.

  19. Tomographic extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs: TESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D M; Stephan, A; Cook, T; Vickers, J; Taylor, V; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-08-01

    We describe the system of Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) SpectrographS (TESS) that are the primary instruments for the Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) satellite. The spectrographs were designed to make high-sensitivity {80 counts/s)/Rayleigh [one Rayleigh is equivalent to 10(6) photons/(4pi str cm(2)s)}, line-of-sight measurements of the oi 135.6- and 91.1-nm emissions suitable for tomographic inversion. The system consists of five spectrographs, four identical nightglow instruments (for redundancy and added sensitivity), and one instrument with a smaller aperture to reduce sensitivity and increase spectral resolution for daytime operation. Each instrument has a bandpass of 80-140 nm with approximately 2- and 1-nm resolution for the night and day instruments, respectively. They utilize microchannel-plate-based two-dimensional imaging detectors with wedge-and-strip anode readouts. The instruments were designed, fabricated, and calibrated at Boston University, and the TERRIERS satellite was launched on 18 May 1999 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.

  20. Magnetic spectrograph for the Holifield heavy ion research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.; Enge, H.A.; Erskine, J.R.; Hendrie, D.L.; LeVine, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The need for a new generation magnetic spectrograph for the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility is discussed. The advantages of a magnetic spectrograph for heavy ion research are discussed, as well as some of the types of experiments for which such an instrument is suited. The limitations which the quality of the incident beam, target and spectrograph itself impose on high resolution heavy ion measurements are discussed. Desired features of an ideal new spectrograph are: (1) intrinsic resolving power E/ΔE greater than or equal to 3000; (2) maximum solid angle greater than or equal to 20 msr; (3) dispersion approx. 4-8m; (4) maximum energy interval approx. 30%; and (5) mass-energy product greater than or equal to 200. Various existing and proposed spectrographs are compared with the specifications for a new heavy ion magnet design

  1. Second generation spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, B. E.; Boggess, A.; Gull, T. R.; Heap, S. R.; Krueger, V. L.; Maran, S. P.; Melcher, R. W.; Rebar, F. J.; Vitagliano, H. D.; Green, R. F.; Wolff, S. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jenkins, E. B.; Linsky, J. L.; Moos, H. W.; Roesler, F.; Shine, R. A.; Timothy, J. G.; Weistrop, D. E.; Bottema, M.; Meyer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), which has been selected by NASA for definition study for future flight as a second-generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is presented. STIS is a two-dimensional spectrograph that will operate from 1050 A to 11,000 A at the limiting HST resolution of 0.05 arcsec FWHM, with spectral resolutions of 100, 1200, 20,000, and 100,000 and a maximum field-of-view of 50 x 50 arcsec. Its basic operating modes include echelle model, long slit mode, slitless spectrograph mode, coronographic spectroscopy, photon time-tagging, and direct imaging. Research objectives are active galactic nuclei, the intergalactic medium, global properties of galaxies, the origin of stellar systems, stelalr spectral variability, and spectrographic mapping of solar system processes.

  2. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robonaut 2 Technologies Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Robonaut 2 (R2) Technology Project Element within Human Robotic Systems (HRS) is to developed advanced technologies for infusion into the Robonaut 2...

  3. HRS Clinical Document Development Methodology Manual and Policies: Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Julia H; Patton, Kristen K; Beardsall, Marianne; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol A; Cohen, Mitchell I; Dickfeld, Timm-Michael L; Haines, David E; Helm, Robert H; Krishnan, Kousik; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Rickard, John; Sapp, John L; Chung, Mina

    2017-10-01

    The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) has been developing clinical practice documents in collaboration and partnership with other professional medical societies since 1996. The HRS formed a Scientific and Clinical Documents Committee (SCDC) with the sole purpose of managing the development of these documents from conception through publication. The SCDC oversees the process for developing clinical practice documents, with input and approval from the HRS Executive Committee and the Board of Trustees. As of May 2017, the HRS has produced more than 80 publications with other professional organizations. This process manual is produced to publicly and transparently declare the standards by which the HRS develops clinical practice documents, which include clinical practice guidelines, expert consensus statements, scientific statements, clinical competency statements, task force policy statements, and proceedings statements. The foundation for this process is informed by the Institute of Medicine's standards for developing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines; the new criteria from the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, effective June 2014; SCDC member discussions; and a review of guideline policies and methodologies used by other professional organizations. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Control and data acquisition system for Beam Line C and HRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naivar, F.J.; Rogers, W.L.; Simmonds, D.D.; Spencer, J.E.; Spencer, N.C.; Stark, C.F.

    1977-03-01

    The High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at LAMPF is a multimillion dollar facility intended for the study of proton induced reactions and scattering with 100 to 800 MeV protons. It will be used by research scientists from universities and other national laboratories throughout the United States. The design resolution of +-1.5:10 -5 is better than any similar system ever attempted in this energy range. To obtain this quality as well as fully realize the research potential of the facility, a rather sophisticated computer control and data acquisition system is required. The facility, based on a general multiuser, multitask, multiprocessor system, is described

  5. The Performance and Scientific Rationale for an Infrared Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrograph on a Large Space Telescope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, James R; Abrams, Mark; Bennett, C; Carr, J; Cook, K; Dey, A; Najita, J; Wishnow, E

    1998-01-01

    .... We consider the relationship between pixel size, spectral resolution, and diameter of the beam splitter for imaging and nonimaging Fourier transform spectrographs and give the condition required...

  6. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Chaput, M.; Robichet, J.

    1960-01-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [fr

  7. An echelle spectrograph for middle ultraviolet solar spectroscopy from rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousey, R; Purcell, J D; Garrett, D L

    1967-03-01

    An echelle grating spectrograph is ideal for use in a rocket when high resolution is required becaus itoccupies a minimum of space. The instrument described covers the range 4000-2000 A with a resolution of 0.03 A. It was designed to fit into the solar biaxial pointing-control section of an Aerobee-150 rocket. The characteristics of the spectrograph are illustrated with laboratory spectra of iron and carbon are sources and with solar spectra obtained during rocket flights in 1961 and 1964. Problems encountered in analyzing the spectra are discussed. The most difficult design problem was the elimination of stray light when used with the sun. Of the several methods investigated, the most effective was a predispersing system in the form of a zero-dispersion double monochromator. This was made compact by folding the beam four times.

  8. Ultraviolet spectrographs for thermospheric and ionospheric remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, K.F.; McCoy, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been developing far- and extreme-ultraviolet spectrographs for remote sensing the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The first of these sensors, called the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI), will be flying on the Air Force's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) block 5D3 satellites as an operational sensor in the 1997-2010 time frame. A second sensor, called the High-resolution ionospheric and Thermospheric Spectrograph (HITS), will fly in late 1995 on the Air Force Space Test Program's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS, also known as P91-1) as part of NRL's High Resolution Airglow and Auroral Spectroscopy (HIRAAS) experiment. Both of these instruments are compact and do not draw much power and would be good candidates for small satellite applications. The instruments and their capabilities are discussed. Possible uses of these instruments in small satellite applications are also presented

  9. Spectrographic analysis of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Two spectrogaphyic solution techniques, 'Porous Cup' and 'Vacuum Cup', were investigated in order to determine the minor constituents (Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu and V) of stainless steels. Iron and cobalt were experimented as internal standards. The precision varied from 4 to 11% for both spectrographic techniques, in which cobalt was used as international standard. Certified standards from National Bureau of Standards and Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas were analysed to verify the accuracy of both techniques. The best accuracy was obtained with the Vacuum Cup techniques. (Author) [pt

  10. Proton polarimetry using an Enge split-pole spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, J M; Brown, D R; Cornelius, W D [Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.

    1976-05-15

    A high-efficiency (4 x 10/sup -5/ at A=0.4) high resolution (150 keV) polarimeter used in conjunction with an Enge split-pole spectrograph is described. This device permits for the first time polarization transfer studies in elastic scattering. Spectra are shown for /sup 11/B(p(pol),p(pol)')/sup 11/B (2.14 MeV)at Esub(p)=31 MeV.

  11. A CCD fitted to the UV Prime spectrograph: Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulade, O.

    1986-10-01

    A CCD camera was fitted to the 3.6 m French-Canadian telescope in Hawai. Performance of the system and observations of elliptic galaxies (stellar content and galactic evolution in a cluster) and quasars (absorption lines in spectra) are reported. In spite of its resolution being only average, the extremely rapid optics of the UV spectrograph gives good signal to noise ratios enabling redshifts and velocity scatter to be calculated with an accuracy better than 30 km/sec [fr

  12. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  13. Project overview of OPTIMOS-EVE: the fibre-fed multi-object spectrograph for the E-ELT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, R.; Chemla, F.; Bonifacio, P.; Flores, H.; Guinouard, I.; Huet, J.-M.; Puech, M.; Royer, F.; Pragt, J.H.; Wulterkens, G.; Sawyer, E.C.; Caldwell, M.E.; Tosh, I.A.J.; Whalley, M.S.; Woodhouse, G.F.W.; Spanò, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Andersen, M.I.; Dalton, G.B.; Kaper, L.; Hammer, F.

    2010-01-01

    OPTIMOS-EVE (OPTical Infrared Multi Object Spectrograph - Extreme Visual Explorer) is the fibre fed multi object spectrograph proposed for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), planned to be operational in 2018 at Cerro Armazones (Chile). It is designed to provide a spectral resolution of

  14. Spectrographic analysis of waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Alduan, F.; Capdevila, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs

  15. Evolution and Origin of HRS, a Protein Interacting with Merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 Gene Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Omelyanchuk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS is an endosomal protein required for trafficking receptor tyrosine kinases from the early endosome to the lysosome. HRS interacts with Merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2 gene product, and this interaction may be important for Merlin’s tumor suppressor activity. Understanding the evolution, origin, and structure of HRS may provide new insight into Merlin function. We show that HRS homologs are present across a wide range of Metazoa with the yeast Vps27 protein as their most distant ancestor. The phylogenetic tree of the HRS family coincides with species evolution and divergence, suggesting a unique function for HRS. Sequence alignment shows that various protein domains of HRS, including the VHS domain, the FYVE domain, the UIM domain, and the clathrin-binding domain, are conserved from yeast to multicellular organisms. The evolutionary transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms was accompanied by the appearance of a binding site for Merlin, which emerges in the early Metazoa after its separation from flatworms. In addition to the region responsible for growth suppression, the Merlin-binding and STAM-binding domains of HRS are conserved among multicellular organisms. The residue equivalent to tyrosine-377, which is phosphorylated in the human HRS protein, is highly conserved throughout the HRS family. Three additional conserved boxes lacking assigned functions are found in the HRS proteins of Metazoa. While boxes 1 and 3 may constitute the Eps-15- and Snx1-binding sites, respectively, box 2, containing the residue equivalent to tyrosine-377, is likely to be important for HRS phosphorylation. While several functional domains are conserved throughout the HRS family, the STAM-binding, Merlin-binding, and growth suppression domains evolved in the early Metazoa around the time the Merlin protein emerged. As these domains appear during the transition to multicellularity

  16. An integral field spectrograph utilizing mirrorlet arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-09-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 mÅ) across a 15 Å spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  17. An Integral Field Spectrograph Utilizing Mirrorlet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Gong, Qian

    2016-01-01

    An integral field spectrograph (IFS) has been developed that utilizes a new and novel optical design to observe two spatial dimensions simultaneously with one spectral dimension. This design employs an optical 2-D array of reflecting and focusing mirrorlets. This mirrorlet array is placed at the imaging plane of the front-end telescope to generate a 2-D array of tiny spots replacing what would be the slit in a traditional slit spectrometer design. After the mirrorlet in the optical path, a grating on a concave mirror surface will image the spot array and provide high-resolution spectrum for each spatial element at the same time; therefore, the IFS simultaneously obtains the 3-D data cube of two spatial and one spectral dimensions. The new mirrorlet technology is currently in-house and undergoing laboratory testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Section 1 describes traditional classes of instruments that are used in Heliophysics missions and a quick introduction to the new IFS design. Section 2 discusses the details of the most generic mirrorlet IFS, while section 3 presents test results of a lab-based instrument. An example application to a Heliophysics mission to study solar eruptive events in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths is presented in section 4 that has high spatial resolution (0.5 arc sec pixels) in the two spatial dimensions and high spectral resolution (66 m) across a 15 spectral window. Section 4 also concludes with some other optical variations that could be employed on the more basic IFS for further capabilities of this type of instrument.

  18. A soft X-Ray flat field grating spectrograph and its experimental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuanlong; Mao Chusheng

    2001-01-01

    The principle, structure, and application results of a flat field grating spectrograph for X-ray laser research is presented. There are two kinds of the spectrograph. One uses a varied space grating with nominal line spacing 1200 l/mm, the spectral detection range is 5 - 50 nm, and another uses a 2400 l/mm varied line space grating, detection range is 1 - 10 nm. The experimental results of the former is introduced only. Both experimental results of this instrument using the soft X-ray film and a streak camera as the detecting elements are given. The spectral resolutions are 0.01 nm and 0.05 nm, respectively. The temporal resolution is 30 ps. Finally, the stigmatic structure of the spectrograph is introduced, which uses cylindrical mirror and spherical mirror as a focusing system. The magnification is 5, spatial resolution is 25 μm. The experimental results are given as well

  19. SPRAT: Spectrograph for the Rapid Acquisition of Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, Iain A.; Bates, Stuart D.; Mottram, Christopher J.; Smith, R. J.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bolton, B.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the development of a low cost, low resolution (R ~ 350), high throughput, long slit spectrograph covering visible (4000-8000) wavelengths. The spectrograph has been developed for fully robotic operation with the Liverpool Telescope (La Palma). The primary aim is to provide rapid spectral classification of faint (V ˜ 20) transient objects detected by projects such as Gaia, iPTF (intermediate Palomar Transient Factory), LOFAR, and a variety of high energy satellites. The design employs a volume phase holographic (VPH) transmission grating as the dispersive element combined with a prism pair (grism) in a linear optical path. One of two peak spectral sensitivities are selectable by rotating the grism. The VPH and prism combination and entrance slit are deployable, and when removed from the beam allow the collimator/camera pair to re-image the target field onto the detector. This mode of operation provides automatic acquisition of the target onto the slit prior to spectrographic observation through World Coordinate System fitting. The selection and characterisation of optical components to maximise photon throughput is described together with performance predictions.

  20. NRES: The Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverd, Robert; Brown, Tim; Henderson, Todd; Hygelund, John; Barnes, Stuart; de Vera, Jon; Eastman, Jason; Kirby, Annie; Smith, Cary; Taylor, Brook; Tufts, Joseph; van Eyken, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) is building the Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (NRES), which will consist of four (up to six in the future) identical, optical (390 - 860 nm) high-precision spectrographs, each fiber-fed simultaneously by up to two 1-meter telescopes and a Thorium-Argon calibration source. We plan to install one at up to 6 observatory sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, creating a single, globally-distributed, autonomous spectrograph facility using up to ten 1-m telescopes. Simulations suggest we will achieve long-term radial velocity precision of 3 m/s in less than an hour for stars brighter than V = 11 or 12 once the system reaches full capability. Acting in concert, these four spectrographs will provide a new, unique facility for stellar characterization and precise radial velocities.Following a few months of on-sky evaluation at our BPL test facility, the first spectrograph unit was shipped to CTIO in late 2016 and installed in March 2017. After several more months of additional testing and commissioning, regular science operations began with this node in September 2017. The second NRES spectrograph was installed at McDonald Observatory in September 2017 and released to the network after its own brief commissioning period, extending spectroscopic capability to the Northern hemisphere. The third NRES spectrograph was installed at SAAO in November 2017 and released to our science community just before year's end. The fourth NRES unit shipped in October and is currently en route to Wise Observatory in Israel with an expected release to the science community in early 2018.We will briefly overview the LCO telescope network, the NRES spectrograph design, the advantages it provides, and development challenges we encountered along the way. We will further discuss real-world performance from our first three units, initial science results, and the ongoing software development effort needed to automate such a facility for a wide array of

  1. Workshop for cascade project, physics using large acceptance spectrograph and its technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Workshop for Cascade, subtitled 'Physics Using Large Acceptance Spectrograph and Its Technical Considerations', was held on July 13, 1988 by the Nuclear Physics Research Center, Osaka University. The present proceedings carry a total of 18 reports, which are entitled 'RCNP Large Acceptance Spectrograph (plan)', 'Correlation Experiments with a System Consisting of a Small Number of Nucleons', 'Measurement of (d,d) and (d, 2 He) Reactions with Large Solid Angle Spectrograph', 'The (p,2p) and (p,pn) Reactions', 'Correlation Experiments with Large Acceptance Spectrograph', 'Efforts at Determination of Various Correlations in Alpha Particles', 'Two-Nucleon Correlation in Nucleus', 'A Study on Particle Migration Reaction with Broad-Band Spectrograph', 'Measurement of Response in Highly Excited State during Nucleon Migration Reaction', 'A Study on Δ-Excitation within Nucleus', 'A Few Problems Related with Response in Highly Excited State', 'Spin-Isospin Modes in Continuum', '(p,π) and (p,xπ) Reactions', 'Formation of π - in (p,2p) Reaction', 'Formation of π-Mesonic Atom with Consistent Momentum', 'Measurement of Excitation Functions by Means of 'Inconsistent' Dispersion in Magnetic Spectrograph', 'Deeply Bound π - States by 'π - Transfer' (n,p) Reactions', and 'On High Resolution (n,p) Facilities'. (N.K.)

  2. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  3. Compact low resolution spectrograph, an imaging and long slit spectrograph for robotic telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rabaza, O.; Jelínek, M.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Cunniffe, R.; Zeman, Jiří; Hudec, René; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Ruedas-Sanchez, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2013), 114501/1-114501/10 ISSN 0034-6748 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : space telescope * mission Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.584, year: 2013

  4. Curved VPH gratings for novel spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Dunlap, Bart H.

    2014-07-01

    The introduction of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings into astronomy over a decade ago opened new possibilities for instrument designers. In this paper we describe an extension of VPH grating technology that will have applications in astronomy and beyond: curved VPH gratings. These devices can disperse light while simultaneously correcting aberrations. We have designed and manufactured two different kinds of convex VPH grating prototypes for use in off-axis reflecting spectrographs. One type functions in transmission and the other in reflection, enabling Offnerstyle spectrographs with the high-efficiency and low-cost advantages of VPH gratings. We will discuss the design process and the tools required for modelling these gratings along with the recording layout and process steps required to fabricate them. We will present performance data for the first convex VPH grating produced for an astronomical spectrograph.

  5. An Essential Role of Hrs/Vps27 in Endosomal Cholesterol Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT plays a crucial role in the degradation of ubiquitinated endosomal membrane proteins. Here, we report that Hrs, a key protein of the ESCRT-0 complex, is required for the transport of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. This function of Hrs in cholesterol transport is distinct from its previously defined role in lysosomal sorting and downregulation of membrane receptors via the ESCRT pathway. In line with this, knocking down other ESCRT proteins does not cause prominent endosomal cholesterol accumulation. Importantly, the localization and biochemical properties of key cholesterol-sorting proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, appear to be unchanged upon Hrs knockdown. Our data identify Hrs as a regulator of endosomal cholesterol trafficking and provide additional insights into the budding of intralumenal vesicles.

  6. Spectra of Th/Ar and U/Ne hollow cathode lamps for spectrograph calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Shlosberg, Ariel; Kerber, Florian; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Neureiter, Bianca

    2018-01-01

    Low-current Th/Ar hollow cathode lamps have long been used for calibration of astronomical spectrographs on ground-based telescopes. Thorium is an attractive element for calibration as it has a single isotope, has narrow spectral lines, and has a dense spectrum covering the whole of the visible region. However, the high density of the spectrum that makes it attractive for calibrating high-resolution spectrographs is a detriment for lower resolution spectrographs and this is not obvious by examination of existing linelists. In addition, recent changes in regulations regarding the handling of thorium have led to a degradation in the quality of Th/Ar calibration lamps, with contamination by molecular ThO lines that are strong enough to obscure the calibration lines of interest.We are pursuing two approaches to these problems. First, we have expanded and improved the NIST Standard Reference Database 161, "Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps" to cover the region 272 nm to 5500 nm. Spectra of hollow cathode lamps at up to 3 different currents can now be displayed simultaneously. Interactive zooming and the ability to convolve any of the spectra with a Gaussian or uploaded instrument profile enable the user to see immediately what the spectrum would look like at the particular resolution of their spectrograph. Second, we have measured the spectrum of a recent, contaminated Th/Ar hollow cathode lamp using a high-resolution Echelle spectrograph (Madison Wisconsin) at a resolving power (R~ 250,000). This significantly exceeds the resolving power of most astronomical spectrographs and resolves many of the molecular lines of ThO. With these spectra we are measuring and calibrating the positions of these molecular lines in order to make them suitable for spectrograph calibration.In the near infrared region, U/Ne hollow cathode lamps give a higher density of calibration lines than Th/Ar lamps and will be implemented on the upgraded CRIRES+ spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large

  7. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  8. Proposal for the ion optics and for the kinematical fitting at the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberger, F.

    1986-01-01

    For the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL the installation of an additional quadrupole lens is purposed. From this the possibility of a telescopic ion optic results. For future experiments a standard focusing with a spatial dispersion of 6.6 m and vanishing angular dispersion is proposed. The D/M ratio (dispersion/magnification) extends to 14.0 m, the maximal spatial angle lies at 3 msr. The energy range extends at a focal plane length of 0.66 m to 20%. For the kinematical fitting of the spectrograph the focal plane is shifted. This shift can be simply and rapidly realized for different K values by means of a software correction, if generally two spatial spectra in the focal plane are taken up. By this additionally for each event the actual scattering angle can be determined with relatively good resolution. The dispersion fit is completely decoupled from the kinematical fitting of the magnetic spectrograph. (orig.) [de

  9. Application of charge coupled devices as spatially-resolved detectors for X-ray spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attelan-Langlet, S; Etlicher, B [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Mishenskij, V O; Papazyan, Yu V; Smirnov, V P; Volkov, G S; Zajtsev, V I [Inst. for Thermonuclear and Innovation Investigations, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    An X-ray crystal spectrograph which contains a CCD linear array as the position-sensitive detector is described. Radiation detection is performed directly onto CCD. The spectrograph has a limit of sensitivity at about 2 J/(A.ster), spectral resolution about 1000 and dynamic range 100-120. The device operates on-line with IBM-PC based control system. Software provides all data acquisition and treatment. Output spectra are presented in absolute units. The device was used during composite Z-pinch experiments at pulse-power installations ``Angara-5-1`` (TRINITI, Troitsk, Russia) and ``GAEL`` (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France). Currently the spectrograph is included in the set of diagnostics of the ``Angara-5-1`` facility. Some of the spectra obtained are presented and discussed. (author). 4 figs., 9 refs.

  10. Spectrographic observations of solar microwave bursts in the 5.3-7.4 GHz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaverin, N.S.; Korshunov, A.I.; Shushunov, V.V.; Aurass, H.; Detlefs, H.; Hartmann, H.; Krueger, A.; Kurths, J.

    1983-01-01

    The first results of the Gorky-type microwave spectrograph of Tremsdorf solar radioastronomy observatory are given, observed after the reconstruction of the instrument to get a higher time resolution for the spectral observations. Two 5.3-7.4 GHz microwave burst spectral diagrams are shown having 20 s time resolution. Broad-bond spectral structures of the microwave burst development have been observed. Explanation of a 'pseudo-drift' phenomenon due to individual peaks is given. (D.Gy.)

  11. Hrs and SNX3 functions in sorting and membrane invagination within multivesicular bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Pons

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available After internalization, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are delivered to early endosomes. There, they are sorted and incorporated into the intralumenal invaginations of nascent multivesicular bodies, which function as transport intermediates to late endosomes. Receptor sorting is achieved by Hrs--an adaptor--like protein that binds membrane PtdIns3P via a FYVE motif-and then by ESCRT complexes, which presumably also mediate the invagination process. Eventually, intralumenal vesicles are delivered to lysosomes, leading to the notion that EGF receptor sorting into multivesicular bodies mediates lysosomal targeting. Here, we report that Hrs is essential for lysosomal targeting but dispensable for multivesicular body biogenesis and transport to late endosomes. By contrast, we find that the PtdIns3P-binding protein SNX3 is required for multivesicular body formation, but not for EGF receptor degradation. PtdIns3P thus controls the complementary functions of Hrs and SNX3 in sorting and multivesicular body biogenesis.

  12. General method of quantitative spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1966-01-01

    A spectrographic method was developed to determine 23 elements in a wide range of concentrations; the method can be applied to metallic or refractory samples. Previous melting with lithium tetraborate and germanium oxide is done in order to avoid the influence of matrix composition and crystalline structure. Germanium oxide is also employed as internal standard. The resulting beads ar mixed with graphite powder (1:1) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc. (Author) 12 refs

  13. Status and Performance Updates for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elaine M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Fischer, William J.; Fix, Mees; Fox, Andrew; Indriolo, Nick; James, Bethan; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Rafelski, Marc; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sankrit, Ravi; Taylor, Joanna M.; White, James

    2018-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) moved the spectra on the FUV detector from Lifetime Position 3 (LP3) to a new pristine location, LP4, in October 2017. The spectra were shifted in the cross-dispersion direction by -2.5" (roughly -31 pixels) from LP3, or -5" (roughly -62 pixels) from the original LP1. This move mitigates the adverse effects of gain sag on the spectral quality and accuracy of COS FUV observations. Here, we present updates regarding the calibration of FUV data at LP4, including the flat fields, flux calibrations, and spectral resolution. We also present updates on the time-dependent sensitivities and dark rates of both the NUV and FUV detectors.

  14. Optical Design of the far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ryu

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the design specifications and the performance estimation of the FUVS (Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph proposed for the observations of aurora, day/night airglow and astronomical objects on small satelltes in the spectral range of . The design of FUVS is carried out with the full consideration of optical characteristics of the grating and the aspheric substrate. Two independent methods, ray-tracing and the wave front aberration theory, are employed to estimate the performance of the optical design and it is verified that both procedures yield the resolution of in the entire spectral range. MDF (Minimum Detectable Flux is also estimated using the known characteristics of the reflecting material and MCP, to study the feasibility of detection for faint emission lines from the hot interstellar plasmas. The results give that the observations from 1 day to 1 week, depending on the line intensity, can detect such faint emission lines from diffuse interstellar plasmas.

  15. A fast new cadioptric design for fiber-fed spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Will

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of massively multiplexed multi-object spectrographs (DESpec, SUMIRE, BigBOSS, 4MOST, HECTOR) demand fast, efficient and affordable spectrographs, with higher resolutions (R = 3000-5000) than current designs. Beam-size is a (relatively) free parameter in the design, but the properties of VPH gratings are such that, for fixed resolution and wavelength coverage, the effect on beam-size on overall VPH efficiency is very small. For alltransmissive cameras, this suggests modest beam-sizes (say 80-150mm) to minimize costs; while for cadioptric (Schmidt-type) cameras, much larger beam-sizes (say 250mm+) are preferred to improve image quality and to minimize obstruction losses. Schmidt designs have benefits in terms of image quality, camera speed and scattered light performance, and recent advances such as MRF technology mean that the required aspherics are no longer a prohibitive cost or risk. The main objections to traditional Schmidt designs are the inaccessibility of the detector package, and the loss in throughput caused by it being in the beam. With expected count rates and current read-noise technology, the gain in camera speed allowed by Schmidt optics largely compensates for the additional obstruction losses. However, future advances in readout technology may erase most of this compensation. A new Schmidt/Maksutov-derived design is presented, which differs from previous designs in having the detector package outside the camera, and adjacent to the spectrograph pupil. The telescope pupil already contains a hole at its center, because of the obstruction from the telescope top-end. With a 250mm beam, it is possible to largely hide a 6cm × 6cm detector package and its dewar within this hole. This means that the design achieves a very high efficiency, competitive with transmissive designs. The optics are excellent, as least as good as classic Schmidt designs, allowing F/1.25 or even faster cameras. The principal hardware has been costed at $300K per

  16. MEGARA: a new generation optical spectrograph for GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.; Vílchez, J. M.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Arrillaga, X.; Carrera, M. A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Ferrusca, D.; González-Guardia, E.; Lefort, B.; Maldonado, M.; Marino, R. A.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Morales Durán, I.; Mujica, E.; Páez, G.; Pascual, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Sánchez-Penim, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Zamorano, J.; Aguerri, A. L.; Barrado y Naváscues, D.; Bertone, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cava, A.; Cenarro, J.; Chávez, M.; García, M.; Guichard, J.; Gúzman, R.; Herrero, A.; Huélamo, N.; Hughes, D.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mayya, Y. D.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Peimbert, M.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pérez Montero, E.; Rodríguez, M.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Rosa-González, D.; Sánchez-Almeida, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez Moreno, F. M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sarajedini, A.; Serena, F.; Silich, S.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Torres-Peimbert, S.; Trujillo, I.; Tsamis, Y.; Vega, O.; Villar, V.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) designed for the GTC 10.4m telescope in La Palma. MEGARA offers two IFU fiber bundles, one covering 12.5x11.3 arcsec2 with a spaxel size of 0.62 arcsec (Large Compact Bundle; LCB) and another one covering 8.5x6.7 arcsec2 with a spaxel size of 0.42 arcsec (Small Compact Bundle; SCB). The MEGARA MOS mode will allow observing up to 100 objects in a region of 3.5x3.5 arcmin2 around the two IFU bundles. Both the LCB IFU and MOS capabilities of MEGARA will provide intermediate-to-high spectral resolutions (RFWHM~6,000, 12,000 and 18,700, respectively for the low-, mid- and high-resolution Volume Phase Holographic gratings) in the range 3650-9700ÅÅ. These values become RFWHM~7,000, 13,500, and 21,500 when the SCB is used. A mechanism placed at the pseudo-slit position allows exchanging the three observing modes and also acts as focusing mechanism. The spectrograph is a collimator-camera system that has a total of 11 VPHs simultaneously available (out of the 18 VPHs designed and being built) that are placed in the pupil by means of a wheel and an insertion mechanism. The custom-made cryostat hosts an E2V231-84 4kx4k CCD. The UCM (Spain) leads the MEGARA Consortium that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain), and UPM (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under a contract between GRANTECAN and UCM. The detailed design, construction and AIV phases are now funded and the instrument should be delivered to GTC before the end of 2016.

  17. Postsecondary Schooling and Parental Resources: Evidence from the PSID and HRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Steven J.; McGarry, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    We examine the association between young adult postsecondary schooling and parental financial resources using two datasets that contain high-quality data on parental resources: the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We find the association to be pervasive--it exists for income and wealth, it extends…

  18. HRS1 Acts as a Negative Regulator of Abscisic Acid Signaling to Promote Timely Germination of Arabidopsis Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Liu, Hong; Yang, Huixia; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Qin, Huanju; Liu, Xin; Wang, Daowen

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we conducted functional analysis of Arabidopsis HRS1 gene in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms governing seed germination. Compared with wild type (WT) control, HRS1 knockout mutant (hrs1-1) exhibited significant germination delays on either normal medium or those supplemented with abscisic acid (ABA) or sodium chloride (NaCl), with the magnitude of the delay being substantially larger on the latter media. The hypersensitivity of hrs1-1 germination to ABA and NaCl required ABI3, ABI4 and ABI5, and was aggravated in the double mutant hrs1-1abi1-2 and triple mutant hrs1-1hab1-1abi1-2, indicating that HRS1 acts as a negative regulator of ABA signaling during seed germination. Consistent with this notion, HRS1 expression was found in the embryo axis, and was regulated both temporally and spatially, during seed germination. Further analysis showed that the delay of hrs1-1 germination under normal conditions was associated with reduction in the elongation of the cells located in the lower hypocotyl (LH) and transition zone (TZ) of embryo axis. Interestingly, the germination rate of hrs1-1 was more severely reduced by the inhibitor of cell elongation, and more significantly decreased by the suppressors of plasmalemma H+-ATPase activity, than that of WT control. The plasmalemma H+-ATPase activity in the germinating seeds of hrs1-1 was substantially lower than that exhibited by WT control, and fusicoccin, an activator of this pump, corrected the transient germination delay of hrs1-1. Together, our data suggest that HRS1 may be needed for suppressing ABA signaling in germinating embryo axis, which promotes the timely germination of Arabidopsis seeds probably by facilitating the proper function of plasmalemma H+-ATPase and the efficient elongation of LH and TZ cells. PMID:22545134

  19. Exact optics - III. Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willstrop, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Karl Schwarzschild identified a system of two mirrors, each defined by conic sections, free of third-order spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism, and with a flat focal surface. He considered it impractical, because the field was too restricted. This system was rediscovered as a quadratic approximation to one of Lynden-Bell's `exact optics' designs which have wider fields. Thus the `exact optics' version has a moderate but useful field, with excellent definition, suitable for a spectrograph camera. The mirrors are strongly aspheric in both the Schwarzschild design and the exact optics version.

  20. Spectrographic analysis of uranium-molybdenum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.

    1967-01-01

    A spectrographic method of analysis has been developed for uranium-molybdenum alloys containing up to 10 % Mo. The carrier distillation technique, with gallium oxide and graphite as carriers, is used for the semiquantitative determination of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni and Si, involving the conversion of the samples into oxides. As a consequence of the study of the influence of the molybdenum on the line intensities, it is useful to prepare only one set of standards with 0,6 % MoO 3 . Total burning excitation is used for calcium, employing two sets of standards with 0,6 and 7.5 MoO 3 . (Author) 5 refs

  1. Energy deposition profile for modification proposal of ISOLDE’s HRS Beam Dump, from FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The current ISOLDE HRS beam dump has been found to be unsuitable on previous simulations, due to thermomechanical stresses. In this paper a proposal for modifying HRS dump is studied using FLUKA. The energy deposited in this modified beam dump and the amount of neutrons streaming to the tunnel area are scored and compared with the simulation of current dump. Two versions of the modification have been assessed, determining which of them is more desirable in terms of influence of radiation on ISOLDE’s tunnel. Finally, a rough estimate of temperature raise in the modified dump is shown. Further conclusions on the adequacy of these modifications need to include the thermomechanical calculations’ results, based on those presented here.

  2. Micro photometer's automation for quantitative spectrograph analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez E, C.Y.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Microphotometer is used to increase the sharpness of dark spectral lines. Analyzing these lines one sample content and its concentration could be determined and the analysis is known as Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis. The Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis is carried out in 3 steps, as follows. 1. Emulsion calibration. This consists of gauging a photographic emulsion, to determine the intensity variations in terms of the incident radiation. For the procedure of emulsion calibration an adjustment with square minimum to the data obtained is applied to obtain a graph. It is possible to determine the density of dark spectral line against the incident light intensity shown by the microphotometer. 2. Working curves. The values of known concentration of an element against incident light intensity are plotted. Since the sample contains several elements, it is necessary to find a work curve for each one of them. 3. Analytical results. The calibration curve and working curves are compared and the concentration of the studied element is determined. The automatic data acquisition, calculation and obtaining of resulting, is done by means of a computer (PC) and a computer program. The conditioning signal circuits have the function of delivering TTL levels (Transistor Transistor Logic) to make the communication between the microphotometer and the computer possible. Data calculation is done using a computer programm

  3. Field Raman Spectrograph for Environmental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.M.; Haas, J.W.; Spencer, K.M.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.; Forney, R.W.; Johnston, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread contamination found across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has received considerable attention from the government and public alike. A massive site characterization and cleanup effort has been underway for several years and is expected to continue for several decades more. The scope of the cleanup effort ranges from soil excavation and treatment to complete dismantling and decontamination of whole buildings. To its credit, DOE has supported research and development of new technologies to speed up and reduce the cost of this effort. One area in particular has been the development of portable instrumentation that can be used to perform analytical measurements in the field. This approach provides timely data to decision makers and eliminates the expense, delays, and uncertainties of sample preservation, transport, storage, and laboratory analysis. In this program, we have developed and demonstrated in the field a transportable, high performance Raman spectrograph that can be used to detect and identify contaminants in a variety of scenarios. With no moving parts, the spectrograph is rugged and can perform many Raman measurements in situ with flexible fiber optic sampling probes. The instrument operates under computer control and a software package has been developed to collect and process spectral data. A collection of Raman spectra for 200 contaminants of DOE importance has been compiled in a searchable format to assist in the identification of unknown contaminants in the field

  4. Spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamin, G.

    1965-04-01

    Experimental conditions have been investigated in order to obtain the highest sensitivity in spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine using the Fassel method of excitation in an inert atmosphere. The influence of the nature of the atmosphere, of the discharge conditions and of the matrix material has been investigated. The following results have been established: 1. chlorine determination is definitely possible: a working curve has been drawn between 10 μg and 100 μg, the detection limit being around 5 μg; 2. fluorine determination is not satisfactory: the detection limit is still of the order of 80 μg. The best operating conditions have been defined for both elements. (author) [fr

  5. Spectrographic determination of impurities in magnesium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Diaz-Guerra, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrographic determination of trace quantities of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Hn, Mo, Ni and Si in magnesium metal is described. Samples are dissolved with HNO 3 and calcinate into MgO. In order to avoid losses of boron NH 4 OH is added to the nitric solution. Except for aluminium and chromium the analysis is performed through the use of the carrier distillation technique. These two impurities are determined by burning to completion the MgO. Among the compounds studied as carriers (AgCl, AgF, CsCl, CuF 2 , KCl and SrF 2 ) AgCl allows, In general, the best volatilization efficiency. Lithium determination is achieved by using KC1 or CsCl. Detection limits, on the basis of MgO, are in the range 0,1 to 30 ppm, depending on the element. (Author) 8 refs

  6. Quantitative spectrographic analysis of impurities in antimonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de; Gomes, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    An emission spectrographic method is describe for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, Pb, Sn, Si, and Zn in high purity antimony metal. The metal sample ia dissolved in nitric acid(1:1) and converted tp oxide by calcination at 900 0 C for one hour. The oxide so obtained is mixed with graphite, which is used as a spectroscopic buffer, and excited by a direct current arc. Many parameters are studied optimum conditions are selected for the determination of the impurities mentioned. The spectrum is photographed in the second order of a 15.000 lines per inch grating and the most sensitive lines for the elements are selected. The impurities are determined in the concentration range of 1 - 0,01% with a precision of approximately 10% [pt

  7. Spectrographic determination of impurities in beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Reino, L.C. de; Lordello, A.R.; Pereira, A.S.A.

    1986-03-01

    A method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, NaNi, Si and Zn in nuclear grade beryllium oxide has been developed. The determination of Co, Al, Na and Zn is besed upon a carrier distillation technique. Better results were obtained with 2% Ga 2 O 3 as carrier in beryllium oxide. For the elements B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mg, Ni and Si the sample is loaded in a Scribner-Mullin shallow cup electrode, covered with graphite powder and excited in DC arc. The relative standard deviation values for different elements are in the range of 10 to 20%. The method fulfills requirements of precision and sensitivity for specification analysis of nuclear grade beryllium oxide.(Author) [pt

  8. Field Raman spectrograph for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.W. III; Forney, R.W.; Carrabba, M.M.; Rauh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The enormous cost for chemical analysis at DOE facilities predicates that cost-saving measures be implemented. Many approaches, ranging from increasing laboratory sample throughput by reducing preparation time to the development of field instrumentation, are being explored to meet this need. Because of the presence of radioactive materials at many DOE sites, there is also a need for methods that are safer for site personnel and analysts. This project entails the development of a compact Raman spectrograph for field screening and monitoring of a wide variety of wastes, pollutants, and corrosion products in storage tanks, soils, and ground and surface waters. Analytical advantages of the Raman technique include its ability to produce a unique, spectral fingerprint for each contaminant and its ability to analyze both solids and liquids directly, without the need for isolation or cleanup

  9. Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

  10. Spectrographic analysis of thorium and its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grampurohit, S.V.; Saksena, M.D.; Kaimal, V.N.P.; Kapoor, S.K.; Murty, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A spectrographic method, which employs the principle of carrier-distillation technique, is described for the analysis of high purity thoria. Two carriers, AgCl and NaF were used in determining 27 trace elements in ThO 2 . The elements were divided into three groups, A, B and C. In group A, 15 elements, viz. Al, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si and Sn were included since it was possible to choose sensitive lines of these elements in one spectral region, 220 - 285 nm. Group B covered 8 elements, viz. Ag, Bi, Ca, Ga, Mo, Ti, V and Zn, which could be determined in the spectral region 290 - 352.5 nm. Group C consisted 4 elements, viz. Ba, K, Li and Na which could be determined in the spectral region 440 - 820 nm. 5% AgCl was used as the carrier for the determination of groups A and C elements and 4% NaF was used as the carrier for the estimation of group B elements. One hundred milligrammes of the sample (in the form of ThO 2 ) containing the carrier were taken in a carrier-distillation electrode and excited in a d.c. arc (10 amps for groups A and C; 15 amps for group B). The spectra of sample and synthetic standards were photographed on Hilger's large quartz, JACO 3.4 m Ebert plane grating and Higler's large glass spectrographs respectively for determining group A, B and C elements. The detection limit obtained for B and Cd was 0.1 ppm. Thorium metal and thorium nitrate samples were converted to ThO 2 prior to analysis. (auth.)

  11. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 1. Principles and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter; Mooij, J.M.; Maassen, J.D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-based optical diagnostics, such as planar laser-induced fluorescence and, especially, Raman imaging, often require selective spectral filtering. We advocate the use of an imaging spectrograph with a broad entrance slit as a spectral filter for two-dimensional imaging. A spectrograph in this

  12. Search for wrong sign D0 decays with the HRS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.; Akerlof, C.; Barringer, P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 300pb -1 obtained at PEP with the HRS detector we have searched for the wrong sign decay of D 0 mesons in the decays D* → D 0 π. We obtain a 90% confidence level limit of 4.0% on the ratio of the wrong sign to the right sign decay rate in the Kπ mode. This is the best model independent limit on mixing currently available and constrains the nature of the wrong sign signal recently reported by the MARK III group. 10 refs., 2 figs

  13. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  14. Laboratory Testing and Performance Verification of the CHARIS Integral Field Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Tyler D.; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Galvin, Michael; Loomis, Craig; Carr, Michael A.; Brandt, Timothy; Knapp, Gillian; Limbach, Mary Anne; Guyon, Olivier; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) is an integral field spectrograph (IFS) that has been built for the Subaru telescope. CHARIS has two imaging modes; the high-resolution mode is R82, R69, and R82 in J, H, and K bands respectively while the low-resolution discovery mode uses a second low-resolution prism with R19 spanning 1.15-2.37 microns (J+H+K bands). The discovery mode is meant to augment the low inner working angle of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) adaptive optics system, which feeds CHARIS a coronagraphic image. The goal is to detect and characterize brown dwarfs and hot Jovian planets down to contrasts five orders of magnitude dimmer than their parent star at an inner working angle as low as 80 milliarcseconds. CHARIS constrains spectral crosstalk through several key aspects of the optical design. Additionally, the repeatability of alignment of certain optical components is critical to the calibrations required for the data pipeline. Specifically the relative alignment of the lens let array, prism, and detector must be highly stable and repeatable between imaging modes. We report on the measured repeatability and stability of these mechanisms, measurements of spectral crosstalk in the instrument, and the propagation of these errors through the data pipeline. Another key design feature of CHARIS is the prism, which pairs Barium Fluoride with Ohara L-BBH2 high index glass. The dispersion of the prism is significantly more uniform than other glass choices, and the CHARIS prisms represent the first NIR astronomical instrument that uses L-BBH2as the high index material. This material choice was key to the utility of the discovery mode, so significant efforts were put into cryogenic characterization of the material. The final performance of the prism assemblies in their operating environment is described in detail. The spectrograph is going through final alignment, cryogenic cycling, and is being

  15. The Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-06-01

    We present the design of the Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph, a dedicated I and z band instrument (0.65μm micron - 1.0μm micron at R~4000), designed to be used in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system (PALAO, and its planned upgrade PALM-3000). It builds on two recent developments (i) the improved ability of second generation adaptive optics systems to correct for atmospheric turbulence at wavelengths less than or equal to 1μm micron, and (ii) the availability of CCD array detectors with high quantum efficiency at very red wavelengths (close to the silicon band edge). Combining these with a state-of-the-art integral field unit design using an all-glass image slicer, SWIFT's design provides very high throughput and low scattered light. SWIFT simultaneously provides spectra of ~4000 spatial elements, arranged in a rectangular field-of-view of 44 × 89 pixels. It has three on-the-fly selectable pixel scales of 0.24", 0.16" and 0.08'. First light is expected in spring 2008.

  16. QMM Project. A proposal for field map measurement of the six HRS Quadrupoles in Hall A, CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Quemener, G.; Vernin, P.

    1993-12-01

    The proposed measurements of the magnetic field maps of the six HRS quadrupoles in Hall A at CEBAF is summarized. The basis of the measurement using rotating coils and a preliminary design of the apparatus are presented. (author)

  17. The Hrs/Stam complex acts as a positive and negative regulator of RTK signaling during Drosophila development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Chanut-Delalande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocytosis is a key regulatory step of diverse signalling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signalling. Hrs and Stam constitute the ESCRT-0 complex that controls the initial selection of ubiquitinated proteins, which will subsequently be degraded in lysosomes. It has been well established ex vivo and during Drosophila embryogenesis that Hrs promotes EGFR down regulation. We have recently isolated the first mutations of stam in flies and shown that Stam is required for air sac morphogenesis, a larval respiratory structure whose formation critically depends on finely tuned levels of FGFR activity. This suggest that Stam, putatively within the ESCRT-0 complex, modulates FGF signalling, a possibility that has not been examined in Drosophila yet. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed the role of the Hrs/Stam complex in the regulation of signalling activity during Drosophila development. We show that stam and hrs are required for efficient FGFR signalling in the tracheal system, both during cell migration in the air sac primordium and during the formation of fine cytoplasmic extensions in terminal cells. We find that stam and hrs mutant cells display altered FGFR/Btl localisation, likely contributing to impaired signalling levels. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that endosome maturation is impaired at distinct steps by hrs and stam mutations. These somewhat unexpected results prompted us to further explore the function of stam and hrs in EGFR signalling. We show that while stam and hrs together downregulate EGFR signalling in the embryo, they are required for full activation of EGFR signalling during wing development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that the ESCRT-0 complex differentially regulates RTK signalling, either positively or negatively depending on tissues and developmental stages, further highlighting the importance of endocytosis in modulating signalling pathways during development.

  18. First observations from a CCD all-sky spectrograph at Barentsburg (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A digital CCD all-sky spectrograph was made by the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI to support IPY activity in auroral research. The device was tested at the Barentsburg observatory of PGI during the winter season of 2005–2006. The spectrograph is based on a cooled CCD and a transmission grating. The main features of this spectrograph are: a wide field of view (~180°, a wide spectral range (380–740 nm, a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm, a background level of about 100 R at 1-min exposure time. Several thousand spectra of nightglow and aurora were recorded during the observation season. It was possible to register both the strong auroral emissions, as well as weak ones. Spectra of aurora, including nitrogen and oxygen molecular and atomic emissions, as well as OH emissions of the nightglow are shown. A comparison has been conducted of auroral spectra obtained by the film all-sky spectral camera C-180-S at Spitsbergen during IGY, with spectra obtained at Barentsburg during the last winter season. The relationship between the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm auroral emissions shows that the green emission is dominant near the minimum of the solar cycle activity (2005–2006. The opposite situation is observed during 1958–1959, with a maximum solar cycle activity.

  19. Opto-mechanical design of an image slicer for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Reyes, N.; Esteves, M. A.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Salaun, Y.; López, R. L.; Gracia, F.; Estrada Herrera, P.; Grivel, C.; Vaz Cedillo, J. J.; Collados, M.

    2016-07-01

    An image slicer has been proposed for the Integral Field Spectrograph [1] of the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) [2] The image slicer for EST is called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) [3] and it is a telecentric system with diffraction limited optical quality offering the possibility to obtain high resolution Integral Field Solar Spectroscopy or Spectro-polarimetry by coupling a polarimeter after the generated slit (or slits). Considering the technical complexity of the proposed Integral Field Unit (IFU), a prototype has been designed for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR telescope at Teide Observatory (Tenerife), composed by the optical elements of the image slicer itself, a scanning system (to cover a larger field of view with sequential adjacent measurements) and an appropriate re-imaging system. All these subsystems are placed in a bench, specially designed to facilitate their alignment, integration and verification, and their easy installation in front of the spectrograph. This communication describes the opto-mechanical solution adopted to upgrade GRIS while ensuring repeatability between the observational modes, IFU and long-slit. Results from several tests which have been performed to validate the opto-mechanical prototypes are also presented.

  20. Spectrally resolved detection of sodium in the atmosphere of HD 189733b with the HARPS spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Pepe, F.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Atmospheric properties of exoplanets can be constrained with transit spectroscopy. At low spectral resolution, this technique is limited by the presence of clouds. The signature of atomic sodium (Na i), known to be present above the clouds, is a powerful probe of the upper atmosphere, where it can be best detected and characterized at high spectral resolution. Aims: Our goal is to obtain a high-resolution transit spectrum of HD 189733b in the region around the resonance doublet of Na i at 589 nm, to characterize the absorption signature that was previously detected from space at low resolution. Methods: We analyzed archival transit data of HD 189733b obtained with the HARPS spectrograph (ℛ = 115 000) at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. We performed differential spectroscopy to retrieve the transit spectrum and light curve of the planet, implementing corrections for telluric contamination and planetary orbital motion. We compared our results to synthetic transit spectra calculated from isothermal models of the planetary atmosphere. Results: We spectrally resolve the Na i D doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.64 ± 0.07% (D2) and 0.40 ± 0.07% (D1) and FWHMs of 0.52 ± 0.08 Å. This corresponds to a detection at the 10σ level of excess of absorption of 0.32 ± 0.03% in a passband of 2 × 0.75 Å centered on each line. We derive temperatures of 2600 ± 600 K and 3270 ± 330 K at altitudes of 9800 ± 2800 and 12 700 ± 2600 km in the Na i D1 and D2 line cores, respectively. We measure a temperature gradient of ~0.2 K km-1 in the region where the sodium absorption dominates the haze absorption from a comparison with theoretical models. We also detect a blueshift of 0.16 ± 0.04 Å (4σ) in the line positions. This blueshift may be the result of winds blowing at 8 ± 2 km s-1 in the upper layers of the atmosphere. Conclusions: We demonstrate the relevance of studying exoplanet atmospheres with high-resolution spectrographs mounted on 4-m-class telescopes. Our

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND NIR SPECTRA OF HBC 722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak [National Youth Space Center, 200 Deokheungyangjjok-gil, Dongil-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do 548-951 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyun-Il, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: sunkyung@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wskang@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: sanggak@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: hisung@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s{sup −1} while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s{sup −1}. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R{sub ⊙}, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models.

  2. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Blanc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV integral field unit (IFU spectrograph in the world (1.7′×1.7′. It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16′ diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX. Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  3. The SLICE, CHESS, and SISTINE Ultraviolet Spectrographs: Rocket-Borne Instrumentation Supporting Future Astrophysics Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri; Fleming, Brian T.; Kane, Robert; Nell, Nicholas; Beasley, Matthew; Green, James C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA’s suborbital program provides an opportunity to conduct unique science experiments above Earth’s atmosphere and is a pipeline for the technology and personnel essential to future space astrophysics, heliophysics, and atmospheric science missions. In this paper, we describe three astronomy payloads developed (or in development) by the Ultraviolet Rocket Group at the University of Colorado. These far-ultraviolet (UV) (100-160nm) spectrographic instruments are used to study a range of scientific topics, from gas in the interstellar medium (accessing diagnostics of material spanning five orders of magnitude in temperature in a single observation) to the energetic radiation environment of nearby exoplanetary systems. The three instruments, Suborbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE), Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), and Suborbital Imaging Spectrograph for Transition region Irradiance from Nearby Exoplanet host stars (SISTINE) form a progression of instrument designs and component-level technology maturation. SLICE is a pathfinder instrument for the development of new data handling, storage, and telemetry techniques. CHESS and SISTINE are testbeds for technology and instrument design enabling high-resolution (R>105) point source spectroscopy and high throughput imaging spectroscopy, respectively, in support of future Explorer, Probe, and Flagship-class missions. The CHESS and SISTINE payloads support the development and flight testing of large-format photon-counting detectors and advanced optical coatings: NASA’s top two technology priorities for enabling a future flagship observatory (e.g. the LUVOIR Surveyor concept) that offers factors of ˜50-100 gain in UV spectroscopy capability over the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the design, component level laboratory characterization, and flight results for these instruments.

  4. Spectrographic Determination of Trace Constituents in Rare Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Alvarez, F.

    1962-01-01

    A spectrographic method was developed for the determination of 18 trace elements in lanthanum, cerium, praseodimium, neodimium and samarium compounds. The concentrations of the impurities cover the range of 0,5 to 500 ppm. Most of these impurities are determined by the carrier distillation method. Several more refractory elements have been determined by total burning of the sample with a direct current arc or by the conduction briquet excitation technique with a high voltage condensed spark. The work has been carried out with a Hilger Automatic Large Quartz Spectrograph. (Author) 5 refs

  5. Using a new, free spectrograph program to critically investigate acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Edward; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed an online spectrograph program with a bank of over 30 audio clips to visualise a variety of sounds. Our audio library includes everyday sounds such as speech, singing, musical instruments, birds, a baby, cat, dog, sirens, a jet, thunder, and screaming. We provide a link to a video of the sound sources superimposed with their respective spectrograms in real time. Readers can use our spectrograph program to view our library, open their own desktop audio files, and use the program in real time with a computer microphone.

  6. Lead shielded cells for the spectrographic analysis of radioisotope solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.; Cruz, F. de la

    1967-01-01

    Two lead shielded cells for the spectrochemical analysis of radioisotope samples are described. One of them is devoted to the evaporation of samples before excitation and the other one contains a suitable spectrographic excitation stand for the copper spark technique. A special device makes it possible the easy displacement of the excitation cell on wheels and rails for its accurate and reproducible position as well as its replacement by a glove box for plutonium analysis. In order to guarantee safety the room in which the spectrograph and the source are set up in separated from the active laboratory by a wall with a suitable window. (Author) 1 refs

  7. CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph cooling system AIV: thermo-mechanical performance of the instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, S.; Mirabet, E.; Lizon, J. L.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, C.; Ferro, I.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Ramón, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Seifert, W.; Herranz, J.

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES is the new high-resolution high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed by two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950- 1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph's responsible is the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAACSIC). It has been manufactured, assembled, integrated and verified in the last two years, delivered in fall 2015 and commissioned in December 2015. One of the most challenging systems in this cryogenic channel involves the Cooling System. Due to the highly demanding requirements applicable in terms of stability, this system arises as one of the core systems to provide outstanding stability to the channel. Really at the edge of the state-of-the-art, the Cooling System is able to provide to the cold mass ( 1 Ton) better thermal stability than few hundredths of degree within 24 hours (goal: 0.01K/day). The present paper describes the Assembly, Integration and Verification phase (AIV) of the CARMENES-NIR channel Cooling System implemented at IAA-CSIC and later installation at CAHA 3.5m Telescope, thus the most relevant highlights being shown in terms of thermal performance. The CARMENES NIR-channel Cooling System has been implemented by the IAA-CSIC through very fruitful collaboration and involvement of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) cryo-vacuum department with Jean-Louis Lizon as its head and main collaborator. The present work sets an important trend in terms of cryogenic systems for future E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) large-dimensioned instrumentation in astrophysics.

  8. Clearance Analysis of CTC2 (on ELC4) to S-TRRJ HRS Radiator Rotation Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    ) as defined by nine preexisting Space Vision System (SVS) targets affixed to the forward/zenith side of the S1 and S3 truss segments. The location of the outboard edge of the S-TRRJ radiator would also be measured when positioned at the angle of closest approach to CTC2 (gamma = 35.0 degrees). This data would allow the Digital Pre-Assembly Group to predict how the ELC4 would sit on the UCCAS and how that would translate into the clearance between CTC2 and the S-TRRJ radiators. Phase II: After the ELC4 was delivered and installed into the UCCAS, the position of the CTC2 mounting plate on the inboard face of ELC4, would be measured in the ISSACS coordinate system relative to the SVS control points used in Phase I. Although CTC2 would not yet be mounted on ELC4, the working envelope of CTC2 could be mathematically added to the measured position of ELC4 to produce a best estimate for CTC2's mounted location. Comparing CTC2's best estimated location to the S-TRRJ radiator (measured in Phase I); relative to the ISSACS coordinate system, would provide a direct measurement of the expected clearance. Due to the impending delivery of ELC4 (scheduled for January 2011), planning for the Phase I clearance analysis began immediately. Using the Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) program, ISAG designed a way to acquire images of the SVS control points on truss segments S1 and S3, the aft facing edge of the S-TRRJ Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) radiator, and the three UCCAS latch mechanisms mounted on the zenith face of the S3 truss using the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). To minimize the number of SSRMS movements, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) would be attached to the SSRMS. This would make it possible to park the SPDM in one position and acquire multiple images by changing the viewing orientation of the SPDM body cameras using the pan/tilt units on which they are mounted. Using this implementation concept, ISAG identified four SSRMS

  9. WAS: the data archive for the WEAVE spectrograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra, Jose; Molinari, Emilio; Lodi, Marcello; Martin, Adrian; Dalton, Gavin B.; Trager, Scott C.; Jin, Shoko; Abrams, Don Carlos; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; López Aguerri, Jose Alfonso; Vallenari, Antonella; Carrasco Licea, Esperanza E.; Middleton, Kevin F.

    2016-01-01

    The WAS1(WEAVE Archive System) is a software architecture for archiving and delivering the data releases for the WEAVE7 instrument at WHT (William Herschel Telescope). The WEAVE spectrograph will be mounted at the 4.2-m WHT telescope and will provide millions of spectra in a 5-year program, starting

  10. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  11. The spectrographic orbit of the eclipsing binary HH Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrini, C.H.; Mendez, R.H.; Niemela, V.S.; Ferrer, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present a radial velocity study of the eclipsing binary system HH Carinae, and determine for the first time its spectrographic orbital elements. Using the results of a previous photometric study by Soderhjelm, we also determine the values of the masses and dimensions of the binary components. (author)

  12. Spectrographical method for determining temperature variations of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, L.I.; Krest'yannikov, Yu.Ya.; AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln)

    1977-01-01

    A spectrographic method for determining [sigmaJsup(μ)/Jsup(μ)]sub(T) temperature variations in cosmic rays is proposed. The value of (sigmaJsup(μ)/Jsup(μ)]sub(T) is determined from three equations for neutron supermonitors and the equation for the muon component of cosmic rays. It is assumed that all the observation data include corrections for the barometric effect. No temperature effect is observed in the neutron component. To improve the reliability and accuracy of the results obtained the surface area of the existing devices and the number of spectrographic equations should be increased as compared with that of the unknown values. The value of [sigmaJsup(μ)/Jsup(μ)]sub(T) for time instants when the aerological probing was carried out, was determined from the data of observations of cosmic rays with the aid of a spectrographic complex of devices of Sib IZMIR. The r.m.s. dispersion of the difference is about 0.2%, which agrees with the expected dispersion. The agreement obtained can be regarded as an independent proof of the correctness of the theory of meteorological effects of cosmic rays. With the existing detection accuracy the spectrographic method can be used for determining the hourly values of temperature corrections for the muon component

  13. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  14. Spectrographic determination of lithium in nuclear grade calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Cittanova, J.

    1957-01-01

    A method is described for the spectrographic determination of lithium in calcium. The samples are converted directly to CaCO 3 . A method of fractional distillation in the arc, using KCl as carrier, makes it possible to detect and measure the Li content to 0,1 ppm. (author) [fr

  15. Calculation of the performance of the INS iron-free π√2 spectrometer as a spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, M.; Hirasawa, M.; Kawakami, H.

    1983-02-01

    The performance of the INS iron-free π√2 beta-ray spectrometer of the current-loop type is calculated with a view of using it as a spectrograph, i.e., in a multichannel mode with a position-sensitive proportional counter. For the momentum resolution of R = 0.01 and 0.1 % the usable momentum range as a spectrograph ( + epsilon + 0 ) and the line shapes on the focal plane are calculated. The transmission of the baffle is 0.025 and 0.13 % of 4π and the expected gain of data-collection efficiency over the single-channel mode is 140 and 40 for R = 0.01 and 0.1%, respectively. An effective tilting of the focal plane due to the entrance baffle is discussed as well as the problems with arrangement and testing of the position detector. (author)

  16. The Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory: Current Status and Progress Towards Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Grady, Carol A.; Bally, John; Brinkmann, Jonathan V.; Bubeck, James; Gong, Qian; Hilton, George M.; Ketzeback, William F.; Lindler, Don; Llop Sayson, Jorge; Malatesta, Michael A.; Norton, Timothy; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Rothe, Johannes; Straka, Lorrie; Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Wisniewski, John P.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; York, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status and progress towards photon counting with the Goddard Integral Field Spectrograph (GIFS), a new instrument at the Apache Point Observatory's ARC 3.5m telescope. GIFS is a visible light imager and integral field spectrograph operating from 400-1000 nm over a 2.8' x 2.8' and 14' x 14' field of view, respectively. As an IFS, GIFS obtains over 1000 spectra simultaneously and its data reduction pipeline reconstructs them into an image cube that has 32 x 32 spatial elements and more than 200 spectral channels. The IFS mode can be applied to a wide variety of science programs including exoplanet transit spectroscopy, protostellar jets, the galactic interstellar medium probed by background quasars, Lyman-alpha emission line objects, and spectral imaging of galactic winds. An electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) detector enables photon counting in the high spectral resolution mode to be demonstrated at the ARC 3.5m in early 2015. The EMCCD work builds upon successful operational and characterization tests that have been conducted in the IFS laboratory at NASA Goddard. GIFS sets out to demonstrate an IFS photon-counting capability on-sky in preparation for future exoplanet direct imaging missions such as the AFTA-Coronagraph, Exo-C, and ATLAST mission concepts. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program under RTOP 10-APRA10-0103.

  17. SpecOp: Optimal Extraction Software for Integral Field Unit Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Adam; Ciardullo, Robin; Eracleous, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope’s new low resolution integral field spectrographs, LRS2-B and LRS2-R, each cover a 12”x6” area on the sky with 280 fibers and generate spectra with resolutions between R=1100 and R=1900. To extract 1-D spectra from the instrument’s 3D data cubes, a program is needed that is flexible enough to work for a wide variety of targets, including continuum point sources, emission line sources, and compact sources embedded in complex backgrounds. We therefore introduce SpecOp, a user-friendly python program for optimally extracting spectra from integral-field unit spectrographs. As input, SpecOp takes a sky-subtracted data cube consisting of images at each wavelength increment set by the instrument’s spectral resolution, and an error file for each count measurement. All of these files are generated by the current LRS2 reduction pipeline. The program then collapses the cube in the image plane using the optimal extraction algorithm detailed by Keith Horne (1986). The various user-selected options include the fraction of the total signal enclosed in a contour-defined region, the wavelength range to analyze, and the precision of the spatial profile calculation. SpecOp can output the weighted counts and errors at each wavelength in various table formats using python’s astropy package. We outline the algorithm used for extraction and explain how the software can be used to easily obtain high-quality 1-D spectra. We demonstrate the utility of the program by applying it to spectra of a variety of quasars and AGNs. In some of these targets, we extract the spectrum of a nuclear point source that is superposed on a spatially extended galaxy.

  18. Management of atrial fibrillation around the world: a comparison of current ACCF/AHA/HRS, CCS, and ESC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Kristina; Eckardt, Lars

    2011-10-01

    New guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) have recently been published by the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association, and Heart Rhythm Society (ACCF/AHA/HRS) task force on practice guidelines, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Although they all refer to the same scientific data and agree in the majority of AF management, interpretation, and weighing of study results are quite different in some aspects. While recommendations for stroke risk assessment and prophylaxis are rather conservative in the ESC guidelines, the CCS guideline recommendations are more conservative with regard to lenient rate control and the ACCF/AHA/HRS recommendations are rather strict with regard to rhythm management.

  19. Spectrographic determination of impurities in uranium tetrafluoride matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, Luiz Carlos de Paula

    1980-01-01

    A direct spectrographic method for the determination of UF 4 impurities was developed. Investigations using spectrochemical carriers were carried out so to avoid uranium distillation, which as fluoride is much more volatile than the U 3 O 8 refractory matrix. The best results were obtained by using a mixture of MgO and NaCl carriers in the proportion of 20% and 10%, respectively, with respect to UF 4 matrix. An original spectrographic technique was introduced aiming to avoid the projection of sample particles outside the electrode during excitation. This new technique is based on the addition of a small quantity of a 0.5% gelatinous solution on the UF 4 tablet. The precision of the method was studied for each element analysed. The variation coefficients are within the range of 10 of 20%

  20. Spectrographic determination of trace impurities in reactor grade aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Machado, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrographic method enabling the determination of 21 trace impurities in aluminium oxide is described. The technique involves mixing the sample with graphite buffer in the ratio 1:1, loading it in a graphite electrode and arcing it for 30 sec. in a dc arc to 10 A current against a pointed graphite cathode. The spectra are photographed on Ilford N.30 emulsion employing a large quartz spectrograph. The aluminium line at 2669.2 A 0 serves as the internal standard. The impurities determined are Ag, B, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, Ti, V and Zn. The sensitivity varies from 5 to 100 ppm and the precision from +- 5 to +- 22% for different elements. A method for converting aluminium metal to aluminium oxide is described. It is found that boron is not lost during this conversion. (author)

  1. Spectrographic determination of impurities in uranium tetrafluoride matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, L.C.P.; Lordello, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A direct spectrographic method for the determination of UF 4 impurities was developed. Investigations using spectrochemical carriers were carried out so to avoid uranium distillation, which as fluoride is much more volatile than the U 3 O 8 refractory matrix. The best results were obtained by using a mixture of MgO and NaCl carriers in the proportion of 20 and 10%, respectively, with respect to UF 4 matrix. An original spectrographic technique was introduced aiming to avoid the projection of sample particles outside the electrode during excitation. This new technique is based on the addition of a small quantity of a 0.5% gellatinous solution on the UF 4 tablet. The precision of the method was studied for each element analysed. The variation coefficients are within the range of 10 of 20%. (C.L.B.) [pt

  2. Solar glint suppression in compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.; Cook, Jason C.; Grava, Cesare; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2015-08-01

    Solar glint suppression is an important consideration in the design of compact photon-counting ultraviolet spectrographs. Southwest Research Institute developed the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (launch in 2009), and the Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Juno (Juno-UVS, launch in 2011). Both of these compact spectrographs revealed minor solar glints in flight that did not appear in pre-launch analyses. These glints only appeared when their respective spacecraft were operating outside primary science mission parameters. Post-facto scattered light analysis verifies the geometries at which these glints occurred and why they were not caught during ground testing or nominal mission operations. The limitations of standard baffle design at near-grazing angles are discussed, as well as the importance of including surface scatter properties in standard stray light analyses when determining solar keep-out efficiency. In particular, the scattered light analysis of these two instruments shows that standard "one bounce" assumptions in baffle design are not always enough to prevent scattered sunlight from reaching the instrument focal plane. Future builds, such as JUICE-UVS, will implement improved scattered and stray light modeling early in the design phase to enhance capabilities in extended mission science phases, as well as optimize solar keep out volume.

  3. The ICE spectrograph for PEPSI at the LBT: preliminary optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Spano, Paolo; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molinari, Emilio; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2003-03-01

    We present a preliminary design study for a high-resolution echelle spectrograph (ICE) to be used with the spectropolarimeter PEPSI under development at the LBT. In order to meet the scientific requirements and take full advantage of the peculiarities of the LBT (i.e. the binocular nature and the adaptive optics capabilities), we have designed a fiber-fed bench mounted instrument for both high resolution (R ≍ 100,000; non-AO polarimetric and integral light modes) and ultra-high resolution (R ≍ 300,000; AO integral light mode). In both cases, 4 spectra per order (two for each primary mirror) shall be accomodated in a 2-dimensional cross dispersed echelle format. In order to obtain a resolution-slit product of ≍ 100,000 as required by the science case, we have considered two alternative designs, one with two R4 echelles in series and the other with a sigle R4 echelle and fiber slicing. A white-pupil design, VPH cross-dispersers and two cameras of different focal length for the AO and non-AO modes are adopted in both cases. It is concluded that the single-echelle fiber-slicer solution has to be preferred in terms of performances, complexity and cost. It can be implemented at the LBT in two phases, with the long-camera AO mode added in a second phase depending on the availability of funds and the time-scale for implementation of the AO system.

  4. DARKNESS: A Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Integral Field Spectrograph for High-contrast Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Seth R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Walter, Alex B.; Strader, Paschal; Fruitwala, Neelay; Bockstiegel, Clint; Szypryt, Paul; Ulbricht, Gerhard; Coiffard, Grégoire; Bumble, Bruce; Cancelo, Gustavo; Zmuda, Ted; Treptow, Ken; Wilcer, Neal; Collura, Giulia; Dodkins, Rupert; Lipartito, Isabel; Zobrist, Nicholas; Bottom, Michael; Shelton, J. Chris; Mawet, Dimitri; van Eyken, Julian C.; Vasisht, Gautam; Serabyn, Eugene

    2018-06-01

    We present DARKNESS (the DARK-speckle Near-infrared Energy-resolving Superconducting Spectrophotometer), the first of several planned integral field spectrographs to use optical/near-infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) for high-contrast imaging. The photon counting and simultaneous low-resolution spectroscopy provided by MKIDs will enable real-time speckle control techniques and post-processing speckle suppression at frame rates capable of resolving the atmospheric speckles that currently limit high-contrast imaging from the ground. DARKNESS is now operational behind the PALM-3000 extreme adaptive optics system and the Stellar Double Coronagraph at Palomar Observatory. Here, we describe the motivation, design, and characterization of the instrument, early on-sky results, and future prospects.

  5. Study of the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL on image errors and their causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, D.

    1987-12-01

    The ionoptical aberrations of the QQDDQ spectrograph BIG KARL are measured and analyzed in order to improve resolution and transmission at large acceptance. The entrance phasespace is scanned in a cartesian grid by means of a narrow collimated beam of scattered deuterons. The distortions due to the nonlinear transformation by the system are measured in the detector plane. A model is developed which describes the measured distortions. The model allows to locate nonlinearities in the system responsible for the observed distortions. It gives a good understanding of geometrical nonlinearities up to the fifth order and chromatical nonlinearities up to the third order. To confirm the model, the magnetic field in the quadrupoles is measured including the fringe field region. Furthermore, nonlinearities appearing in ideal magnets are discussed and compared to experimental data. (orig.) [de

  6. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Meyer, Elliot; Wright, Shelley A.; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

    2014-07-01

    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82μm (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19-1.37μm (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000. The center wavelengths for each grating are 1.629μm and 1.27μm, and the groove densities are 177l/mm and 440l/mm for H-band R=4000 and J-band R=8000, respectively. We directly measure the efficiencies in the lab and find that the peak efficiencies of these two types of gratings are quite good with a peak efficiency of ~88% at the Bragg angle in both TM and TE modes at H-band, and 90.23% in TM mode, 79.91% in TE mode at J-band for the best vendor. We determine the drop in efficiency off the Bragg angle, with a 20-23% decrease in efficiency at H-band when 2.5° deviation from the Bragg angle, and 25%-28% decrease at J-band when 5° deviation from the Bragg angle.

  7. Far-ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Recent Comets with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Combi, Michael R.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2018-05-01

    Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has served as a platform with unique capabilities for remote observations of comets in the far-ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Successive generations of imagers and spectrographs have seen large advances in sensitivity and spectral resolution enabling observations of the diverse properties of a representative number of comets during the past 25 years. To date, four comets have been observed in the far-ultraviolet by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), the last spectrograph to be installed in HST, in 2009: 103P/Hartley 2, C/2009 P1 (Garradd), C/2012 S1 (ISON), and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy). COS has unprecedented sensitivity, but limited spatial information in its 2.″5 diameter circular aperture, and our objective was to determine the CO production rates from measurements of the CO Fourth Positive system in the spectral range of 1400–1700 Å. In the two brightest comets, 19 bands of this system were clearly identified. The water production rates were derived from nearly concurrent observations of the OH (0,0) band at 3085 Å by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The derived CO/{{{H}}}2{{O}} production rate ratio ranged from ∼0.3% for Hartley 2 to ∼22% for Garradd. In addition, strong partially resolved emission features due to multiplets of S I, centered at 1429 Å and 1479 Å, and of C I at 1561 Å and 1657 Å, were observed in all four comets. Weak emission from several lines of the {{{H}}}2 Lyman band system, excited by solar Lyα and Lyβ pumped fluorescence, were detected in comet Lovejoy.

  8. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph (LUMOS): instrument definition and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; West, Garrett; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Harris, Walter; Moustakas, Leonidas; O'Meara, John M.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Rigby, Jane; Schiminovich, David; Tumlinson, Jason

    2017-08-01

    The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is one of four large mission concepts currently undergoing community study for consideration by the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR is being designed to pursue an ambitious program of exoplanetary discovery and characterization, cosmic origins astrophysics, and planetary science. The LUVOIR study team is investigating two large telescope apertures (9- and 15-meter primary mirror diameters) and a host of science instruments to carry out the primary mission goals. Many of the exoplanet, cosmic origins, and planetary science goals of LUVOIR require high-throughput, imaging spectroscopy at ultraviolet (100 - 400 nm) wavelengths. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph, LUMOS, is being designed to support all of the UV science requirements of LUVOIR, from exoplanet host star characterization to tomography of circumgalactic halos to water plumes on outer solar system satellites. LUMOS offers point source and multi-object spectroscopy across the UV bandpass, with multiple resolution modes to support different science goals. The instrument will provide low (R = 8,000 - 18,000) and medium (R = 30,000 - 65,000) resolution modes across the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 100 - 200 nm) and nearultraviolet (NUV: 200 - 400 nm) windows, and a very low resolution mode (R = 500) for spectroscopic investigations of extremely faint objects in the FUV. Imaging spectroscopy will be accomplished over a 3 × 1.6 arcminute field-of-view by employing holographically-ruled diffraction gratings to control optical aberrations, microshutter arrays (MSA) built on the heritage of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), advanced optical coatings for high-throughput in the FUV, and next generation large-format photon-counting detectors. The spectroscopic capabilities of LUMOS are augmented by an FUV imaging channel (100 - 200nm, 13 milliarcsecond angular resolution, 2 × 2

  9. 5000 Meter Run Performance is not Enhanced 24 Hrs After an Intense Exercise Bout and Cold Water Immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Mary C; Stenson, Matthew R; Matthews, Tracey D; Paolone, Vincent J

    2017-06-01

    Cold water immersion (CWI) is used by endurance athletes to speed recovery between exercise bouts, but little evidence is available on the effects of CWI on subsequent endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI following an acute bout of interval training on 5000 m run performance 24 hrs after interval training, perceived muscle soreness (PMS), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference (TC), and perceived exertion (RPE). Nine endurance-trained males completed 2 trials, each consisting of an interval training session of 8 repetitions of 1200 m at a running pace equal to 75% of VO 2 peak, either a control or CWI treatment, and a timed 5000 m run 24 hrs post interval training session. CWI was performed for 12 min at 12 degrees Celsius on the legs. Recovery treatments were performed in a counterbalanced design. Run time for 5000 m was not different between the CWI and control trials (CWI = 1317.33 ± 128.33 sec, control = 1303.44 ± 105.53 sec; p = 0.48). PMS increased significantly from baseline to immediately post exercise (BL = 1.17 ± 0.22, POST = 2.81 ± 0.52; p = 0.02) and remained elevated from baseline to 24 hrs post exercise (POST24 = 2.19 ± 0.32; p = 0.02), but no difference was observed between the treatments. No differences were observed for the interaction between time and treatment for TC (λ = 0.73, p = 0.15) and ROM (λ = 0.49; p = 0.10). CWI performed immediately following an interval training exercise bout did not enhance subsequent 5000 m run performance or reduce PMS. CWI may not provide a recovery or performance advantage when athletes are accustomed to the demands of the prior exercise bout.

  10. UTILIZATION OF TORAY FLY ASH AS FILLER SUBSTITUTION IN THE HOT ROLLED SHEET-WEARING COURSE (HRS-WC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Candra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In road construction materials, the utilization of fly ash as additive materials is limited and also small in quantity, while the disposal of fly ash is quite high. An abundance of fly ash can be found at PT Toray Company in Jakarta and Surabaya. Toray fly ash is disposed coal ash resulting from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. Toray fly ash in this research is used as substitute mineral filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Research on utilization of Toray fly ash as filler is conducted in the Hot Rolled Sheet – Wearing Course Mixture.  Filler content in the HRS –WC mixture is 9%. Variations of Toray fly ash in the mixture tested are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and the variations of asphalt content are 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%. Marshall test is  performed to determine the Optimum Asphalt Content  and Marshall Stability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test and Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR to select the optimum Toray fly ash utilization in the mixture based on the moisture susceptibility of specimens. The research results show that in variations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Toray fly ash in the HRS-WC Mixture, the Optimum Asphalt Contents are at 6.8%, 7.0%, 7.0%, 7.1% and 7.6%  and Marshall Stability values of the variations are 1649 kg, 1541 kg, 1568 kg, 1678 kg, 1718 kg respectively. TSR values in variations of Toray fly ash are 98.32%, 90.28%, 89.38%, 87.62%, 64.71% respectively, with Minimum TSR value required is 80%. Based on the overall parameters, the optimum Toray fly ash utilization in the HRS-WC Mixture recommended is 75% of Toray fly ash at 7.1% Optimum Asphalt Content.

  11. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiyagaito A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aki Tsuchiyagaito,1–3 Satoshi Horiuchi,4 Toko Igarashi,5 Yoshiya Kawanori,4 Yoshiyuki Hirano,1,3 Hirooki Yabe,2 Akiko Nakagawa1,3 1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 3United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, 4Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 5Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan Background: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J. Methods: Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. Results: The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test–retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the

  12. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-01-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for ver...

  13. Design and fabrication of a Czerny-Turner monochromator-cum-spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, M.V.R.K.; Shukla, R.P.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Krishnamurthy, G.

    1987-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a Czerny-Turner monochromator cum spectrograph is described. It consists of a classically ruled grating having 1200 grooves/mm. The collimator is a concave spherical mirror having a radius of curvature 1.025 metre while the focusing element is a concave spherical mirror of radius of curvature 0.925 metre. The design of two unequal radii of curvature for collimating and focusing mirrors is chosen to eliminate the chromatic aberration at the wavelength of 5000A. The linear reciprocal dispersion on the focal surface is about 8A/mm. The resolution of the instrument at the coma corrected wavelength i.e. 5000A is 0.1A. The resolution at the other wavelengths is limited by the residual chromatic aberration which increases linearly with wavelength on either side of the 5000A. Therefore the resolution at the wavelength 2000A and 8000A is about 0.2A. 7 figures. (author)

  14. Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations. PMID:22156662

  15. Phono-spectrographic analysis of heart murmur in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angerla Anna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 90% of heart murmurs in children are innocent. Frequently the skills of the first examiner are not adequate to differentiate between innocent and pathological murmurs. Our goal was to evaluate the value of a simple and low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs in children and in distinguishing innocent systolic murmurs from pathological. Methods The system consisting of an electronic stethoscope and a multimedia laptop computer was used for the recording, monitoring and analysis of auscultation findings. The recorded sounds were examined graphically and numerically using combined phono-spectrograms. The data consisted of heart sound recordings from 807 pediatric patients, including 88 normal cases without any murmur, 447 innocent murmurs and 272 pathological murmurs. The phono-spectrographic features of heart murmurs were examined visually and numerically. From this database, 50 innocent vibratory murmurs, 25 innocent ejection murmurs and 50 easily confusable, mildly pathological systolic murmurs were selected to test whether quantitative phono-spectrographic analysis could be used as an accurate screening tool for systolic heart murmurs in children. Results The phono-spectrograms of the most common innocent and pathological murmurs were presented as examples of the whole data set. Typically, innocent murmurs had lower frequencies (below 200 Hz and a frequency spectrum with a more harmonic structure than pathological cases. Quantitative analysis revealed no significant differences in the duration of S1 and S2 or loudness of systolic murmurs between the pathological and physiological systolic murmurs. However, the pathological murmurs included both lower and higher frequencies than the physiological ones (p Conclusion Phono-spectrographic analysis improves the accuracy of primary heart murmur evaluation and educates inexperienced listener

  16. Sensitivity Calibration of Far-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. -J. Kim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the in-flight sensitivity calibration of the Far ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS, also known as SPEAR onboard the first Korean science satellite, STSAT-1, which was launched in September 2003. The sensitivity calibration is based on a comparison of the FIMS observations of the hot white dwarf G191B2B, and two O-type stars Alpha-Cam, HD93521 with the HUT (Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope observations. The FIMS observations for the calibration targets have been conducted from November 2003 through May 2004. The effective areas calculated from the targets are compared with each other.

  17. Spectrographic determination of niobium in uranium - niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbel, M.Y.; Lordello, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for the spectrographic determination of niobium in uranium-niobium alloys in the concentration range 1-10% has been developed. The metallic sample is converted to oxide by calcination in a muffle furnace at 800 0 C for two hours. The standards are prepared synthetically by dry-mixing. One part of the sample or standard is added to nineteen parts of graphite powder and the mixture is excited in a DC arc. Hafnium has been used as internal standard. The precision of the method is + - 4.8%. (Author) [pt

  18. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of manganese in ferric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1968-01-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity, different electrode types and sweeping substances have been studied. Graphite anodes, with 5 x 2,5, 4 x 4,5, 4 x 8 and 7 x 10 mm crater, as well as CuF 2 , AgCl, ZnO and graphite powder as sweeping materials, have been tested. A JACO-Ebert grating spectrograph and 10 amp. d.c. arc have been employed, choosing the proper exposure times from moving-plate studies. Using 4 x 4,5 mm electrodes and 75% AgCl a detection limit of 0,2 ppm is attainable. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ammonium hydrogen fluoride samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.; Alduan, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative spectrographic trace determination of Al, B, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Si in ammonium hydrogen fluoride samples is considered. 10 A dc arc excitation and graphite electrodes with crate either 4.5 mm or 8 mm deep are employed. A comparison of various matrices such as graphite, gallium oxide, germanium oxide, magnesium oxide and zinc oxide, in the ratios 1:1 and 1:3, as well as a mixture 50% graphite - 50% zinc oxide in the ratio 1:1 is included. Zinc oxide in the ratio 1:1 and 4x8 mm craters show the best over-all results. (author)

  20. Study of airborne particles by emission spectrographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, C N; Lee, S L; Tsai, H T; Wu, S C

    1975-03-01

    A rapid spectrographic method was developed to analyze cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, tin, titanium, and vanadium collected in glass fiber air filters. A direct excitation method is used for volatile elements, while graphite powder is added for determining involatile elements, such as Ti and V in a dc arc source. Limits of detection for analyzed elements are between 0.01-0.1 micrograms. This simple and sensitive method was used to analyze samples from 15 air sampling stations in different areas of Taiwan.

  1. Spectrographic determination of impurities in enriched uranium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1980-01-01

    A spectrographic procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Al, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, L i , Hg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Ru, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr in enriched uranyl nitrate solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels is described. After removal of uranium by either TBP or TNOA solvent extraction, the aqueous phase Is analysed by the graphite spark technique. TBP is adequate for all impurities, excepting boron and phosphorus; both of these elements can sat is factory be determined by using TNOA after the addition of mannitol to avoid boron losses. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Spectrographic study of neodymium complexing with ATP and ADP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlova, I.E.; Dobrynina, N.A.; Martynenko, L.N.

    1989-01-01

    By spectrographic method neodymium complexing with ATP and ADP in aqueous solutions at different pH values has been studied. The composition of the complexes was determined by the method of isomolar series. On the basis of analysis of absorption spectra it has been ascertained that at equimolar ratio of Nd 3+ and ATP absorption band of L278A corresponds to monocomplex, and the band of 4290 A - to biscomplex. For the complexes with ADP the absorption band of 4288 A is referred to bicomplexes. The character of ATP and ADP coordination by Nd 3+ ion is considered. Stability constants of the complexes are calculated

  3. A UV prime focus spectrograph for the CFHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulade, O.; Vigroux, L.

    1986-03-01

    The UV prime spectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope is the first instrument to be designed with an aspherized diffraction grating. This technique leads to all reflective Schmidt designs with a very small amount of optical surface on fast aperture ratio. A thin backside illuminated RCA CCD is now used as the detector. Since the detector is at the focus of an f/1 mounting, within the optical path, a minicryostat (5 cm x 5 cm x 3 cm) was designed to minimize the central obscuration. This paper describes this new instrument and its performances

  4. The spectrographic analysis of inorganic impurities in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.; Normand, J.; Vie, R.

    1961-01-01

    Inorganic impurities in heavy water are determined by two spectrographic methods. First is described the copper-spark method which is sensitive and directly applicable, and is particular useful because of the absence of a support. Secondly the graphite impregnation method is given; this is used when the first method is not applicable (determination of copper) and for the alkali metals. For the usual elements, the sensitivity of the copper spark method is of the order of 0,1 μg/ml whereas for the graphite impregnation method the sensitivity is only 0,3 μg/ml. (author) [fr

  5. Exoplanets search and characterization with the SOPHIE spectrograph at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébrard G.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several programs of exoplanets search and characterization have been started with SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. SOPHIE is an environmentally stabilized echelle spectrograph dedicated to high-precision radial velocity measurements. The objectives of these programs include systematic searches for exoplanets around different types of stars, characterizations of planet-host stars, studies of transiting planets through RossiterMcLaughlin effect, follow-up observations of photometric surveys. The instrument SOPHIE and a review of its latest results are presented here.

  6. Spectrographic mask for digital registration of bright source spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Xavier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present schematic diagrams for the construction of a spectrographic mask attachable to a camera objective in order to capture spectra using simple CD or DVD gratings. The mask is made of two parts: an adapter ring and elbow-shaped blockage for suitable registration of spectra in the lab and outdoors. By using a free software, we analyze and discuss the calibration of the wavelength scale of the solar spectrum, which allows us to identify many chemical elements in it. In the conclusion, we further discuss some interesting projects to be carried out by students using the idea.

  7. Rapid spectrographic method for determining microcomponents in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, L.I.; Fadeeva, L.A.; Gordeeva, A.N.; Ermakova, N.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid spectrographic method foe determining microcomponents (Cd, V, Mo, Ni, rare earths and other elements) in industrial and natural solutions has been developed. The analyses were conducted in argon medium and in the air. Calibration charts for determining individual rare earths in solutions are presented. The accuracy of analysis (Sr) was detection limit was 10 -3 -10 -4 mg/ml, that for rare earths - 1.10 -2 mg/ml. The developed method enables to rapidly analyze solutions (sewages and industrialllwaters, wine products) for 20 elements including 6 rare earths, using strandard equipment

  8. CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN EVOLVED STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, AND 23239+5754

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, B. W.; Zhang, Ke [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lisse, C. M., E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: kzhang@caltech.edu, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We report the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of three evolved stars: IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, and 23239+5754. The 9.9-37.2 {mu}m Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectra of these three sources exhibit rich sets of enstatite-dominated crystalline silicate emission features. IRAS 16456-3542 is extremely rich in crystalline silicates, with >90% of its silicate mass in crystalline form, the highest to date ever reported for crystalline silicate sources.

  9. Development and construction of a focal-plane detector for the Munich Q3D spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, H.

    1989-01-01

    For the Munich Q3D magnet spectrograph a focal-plane detector was developed, constructed, and taken in operation. It is primary layed out for light ions like p, d, t 3 He, and 4 He, but can be also applied for heavy ions. The position resolution amounts to about 0.1 mm at counting rates of about 10 kHz. In the detector filled with counting gas on anode wires along the focal plane charge avalanches are formed, which influence in several neighbouring cathode stripes of the dimension (3x25) mm 2 signals. These signals are singularily read out and digitized, i.e. to each of the at the whole 114 cathode strips is assigned an own preamplifier, puls shaper, peak detector, and analog-to-digital converter (ADC). After the digitization in a hardware-like constructed calculator unit the center of mass of the charge distribution influenced by the charge avalanche is calculated, the position of the incident particle is obtained. The detector yields beyond the position signal yet also a signal ΔE form the anode wires, which gives the energy loss of the particle in the gas space, as well as a residual-energy signal E rest from a scintillator, in which the particles are stopped. By this the radiation background (γ's and n) can be separated very well from the required particles. With the focal-plane detector the 103 Rh(d, p) 104 Rh transfer reaction was measured at three different spectrograph angles. The measured level energies and angular momentum transfers are compared with (n, γ) data and discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Volume phase holographic gratings for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph: performance measurements of the prototype grating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouser, Robert H.; Arns, James; Gunn, James E.

    2014-08-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea. Four identical, fixed spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55 m fiber optic cable feeds light into the spectrographs from a robotic fiber positioner mounted at the telescope prime focus, behind the wide field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3 degree hexagonal field of view. Each spectrograph module will be capable of simultaneously acquiring 600 spectra. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to separate the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual- corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275 mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380 nm to 1.26 µm, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.1 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and cover the bandpasses 380-650 nm (blue), 630-970 nm (red), and 0.94-1.26 µm (NIR). A mosaic of two Hamamatsu 2k×4k, 15 µm pixel CCDs records the spectra in the blue and red channels, while the NIR channel employs a 4k×4k, substrate-removed HAWAII-4RG array from Teledyne, with 15 µm pixels and a 1.7 µm wavelength cutoff. VPH gratings have become the dispersing element of choice for moderate-resolution astronomical spectro- graphs due their potential for very high diffraction efficiency, low scattered light, and the more compact instru- ment designs offered by transmissive dispersers. High quality VPH gratings are now routinely being produced in the sizes required for instruments on large telescopes. These factors made VPH gratings an obvious choice for PFS. In order to reduce risk to the project, as well as fully exploit the performance

  11. Design of a simple magnetic spectrograph for the Karlsruhe isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, H.J.

    1980-12-01

    The ion-optical design of a simple magnetic spectrograph for studies of nuclear reactions on the Karlsruhe cyclotron is described. The spectrograph allows to determine the nuclear charge, the mass number, the reaction angle and the impulse (energy) of charged particles, which are emitted from the target. The spectrographs possibilities cover an appropriate range of likely nuclear reactions which are induced by light and heavy particles up to mass number A=20 and energies of 26 MeV per nucleon [de

  12. The Use of Color Sensors for Spectrographic Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil B.

    2018-04-01

    The wavelength calibration of spectrographs is an essential but challenging task in many disciplines. Calibration is traditionally accomplished by imaging the spectrum of a light source containing features that are known to appear at certain wavelengths and mapping them to their location on the sensor. This is typically required in conjunction with each scientific observation to account for mechanical and optical variations of the instrument over time, which may span years for certain projects. The method presented here investigates the usage of color itself instead of spectral features to calibrate a spectrograph. The primary advantage of such a calibration is that any broad-spectrum light source such as the sky or an incandescent bulb is suitable. This method allows for calibration using the full optical pathway of the instrument instead of incorporating separate calibration equipment that may introduce errors. This paper focuses on the potential for color calibration in the field of radial velocity astronomy, in which instruments must be finely calibrated for long periods of time to detect tiny Doppler wavelength shifts. This method is not restricted to radial velocity, however, and may find application in any field requiring calibrated spectrometers such as sea water analysis, cellular biology, chemistry, atmospheric studies, and so on. This paper demonstrates that color sensors have the potential to provide calibration with greatly reduced complexity.

  13. Initial results from the fast imaging solar spectrograph (FISS)

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers describes the instrument and initial results obtained from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS),  one of the post-focus instruments of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The FISS primarily aims at investigating structures and dynamics of  chromospheric features. This instrument is a dual-band Echelle spectrograph optimized for the simultaneous recording of the H I 656.3 nm band and the Ca II 854.2 nm band. The imaging is done with the fast raster scan realized by the linear motion of a two-mirror scanner, and its quality is determined by the performance of the adaptive optics of the telescope.    These papers illustrate the capability of the early FISS observations in the study of chromospheric features. Since the imaging quality has been improved a lot with the advance of the adaptive optics, one can obtain much better data with the current FISS observations.        This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in...

  14. Most Efficient Spectrograph to Shoot the Southern Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    -shooter, for a total of 350 observing nights, making it the second most requested instrument at the Very Large Telescope in this period. More information ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the world's most advanced optical instrument. It is an ensemble of four 8.2-metre telescopes located at the Paranal Observatory on an isolated mountain peak in the Atacama Desert in North Chile. The four 8.2-metre telescopes have a total of 12 focal stations where different instruments for imaging and spectroscopic observations are installed and a special station where the light of the four telescopes is combined for interferometric observations. The first VLT instrument was installed in 1998 and has been followed by 12 more in the last 10 years, distributed at the different focal stations. X-shooter is the first of the second generation of VLT instruments and replaces the workhorse-instrument FORS1, which has been successfully used for more than ten years by hundreds of astronomers. X-shooter operates at the Cassegrain focus of the Kueyen telescope (UT2). In response to an ESO Call for Proposals for second generation VLT instrumentation, ESO received three proposals for an intermediate resolution, high efficiency spectrograph. These were eventually merged into a single proposal around the present concept of X-shooter, which was approved for construction in November 2003. The Final Design Review, at which the instrument design is finalised and declared ready for construction, took place in April 2006. The first observations with the instrument at the telescope in its full configuration were on 14 March 2009. X-shooter is a joint project by Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and ESO. The collaborating institutes in Denmark are the Niels Bohr and the DARK Institutes of the University of Copenhagen and the National Space Institute (Technical University of Denmark); in France GEPI at the Observatoire de Paris and APC at the Université D. Diderot, with contributions from the CEA and the

  15. Spectrographic analysis of metallic silicium and natural quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, T.; Lordello, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for the spectrographic determination of B, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Ag in silicon metal and other for Al, Ca, Mg, Ti, Cr, Mn, and Fe in natural quartz. A mixture of the matrix with a proper buffer is excited directly in a dc-arc. High-current (25A) and argon atmosphere are used for both the methods. Silicon metal is blended with 8% NaF and after 1:1 (w/w) with graphite. For natural quartz 20% NaF and 30% graphite by weight is the buffer mixture employed. The lower values in the determinations varies from 0.5 to 40 μg/g and the precision of the analysis from 7% to 45%. (Author) [pt

  16. Spectrographic analysis of waste waters; Analisis espectrografico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Alduan, F; Capdevila, C

    1979-07-01

    The Influence of sodium and calcium, up to a maximum concentration of 1000 mg/1 Na and 300 mg/1 Ca, in the spectrographic determination of Cr, Cu, Fe,Mn and Pb in waste waters using graphite spark excitation has been studied. In order to eliminate this influence, each of the elements Ba, Cs, In, La, Li, Sr and Ti, as well as a mixture containing 5% Li-50% Ti, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. This mixture allows to obtain an accuracy better than 25%. Sodium and calcium enhance the line intensities of impurities, when using graphite or gold electrodes, but they produce an opposite effect if copper or silver electrodes are used. (Author) 1 refs.

  17. Spectrographic determination of traces of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Roca, M.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrographic method has been developed to determine quantitatively boron in steels in the 0.5 to 250 ppm concentration range. The samples are dissolved in acids and transformed into oxides, avoiding boron losses by the addition of mannitol. For the fluoride evolution of boron in the dc arc the following compounds have been considered: CuF 2 , LiF, NaF, and SrF 2 . CuF 2 , at a concentration of 10%, provides the highest line-to-background intensity ratio. An arc current of 5 amperes eliminates the interference from iron spectrum on the most sensitive boron line - B 2497.7 A. Variations in chromium and nickel contents have no effect on the analytical results. (author)

  18. Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: On-Orbit Performance of Target Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton, Steven V.

    2010-07-01

    COS is a slit-less spectrograph with a very small aperture (R=1.2500). To achieve the desired wavelength accuracies, HST+COS must center the target to within 0.100 of the center of the aperture for the FUV channel, and 0.0400 for NUV. During SMOV and early Cycle 17 we fine-tuned the COS target acquisition (TA) procedures to exceed this accuracy for all three COS TA modes; NUV imaging, NUV spectroscopic, and FUV spectroscopic. In Cycle 17, we also adjusted the COSto- FGS offsets in the SIAF file. This allows us to recommend skipping the time consuming ACQ/SEARCH in cases where the target coordinates are well known. Here we will compare the on-orbit performance of all COS TA modes in terms of centering accuracy, efficiency, and required signal-to-noise (S/N).

  19. The vacuum system of the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, J.; Gils, H.J.; Jelitto, H.; Krisch, J.; Ludwig, G.; Manger, D.; Rebel, H.; Seith, W.; Zagromski, S.

    1985-02-01

    The vacuum equipment of the magnetic spectrograph Little John is described. The system is characterized by the following special features: The sliding exit flange of the target chamber can be moved to the desired angle of observation without affecting the high vacuum. The pressure maintained is less by a factor of ten than the pressure in the incoming beam tubing. The vacuum system is divided into several separate pumping sections. Ground loops are strictly avoided. All actual states of relevance are fed back to the control panels. The vacuum installation is protected by hardware interlocking systems as well as by a real time program written in FORTRAN in cooperation with CAMAC interfacing. (orig.) [de

  20. Determination of rare earth impurities in thorium by spectrographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, L W

    1957-08-15

    A method for determining rare earth impurities in thorium in the fractional ppm range is described. Before spectrographic examination is possible, the impurities must be freed from the thorium matrix. This is accomplished by removing the bulk of the thorium by extraction with TBP-CCl{sub 4} and the remainder by extraction with TTA-C{sub 6}H{sub 6}. This results in a consistent recovery of rare earths of about 85% with an average sensitivity of 0.2 ppm. The experimental error is within 10%. Details of the procedure are given together with working curves for the major neutron absorbing rare earths; i.e. dysprosium, europium, gadolinium and samarium. (author)

  1. Optical design and performance of a dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph for spectrochemical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaus, D.W.; Kline, J.V.; Bieniewski, T.M.; Dow, G.S.; Apel, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    An all-mirror optical system is used to direct the light from a variety of spectroscopic sources to two 2-m spectrographs that are placed on either side of a sturdy vertical mounting plate. The gratings were chosen so that the first spectrograph covers the ultraviolet spectral region, and the second spectrograph covers the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions. With the over 2.5 m of focal curves, each ultraviolet line is available at more than one place. Thus, problems with close lines can be overcome. The signals from a possible maximum of 256 photoelectric detectors go to a small computer for reading and calculation of the element abundances. To our knowledge, no other direct-reading spectrograph has more than about 100 fixed detectors. With an inductively-coupled-plasma source, our calibration curves, and detection limits, are similar to those of other workers using a direct-reading spectrograph

  2. Optical Design And Performance Of A Dual-Grating, Direct-Reading Spectrograph For Spectrochemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David W.; Kline, John V.; Bieniewski, Thomas M.; Dow, Grove S.; Apel, Charles T.

    1980-11-01

    An all-mirror optical system is used to direct the light from a variety of spectroscopic sources to two 2-m spectrographs that are placed on either side of a sturdy vertical mounting plate. The gratings were chosen so that the first spectrograph covers the ultraviolet spectral region, and the second spectrograph covers the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions. With the over 2.5 m of focal curves, each ultraviolet line is available at more than one place. Thus, problems with close lines can be overcome. The signals from a possible maximum of 256 photoelectric detectors go to a small computer for reading and calculation of the element abundances. To our knowledge, no other direct-reading spectrograph has more than about 100 fixed detectors. With an inductively-coupled-plasma source, our calibration curves, and detection limits, are similar to those of other workers using a direct-reading spectrograph.

  3. Electrostatic Spectrograph with a Wide Range of Simultaneously Recorded Energies Composed of Two Coaxial Electrodes with Closed End Faces and a Discrete Combined External Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkova, T. Ya.

    2018-01-01

    An optimal set of geometric and electrical parameters of a high-aperture electrostatic charged-particle spectrograph with a range of simultaneously recorded energies of E/ E min = 1-50 has been found by computer simulation, which is especially important for the energy analysis of charged particles during fast processes in various materials. The spectrograph consists of two coaxial electrodes with end faces closed by flat electrodes. The external electrode with a conical-cylindrical form is cut into parts with potentials that increase linearly, except for the last cylindrical part, which is electrically connected to the rear end electrode. The internal cylindrical electrode and the front end electrode are grounded. In the entire energy range, the system is sharply focused on the internal cylindrical electrode, which provides an energy resolution of no worse than 3 × 10-3.

  4. Absolute calibration of a SPRED [Spectrometer Recording Extended Domain] EUV [extreme ultraviolet] spectrograph for use on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.; Allen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    We have performed an absolute intensity calibration of a SPRED multichannel EUV spectrograph using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF-II electron storage ring. The calibration procedure and results for both a survey grating (450 g/mm) and a high-resolution (2100 g/mm) grating are presented. The spectrograph is currently in use on the DIII-D tokamak with a tangential line-of-sight at the plasma midplane. Data is first acquired and processed by a microcomputer; the absolute line intensities are then sent to the DIII-D database for comparison with data from other diagnostics. Representative data from DIII-D plasma operations will be presented. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Gregor@night: The future high-resolution stellar spectrograph for the GREGOR solar telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strassmeier, K.G.; Ilyin, I.V.; Woche, M.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.; Weingrill, J.; Bauer, S.-M.; Popow, E.; Denker, C.; Schmidt, W.; von der Lühe, O.; Berdyugina, S.; Collados Vera, M.; Koubský, Pavel; Hackman, T.; Mantere, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 333, č. 9 (2012), s. 901-910 ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : spesctrographs * telescope Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2012

  6. Development of infrared Echelle spectrograph and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer on a small telescope at Haleakala, Hawaii for planetary observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kagitani, Masato; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Kuhn, Jeff; Okano, Shoichi

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of infrared Echelle spectrograph covering 1 - 4 micron and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer around 10 micron installed on the 60-cm telescope at the summit of Haleakala, Hawaii (alt.=3000m). It is essential to carry out continuous measurement of planetary atmosphere, such as the Jovian infrared aurora and the volcanoes on Jovian satellite Io, to understand its time and spatial variations. A compact and easy-to-use high resolution infrared spectrometer provide the good opportunity to investigate these objects continuously. We are developing an Echelle spectrograph called ESPRIT: Echelle Spectrograph for Planetary Research In Tohoku university. The main target of ESPRIT is to measure the Jovian H3+ fundamental line at 3.9 micron, and H2 nu=1 at 2.1 micron. The 256x256 pixel CRC463 InSb array is used. An appropriate Echelle grating is selected to optimize at 3.9 micron and 2.1 micron for the Jovian infrared auroral observations. The pixel scale corresponds to the atmospheric seeing (0.3 arcsec/pixel). This spectrograph is characterized by a long slit field-of-view of ~ 50 arcsec with a spectral resolution is over 20,000. In addition, we recently developed a heterodyne spectrometer called MILAHI on the 60 cm telescope. MILAHI is characterized by super high-resolving power (more than 1,500,000) covering from 7 - 13 microns. Its sensitivity is 2400 K at 9.6 micron with a MCT photo diode detector of which bandwidth of 3000 MHz. ESPRIT and MILAHI is planned to be installed on 60 cm telescope is planned in 2014.

  7. SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crause, Lisa A.; Carter, Dave; Daniels, Alroy; Evans, Geoff; Fourie, Piet; Gilbank, David; Hendricks, Malcolm; Koorts, Willie; Lategan, Deon; Loubser, Egan; Mouries, Sharon; O'Connor, James E.; O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; Potter, Stephen; Sass, Craig; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Stoffels, John; Swanevelder, Pieter; Titus, Keegan; van Gend, Carel; Visser, Martin; Worters, Hannah L.

    2016-08-01

    SpUpNIC (Spectrograph Upgrade: Newly Improved Cassegrain) is the extensively upgraded Cassegrain Spectrograph on the South African Astronomical Observatory's 74-inch (1.9-m) telescope. The inverse-Cassegrain collimator mirrors and woefully inefficient Maksutov-Cassegrain camera optics have been replaced, along with the CCD and SDSU controller. All moving mechanisms are now governed by a programmable logic controller, allowing remote configuration of the instrument via an intuitive new graphical user interface. The new collimator produces a larger beam to match the optically faster Folded-Schmidt camera design and nine surface-relief diffraction gratings offer various wavelength ranges and resolutions across the optical domain. The new camera optics (a fused silica Schmidt plate, a slotted fold flat and a spherically figured primary mirror, both Zerodur, and a fused silica field-flattener lens forming the cryostat window) reduce the camera's central obscuration to increase the instrument throughput. The physically larger and more sensitive CCD extends the available wavelength range; weak arc lines are now detectable down to 325 nm and the red end extends beyond one micron. A rear-of-slit viewing camera has streamlined the observing process by enabling accurate target placement on the slit and facilitating telescope focus optimisation. An interactive quick-look data reduction tool further enhances the user-friendliness of SpUpNI

  8. Research on relation of HRS/IRR and anti-oxidases in E.coli implanted by 30 keV N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianyou; Wang Tiegu; Tian Jing; Chang Jingling; Qing Guangyong

    2010-01-01

    The inducement of hyperradiosensitivity/increased radioresistance (HRS/IRR) and activities of anti-oxidases in Escherichia coli implanted by 30 keV N + and relationship between them were investigated. The results showed the change trend of the survival rate and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalas(CAT) of E. coli K12 was consistent. The activity of SOD and CAT of E.coli were lower, less than 10 and 8 U/mg, when the HRS was induced at 0 - 5 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 doses. And the activity of SOD and CAT of E. coli increased and reached highest rate, were 58 and 26 U/mg respectively, when the IRR was induced at 5 x 10 14 - 10 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 doses. It could be concluded that the change of SOD and CAT activity was related with the HRS/IRR. (authors)

  9. Calibration Efforts and Unique Capabilities of the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Proffitt, Charles R.; Welty, Daniel; Branton, Doug; Carlberg, Joleen K.; debes, John Henry; Lockwood, Sean; Riley, Allyssa; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Sonnentrucker, Paule G.; Walborn, Nolan R.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.

    2018-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) continues to offer the astronomy community the ability to carry out innovative UV and optical spectroscopic and imaging studies, two decades after its deployment on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Most notably, STIS provides spectroscopy in the FUV and NUV, including high spectral resolution echelle modes, imaging in the FUV, optical spectroscopy, and coronagraphic capabilities. Additionally, spatial scanning on the CCD with the long-slits is now possible to enable very high S/N spectroscopic observations without saturation while mitigating telluric and fringing concerns in the far red and near-IR. This new mode may especially benefit the diffuse interstellar bands and exoplanet transiting communities. We present recent calibration efforts for the instrument, including work to optimize the calibration of the echelle spectroscopic modes by improving the flux agreement of overlapping spectral orders affected by changes in the grating blaze function since HST Servicing Mission 4. We also discuss considerations to maintain the wavelength precision of the spectroscopic modes, and the current capabilities of CCD spectroscopic spatial trails.

  10. The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI): A Powerful New Integral Field Spectrograph for the Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Patrick; KCWI Team

    2013-01-01

    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20"x33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces).

  11. The lick-index calibration of the Gemini multi-object spectrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Miller, Bryan W.; Trancho, Gelys; Basarab, Brett; Mirocha, Jordan T.; Butler, Karen

    2013-01-01

    We present the calibration of the spectroscopic Lick/IDS standard line-index system for measurements obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs known as GMOS-North and GMOS-South. We provide linear correction functions for each of the 25 standard Lick line indices for the B600 grism and two instrumental setups, one with 0.''5 slit width and 1 × 1 CCD pixel binning (corresponding to ∼2.5 Å spectral resolution) and the other with 0.''75 slit width and 2 × 2 binning (∼4 Å). We find small and well-defined correction terms for the set of Balmer indices Hβ, Hγ A , and Hδ A along with the metallicity sensitive indices Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406, Mg 2 , and Mgb that are widely used for stellar population diagnostics of distant stellar systems. We find other indices that sample molecular absorption bands, such as TiO 1 and TiO 2 , with very wide wavelength coverage or indices that sample very weak molecular and atomic absorption features, such as Mg 1 , as well as indices with particularly narrow passband definitions, such as Fe4384, Ca4455, Fe4531, Ca4227, and Fe5782, which are less robustly calibrated. These indices should be used with caution.

  12. General Astrophysics Science Enabled by the HabEx Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowen, Paul; Clarke, John; Gaudi, B. Scott; Kiessling, Alina; Martin, Stefan; Somerville, Rachel; Stern, Daniel; HabEx Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of the four large mission concepts being studied by NASA as input to the upcoming 2020 Decadal Survey. The mission implements two world-class General Astrophysics instruments as part of its complement of instrumentation to enable compelling science using the 4m aperture. The Ultraviolet Spectrograph has been designed to address cutting edge far ultraviolet (FUV) science that has not been possible with the Hubble Space Telescope, and to open up a wide range of capabilities that will advance astrophysics as we look into the 2030s. Our poster discusses some of those science drivers and possible applications, which range from Solar System science, to nearby and more distant studies of star formation, to studies of the circumgalactic and intergalactic mediums where the ecology of mass and energy transfer are vital to understanding stellar and galactic evolution. We discuss the performance features of the instrument that include a large 3’x3’ field of view for multi-object spectroscopy, and some 20 grating modes for a variety of spectral resolution and coverage.

  13. Design and realization of the real-time spectrograph controller for LAMOST based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Wu, Liyan; Zeng, Yizhong; Dai, Songxin; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei; Wu, Zhen; Chen, Yi

    2008-08-01

    A large Schmitt reflector telescope, Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope(LAMOST), is being built in China, which has effective aperture of 4 meters and can observe the spectra of as many as 4000 objects simultaneously. To fit such a large amount of observational objects, the dispersion part is composed of a set of 16 multipurpose fiber-fed double-beam Schmidt spectrographs, of which each has about ten of moveable components realtimely accommodated and manipulated by a controller. An industrial Ethernet network connects those 16 spectrograph controllers. The light from stars is fed to the entrance slits of the spectrographs with optical fibers. In this paper, we mainly introduce the design and realization of our real-time controller for the spectrograph, our design using the technique of System On Programmable Chip (SOPC) based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and then realizing the control of the spectrographs through NIOSII Soft Core Embedded Processor. We seal the stepper motor controller as intellectual property (IP) cores and reuse it, greatly simplifying the design process and then shortening the development time. Under the embedded operating system μC/OS-II, a multi-tasks control program has been well written to realize the real-time control of the moveable parts of the spectrographs. At present, a number of such controllers have been applied in the spectrograph of LAMOST.

  14. Two Solar Tornadoes Observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zihao; Tian, Hui; Peter, Hardi; Su, Yang; Samanta, Tanmoy; Zhang, Jingwen; Chen, Yajie

    2018-01-01

    The barbs or legs of some prominences show an apparent motion of rotation, which are often termed solar tornadoes. It is under debate whether the apparent motion is a real rotating motion, or caused by oscillations or counter-streaming flows. We present analysis results from spectroscopic observations of two tornadoes by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. Each tornado was observed for more than 2.5 hr. Doppler velocities are derived through a single Gaussian fit to the Mg II k 2796 Å and Si IV 1393 Å line profiles. We find coherent and stable redshifts and blueshifts adjacent to each other across the tornado axes, which appears to favor the interpretation of these tornadoes as rotating cool plasmas with temperatures of 104 K–105 K. This interpretation is further supported by simultaneous observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which reveal periodic motions of dark structures in the tornadoes. Our results demonstrate that spectroscopic observations can provide key information to disentangle different physical processes in solar prominences.

  15. Calibrating the SNfactory Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS) with SCALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, Daniel; Lombardo, Simona; Kowalski, Marek; Aldering, Greg; Nordin, Jakob; Rigault, Mickael

    2016-08-01

    The SNIFS CALibration Apparatus (SCALA), a device to calibrate the Supernova Integral Field Spectrograph on the University Hawaii 2.2m telescope, was developed and installed in Spring 2014. SCALA produces an artificial planet with a diameter of 1° and a constant surface brightness. The wavelength of the beam can be tuned between 3200 Å and 10000 Å and has a bandwidth of 35 Å. The amount of light injected into the telescope is monitored with NIST calibrated photodiodes. SCALA was upgraded in 2015 with a mask installed at the entrance pupil of the UH88 telescope, ensuring that the illumination of the telescope by stars is similar to that of SCALA. With this setup, a first calibration run was performed in conjunction with the spectrophotometric observations of standard stars. We present first estimates for the expected systematic uncertainties of the in-situ calibration and discuss the results of tests that examine the influence of stray light produced in the optics.

  16. SCALA: In situ calibration for integral field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, S.; Küsters, D.; Kowalski, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barbary, K.; Baugh, D.; Bongard, S.; Boone, K.; Buton, C.; Chen, J.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Dixon, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Feindt, U.; Fouchez, D.; Gangler, E.; Hayden, B.; Hillebrandt, W.; Hoffmann, A.; Kim, A. G.; Leget, P.-F.; McKay, L.; Nordin, J.; Pain, R.; Pécontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Reif, K.; Rigault, M.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Smadja, G.; Suzuki, N.; Taubenberger, S.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2017-11-01

    Aims: The scientific yield of current and future optical surveys is increasingly limited by systematic uncertainties in the flux calibration. This is the case for type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology programs, where an improved calibration directly translates into improved cosmological constraints. Current methodology rests on models of stars. Here we aim to obtain flux calibration that is traceable to state-of-the-art detector-based calibration. Methods: We present the SNIFS Calibration Apparatus (SCALA), a color (relative) flux calibration system developed for the SuperNova integral field spectrograph (SNIFS), operating at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m (UH 88) telescope. Results: By comparing the color trend of the illumination generated by SCALA during two commissioning runs, and to previous laboratory measurements, we show that we can determine the light emitted by SCALA with a long-term repeatability better than 1%. We describe the calibration procedure necessary to control for system aging. We present measurements of the SNIFS throughput as estimated by SCALA observations. Conclusions: The SCALA calibration unit is now fully deployed at the UH 88 telescope, and with it color-calibration between 4000 Å and 9000 Å is stable at the percent level over a one-year baseline.

  17. Spectrographic study of λ 4200 silicon particular stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didelon, Pierre

    1983-01-01

    This research thesis reports a spectrographic study of sample of particular stars belonging to the Si(II) λ 4200 subgroup which builds up the hot end of conventional 'Ap,Bp' stars. Twenty snapshots taken at the Haute-Provence observatory have been studied and compared with the observation of 17 standard stars. All these snapshots have been digitalised and processed. This allowed the identification of lines which indicated the presence of gallium and the absence of manganese which contradicts the close correlation between these elements that was generally admitted. An inexplicable and until now non observed duplication of Si(II) lines has also been observed. The problem of spectral classification of these stars has been studied. In order to study the concerned stars without calculation of atmospheric models, a comparative method between group stars and reference stars has been used. Results are discussed and seem to indicate an erratic and non-correlated behaviour of light elements (C, Mg, Ca, Si), and a presence of heavier elements (Ga, Sr) and rare earths (Eu, Gd) only when elements of the iron peak are stronger [fr

  18. Spectrographic determination of some rare earths in thorium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spectrographic determination of Gd, Sm, Dy, Eu, Y, Yb, Tm and Lu in thorium compounds has been developed. Sensibilities of 0.01 μg rare earths/g Th02 were achieved. The rare earth elements were chromatographycally separated in a nitric acid-ether-cellulose system. The solvent mixture was prepared by dissolving 11% of concentrated nitric acid in ether. The method is based upon the sorption of the rare earths on activated cellulose, the elements being eluted together with 0.01 M HNO 3 . The retention of the 152 , 154 Eu used as tracer was 99,4%. The other elements showed recoveries varying from 95 to 99%. A direct carrier destillation procedure for the spectrochemical determination of the mentioned elements was used. Several concentrations of silver chloride were used to study the volatility behavior of the rare earths. 2%AgCl was added to the matrix as definite carrier, being lantanum selected as internal standard. The average coefficient of variation for this method was +- -+ 7%. The method has been appleid to the analysis of rare earths in thorium coumpounds prepared by Thorium Purification Pilot Plant at Atomic Energy Institute, Sao Paulo [pt

  19. Auroral spectrograph data annals of the international geophysical year, v.25

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, Anne; Norman, S J

    1964-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 25: Auroral Spectrograph Data is a five-chapter text that contains tabulations of auroral spectrograph data. The patrol spectrograph built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation for the Aurora and Airglow Program of the IGY is a high-speed, low-dispersion, automatic instrument designed to photograph spectra of aurora occurring along a given magnetic meridian of the sky. Data from each spectral frame were recorded on an IBM punched card. The data recorded on the cards are printed onto the tabulations in this volume. These tabulations are available

  20. Fiber link design for the NASA-NSF extreme precision Doppler spectrograph concept "WISDOM"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fżrész, Gábor; Pawluczyk, Rafal; Fournier, Paul; Simcoe, Robert; Woods, Deborah F.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design of the fiber-optic coupling and light transfer system of the WISDOM (WIYN Spectrograph for DOppler Monitoring) instrument. As a next-generation Precision Radial Velocity (PRV) spectrometer, WISDOM incorporates lessons learned from HARPS about thermal, pressure, and gravity control, but also takes new measures to stabilize the spectrograph illumination, a subject that has been overlooked until recently. While fiber optic links provide more even illumination than a conventional slit, careful engineering of the interface is required to realize their full potential. Conventional round fiber core geometries have been used successfully in conjunction with optical double scramblers, but such systems still retain a memory of the input illumination that is visible in systems seeking sub-m/s PRV precision. Noncircular fibers, along with advanced optical scramblers, and careful optimization of the spectrograph optical system itself are therefore necessary to study Earth-sized planets. For WISDOM, we have developed such a state-of-the-art fiber link concept. Its design is driven primarily by PRV requirements, but it also manages to preserve high overall throughput. Light from the telescope is coupled into a set of six, 32 μm diameter octagonal core fibers, as high resolution is achieved via pupil slicing. The low-OH, step index, fused silica, FBPI-type fibers are custom designed for their numerical aperture that matches the convergence of the feeding beam and thus minimizes focal ratio degradation at the output. Given the demanding environment at the telescope the fiber end tips are mounted in a custom fused silica holder, providing a perfect thermal match. We used a novel process, chemically assisted photo etching, to manufacture this glass fiber holder. A single ball-lens scrambler is inserted into the 25m long fibers. Employing an anti-reflection (AR) coated, high index, cubic-zirconia ball lens the alignment of the scrambler components are

  1. 15x optical zoom and extreme optical image stabilisation: diffraction limited integral field spectroscopy with the Oxford SWIFT spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Roberts, Jennifer; Dekany, Richard

    2012-09-01

    When commissioned in November 2008 at the Palomar 200 inch Hale Telescope, the Oxford SWIFT I and z band integral field spectrograph, fed by the adaptive optics system PALAO, provided a wide (3×) range of spatial resolutions: three plate scales of 235 mas, 160 mas, and 80 mas per spaxel over a contiguous field-of-view of 89×44 pixels. Depending on observing conditions and guide star brightness we can choose a seeing limited scale of 235 mas per spaxel, or 160 mas and 80 mas per spaxel for very bright guide star AO with substantial increase of enclosed energy. Over the last two years PALAO was upgraded to PALM-3000: an extreme, high-order adaptive optics system with two deformable mirrors with more than 3000 actuators, promising diffraction limited performance in SWIFT's wavelength range. In order to take advantage of this increased spatial resolution we upgraded SWIFT with new pre-optics allowing us to spatially Nyquist sample the diffraction limited PALM-3000 point spread function with 16 mas resolution, reducing the spaxel scale by another factor of 5×. We designed, manufactured, integrated and tested the new pre-optics in the first half of 2011 and commissioned it in December 2011. Here we present the opto-mechanical design and assembly of the new scale changing optics, as well as laboratory and on-sky commissioning results. In optimal observing conditions we achieve substantial Strehl ratios, delivering the near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the I and z bands.

  2. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    54

    NIRIS is a large field-of-view imaging spectrograph which is sensitive to fluctuation in ..... enhancement over low-latitudes has been shown to be developed as a ..... step forward towards passive remote sensing of the mesospheric dynamics.

  3. AN INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH FIRST VIEW ON SOLAR SPICULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, T. M. D.; De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Tarbell, T. D.; Lemen, J.; Title, A.; Boerner, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Wülser, J. P.; Martínez-Sykora, J.; Kleint, L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Golub, L.; McKillop, S.; Reeves, K. K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jaeggli, S.; Kankelborg, C., E-mail: tiago.pereira@astro.uio.no [Department of Physics, Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Solar spicules have eluded modelers and observers for decades. Since the discovery of the more energetic type II, spicules have become a heated topic but their contribution to the energy balance of the low solar atmosphere remains unknown. Here we give a first glimpse of what quiet-Sun spicules look like when observed with NASA's recently launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Using IRIS spectra and filtergrams that sample the chromosphere and transition region, we compare the properties and evolution of spicules as observed in a coordinated campaign with Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. Our IRIS observations allow us to follow the thermal evolution of type II spicules and finally confirm that the fading of Ca II H spicules appears to be caused by rapid heating to higher temperatures. The IRIS spicules do not fade but continue evolving, reaching higher and falling back down after 500-800 s. Ca II H type II spicules are thus the initial stages of violent and hotter events that mostly remain invisible in Ca II H filtergrams. These events have very different properties from type I spicules, which show lower velocities and no fading from chromospheric passbands. The IRIS spectra of spicules show the same signature as their proposed disk counterparts, reinforcing earlier work. Spectroheliograms from spectral rasters also confirm that quiet-Sun spicules originate in bushes from the magnetic network. Our results suggest that type II spicules are indeed the site of vigorous heating (to at least transition region temperatures) along extensive parts of the upward moving spicular plasma.

  4. DYNAMICS IN SUNSPOT UMBRA AS SEEN IN NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Kilcik, A. [Department of Space Science and Technologies, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-01-10

    We analyze sunspot oscillations using Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) slit-jaw and spectral data and narrow-band chromospheric images from the New Solar Telescope (NST) for the main sunspot in NOAA AR 11836. We report that the difference between the shock arrival times as measured by the Mg II k 2796.35 Å and Si IV 1393.76 Å line formation levels changes during the observed period, and peak-to-peak delays may range from 40 s to zero. The intensity of chromospheric shocks also displays long-term (about 20 min) variations. NST's high spatial resolution Hα data allowed us to conclude that, in this sunspot, umbral flashes (UFs) appeared in the form of narrow bright lanes stretched along the light bridges and around clusters of umbral bright points. The time series also suggested that UFs preferred to appear on the sunspot-center side of light bridges, which may indicate the existence of a compact sub-photospheric driver of sunspot oscillations. The sunspot's umbra as seen in the IRIS chromospheric and transition region data appears bright above the locations of light bridges and the areas where the dark umbra is dotted with clusters of umbral dots. Co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory showed that the same locations were associated with bright footpoints of coronal loops suggesting that the light bridges may play an important role in heating the coronal sunspot loops. Finally, the power spectra analysis showed that the intensity of chromospheric and transition region oscillations significantly vary across the umbra and with height, suggesting that umbral non-uniformities and the structure of sunspot magnetic fields may play a role in wave propagation and heating of umbral loops.

  5. UNDERCOVER EUV SOLAR JETS OBSERVED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.-H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Innes, D. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-12-10

    It is well-known that extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission emitted at the solar surface is absorbed by overlying cool plasma. Especially in active regions, dark lanes in EUV images suggest that much of the surface activity is obscured. Simultaneous observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, consisting of UV spectra and slit-jaw images (SJI), give vital information with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution on the dynamics of jets not seen in EUV images. We studied a series of small jets from recently formed bipole pairs beside the trailing spot of active region 11991, which occurred on 2014 March 5 from 15:02:21 UT to 17:04:07 UT. Collimated outflows with bright roots were present in SJI 1400 Å (transition region) and 2796 Å (upper chromosphere) that were mostly not seen in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 304 Å (transition region) and AIA 171 Å (lower corona) images. The Si iv spectra show a strong blue wing enhancement, but no red wing, in the line profiles of the ejecta for all recurrent jets, indicating outward flows without twists. We see two types of Mg ii line profiles produced by the jets spires: reversed and non-reversed. Mg ii lines remain optically thick, but turn optically thin in the highly Doppler shifted wings. The energy flux contained in each recurrent jet is estimated using a velocity differential emission measure technique that measures the emitting power of the plasma as a function of the line-of-sight velocity. We found that all the recurrent jets release similar energy (10{sup 8} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}) toward the corona and the downward component is less than 3%.

  6. Validation of the German version of the 'Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale' (HRS) in andrological patients with infertility, HIV infection and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J; Wolf, J; Schuppe, H-C; Weidner, W; Diemer, T; Linn, T; Halefeldt, I; Wagenlehner, F; Wiltink, J; Pilatz, A

    2014-12-01

    As commonly used self-reported screening instruments for male hypogonadism demonstrated lack of specificity, a Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale (HRS) was developed in 2009 as a novel self-rating screening tool. As the questionnaire has not been validated, the purpose of our study was to perform a validation in patients presenting with different disorders (e.g. infertility, HIV infection or metabolic syndrome) and disease-related risk to develop hypogonadism. Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 19-71 years (40.1 ± 9.5) who completed the HRS and other common questionnaires [International Index Of Erectile Function (IIEF), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), short form (SF)-12] were included. In all patients, blood levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined and free testosterone was calculated. Cronbach's α for the scale was 0.896, split-half 0.871 for the 1st half and 0.807 for the 2nd half. Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.767, and Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.759. Consistent correlations were found between HRS and IIEF5 (ρ = 0.57, P males with suspected hypogonadism. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The problem of scattering in fibre-fed VPH spectrographs and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S. C.; Saunders, Will; Betters, Chris; Croom, Scott

    2014-07-01

    All spectrographs unavoidably scatter light. Scattering in the spectral direction is problematic for sky subtraction, since atmospheric spectral lines are blurred. Scattering in the spatial direction is problematic for fibre fed spectrographs, since it limits how closely fibres can be packed together. We investigate the nature of this scattering and show that the scattering wings have both a Lorentzian component, and a shallower (1/r) component. We investigate the causes of this from a theoretical perspective, and argue that for the spectral PSF the Lorentzian wings are in part due to the profile of the illumination of the pupil of the spectrograph onto the diffraction grating, whereas the shallower component is from bulk scattering. We then investigate ways to mitigate the diffractive scattering by apodising the pupil. In the ideal case of a Gaussian apodised pupil, the scattering can be significantly improved. Finally we look at realistic models of the spectrograph pupils of fibre fed spectrographs with a centrally obstructed telescope, and show that it is possible to apodise the pupil through non-telecentric injection into the fibre.

  8. Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS - Versão brasileira: tradução e adaptação transcultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Mizumoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Existe um crescente interesse científico pelos efeitos de alucinógenos em geral e, particularmente, pelo uso religioso da bebida psicoativa ayahuasca no Brasil. Todavia, não há no Brasil um instrumento padronizado para avaliar os efeitos de alucinógenos. A Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS é um questionário amplamente usado nos Estados Unidos e na Europa para avaliar os efeitos de diversas substâncias psicoativas, incluindo as alucinógenas. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar a HRS para o português brasileiro. MÉTODO: A adaptação foi realizada em três etapas: 1 os autores do artigo traduziram a HRS para o português, visando à elaboração de uma versão-síntese inicial; 2 foi feita retrotradução dessa versão para o inglês por dois tradutores independentes; 3 foi elaborada uma versão final em português brasileiro por um comitê de revisão. Esta versão final foi desenvolvida pela comparação entre as traduções iniciais e as retrotraduções, por um processo dialógico com o autor do instrumento. RESULTADOS: Produção da versão final da HRS em português. Observaram-se as diretrizes para equivalência semântica e conceitual entre o português e inglês na descrição de estados subjetivos induzidos por alucinógenos. CONCLUSÃO: Uma versão brasileira da HRS - instrumento largamente empregado em todo o mundo para quantificar os efeitos de psicoativos - fornece um instrumento sensível para a avaliação de efeitos de substâncias alucinógenas no Brasil.

  9. Spectrographic investigation of neodymium complexing with hexamethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1980-01-01

    Complex formation between neodymium and hexamethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (HMTA, H 2 L) in aqueous solution has been studied by high-resolution spectrography. Formation of NdHL, Hd(HL) 2 3- , Nd(HL) 3 6- complexes has been proved, their values of formation constants (lg Csub(form)) being equal to 5.63+-0.45, 4.20+-0.15, 2.63+-0.15, respectively

  10. Performance testing of an off-plane reflection grating and silicon pore optic spectrograph at PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Allured, Ryan; DeRoo, Casey T.; Donovan, Benjamin D.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Burwitz, Vadim; Menz, Benedikt; Hartner, Gisela D.; Smith, Randall K.; Cheimets, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    An x-ray spectrograph consisting of aligned, radially ruled off-plane reflection gratings and silicon pore optics (SPO) was tested at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics PANTER x-ray test facility. SPO is a test module for the proposed Arcus mission, which will also feature aligned off-plane reflection gratings. This test is the first time two off-plane gratings were actively aligned to each other and with an SPO to produce an overlapped spectrum. We report the performance of the complete spectrograph utilizing the aligned gratings module and plans for future development.

  11. Observations of the radial velocity of the Sun as measured with the novel SONG spectrograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallé, P. L.; Grundahl, F.; Hage, A. Triviño

    2013-01-01

    Deployment of the prototype node of the SONG project took place in April 2012 at Observatorio del Teide (Canary Islands). Its key instrument (echelle spectrograph) was installed and operational a few weeks later while its 1 m feeding telescope suffered a considerable delay to meet the required...... specifications. Using a fibre-feed, solar light could be fed to the spectrograph and we carried out a 1-week observing campaign in June 2012 to evaluate its performance for measuring precision radial velocities. In this work we present the first results of this campaign by comparing the sensitivity of the SONG...

  12. The Oxford SWIFT Spectrograph: first commissioning and on-sky results

    OpenAIRE

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Mathias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Fogarty, Lisa; Houghton, Ryan; Salter, Graeme; Scott, Nicholas; Davies, Roger L.; Bouchez, Antonin; Dekany, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford SWIFT spectrograph, an I & z band (6500-10500 A) integral field spectrograph, is designed to operate as a facility instrument at the 200 inch Hale Telescope on Palomar Mountain, in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system PALAO (and its upgrade to PALM3000). SWIFT provides spectra at R(≡λ/▵λ)~4000 of a contiguous two-dimensional field, 44 x 89 spatial pixels (spaxels) in size, at spatial scales of 0.235";, 0.16", and 0.08" per spaxel. It employs two 250μ...

  13. Spectrographic Determination of Trace Constituents in Rare Earths; Determinacion espectrografica de impurezas en tierras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C; Alvarez, F

    1962-07-01

    A spectrographic method was developed for the determination of 18 trace elements in lanthanum, cerium, praseodimium, neodimium and samarium compounds. The concentrations of the impurities cover the range of 0,5 to 500 ppm. Most of these impurities are determined by the carrier distillation method. Several more refractory elements have been determined by total burning of the sample with a direct current arc or by the conduction briquet excitation technique with a high voltage condensed spark. The work has been carried out with a Hilger Automatic Large Quartz Spectrograph. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. The Development of Replicated Optical Integral Field Spectrographs and their Application to the Study of Lyman-alpha Emission at Moderate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor Steven

    In the upcoming era of extremely large ground-based astronomical telescopes, the design of wide-field spectroscopic survey instrumentation has become increasingly complex due to the linear growth of instrument pupil size with telescope diameter for a constant spectral resolving power. The upcoming Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple integral field spectrograph that will be fed by 3:36 x 104 optical fibers on the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory, represents one of the first uses of large-scale replication to break the relationship between instrument pupil size and telescope diameter. By dividing the telescope's field of view between a large number of smaller and more manageable instruments, the total information grasp of a traditional monolithic survey spectrograph can be achieved at a fraction of the cost and engineering complexity. To highlight the power of this method, VIRUS will execute the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and survey & 420 degrees2 of sky to an emission line flux limit of ˜ 10-17 erg s-1 cm -2 to detect ˜ 106 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) as probes of large-scale structure at redshifts of 1:9 production of the suite of volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings for VIRUS is presented, which highlights the challenge and success associated with producing of a very large number of highly customized optical elements whose performance is crucial to meeting the efficiency requirements of the spectrograph system. To accommodate VIRUS, the HET is undergoing a substantial wide-field upgrade to increase its field of view to 22' in diameter. The previous HET facility Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS), which was directly fed by the telescope's previous spherical aberration corrector, must be removed from the prime focus instrument package as a result of the telescope upgrades and instead be fiber-coupled to the telescope focal plane. For a

  15. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  16. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  17. Rotational temperature of N2+ (0,2 ions from spectrographic measurements used to infer the energy of precipitation in different auroral forms and compared with radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lummerzheim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution spectral data are used to estimate neutral temperatures at auroral heights. The data are from the High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES which forms part of the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF, located at Longyearbyen, Svalbard in Norway. The platform also contains photometers and a narrow angle auroral imager. Quantum molecular spectroscopy is used for modelling N2+ 1NG (0,2, which serves as a diagnostic tool for neutral temperature and emission height variations. The theoretical spectra are convolved with the instrument function and fitted to measured rotational transition lines as a function of temperature. Measurements were made in the magnetic zenith, and along a meridian slit centred on the magnetic zenith. In the results described, the high spectral resolution of the data (0.08 nm allows an error analysis to be performed more thoroughly than previous findings, with particular attention paid to the correct subtraction of background, and to precise wavelength calibration. Supporting measurements were made with the Svalbard Eiscat Radar (ESR. Estimates were made from both optical and radar observations of the average energy of precipitating electrons in different types of aurora. These provide confirmation that the spectral results are in agreement with the variations observed in radar profiles. In rayed aurora the neutral temperature was highest (800 K and the energy lowest (1 keV. In a bright curling arc, the temperature at the lower border was about 550 K, corresponding to energies of 2 keV. The radar and modelling results confirm that these average values are a lower limit for an estimation of the characteristic energy. In each event the energy distribution is clearly made up of more than one spectral shape. This work emphasises the need for high time resolution as well as high spectral resolution. The present work is the first to provide rotational temperatures using a method which pays particular

  18. Effect of Acoustic Spectrographic Instruction on Production of English /i/ and /I/ by Spanish Pre-Service English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Lara, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Acoustic Spectrographic Instruction on the production of the English phonological contrast /i/ and / I /. Acoustic Spectrographic Instruction is based on the assumption that physical representations of speech sounds and spectrography allow learners to objectively see and modify those non-accurate features in…

  19. The Coude spectrograph and echelle scanner of the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The design of the Coude spectrograph of the 2.7 m McDonald telescope is discussed. A description is given of the Coude scanner which uses the spectrograph optics, the configuration of the large echelle and the computer scanner control and data systems.

  20. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY FROM SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  1. Evaluation of spectrographic standards for the carrier-distillation analysis of PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, C.J.; Myers, W.M.

    1976-05-01

    Three plutonium metals whose impurity contents have been accurately determined are used to evaluate spectrographic standards. Best results are obtained when (1) highly impure samples are diluted, (2) the internal standard, cobalt, is used, (3) a linear curve is fitted to the standard data that bracket the impurity concentration, and (4) plutonium standards containing 22 impurities are used

  2. Improvement of spectrographic analyses by the use of a mechanical packer in the arc distillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffereau, M.; Deniaud, S.; Pichotin, B.; Violet, R.

    1965-01-01

    One studies improvement of spectrographic analysis by the 'carrier distillation' method with the help of a mechanical device. Experiments and advantages of such an apparatus are given (precision and reproducibility improvement, operator factor suppression). A routine apparatus (French patent no 976.493) is described. (authors) [fr

  3. Technical aspects of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Repair (STIS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, S. A.; Domber, J.; Faulkner, T.; Gull, T.; Kimble, R.; Klappenberger, M.; Leckrone, D.; Niedner, M.; Proffitt, C.; Smith, H.; Woodgate, B.

    2008-07-01

    In August 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) ceased operation due to a failure of the 5V mechanism power converter in the Side 2 Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS2). The failure precluded movement of any STIS mechanism and, because of the earlier (2001) loss of the Side 1 electronics chain, left the instrument shuttered and in safe mode after 7.5 years of science operations. A team was assembled to analyze the fault and to determine if STIS repair (STIS-R) was feasible. The team conclusively pinpointed the Side 2 failure to the 5V mechanism converter, and began studying EVA techniques for opening STIS during Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to replace the failed LVPS2 board. The restoration of STIS functionality via surgical repair by astronauts has by now reached a mature and final design state, and will, along with a similar repair procedure for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), represent a first for Hubble servicing. STIS-R will restore full scientific functionality of the spectrograph on Side 2, while Side 1 will remain inoperative. Because of the high degree of complementarity between STIS and the new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS, to be installed during SM4)), successful repair of the older spectrograph is an important scientific objective. In this presentation, we focus on the technical aspects associated with STIS-R.

  4. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph : 2. stoichiometry mapping by Raman scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Bayesian deconvolution algorithm described in a preceding paper [Appl. Opt. 43, 5669–5681 (2004)] is applied to measurement of the two-dimensional stoichiometry field in a combustible methane-air mixture by Raman imaging through a spectrograph. Stoichiometry (fuel equivalence ratio) is derived

  5. Quantitative imaging through a spectrograph. 2. Stoichiometry mapping by Raman scattering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, R.A.L.; Dam, N.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2004-01-01

    The Bayesian deconvolution algorithm described in a preceding paper [Appl. Opt. 43, 5669-5681 (2004)] is applied to measurement of the two-dimensional stoichiometry field in a combustible methane-air mixture by Raman imaging through a spectrograph. Stoichiometry (fuel equivalence ratio) is derived

  6. Study of an integral field spectrograph for the SNAP satellite. Prototype, simulation and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The SNAP (Supernovae/Acceleration Probe) project plans to measure very precisely the cosmological parameters and to determine the nature of dark energy by observations of type Ia supernovae and weak lensing. The SNAP instrument consists in a 2-meter telescope with a one square-degree imager and a spectrograph in the visible and infrared range. A dedicated optimized integral field spectrograph based on an imager slicer technology has been developed. To test and validate the performances, two approaches have been developed: a complete simulation of the complete instrument at the pixel level and the manufacturing and test of a spectrograph prototype operating at room temperature and in cryogenic environment. In this thesis we will test the optical and functional performances of the SNAP spectrograph: especially diffraction losses, stray-light and spectro-photometric calibration. We present an original approach for the spectro-photometric calibration adapted for the slicer and the optical performances resulting from the first measurement campaign in the visible range. (author) [fr

  7. MOONS: a multi-object optical and near-infrared spectrograph for the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Evans, C.; Kaper, L.; Oliva, Ernesto; Vanzi, Leonardo; Abreu, Manuel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Babusiaux, Carine; Bauer, Franz E.; Best, Philip; Bezawada, Naidu; Bryson, Ian R.; Cabral, Alexandre; Caputi, Karina; Centrone, Mauro; Chemla, Fanny; Cimatti, Andrea; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Clementini, Gisella; Coelho, João.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dunlop, James S.; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fynbo, Johan; Garilli, Bianca; Glauser, Adrian M.; Guinouard, Isabelle; Hammer, Jean-François; Hastings, Peter R.; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Ivison, Rob J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Jarvis, Matt; Kauffman, G.; Lawrence, A.; Lee, D.; Li Causi, G.; Lilly, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; McLure, R.; Minniti, D.; Montgomery, D.; Muschielok, B.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Norberg, P.; Origlia, L.; Padilla, N.; Peacock, J.; Pedicini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Pragt, J.; Puech, M.; Randich, S.; Renzini, A.; Ryde, N.; Rodrigues, M.; Royer, F.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, A.; Schnetler, H.; Sobral, D.; Speziali, R.; Todd, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Torres, M.; Venema, L.; Vitali, F.; Wegner, M.; Wells, M.; Wild, V.; Wright, G.

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by

  8. Data Resource Profile: Cross-national and cross-study sociodemographic and health-related harmonized domains from SAGE plus ELSA, HRS and SHARE (SAGE+, Wave 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Four longitudinal studies were included in this rigorous harmonization process: the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE); English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA); US Health and Retirement Study (HRS); and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). An ex-post harmonized process was applied to nine health-related thematic domains (socio-demographic and economic, health states, overall self-report of health and mental state, health examinations, physical and mental performance tests, risk factors, chronic conditions, social network and subjective well-being) for data from the 2004 wave of each study. Large samples of adults aged 50 years and older were available from each study: SAGE, n = 18 886; ELSA, n = 9181; HRS, n = 19 303; and SHARE, n = 29 917. The microdata, along with further details about the harmonization process and all metadata, are available through the World Health Organization (WHO) data archive at [http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog]. Further information and enquiries can be made to [sagesurvey@who.int] or the corresponding author. The data resource will continue to be updated with data across additional waves of these surveys and new waves. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS OF BALLISTIC DOWNFLOWS IN AN M-CLASS FLARE WITH THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Sean R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Despite significant advances in instrumentation, there remain no studies that analyze observations of on-disk flare loop plasma flows covering the entire evolution from chromospheric evaporation, through plasma cooling, to draining downflows. We present results from an imaging and spectroscopic observation from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) of the SOL2015–03–12T11:50:00 M-class flare, at high spatial resolution and time cadence. Our analysis of this event reveals initial plasma evaporation at flare temperatures indicated by 100–200 km s{sup −1} blueshifts in the Fe xxi line. We subsequently observe plasma cooling into chromospheric lines (Si iv and O iv) with ∼11 minute delay, followed by loop draining at ∼40 km s{sup −1} as indicated by a “C”-shaped redshift structure and significant (∼60 km s{sup −1}) non-thermal broadening. We use density-sensitive lines to calculate a plasma density for the flare loops, and estimate a theoretical cooling time approximately equal to the observed delay. Finally, we use a simple elliptical free-fall draining model to construct synthetic spectra, and perform what we believe to be the first direct comparison of such synthetic spectra to observations of draining downflows in flare loops.

  10. From laboratory to the sky: Th-Ar wavelength standards for the cryogenic infrared echelle spectrograph (CRIRES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Florian; Bristow, Paul [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)], E-mail: fkerber@eso.org, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov, E-mail: craig.sansonetti@nist.gov, E-mail: bristowp@eso.org

    2009-05-15

    We report on the collaborative effort of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish-through laboratory measurements-wavelength standards in the near-infrared (IR) emission line spectrum of a low current Th-Ar hollow cathode lamp. These standards are now routinely used for the wavelength calibration of the cryogenic infrared echelle spectrograph (CRIRES) operated at one of the unit telescopes of the very large telescope (VLT) at ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory in Chile. The availability of highly accurate wavelength standards from a commercially available calibration source permits a shift to a new operational paradigm for high-resolution IR spectroscopy. Wavelength calibration no longer has to rely on atmospheric features but can make use of laboratory traceable reference data as is normally done in the ultraviolet and visible regions. This opens the door for more quantitative spectroscopic work in the near-IR. To illustrate the potential impact of this development, we briefly review the current state of affairs in IR astronomy and its projected future. With the advent of the next generation of extremely large ground-based telescopes the IR region will become the most powerful window on the universe within the next 10-15 years. We conclude with a short outlook on the contribution atomic physics can make to this evolution.

  11. Magnetic spectrograph with a semicircular focusing for studies on the energy distribution of a high-current relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosteva, T.S.; Zablotskaya, G.R.; Ivanov, B.A.; Kolyubakin, S.A.; Chernobrovin, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    Specific features of a magnetic spectrograph with a semicircular focusing are described; the spectrograph has been designed to study, using the REP-5 pulsed accelerator, the energy spectra of electrons with a current of 50 kA, pulse duration of 20 ns in the energy range 0.2 to 3 MeV. The beam has been transported in a drift chamber where the air pressure varies from 10 -3 to 40 torr. The chamber is 50 cm long and 12 cm in diameter. The spectrograph vacuum chamber is made in the form of a plane rectangular box with a degassing fitting. The uniform magnetic field in the spectrograph gap is provided with permanent magnets (ferrite-barium plates). The collimator and the chamber walls on which the magnets are located, are made of low-carbon electrotechnical steel. The diameters of the collimator entrance and exit windows are 2 and 0.2 mm, respectively. To screen the photofilm in the spectrograph chamber from x-radiation, there are three disks on the spectrograph flange on the part of the drift chamber, they are made of lead, steel, and aluminium. The steel disk, besides, screens the space in front of the collimator entrance window from the scattered magnetic field. During the experiments the pressure in the spectrograph chamber has varied from 7x10 -3 to 10 -1 torr. Electrons are registered using the RT-1 and RT-5 x-ray films 1x18 cm in size. The spectrograph described makes it possible to have well-resolved electron spectrum during a pulse. The electron spectra obtained by means of the spectrograph at a pressure of 4.10 -1 torr in the drift chamber and a charge voltage of 3.2 MV in the line, are shown [ru

  12. Radial Velocity Fiber-Fed Spectrographs Towards the Discovery of Compact Planets and Pulsations on M Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiñas, Zaira M.

    2016-11-01

    This thesis is developed in the framework of the paradigm that seeks for the discovery of an Earth analog. Nowadays, low mass stars, and in particular M dwarf stars, are key targets towards achieving this goal. In this thesis, I focus on the study of the short-time domain of M dwarf stars with the aim of searching for short period planets, but also for the first detection of stellar pulsations on this spectral type. Both science goals are the primary objectives of the “Cool Tiny Beats” (CTB) survey, which has produced most of the data used in this thesis. CTB data consist in high resolution and high-cadence spectroscopic Doppler measurements taken either with HARPS or HARPS-N spectrographs. First of all, a thorough understanding of the spectrographs response in the short time domain was performed to characterize the sources of noise in our range of study. Our first approach to the goals of this thesis consisted in the design of an observational experiment to delve into the HARPS-N sub-night performance. Results unveiled variability of the spectra continuum correlated with instabilities of the spectrograph illumination associated to the airmass. Such distortions, which are wavelength and time dependent, are also present in at least one of the data-products given by the HARPS-N reduction software: the width of the mean-line profiles (i.e. the so-called FWHM index), an index commonly used as a proxy of the stellar activity. As a consequence, we searched for an alternative approach to measure the width index. In particular, we calculated the mean-line profile of the spectrum with a least-squares-deconvolution technique and we obtained the profile indices as the moments of the profile distribution. As part of this study, we also corroborated that the radial velocities calculated with our template matching algorithm TERRA are not affected by the illumination stability. This work unveiled a possible failure of the HARPS-N atmospheric dispersion corrector (or ADC) and

  13. Physical Function in an Aging Population in Rural South Africa: Findings From HAALSI and Cross-National Comparisons With HRS Sister Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    We use recently-collected data from the Health and Aging in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) cohort from Agincourt, South Africa, to describe physical functioning in this aging population, and place the overall level and age-trajectories of physical health in the context of other Health and Retirement Study (HRS) sister studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conduct multiple regression to estimate associations of physical functioning assessed from both self-report (activities of daily living [ADL] limitation, self-reported health) and performance (grip strength, gait speed) with socio-demographic and health characteristics in HAALSI, and use fully-interacted regression models to compare age-patterns of physical functioning outcomes cross-nationally. Gender differences in self-reported health are minimal, and men had 30% higher odds of being ADL limited controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Measured physical performance is closely tied with socioeconomic conditions, but self-reported measures have a much smaller or weaker socioeconomic gradient. In international age-adjusted comparisons, the HAALSI sample had lower physical performance outcomes than most comparison populations. As the first HRS sister study undertaken in Africa, HAALSI adds vital information on population aging and health in the region. Continuing waves of HAALSI data will be a key resource for understanding differences in the complex processes of disability across LMIC contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. E parallel B energy-mass spectrograph for measurement of ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Real-time measurement of plasma composition and energy is an important diagnostic in fusion experiments. The Thomson parabola spectrograph described here utilizes an electric field parallel to a magnetic field (E parallel B) and a two-dimensional imaging detector to uniquely identify the energy-per-charge and mass-per-charge distributions of plasma ions. An ultrathin foil can be inserted in front of the E parallel B filter to convert neutral atoms to ions, which are subsequently analyzed using the E parallel B filter. Since helium exiting an ultrathin foil does not form a negative ion and hydrogen isotopes do, this spectrograph allows unique identification of tritium ions and neutrals even in the presence of a large background of 3 He. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Using an integral-field unit spectrograph to study radical species in cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Pierce, Donna M.; Vaughan, Charles M.; Cochran, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We have observed several comets using an integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Full-coma spectroscopic images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3, CN, NH2). Various coma enhancements were used to identify and characterize coma morphological features. The azimuthal average profiles and the Haser model were used to determine production rates and possible parent molecules. Here, we present the work completed to date, and we compare our results to other comet taxonomic surveys. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419), NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G), and the Fund for Astrophysical Research, Inc.

  16. General method of quantitative spectrographic analysis; Estudio de un metodo general de analisis espectrografico cuantitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C; Roca, M

    1966-07-01

    A spectrographic method was developed to determine 23 elements in a wide range of concentrations; the method can be applied to metallic or refractory samples. Previous melting with lithium tetraborate and germanium oxide is done in order to avoid the influence of matrix composition and crystalline structure. Germanium oxide is also employed as internal standard. The resulting beads ar mixed with graphite powder (1:1) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. The influence of calcium magnesium, and sodium on the spectrographic analysis of natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Guerra, J. P.; Capdevilla, C.

    1969-01-01

    The influences of 1000 μg/ml of calcium and sodium and 300 μg/ml of magnesium, on the spectrographic determination of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Li , Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Ti, minor constituents in natural waters, have been studied, In order to eliminate them, the elements Ga, In, La, Ti and Zn, as well as a mixture containing 30 % Tl-70 % In, have been tested as spectrochemical buffers. (Author) 7 refs

  18. A color spectrographic phonocardiography (CSP applied to the detection and characterization of heart murmurs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Kamran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cardiac auscultation remains important to detect abnormal sounds and murmurs indicative of cardiac pathology, the application of electronic methods remains seldom used in everyday clinical practice. In this report we provide preliminary data showing how the phonocardiogram can be analyzed using color spectrographic techniques and discuss how such information may be of future value for noninvasive cardiac monitoring. Methods We digitally recorded the phonocardiogram using a high-speed USB interface and the program Gold Wave http://www.goldwave.com in 55 infants and adults with cardiac structural disease as well as from normal individuals and individuals with innocent murmurs. Color spectrographic analysis of the signal was performed using Spectrogram (Version 16 as a well as custom MATLAB code. Results Our preliminary data is presented as a series of seven cases. Conclusions We expect the application of spectrographic techniques to phonocardiography to grow substantially as ongoing research demonstrates its utility in various clinical settings. Our evaluation of a simple, low-cost phonocardiographic recording and analysis system to assist in determining the characteristic features of heart murmurs shows promise in helping distinguish innocent systolic murmurs from pathological murmurs in children and is expected to useful in other clinical settings as well.

  19. Development of micro-mirror slicer integral field unit for space-borne solar spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Kosuke; Koyama, Masatsugu; Enokida, Yukiya; Okura, Yukinobu; Nakayasu, Tomoyasu; Sukegawa, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    We present an innovative optical design for image slicer integral field unit (IFU) and a manufacturing method that overcomes optical limitations of metallic mirrors. Our IFU consists of a micro-mirror slicer of 45 arrayed, highly narrow, flat metallic mirrors and a pseudo-pupil-mirror array of off-axis conic aspheres forming three pseudo slits of re-arranged slicer images. A prototype IFU demonstrates that the final optical quality is sufficiently high for a visible light spectrograph. Each slicer micro-mirror is 1.58 mm long and 30 μm wide with surface roughness ≤1 nm rms, and edge sharpness ≤ 0.1 μm, etc. This IFU is small size and can be implemented in a multi-slit spectrograph without any moving mechanism and fore optics, in which one slit is real and the others are pseudo slits from the IFU. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a space-qualified, protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength regions. These properties are well suitable for space-borne spectrograph such as the future Japanese solar space mission SOLAR-C. We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU, and space qualification tests of the silver coating.

  20. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  1. Development of X-Y multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) for the magnetic spectrograph 'BIG KARL' of the Juelich cyclotron 'JULIC' and investigation of the reaction 12C(α,α1)12C with Eα=145 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.

    1978-07-01

    The paper reports on the concept and development of a spatial-resolution X-Y detector for the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL, on test measurements on the 300 mm x 40 mm prototype with a 90 Sr β source, and on the first few in-beam measurements. The reaction 12 C(α,α') 12 C with Esub(α) = 145 MeV was investigated under extreme forward angles thetasub(LAB) = 6.0 0 to 1.5 0 . (orig./WL) 891 WL [de

  2. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  3. Optimization of a space spectrograph main frame and frequency response analysis of the frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-yu; Chen, Zhi-yuan; Yang, Shi-mo

    2009-07-01

    A space spectrograph main structure is optimized and examined in order to satisfy the space operational needs. The space spectrograph will be transported into its operational orbit by the launch vehicle and it will undergo dynamic environment in the spacecraft injection period. The unexpected shocks may cause declination of observation accuracy and even equipment damages. The main frame is one of the most important parts because its mechanical performance has great influence on the operational life of the spectrograph, accuracy of observation, etc. For the reason of cost reduction and stability confirming, lower weight and higher structure stiffness of the frame are simultaneously required. Structure optimization was conducted considering the initial design modal analysis results. The base modal frequency raised 10.34% while the whole weight lowered 8.63% compared to the initial design. The purpose of this study is to analyze the new design of main frame mechanical properties and verify whether it can satisfy strict optical demands under the dynamic impact during spacecraft injection. For realizing and forecasting the frequency response characteristics of the main structure in mechanical environment experiment, dynamic analysis of the structure should be performed simulating impulse loads from the bottom base. Therefore, frequency response analysis (FRA) of the frame was then performed using the FEA software MSC.PATRAN/NASTRAN. Results of shock response spectrum (SRS) responses from the base excitations were given. Stress and acceleration dynamic responses of essential positions in the spacecraft injection course were also calculated and spectrometer structure design was examined considering stiffness / strength demands. In this simulation, maximum stresses of Cesic material in two acceleration application cases are 45.1 and 74.1 MPa, respectively. They are all less than yield strengths. As is demonstrated from the simulation, strength reservation of the frame is

  4. Semiquantitative spectrographic analysis of nuclear interest minerals and of various products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gonzalez, F.; Roca Adell, M.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1958-01-01

    Because the great number of samples of various kinds receiving in the Chemical Division, minerals in the most part, for its complete analysis, a rapid spectrographic method has been developed. It permits the determination of the following elements with a semiquantitative character. Al, As, Ag, Au, B, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hn, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, P, Pb, Pt, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn and Zr. (Author) 14 refs

  5. Spectrographic analysis of uranium-molybdenum alloys; Analisis espectrografico de aleaciones uranio-molibdeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M

    1967-07-01

    A spectrographic method of analysis has been developed for uranium-molybdenum alloys containing up to 10 % Mo. The carrier distillation technique, with gallium oxide and graphite as carriers, is used for the semiquantitative determination of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni and Si, involving the conversion of the samples into oxides. As a consequence of the study of the influence of the molybdenum on the line intensities, it is useful to prepare only one set of standards with 0,6 % MoO{sub 3}. Total burning excitation is used for calcium, employing two sets of standards with 0,6 and 7.5 MoO{sub 3}. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Optical emission spectrographic analysis of thulium oxide for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.; Dixit, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    An optical emission spectrographic method has been developed for the analysis of high purity thulium oxide to determine rare earth elements Er, Yb, Lu and Y. A 1200 groove/mm grating blazed at 3300 A is used to record the spectrum on Kodak SA-1 photographic plates after the excitation of the graphite-sample (1:1) mixture in DC arc. The determination range is 0.008 per cent to 0.1 per cent and the relative standard deviation is 17.6 per cent. (author). 15 refs., 5 tables, 5 figs

  7. Spectrographic determination of lithium in nuclear grade calcium; Determination spectrographique du lithium dans le calcium nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A method is described for the spectrographic determination of lithium in calcium. The samples are converted directly to CaCO{sub 3}. A method of fractional distillation in the arc, using KCl as carrier, makes it possible to detect and measure the Li content to 0,1 ppm. (author) [French] On decrit une methode de determination spectrographique de Li dans Ca. Les echantillons sont transformes d'une facon simple en CO{sub 3}Ca. Une methode de distillation fractionnee dans l'arc utilisant KCl comme entraineur permet la detection et le dosage de teneurs de Li jusqu'a 0,1 ppm. (auteur)

  8. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960); L'analyse spectrographique du plutonium (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Chaput, M; Robichet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author) [French] On examine diverses possibilites pour le dosage spectrographique des impuretes dans le plutonium. On decrit et discute plus particulierement de l'application des methodes 'copper spark', de l'etincelage sur graphite et de la distillation fractionnee dans l'arc (montages, accessoires, resultats obtenus). (auteur)

  9. COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: Cyg OB2 8A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Theodore P.; Destree, Joshua D.; Burgh, Eric B.; Ferguson, Ryan M.; Danforth, Charles W.; Cordiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) are presented for the first highly reddened target (Cyg OB2 8A) under the COS Science Team's guaranteed time allocation. Column densities of ionic, atomic, and molecular species are reported and implications are discussed. Data from Cyg OB2 8A demonstrate the ability to analyze highly reddened interstellar sight lines with the COS that were unavailable to previous UV instruments. Measured column densities indicate that the Cyg OB2 8A line of sight contains multiple diffuse clouds rather than a dominant translucent cloud.

  10. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy [Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Center for Physical and Power Electronics, University of Missouri--Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  11. MuSICa: the Multi-Slit Image Slicer for the est Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.

    2013-09-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is a technique that allows one to obtain the spectra of all the points of a bidimensional field of view simultaneously. It is being applied to the new generation of the largest night-time telescopes but it is also an innovative technique for solar physics. This paper presents the design of a new image slicer, MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m aperture European Solar Telescope (EST). MuSICa is a multi-slit image slicer that decomposes an 80 arcsec2 field of view into slices of 50 μm and reorganizes it into eight slits of 0.05 arcsec width × 200 arcsec length. It is a telecentric system with an optical quality at diffraction limit compatible with the two modes of operation of the spectrograph: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric. This paper shows the requirements, technical characteristics and layout of MuSICa, as well as other studied design options.

  12. Effectiveness of using a magnetic spectrograph with the Trojan Horse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, S.; Parikh, A.; Chen, A. A.; de Séréville, N.; Adsley, P.; Irvine, D.; Hammache, F.; Stefan, I.; Longland, R. F.; Tomlinson, J.; Morfuace, P.; Le Crom, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method relies on performing reactions in a specific kinematic phase space that maximizes contributions of a quasi-free reaction mechanism. The hallmark of this method is that the incident particle can be accelerated to high enough energies to overcome the Coulomb barrier of the target, but once inside the target nucleus the relative motion of the clustered nuclei allows the reaction of interest to proceed at energies below this Coulomb Barrier. This method allows the experimentalist to probe reactions that have significance in astrophysics at low reaction energies that would otherwise be impossible due to the vanishing cross section. Traditionally the Trojan Horse method has been applied with the use of silicon detectors to observe the reaction products. In this study we apply the Trojan Horse method to a well studied reaction to examine the potential benefits of using a splitpole magnetic spectrograph to detect one of the reaction products. We have measure the three body 7Li(d,αn)α reaction to constrain the energy 7Li(d,α)α cross section. Measurements were first made using two silicon detectors, and then by replacing one detector with the magnetic spectrograph. The experimental design, limitations, and early results are discussed.

  13. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: latest science cases and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Shelley A.; Walth, Gregory; Do, Tuan; Marshall, Daniel; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Adamkovics, Mate; Andersen, David; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron; Cote, Patrick; Cooke, Jeff; Chisholm, Eric M.; Davidge, Timothy; Dunn, Jennifer S.; Dumas, Christophe; Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Hao, Lei; Hayano, Yutaka; Liu, Michael; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Lu, Jessica R.; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Pandey, Shashi B.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Schoeck, Matthias; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C.; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Treu, Tommaso; Simard, Luc; Weiss, Jason L.; Wincentsen, James; Wong, Michael; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefly discuss the necessity of an advanced data management system and data reduction pipeline.

  14. The Oxford SWIFT Spectrograph: first commissioning and on-sky results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Mathias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Fogarty, Lisa; Houghton, Ryan; Salter, Graeme; Scott, Nicholas; Davies, Roger L.; Bouchez, Antonin; Dekany, Richard

    2010-07-01

    The Oxford SWIFT spectrograph, an I & z band (6500-10500 A) integral field spectrograph, is designed to operate as a facility instrument at the 200 inch Hale Telescope on Palomar Mountain, in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system PALAO (and its upgrade to PALM3000). SWIFT provides spectra at R(≡λ/▵λ)~4000 of a contiguous two-dimensional field, 44 x 89 spatial pixels (spaxels) in size, at spatial scales of 0.235", 0.16", and 0.08" per spaxel. It employs two 250μm thick, fully depleted, extremely red sensitive 4k X 2k CCD detector arrays (manufactured by LBNL) that provide excellent quantum efficiency out to 1000 nm. We describe the commissioning observations and present the measured values of a number of instrument parameters. We also present some first science results that give a taste of the range of science programs where SWIFT can have a substantial impact.

  15. Investigating the Lyman photon escape in local starburst galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Leitherer, Claus; Boquien, Médéric; Buat, Véronique; Burgarella, Denis; Calzetti, Daniela; Noll, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    We present a study of 7 star-forming galaxies from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The galaxies are located at relatively low redshifts, z ˜0.3, with morphologies ranging from extended and disturbed to compact and smooth. To complement the HST observations we also analyze observations taken with the VIMOS spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). In our galaxy sample we identify three objects with double peak Lyman-α profiles similar to those seen in Green Pea compact galaxies and measure peak separations of 655, 374, and 275 km s-1. We measure Lyman-α escape fractions with values ranging between 5-13%. Given the low flux levels in the individual COS exposures we apply a weighted stacking approach to obtain a single spectrum. From this COS combined spectrum we infer upper limits for the absolute and relative Lyman continuum escape fractions of f_abs(LyC) = 0.4^{+10.1}_{-0.4}% and f_res(LyC) = 1.7^{+15.2}_{-1.7}%, respectively. Finally, we find that most of these galaxies have moderate UV and optical SFRs (SFRs ≲ 10 M⊙ yr-1).

  16. Conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system for fluorescence measurements of individual airborne biological particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Paul; Pinnick, R. G.; Hill, Steven C.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1996-03-01

    We report the design and operation of a prototype conditional-sampling spectrograph detection system that can record the fluorescence spectra of individual, micrometer-sized aerosols as they traverse an intense 488-nm intracavity laser beam. The instrument's image-intensified CCD detector is gated by elastic scattering or by undispersed fluorescence from particles that enter the spectrograph's field of view. It records spectra only from particles with preselected scattering-fluorescence levels (a fiber-optic-photomultiplier subsystem provides the gating signal). This conditional-sampling procedure reduces data-handling rates and increases the signal-to-noise ratio by restricting the system's exposures to brief periods when aerosols traverse the beam. We demonstrate these advantages by reliably capturing spectra from individual fluorescent microspheres dispersed in an airstream. The conditional-sampling procedure also permits some discrimination among different types of particles, so that spectra may be recorded from the few interesting particles present in a cloud of background aerosol. We demonstrate such discrimination by measuring spectra from selected fluorescent microspheres in a mixture of two types of microspheres, and from bacterial spores in a mixture of spores and nonfluorescent kaolin particles.

  17. THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert H.; Loomis, Craig; Uomoto, Alan; Roe, Natalie; Schlegel, David; Rockosi, Constance M.; Leger, French; Owen, Russell; Anderson, Lauren; Dawson, Kyle S.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brinkmann, Jon; Long, Dan; Honscheid, Klaus; Harding, Paul; Annis, James

    2013-01-01

    We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyα absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg 2 of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = λ/FWHM ∼ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < λ < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances

  18. THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gunn, James E.; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert H.; Loomis, Craig [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Uomoto, Alan [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Roe, Natalie; Schlegel, David [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rockosi, Constance M. [UC Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 375 Interdisciplinary Sciences Building (ISB) Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Leger, French; Owen, Russell; Anderson, Lauren [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S.; Olmstead, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Brinkmann, Jon; Long, Dan [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Annis, James, E-mail: smee@pha.jhu.edu [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5 m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Ly{alpha} absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 deg{sup 2} of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared, with a resolving power R = {lambda}/FWHM {approx} 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 nm < {lambda} < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.

  19. THE MULTI-OBJECT, FIBER-FED SPECTROGRAPHS FOR THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Gunn, James E.; Uomoto, Alan; Roe, Natalie; Schlegel, David; Rockosi, Constance M.; Carr, Michael A.; Leger, French; Dawson, Kyle S.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brinkmann, Jon; Owen, Russell; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Honscheid, Klaus; Harding, Paul; Long, Dan; Lupton, Robert H.; Loomis, Craig; Anderson, Lauren; Annis, James; Bernardi, Mariangela; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bolton, Adam S.; Brewington, Howard; Briggs, John W.; Burles, Scott; Burns, James G.; Castander, Francisco Javier; Connolly, Andrew; Davenport, James R. A.; Ebelke, Garrett; Epps, Harland; Feldman, Paul D.; Friedman, Scott D.; Frieman, Joshua; Heckman, Timothy; Hull, Charles L.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Lawrence, David M.; Loveday, Jon; Mannery, Edward J.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Merrelli, Aronne James; Muna, Demitri; Newman, Peter R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pope, Adrian C.; Ricketts, Paul G.; Shelden, Alaina; Sandford, Dale; Siegmund, Walter; Simmons, Audrey; Smith, D. Shane; Snedden, Stephanie; Schneider, Donald P.; SubbaRao, Mark; Tremonti, Christy; Waddell, Patrick; York, Donald G.

    2013-07-12

    We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in Fall 1999 on the 2.5-m aperture Sloan Telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the spectrographs produced more than 1.5 million spectra for the SDSS and SDSS-II surveys, enabling a wide variety of Galactic and extra-galactic science including the first observation of baryon acoustic oscillations in 2005. The spectrographs were upgraded in 2009 and are currently in use for BOSS, the flagship survey of the third-generation SDSS-III project. BOSS will measure redshifts of 1.35 million massive galaxies to redshift 0.7 and Lyman-alpha absorption of 160,000 high redshift quasars over 10,000 square degrees of sky, making percent level measurements of the absolute cosmic distance scale of the Universe and placing tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. The twin multi-object fiber spectrographs utilize a simple optical layout with reflective collimators, gratings, all-refractive cameras, and state-of-the-art CCD detectors to produce hundreds of spectra simultaneously in two channels over a bandpass covering the near ultraviolet to the near infrared, with a resolving power R = \\lambda/FWHM ~ 2000. Building on proven heritage, the spectrographs were upgraded for BOSS with volume-phase holographic gratings and modern CCD detectors, improving the peak throughput by nearly a factor of two, extending the bandpass to cover 360 < \\lambda < 1000 nm, and increasing the number of fibers from 640 to 1000 per exposure. In this paper we describe the original SDSS spectrograph design and the upgrades implemented for BOSS, and document the predicted and measured performances.

  20. Performance testing of a novel off-plane reflection grating and silicon pore optic spectrograph at PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Allured, Ryan; DeRoo, Casey; Miles, Drew M.; Donovan, Benjamin D.; Tutt, James H.; Burwitz, Vadim; Menz, Benedikt; Hartner, Gisela D.; Smith, Randall K.; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    An X-ray spectrograph consisting of aligned, radially ruled off-plane reflection gratings and silicon pore optics (SPO) was tested at the Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics PANTER X-ray test facility. The SPO is a test module for the proposed Arcus mission, which will also feature aligned off-plane reflection gratings. This test is the first time two off-plane gratings were actively aligned to each other and with a SPO to produce an overlapped spectrum. We report the performance of the complete spectrograph utilizing the aligned gratings module and plans for future development.

  1. A Color-Texture-Structure Descriptor for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scene classification plays an important role in understanding high-resolution satellite (HRS remotely sensed imagery. For remotely sensed scenes, both color information and texture information provide the discriminative ability in classification tasks. In recent years, substantial performance gains in HRS image classification have been reported in the literature. One branch of research combines multiple complementary features based on various aspects such as texture, color and structure. Two methods are commonly used to combine these features: early fusion and late fusion. In this paper, we propose combining the two methods under a tree of regions and present a new descriptor to encode color, texture and structure features using a hierarchical structure-Color Binary Partition Tree (CBPT, which we call the CTS descriptor. Specifically, we first build the hierarchical representation of HRS imagery using the CBPT. Then we quantize the texture and color features of dense regions. Next, we analyze and extract the co-occurrence patterns of regions based on the hierarchical structure. Finally, we encode local descriptors to obtain the final CTS descriptor and test its discriminative capability using object categorization and scene classification with HRS images. The proposed descriptor contains the spectral, textural and structural information of the HRS imagery and is also robust to changes in illuminant color, scale, orientation and contrast. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CTS descriptor achieves competitive classification results compared with state-of-the-art algorithms.

  2. A flux calibration device for the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Simona; Aldering, Greg; Hoffmann, Akos; Kowalski, Marek; Kuesters, Daniel; Reif, Klaus; Rigault, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Observational cosmology employing optical surveys often require precise flux calibration. In this context we present SNIFS Calibration Apparatus (SCALA), a flux calibration system developed for the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS), operating at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. SCALA consists of a hexagonal array of 18 small parabolic mirrors distributed over the face of, and feeding parallel light to, the telescope entrance pupil. The mirrors are illuminated by integrating spheres and a wavelength-tunable (from UV to IR) light source, generating light beams with opening angles of 1°. These nearly parallel beams are flat and flux-calibrated at a subpercent level, enabling us to calibrate our "telescope + SNIFS system" at the required precision.

  3. Spectrographic measurement of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Analyses et Recherches Chimiques Appliquees, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Crehange, G; Frequelin, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Applications Militaires, Service Chimie, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Baudin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We describe here a method for the spectrographic determination of beryllium on filters which is valid for amounts varying between 0,01 and 30 {mu}g of beryllium and which is independent of the nature of the beryllium compound involved. This is a flux method (graphite-lithium carbonate mixture), the excitation being by a direct current arc. (author) [French] Nous decrivons ici, une methode de dosage spectrographique de beryllium sur filtre, valable pour des teneurs comprises entre 0,01 et 30 {mu}g de beryllium et independante de la nature du compose de beryllium a doser. C'est une methode de 'flux' (melange graphite-carbonate de lithium) l'excitation etant un arc a courant continu. (auteur)

  4. Optical emission spectrographic analysis of lutetium oxide for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Dixit, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    An optical emission spectrographic (OES) method has been developed for the analysis of high purity lutetium oxide to determine rare earths Er, Tm, Yb and Y. The spectra are excited by a d.c. arc run at 10 A current after mixing the sample with graphite buffer in the weight ratio 1:1. A 1200 grooves/mm grating blazed at 3300 A is used for dispersion and a Kodak SA-1 plate for recording the spectrum. The detection limit is 0.001 per cent for Tm, Yb and Y while it is 0.005 per cent for Er. The relative standard deviation of the method is ± 13.4 per cent. (author)

  5. SPECTROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF BERYLLIUM IN OILFIELD WATERS USING A PLASMA ARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, A. G.; Pearson, C. A.

    1963-10-15

    Geochemical studies of the distribution of the trace, minor, and major constituents of oilfield waters aid in the exploration for petroleum and other minerals, determination of the origin and distribution of oilfield waters and petroleum, and location of casing leaks and of water pollution sources. The determination of the beryllium and related data should be useful in these studies. An emission spectrographic method utilizing a plasma arc assembly for determining beryllium in oilfield waters, with a sensitivity permitting detection of less than 1 ppb, was developed. Beryllium was extracted from synthetic and natural oilfield waters with chloroform and acetylacetone. The extracts were aspirated directly into the plasma arc, and the beryllium emission intensity was recorded on photographic plates. (auth)

  6. A mask quality control tool for the OSIRIS multi-object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, J. C.; Vaz Cedillo, Jacinto Javier; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Ángel; González Escalera, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    OSIRIS multi object spectrograph uses a set of user-customised-masks, which are manufactured on-demand. The manufacturing process consists of drilling the specified slits on the mask with the required accuracy. Ensuring that slits are on the right place when observing is of vital importance. We present a tool for checking the quality of the process of manufacturing the masks which is based on analyzing the instrument images obtained with the manufactured masks on place. The tool extracts the slit information from these images, relates specifications with the extracted slit information, and finally communicates to the operator if the manufactured mask fulfills the expectations of the mask designer. The proposed tool has been built using scripting languages and using standard libraries such as opencv, pyraf and scipy. The software architecture, advantages and limits of this tool in the lifecycle of a multiobject acquisition are presented.

  7. Digital TV-echelle spectrograph for simultaneous multielemental analysis using microcomputer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1980-12-01

    A digital TV-echelle spectrograph with microcomputer control was developed for simultaneous multielemental analysis. The optical system is a commercially available unit originally equipped for film and photomultiplier (single element) readout. The film port was adapted for the intensifier camera. The camera output is digitized and stored in a microcomputer-controlled, 512 x 512 x 12 bit memory and image processor. Multiple spectra over the range of 200 to 800 nm are recorded in a single exposure. Spectra lasting from nanoseconds to seconds are digitized and stored in 0.033 s and displayed on a TV monitor. An inexpensive microcomputer controls the exposure, reads and displays the intensity of predetermined spectral lines, and calculates wavelengths of unknown lines. The digital addresses of unknown lines are determined by superimposing a cursor on the TV display. The microcomputer also writes into memory wavelength fiducial marks for alignment of the TV camera

  8. Spectrographic determination of impurities in magnesium metal; Determinacion espectrografica de impurezas en magnesio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C.; Diaz-Guerra, J. P.

    1979-07-01

    The spectrographic determination of trace quantities of Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Hn, Mo, Ni and Si in magnesium metal is described. Samples are dissolved with HNO{sub 3} and calcinate into MgO. In order to avoid losses of boron NH{sub 4}OH is added to the nitric solution. Except for aluminium and chromium the analysis is performed through the use of the carrier distillation technique. These two impurities are determined by burning to completion the MgO. Among the compounds studied as carriers (AgCl, AgF, CsCl, CuF{sub 2}, KCl and SrF{sub 2}) AgCl allows, In general, the best volatilization efficiency. Lithium determination is achieved by using KC1 or CsCl. Detection limits, on the basis of MgO, are in the range 0,1 to 30 ppm, depending on the element. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Spectrographic determination of impurities in high-purity tantalum oxide and niobium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.T.G.; Russell, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of spectrographic methods by direct current arc excitation and carrier distillation for the determination of impurities in tantalum and niobium oxides are described. Iron, silicon, aluminium, titanium, calcium, silver, tin, magnesium, and manganese can be determined in tantalum oxide and niobium oxide in concentrations ranging from 3 to 300 p.p.m. Niobium can be determined in tantalum oxide in concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 p.p.m. Tantalum cannot be determined in niobium oxide, and tungsten cannot be determined in either matrix as a result of the absence of sensitive lines in the spectra of these elements. Relative standard deviations of analyte element concentrations are in the region of 0,18 for tantalum oxide samples, and 0,13 for niobium oxide samples. A detailed laboratory method is included. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs

  10. The Using of Used Battery as Alternative Electrode for Emission Spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif Artadi; Sudaryo; Aryadi

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of boron (B) and cadmium (Cd) in U 3 O 8 has been carried out by using used battery electrode at emission spectrograph method. Analysis was done with the DC-Arc method, 10 Ampere current, 220 voltage, 25 second exposure time, and 2 mm electrode apart. The sample was extracted using TBP-Kerosine with the ratio of 70 : 30 volume of 200 ml. Water phase as the extraction result was dripped on electrode and excited. Intensity of the samples were compared to its standard, then it was obtained boron and cadmium concentration in sample were 0.07 ppm and 0.15 ppm respectively. The analysis result of boron and cadmium concentration in the sample using battery electrode were 0.21 ppm and 0.14 ppm respectively. (author)

  11. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  12. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y., E-mail: yito@riken.jp [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Schury, P. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Wada, M.; Naimi, S. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Smorra, C. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sonoda, T. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mita, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Takamine, A. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoyama Gakuin University, 4-4-25 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8366 (Japan); Okada, K. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Fast cooling time: 2 ms. • High efficiency: ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +}. • 100% Duty cycle with double trap system. -- Abstract: A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +} has been achieved.

  13. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alec Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  14. "Slit Mask Design for the Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darius; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Prochaska, Travis; DePoy, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph (GMACS) is currently in development for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS will employ slit masks with a usable diameter of approximately 0.450 m for the purpose of multi-slit spectroscopy. Of significant importance are the design constraints and parameters of the multi-object slit masks themselves as well as the means for mapping astronomical targets to physical mask locations. Analytical methods are utilized to quantify deformation effects on a potential slit mask due to thermal expansion and vignetting of target light cones. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to simulate mask flexure in changing gravity vectors. The alpha version of the mask creation program for GMACS, GMACS Mask Simulator (GMS), a derivative of the OSMOS Mask Simulator (OMS), is introduced.

  15. Spectrographic determination of dysprosium in doped crystals of calcium sulfate used for dosimetric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, T.; Lordello, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrographic method is described for the quantitative determination of dysprosium in doped crystals of calcium sulphate. The consequences of the changes in some parameters of the excitation conditions, such as arc current, electrode type and total or partial burning of sample, in the analytical results are discussed. Matrix effects are investigated. Variations in the intensity of the spectral lines are verified by recording the spectrum in distinct photographic plates. The role of internal standard in analytical reproducibility and in counterbalance of the variations in the arc current and in the weight of sample is studied. Accuracy is estimated by comparative analysis of two calcium sulphate samples by X-Ray Fluorescence, Neutron Activation and Inductive Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  17. Recording {gamma} spectrometer with elimination of compton background; Spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur avec elimination du bruit de fond compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This instrument, derived from the recording {gamma} spectrograph, gives better definition of photoelectric peaks by elimination of pulses caused by {gamma} photons incompletely absorbed in the scintillator (Compton effect). This system uses an original method devised by Peirson: the spectrum, devoid of photoelectric peak, supplied by a detector equipped with an anthracene scintillator, is cut off from the spectrum provided by a conventional detector equipped with a Nal (T1) scintillator. The regulation of the mechanical system, detector support and source allows the detection yields to be adjusted. The electronic system is identical in presentation with that of the recording spectrograph. (author) [French] Cet appareil derive du spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur permet d'obtenir une meilleure definition des pics photoelectriques, par elimination des impulsions provenant des photons {gamma} incompletement absorbes dans le scintillateur (effet Compton). Cet ensemble met en oeuvre une methode originale due a Peirson: le spectre, depourvu de pic photoelectrique, fourni par un detecteur, equipe avec un scintillateur d'anthracene, est retranche du spectre donne par un detecteur classique, equipe avec un scintillateur de NaI (T1). Le reglage de l'ensemble mecanique, support des detecteurs et de la source, permet d'ajuster les rendements de detection. L'ensemble electronique se presente sous un aspect identique a celui du spectrographe enregistreur. (auteur)

  18. Estuarine Landcover Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Compact Ariborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and riparian habitats is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. In a recently completed comprehensive ecosystem protection and enhancement plan for the lower Columbia River Estuary (CRE), Jerrick (1999) identified habitat loss and modification as one of the key threats to the integrity of the CRE ecosystem. This management plan called for an inventory of habitats as key first step in the CRE long-term restoration effort. While previous studies have produced useful data sets depicting habitat cover types along portions of the lower CRE (Thomas, 1980; Thomas, 1983; Graves et al., 1995; NOAA, 1997; Allen, 1999), no single study has produced a description of the habitats for the entire CRE. Moreover, the previous studies differed in data sources and methodologies making it difficult to merge data or to make temporal comparisons. Therefore, the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) initiated a habitat cover mapping project in 2000. The goal of this project was to produce a data set depicting the current habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River, from its mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of {approx}230-km (Fig. 1) using both established and emerging remote sensing techniques. For this project, we acquired two types of imagery, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). Landsat and CASI imagery differ in spatial and spectral resolution: the Landsat 7 ETM+ sensor collects reflectance data in seven spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30-m and the CASI sensor collects reflectance data in 19 bands (in our study) with a spatial resolution of 1.5-m. We classified both sets of imagery and produced a spatially linked, hierarchical habitat data set for the entire CRE and its floodplain. Landsat 7 ETM+ classification results are presented in a separate report (Garono et al., 2003). This report

  19. True resolution enhancement for optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Justin T.; Oleske, Jeffrey B.

    2018-02-01

    Resolving spectrally adjacent peaks is important for techniques, such as tracking small shifts in Raman or fluorescence spectra, quantifying pharmaceutical polymorph ratios, or molecular orientation studies. Thus, suitable spectral resolution is a vital consideration when designing most spectroscopic systems. Most parameters that influence spectral resolution are fixed for a given system (spectrometer length, grating groove density, excitation source, CCD pixel size, etc.). Inflexible systems are non-problematic if the spectrometer is dedicated for a single purpose; however, these specifications cannot be optimized for different applications with wider range resolution requirements. Data processing techniques, including peak fitting, partial least squares, or principal component analysis, are typically used to achieve sub-optical resolution information. These techniques can be plagued by spectral artifacts introduced by post-processing as well as the subjective implementation of statistical parameters. TruRes™, from Andor Technology, uses an innovative optical means to greatly improve and expand the range of spectral resolutions accessible on a single setup. True spectral resolution enhancement of >30% is achieved without mathematical spectral alteration, dataprocessing, or spectrometer component changes. Discreet characteristic spectral lines from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic calibration sources are now fully resolved from spectrally-adjacent peaks under otherwise identical configuration. TruRes™ has added advantage of increasing the spectral resolution without sacrificing bandpass. Using TruRes™ the Kymera 328i resolution can approach that of a 500 mm focal spectrometer. Furthermore, the bandpass of a 500 mm spectrograph with would be 50% narrower than the Kymera 328i with all other spectrometer components constant. However, the Kymera 328i with TruRes™ is able to preserve a 50% wider bandpass.

  20. Development of a focussing-crystal spectrograph for x-rays from laser-fusion targets. Final report for the period ending September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Burek, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The report is arranged in five major sections, Section II describes the measurements of mica and lithium fluoride crystal properties before and after the cylindrical bending required for a Von-Hamos spectrograph. It also describes the property of mosaic focussing and the measurements of the spatial as well as spectral resolutions of bent crystals. Section III describes the imaging calculations which relate the instrument focussing capability to source misalignment. These calculations demonstrate the necessity to maintain fabrication and alignment precision which is about equal to the radiation source size, if the full potential of the instrument is to be realized. Section IV shows x-ray spectra obtained on the OMEGA 24 laser facility at LLE. The targets used were plastic shells, coated with copper either on the outside or the inside surface, germania shells, and krytpon-filled glass shells. The data indicate deeper heat penetration on the target surface, than predicted by a flux-limited heat transport model. In Section V, we list new spectral lines involving multiple electron excitation, which are observed here for the first time and whose wavelengths are calculated using Hartrer-Fock methods

  1. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF NEAR-IR WATER (H2O) EMISSION IN COMET C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) WITH THE GIANO/TNG SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggi, S.; Brucato, J. R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1–2.5 μ m region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H 2 O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [ Q (H 2 O), (3.11 ± 0.14) × 10 29 s −1 ] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H 2 O. The production rates of ortho-water [ Q (H 2 O) ORTHO , (2.33 ± 0.11) × 10 29 s −1 ] and para-water [ Q (H 2 O) PARA , (0.87 ± 0.21) × 1029 s −1 ] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70 ± 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  2. Detailed Analysis of Near-IR Water (H2O) Emission in Comet C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) with the GIANO/TNG Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Brucato, J.R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1-2.5 micron region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [Q(H2O), (3.11+/- 0.14) x 10(exp 29)/s] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H2O. The production rates of ortho-water [Q(H2O)ORTHO, (2.33+/- 0.11) x 10(exp 29)/s] and para-water [Q(H2O)PARA, (0.87+/-0.21) x 10(exp 29)/s] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70+/- 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  3. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  4. Spectrographic determination of dysprosium dopant in calcium sulphate used as dosimetric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoletto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrographic method is described for the quantitative determination of dysprosium in doped crystals of calcium sulphate. The consequences of the changes in some parameters of the excitation conditions, such as arc current, electrode type and total or partial burning of sample, in the analytical results are discussed. Matrix effects are investigated by comparison among analytical curves obtained from three different methods of standard preparations. Variations in the intensity of the spectral lines are verificated by recording the spectrum in distinct photographic plates (SA-1). The role of internal standard in analytical reproducibility and in counterbalance of the variations in the arc current and in the weight of sample are studied. The great similarity in excitation behavior of many of the rare earths is used to provide a high degree of internal standardization. Precision studies show a standard deviation of about + - 2,4 percent by use of lanthanum as an internal standard. Accuracy is estimate by comparative analysis of two calcium sulphate samples by X-Rays Fluorescence, Neutron Activation and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) Emission Spectroscopy. (Author) [pt

  5. Flare Ribbons Approach Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-10-10

    We report flare ribbons approach (FRA) during a multiple-ribbon M-class flare on 2015 November 4 in NOAA AR 12443, obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The flare consisted of a pair of main ribbons and two pairs of secondary ribbons. The two pairs of secondary ribbons were formed later than the appearance of the main ribbons, with respective time delays of 15 and 19 minutes. The negative-polarity main ribbon spread outward faster than the first secondary ribbon with the same polarity in front of it, and thus the FRA was generated. Just before their encounter, the main ribbon was darkening drastically and its intensity decreased by about 70% in 2 minutes, implying the suppression of main-phase reconnection that produced two main ribbons. The FRA caused the deflection of the main ribbon to the direction of secondary ribbon with a deflection angle of about 60°. A post-approach arcade was formed about 2 minutes later and the downflows were detected along the new arcade with velocities of 35–40 km s{sup −1}, indicative of the magnetic restructuring during the process of FRA. We suggest that there are three topological domains with footpoints outlined by the three pairs of ribbons. Close proximity of these domains leads to deflection of the ribbons, which is in agreement with the magnetic field topology.

  6. A SEARCH FOR SHORT-PERIOD ROCKY PLANETS AROUND WDs WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH (COS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhaus, Phoebe H.; Debes, John H.; Ely, Justin; Hines, Dean C.; Bourque, Matthew [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The search for transiting habitable exoplanets has broadened to include several types of stars that are smaller than the Sun in an attempt to increase the observed transit depth and hence the atmospheric signal of the planet. Of all spectral types, white dwarfs (WDs) are the most favorable for this type of investigation. The fraction of WDs that possess close-in rocky planets is unknown, but several large angle stellar surveys have the photometric precision and cadence to discover at least one if they are common. Ultraviolet observations of WDs may allow for detection of molecular oxygen or ozone in the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to search for transiting rocky planets around UV-bright WDs. In the process, we discovered unusual variability in the pulsating WD GD 133, which shows slow sinusoidal variations in the UV. While we detect no planets around our small sample of targets, we do place stringent limits on the possibility of transiting planets, down to sub-lunar radii. We also point out that non-transiting small planets in thermal equilibrium are detectable around hotter WDs through infrared excesses, and identify two candidates.

  7. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST-AFTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Mcelwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Perrin, Marshall; hide

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) configurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS was selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to reduce the diffraction from the edge of the lenslets. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  8. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST/AFTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Mcelwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Perrin, Marshall; hide

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST/AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) cofigurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS is selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to further suppress star light introduced speckles. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  9. The spectrographic determination of minor and trace elements in copper, lead, and zinc concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, R.L.; Russell, G.M.; Watson, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a method for the determination, by an emission-spectrographic technique, of magnesium, manganese, aluminium, silver, calcium, chromium, cobalt, titanium, antimony, cadmium, molybdenum, zirconium, nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, beryllium, tin, germanium, and bismuth in copper, lead, and zinc sulphide concentrates. The method involves the preparation of complex standards in which the volatile elements arsenic, antimony, cadmium, tin, and bismuth are incorporated as sulphide compounds at temperatures of 800 degrees Celsius in evacuated silica tubes together with a synthetic sulphide matrix. These standards are then mixed with the other minor and trace elements to form composite standards. The conditions for excitation with a direct-current arc, and the analytical lines for the elements and internal standards, are given. The procedure is rapid and convenient, and involves the minimum of sample preparation. The accuracy is about 10 per cent, and the method has a coefficient of variation for the various elements of between 2 and 13 per cent

  10. GLOBAL SAUSAGE OSCILLATION OF SOLAR FLARE LOOPS DETECTED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Young, Peter R.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Wang, Tongjiang; Antolin, Patrick; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    An observation from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveals coherent oscillations in the loops of an M1.6 flare on 2015 March 12. Both the intensity and Doppler shift of Fe xxi 1354.08 Å show clear oscillations with a period of ∼25 s. Remarkably similar oscillations were also detected in the soft X-ray flux recorded by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites ( GOES ). With an estimated phase speed of ∼2420 km s −1 and a derived electron density of at least 5.4 × 10 10 cm −3 , the observed short-period oscillation is most likely the global fast sausage mode of a hot flare loop. We find a phase shift of ∼ π /2 (1/4 period) between the Doppler shift oscillation and the intensity/ GOES oscillations, which is consistent with a recent forward modeling study of the sausage mode. The observed oscillation requires a density contrast between the flare loop and coronal background of a factor ≥42. The estimated phase speed of the global mode provides a lower limit of the Alfvén speed outside the flare loop. We also find an increase of the oscillation period, which might be caused by the separation of the loop footpoints with time.

  11. ULTRAVIOLET DISCOVERIES AT ASTEROID (21) LUTETIA BY THE ROSETTA ALICE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, S. A.; Parker, J. Wm.; Steffl, A.; Birath, E.; Graps, A.; Feldman, P. D.; Weaver, H. A.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Feaga, L.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M.; Scherrer, J. R.; Cunningham, N.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Alice ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrograph on board the ESA Rosetta comet orbiter successfully conducted a series of flyby observations of the large asteroid (21) Lutetia in the days surrounding Rosetta's closest approach on 2010 July 10. Observations included a search for emission lines from gas, and spectral observations of the Lutetia's surface reflectance. No emissions from gas around Lutetia were observed. Regarding the surface reflectance, we found that Lutetia has a distinctly different albedo and slope than both the asteroid (2867) Steins and Earth's moon, the two most analogous objects studied in the far ultraviolet (FUV). Further, Lutetia's ∼10% geometric albedo near 1800 A is significantly lower than its 16%-19% albedo near 5500 A. Moreover, the FUV albedo shows a precipitous drop (to ∼4%) between 1800 A and 1600 A, representing the strongest spectral absorption feature observed in Lutetia's spectrum at any observed wavelength. Our surface reflectance fits are not unique but are consistent with a surface dominated by an EH5 chondrite, combined with multiple other possible surface constituents, including anorthite, water frost, and SO 2 frost or a similar mid-UV absorber. The water frost identification is consistent with some data sets but inconsistent with others. The anorthite (feldspar) identification suggests that Lutetia is a differentiated body.

  12. Semi-quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of elements in igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.Q. da; Eichhoff, H.-J.

    1982-01-01

    A semi-quantitative spectrographic technique based on Harveys'method, using background radiation as internal standard is described for the analysis of trace elements in igneous rocks by the total energy method. A certain amount of the sample was completely vapourized in a DC arc with anodic excitation under argon and oxygen atmosphere, using graphite electrodes of standard dimensions. In the processed film, selected lines and adjancent backgrounds were evaluated by densitometry and the corresponding intensity ratios were calculated. Sensitivity factors were determined for the analytical lines of Co, Cu, Ga, Ni, Sc, Sr, V, Y, Zn, and Zr in geological standards (G-2, BCR-1, AGV-1, GSP-1) from the United States Geological Survey. Matrix effects between samples and standards were minimized by using the above mentioned geological standards. An average value of the sensitivity factors was employed for the calculation of the concentration of the elements in the samples. A comparison between the results obtained by this method and those from the analysis of zinc by atomic absorption is presented. This method enabled the analyses of igneous rock samples having SiO2 contents between 40 and 80%, with an error in the determinations of trace elements less than 30%.(Author) [pt

  13. COS2025: Extending the Lifetime of the FUV channel of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; De Rosa, Gisella; Fischer, William J.; Fix, Mees; Fox, Andrew; Indriolo, Nick; James, Bethan; Magness, Camellia; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sankrit, Ravi; Snyder, Elaine M.; Taylor, Joanna M.; White, James

    2018-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) microchannel plate detector's efficiency at converting incoming photons into detectable events decreases with usage. This depletion of the detector's gain (i.e. gain sag) results in unusable regions of the COS/FUV detector. In order to mitigate this gain sag, a number of strategies have been employed over the past 8 years of operations, ranging from moving to different lifetime positions, to managing the high voltage to extract a smaller amount of charge, to re-distributing the cenwave usage so that Ly-alpha does not produce a gain-sag hole in a given location. We are now at a point where none of the strategies above will, without any other changes, allow us to continue operating the COS/FUV detector to 2025. To address this a new COS2025 policy was developed, with the goal of retaining full science capability of COS/FUV to 2025. We present an overview of the COS2025 policy, which places restrictions on the G130M cenwaves allowed at Lifetime Position 4 (LP4). We also present a tool which allows users to visualize the COS/FUV wavelength ranges to help users prepare their proposals in the light of the restrictions on the G130M cenwaves.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Cool Flare Loops Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuła, K.; Berlicki, A. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, Kopernika 11, 51–622 Wrocław (Poland); Heinzel, P.; Liu, W., E-mail: mikula@astro.uni.wroc.pl [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-08-10

    Flare loops were well observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) during the gradual phase of two solar flares on 2014 March 29 and 2015 June 22. Cool flare loops are visible in various spectral lines formed at chromospheric and transition-region temperatures and exhibit large downflows which correspond to the standard scenario. The principal aim of this work is to analyze the structure and dynamics of cool flare loops observed in Mg ii lines. Synthetic profiles of the Mg ii h line are computed using the classical cloud model and assuming a uniform background intensity. In this paper, we study novel IRIS NUV observations of such loops in Mg ii h and k lines and also show the behavior of hotter lines detected in the FUV channel. We obtained the spatial evolution of the velocities: near the loop top, the flow velocities are small and they are increasing toward the loop legs. Moreover, from slit-jaw image (SJI) movies, we observe some plasma upflows into the loops, which are also detectable in Mg ii spectra. The brightness of the loops systematically decreases with increasing flow velocity, and we ascribe this to the effect of Doppler dimming, which works for Mg ii lines. Emission profiles of Mg ii were found to be extremely broad, and we explain this through the large unresolved non-thermal motions.

  15. Spectrographic determination of beryllium in the atmosphere; Dosage spectrographique du beryllium dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G; Morawek, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Since the apparatus for continuous determination of beryllium is not yet perfect, a discontinuous method has been developed. The air to be analysed is filtered, and the dust laden filter is dissolved in a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acid. The pH and the conductivity of the solution obtained were adjusted to standard values, and it was then analysed spectro-graphically by the rotating sector method. Up to 0.01 x 10{sup 6} of Be per cm{sup 3} of solution can be detected. The precision is of the order of 10 per cent. (author) [French] Les appareils de dosage du beryllium en continu n'etant pas encore suffisamment au point, on a elabore une methode discontinue. L'air a analyser est filtre et le filtre charge de poussieres est mis en solution par une attaque sulfo-nitrique. La solution obtenue est normalisee par ajustage de son PH et de sa conductivite puis analysee spectrographiquement par la methode du disque tournant. On peut detecter jusqu'a 0,01.10{sup 6} de Be par cm{sup 3} de solution. La precision est de l'ordre de 10 pour cent. (auteur)

  16. Spectrographic analysis of uranium-based alloys; Analyse spectrographique d'alliages a base d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G.; Blum, P.

    1959-07-01

    The authors describe a spectrographic method for dosing cobalt in cobalt-uranium alloys with cobalt content from 0.05 to 10 per cent. They describe sample preparation, alloy solution, spectrographic conditions, and photometry operations. In a second part, they address the dosing of boron in uranium borides. They implement the so-called 'porous cup' method. Boride is dissolved by fusion with Co{sub 3}-NaK [French] Uranium-Cobalt: il est decrit une methode spectrographique de dosage de cobalt dans des alliages cobalt-uranium pour des teneurs de 0,05 pour cent a 10 pour cent de Co. On opere sur solution avec le fer comme standard interne. Borure d'Uranium: ici encore on opere par la methode dite 'porous cup', le fer etant conserve comme standard interne. Le borure est mis en solution par fusion avec Co{sub 3}NaK. (auteurs)

  17. Spectrometer system using a modular echelle spectrograph and a laser-driven continuum source for simultaneous multi-element determination by graphite furnace absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Sebastian; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao Dong, E-mail: huang@isas.de; Esser, Norbert; Florek, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A multi-element absorption spectrometer system has been developed based on a laser-driven xenon continuum source and a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES), which is characterized by a minimized number of optical components resulting in high optical throughput, high transmittance and high image quality. The main feature of the new optical design is the multifunction usage of a Littrow prism, which is attached on a rotation stage. It operates as an order-sorter for the echelle grating in a double-pass mode, as a fine positioning device moving the echelle spectrum on the detector, and as a forwarder to address different optical components, e.g., echelle gratings, in the setup. Using different prisms, which are mounted back to back on the rotation stage, a multitude of different spectroscopic modes like broad-range panorama observations, specific UV–VIS and NIR studies or high resolution zoom investigations of variable spectral channels can be realized. In the UV panorama mode applied in this work, MOSES has simultaneously detectable wavelength coverage from 193 nm to 390 nm with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of 55,000 (3-pixel criterion). In the zoom mode the latter can be further increased by a factor of about two for a selectable section of the full wavelength range. The applicability and the analytical performance of the system were tested by simultaneous element determination in a graphite furnace, using eight different elements. Compared to an instrument operating in the optimized single line mode, the achieved analytical sensitivity using the panorama mode was typically a factor of two lower. Using the zoom mode for selected elements, comparable sensitivities were obtained. The results confirm the influence of the different spectral resolutions. - Highlights: • Echelle spectrometer with a full frame CCD array detector • High and variable spectral resolution from λ/Δλ of 55,000 to 95,000 • Laser-driven continuum light source

  18. METODE ACTIVE ISOLATED STRETCHING (AIS DAN METODE HOLD RELAX STRETCHING (HRS SAMA EFEKTIF DALAM MENINGKATKAN FLEKSIBILITAS OTOT HAMSTRING PADA MAHASISWA AKADEMI FISIOTERAPI WIDYA HUSADA SEMARANG YANG MENGALAMI HAMSTRING MUSCLE TIGHTNESS (HMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad alfajri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students with Hamstring Muscle Tightness (HMTs will be at risk of Anterior Crusiatum Ligament (ACL, Low Back Pain (LBP and also Plantar Faciitis. One of the efforts to reduce tightness and improve hamstring muscle flexibility is stretching. Active Isolated Stretching (AIS and Hold Relax Stretching (HRS are the methods of influential stretching to improve muscle flexibility. The goal of the research is to prove that AIS method is equally effective with the HRS method to improve hamstring muscle flexibility to the HMTs patients. The research method was true experimental with pre and post test group design. The research was conducted for 3 weeks and the samples are 23 students in range of 18-25 years old students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang which divided into 2 groups; AIS group (n= 12 and HRS group (n= 11. The research used Sit and Reach Test (SRT as the measurement instrument. The result of the research was the average result of AIS group used SRT before treatment was 1.75 cm, SB= 4.309 and after treatment was 10. 58 cm, SB = 8. 005 within p= 0.000 (p 0.05. Those explain that the improvement of hamstring muscle flexibility to the two groups does not show any significant difference. Conclusion from this study was active isolated stretching method and hold relax stretching method are equally effective to improving muscle flexibility of hamstring muscle tightness students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope: Faint object spectrograph instrument handbook. Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Holland C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) has undergone substantial rework since the 1985 FOS Instrument Handbook was published, and we are now more knowledgeable regarding the spacecraft and instrument operations requirements and constraints. The formal system for observation specification has also evolved considerably, as the GTO programs were defined in detail. This supplement to the FOS Instrument Handbook addresses the important aspects of these changes, to facilitate proper selection and specification of FOS observing programs. Since the Handbook was published, the FOS red detector has been replaced twice, first with the best available spare in 1985 (which proved to have a poor, and steadily degrading red response), and later with a newly developed Digicon, which exhibits a high, stable efficiency and a dark-count rate less than half that of its predecessors. Also, the FOS optical train was realigned in 1987-88 to eliminate considerable beam-vignetting losses, and the collimators were both removed and recoated for greater reflectivity. Following the optics and detector rework, the FOS was carefully recalibrated (although only ambient measurements were possible, so the far-UV characteristics could not be re-evaluated directly). The resulting efficiency curves, including improved estimates of the telescope throughput, are shown. A number of changes in the observing-mode specifications and addition of several optional parameters resulted as the Proposal Instructions were honed during the last year. Target-brightness limitations, which have only recently been formulated carefully, are described. Although these restrictions are very conservative, it is imperative that the detector safety be guarded closely, especially during the initial stages of flight operations. Restrictions on the use of the internal calibration lamps and aperture-illumination sources (TA LEDs), also resulting from detector safety considerations, are outlined. Finally, many changes have been made to

  20. Determination of trace elements in uranium and aluminum by emission spectrographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, C N; Lee, S L; Tsai, H T

    1976-07-01

    Owing to its simplicity and sensitivity, emission spectrographic method is used to analyze the impurities in nuclear grade uranium rod and aluminum tubings for their strict specifications. With higher quantities of impurities, reactor fuel cladding, aluminum flow-tube, is analyzed by a.c. spark, point to plane method which is developed in quality control without damage for large scale samples. D.C. arc method, either carrier-distillation or without carrier, is developed to determine the limited impurities and it is especially good for analyzing irregular shaped samples. Both standard and sample are converted to oxide form and special standards matching sample matrix are not required. One of the requirements of good reactor fuel and sheathing materials is that, non-fission capture of neutrons by impurities should be held to a minimum. Some of the elements such as boron, cadmium, lithium and rare earths have very great absorption power. It has been shown by calculation that some of them should not exist more than a few parts per million or even a fraction of a part per million. Lithium seldom exists in uranium fuel rod and aluminum sheathing material and is not sought after; the determination of boron and cadmium are included in these reports. Among the carrier-distillation methods, mixture of 3 percent gallium oxide--graphite (2:1) carrier is used in uranium determination and 10 percent silver chloride--lithium fluoride (1:1) carrier is adoped in aluminum analysis. Analytical lines, concentration range and precision data are shown.

  1. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. I. CONTINUUM ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Forrest, William J.; Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. For 499 targets with IRS excess but without strong spectral features (and a subset of 420 targets with additional MIPS 70 μm observations), we modeled the IRS (and MIPS data) assuming that the dust thermal emission was well-described using either a one- or two-temperature blackbody model. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. We found that the spectral energy distributions for the majority of objects (∼66%) were better described using a two-temperature model with warm (T {sub gr} ∼ 100-500 K) and cold (T {sub gr} ∼ 50-150 K) dust populations analogous to zodiacal and Kuiper Belt dust, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and zodiacal dust is common around host stars with ages up to ∼1 Gyr. We found that younger stars generally have disks with larger fractional infrared luminosities and higher grain temperatures and that higher-mass stars have disks with higher grain temperatures. We show that the increasing distance of dust around debris disks is inconsistent with self-stirred disk models, expected if these systems possess planets at 30-150 AU. Finally, we illustrate how observations of debris disks may be used to constrain the radial dependence of material in the minimum mass solar nebula.

  2. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF T TAURI STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 161 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. All of the targets were selected based on their infrared excess and are therefore surrounded by protoplanetary disks; they form the complete sample of all available IRS spectra of T Tauri stars with infrared excesses in Taurus. We also present the IRS spectra of seven Class 0/I objects in Taurus to complete the sample of available IRS spectra of protostars in Taurus. We use spectral indices that are not significantly affected by extinction to distinguish between envelope- and disk-dominated objects. Together with data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions for all objects in our sample. With spectral indices derived from the IRS spectra we infer disk properties such as dust settling and the presence of inner disk holes and gaps. We find a transitional disk frequency, which is based on objects with unusually large 13-31 μm spectral indices indicative of a wall surrounding an inner disk hole, of about 3%, and a frequency of about 20% for objects with unusually large 10 μm features, which could indicate disk gaps. The shape and strength of the 10 μm silicate emission feature suggests weaker 10 μm emission and more processed dust for very low mass objects and brown dwarfs (spectral types M6-M9). These objects also display weaker infrared excess emission from their disks, but do not appear to have more settled disks than their higher-mass counterparts. We find no difference for the spectral indices and properties of the dust between single and multiple systems.

  3. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  4. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: multi-tiered wavefront measurements and novel mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Andersen, David; Chapin, Edward; Reshetov, Vlad; Wierzbicki, Ramunas; Herriot, Glen; Chalmer, Dean; Isbrucker, Victor; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be the first light adaptive optics instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is being built by a collaboration between Caltech, the University of California, NAOJ and NRC Herzberg. In this paper we present novel aspects of the Support Structure, Rotator and On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor systems being developed at NRC Herzberg. IRIS is suspended from the bottom port of the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), and provides its own image de-rotation to compensate for sidereal rotation of the focal plane. This arrangement is a challenge because NFIRAOS is designed to host two other science instruments, which imposes strict mass requirements on IRIS. As the mechanical design of all elements has progressed, we have been tasked with keeping the instrument mass under seven tonnes. This requirement has resulted in a mass reduction of 30 percent for the support structure and rotator compared to the most recent IRIS designs. To accomplish this goal, while still being able to withstand earthquakes, we developed a new design with composite materials. As IRIS is a client instrument of NFIRAOS, it benefits from NFIRAOS's superior AO correction. IRIS plays an important role in providing this correction by sensing low-order aberrations with three On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). The OIWFS consists of three independently positioned natural guide star wavefront sensor probe arms that patrol a 2-arcminute field of view. We expect tip-tilt measurements from faint stars within the IRIS imager focal plane will further stabilize the delivered image quality. We describe how the use of On-Detector Guide Windows (ODGWs) in the IRIS imaging detector can be incorporated into the AO correction. In this paper, we present our strategies for acquiring and tracking sources with this complex AO system, and for mitigating and measuring the various potential sources of image blur and misalignment due to properties of

  5. Cool transition region loops observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Xia, L.; Li, B.; Madjarska, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    An important class of loops in the solar atmosphere, cool transition region loops, have received little attention mainly due to instrumental limitations. We analyze a cluster of these loops in the on-disk active region NOAA 11934 recorded in a Si IV 1402.8 Å spectral raster and 1400Å slit-jaw (SJ) images taken by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. We divide these loops into three groups and study their dynamics, evolution and interaction.The first group comprises geometrically relatively stable loops, which are finely scaled with 382~626 km cross-sections. Siphon flows in these loops are suggested by the Doppler velocities gradually changing from -10 km/s (blue-shifts) in one end to 20 km/s (red-shifts) in the other. Nonthermal velocities from 15 to 25 km/s were determined. The obtained physical properties suggest that these loops are impulsively heated by magnetic reconnection occurring at the blue-shifted footpoints where magnetic cancellation with a rate of 1015 Mx/s is found. The released magnetic energy is redistributed by the siphon flows. The second group corresponds to two active footpoints rooted in mixed-magnetic-polarity regions. Magnetic reconnection in both footpoints is suggested by explosive-event line profiles with enhanced wings up to 200 km/s and magnetic cancellation with a rate of ~1015 Mx/s. In the third group, an interaction between two cool loop systems is observed. Mixed-magnetic polarities are seen in their conjunction area where explosive-event line profiles and magnetic cancellation with a rate of 3×1015 Mx/s are found. This is a clear indication that magnetic reconnection occurs between these two loop systems. Our observations suggest that the cool transition region loops are heated impulsively most likely by sequences of magnetic reconnection events.

  6. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  7. High-resolution mini gamma camera for diagnosis and radio-guided surgery in diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Capriotti, G.; Di Santo, G.; Capotondi, C.; Micarelli, A.; Massari, R.; Trotta, C.; Soluri, A.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis is often difficult. 99m Tc-WBC (White Blood Cell) scintigraphy plays a key role in the diagnosis of bone infections. Spatial resolution of Anger camera is not always able to differentiate soft tissue from bone infection. Aim of present study is to verify if HRD (High-Resolution Detector) is able to improve diagnosis and to help surgery. Patients were studied by HRD showing 25.7x25.7 mm 2 FOV, 2 mm spatial resolution and 18% energy resolution. The patients were underwent to surgery and, when necessary, bone biopsy, both guided by HRD. Four patients were positive at Anger camera without specific signs of osteomyelitis. HRS (High-Resolution Scintigraphy) showed hot spots in the same patients. In two of them the hot spot was bar-shaped and it was localized in correspondence of the small phalanx. The presence of bone infection was confirmed at surgery, which was successfully guided by HRS. 99m Tc-WBC HRS was able to diagnose pedal infection and to guide the surgery of diabetic foot, opening a new way in the treatment of infected diabetic foot

  8. High-resolution mini gamma camera for diagnosis and radio-guided surgery in diabetic foot infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scopinaro, F. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Capriotti, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Di Santo, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University ' La Sapienza' Rome (Italy); Capotondi, C. [Unit of Radiology, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Micarelli, A. [Nuclear Medicine, Sulmona Hospital, Sulmona (AQ) (Italy); Massari, R. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Trotta, C. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy); Soluri, A. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, ISIB-CNR, Rome-Li-tech srl, Lauzacco Pavia di Udine (UD) (Italy)]. E-mail: soluri@isib.cnr.it

    2006-12-20

    The diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis is often difficult. {sup 99m}Tc-WBC (White Blood Cell) scintigraphy plays a key role in the diagnosis of bone infections. Spatial resolution of Anger camera is not always able to differentiate soft tissue from bone infection. Aim of present study is to verify if HRD (High-Resolution Detector) is able to improve diagnosis and to help surgery. Patients were studied by HRD showing 25.7x25.7 mm{sup 2} FOV, 2 mm spatial resolution and 18% energy resolution. The patients were underwent to surgery and, when necessary, bone biopsy, both guided by HRD. Four patients were positive at Anger camera without specific signs of osteomyelitis. HRS (High-Resolution Scintigraphy) showed hot spots in the same patients. In two of them the hot spot was bar-shaped and it was localized in correspondence of the small phalanx. The presence of bone infection was confirmed at surgery, which was successfully guided by HRS. {sup 99m}Tc-WBC HRS was able to diagnose pedal infection and to guide the surgery of diabetic foot, opening a new way in the treatment of infected diabetic foot.

  9. GMTIFS: the adaptive optics beam steering mirror for the GMT integral-field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.; Bloxham, G.; Boz, R.; Bundy, D.; Espeland, B.; Fordham, B.; Hart, J.; Herrald, N.; Nielsen, J.; Sharp, R.; Vaccarella, A.; Vest, C.; Young, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    To achieve the high adaptive optics sky coverage necessary to allow the GMT Integral-Field Spectrograph (GMTIFS) to access key scientific targets, the on-instrument adaptive-optics wavefront-sensing (OIWFS) system must patrol the full 180 arcsecond diameter guide field passed to the instrument. The OIWFS uses a diffraction limited guide star as the fundamental pointing reference for the instrument. During an observation the offset between the science target and the guide star will change due to sources such as flexure, differential refraction and non-sidereal tracking rates. GMTIFS uses a beam steering mirror to set the initial offset between science target and guide star and also to correct for changes in offset. In order to reduce image motion from beam steering errors to those comparable to the AO system in the most stringent case, the beam steering mirror is set a requirement of less than 1 milliarcsecond RMS. This corresponds to a dynamic range for both actuators and sensors of better than 1/180,000. The GMTIFS beam steering mirror uses piezo-walk actuators and a combination of eddy current sensors and interferometric sensors to achieve this dynamic range and control. While the sensors are rated for cryogenic operation, the actuators are not. We report on the results of prototype testing of single actuators, with the sensors, on the bench and in a cryogenic environment. Specific failures of the system are explained and suspected reasons for them. A modified test jig is used to investigate the option of heating the actuator and we report the improved results. In addition to individual component testing, we built and tested a complete beam steering mirror assembly. Testing was conducted with a point source microscope, however controlling environmental conditions to less than 1 micron was challenging. The assembly testing investigated acquisition accuracy and if there was any un-sensed hysteresis in the system. Finally we present the revised beam steering mirror

  10. WAVELENGTH ACCURACY OF THE KECK HIRES SPECTROGRAPH AND MEASURING CHANGES IN THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, Kim; Whitmore, Jonathan B.; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Howk, J. Christopher; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an attempt to accurately wavelength calibrate four nights of data taken with the Keck HIRES spectrograph on QSO PHL957, for the purpose of determining whether the fine structure constant was different in the past. Using new software and techniques, we measured the redshifts of various Ni II, Fe II, Si II, etc. lines in a damped Lyα system at z = 2.309. Roughly half the data were taken through the Keck iodine cell which contains thousands of well calibrated iodine lines. Using these iodine exposures to calibrate the normal Th-Ar Keck data pipeline output, we found absolute wavelength offsets of 500 m s -1 to 1000 m s -1 with drifts of more than 500 m s -1 over a single night, and drifts of nearly 2000 m s -1 over several nights. These offsets correspond to an absolute redshift of uncertainty of about Δz ∼ 10 -5 (Δλ ∼ 0.02 A), with daily drifts of around Δz ∼ 5 x 10 -6 (Δλ ∼ 0.01 A), and multiday drifts of nearly Δz ∼ 2 x 10 -5 (∼0.04 A). The causes of the wavelength offsets are not known, but since claimed shifts in the fine structure constant would result in velocity shifts of less than 100 m s -1 , this level of systematic uncertainty may make it difficult to use Keck HIRES data to constrain the change in the fine structure constant. Using our calibrated data, we applied both our own fitting software and standard fitting software to measure Δα/α, but discovered that we could obtain results ranging from significant detection of either sign, to strong null limits, depending upon which sets of lines and which fitting method were used. We thus speculate that the discrepant results on Δα/α reported in the literature may be due to random fluctuations coming from underestimated systematic errors in wavelength calibration and fitting procedure.

  11. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF NEAR-IR WATER (H{sub 2}O) EMISSION IN COMET C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) WITH THE GIANO/TNG SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggi, S.; Brucato, J. R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J., E-mail: sfaggi@arcetri.astro.it [NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1–2.5 μ m region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H{sub 2}O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [ Q (H{sub 2}O), (3.11 ± 0.14) × 10{sup 29} s{sup −1}] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H{sub 2}O. The production rates of ortho-water [ Q (H{sub 2}O){sup ORTHO}, (2.33 ± 0.11) × 10{sup 29} s{sup −1}] and para-water [ Q (H{sub 2}O){sup PARA}, (0.87 ± 0.21) × 1029 s{sup −1}] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70 ± 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  12. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.; Benson, S.V.; Shinn, M.D.; Zhang, S.

    2005-01-01

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS

  13. Spectrographic determination of impurities in enriched uranium solutions; Determinacion espectrografica de impurezas en soluciones de uranio enriquecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevila, C; Roca, M

    1980-07-01

    A spectrographic procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Al, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, L i , Hg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Ru, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, and Zr in enriched uranyl nitrate solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels is described. After removal of uranium by either TBP or TNOA solvent extraction, the aqueous phase Is analysed by the graphite spark technique. TBP is adequate for all impurities, excepting boron and phosphorus; both of these elements can sat is factory be determined by using TNOA after the addition of mannitol to avoid boron losses. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. Effect of fluid elasticity on the numerical stability of high-resolution schemes for high shearing contraction flows using OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chourushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastic fluids due to their non-linear nature play an important role in process and polymer industries. These non-linear characteristics of fluid, influence final outcome of the product. Such processes though look simple are numerically challenging to study, due to the loss of numerical stability. Over the years, various methodologies have been developed to overcome this numerical limitation. In spite of this, numerical solutions are considered distant from accuracy, as first-order upwind-differencing scheme (UDS is often employed for improving the stability of algorithm. To elude this effect, some works been reported in the past, where high-resolution-schemes (HRS were employed and Deborah number was varied. However, these works are limited to creeping flows and do not detail any information on the numerical stability of HRS. Hence, this article presents the numerical study of high shearing contraction flows, where stability of HRS are addressed in reference to fluid elasticity. Results suggest that all HRS show some order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles, measured along vertical lines placed near contraction region in the upstream section of domain, at varied elasticity number E≈5. Furthermore, by E, a clear relationship between numerical stability of HRS and E was obtained, which states that the order of undue oscillations in flow variable profiles is directly proportional to E.

  15. Micro photometer`s automation for quantitative spectrograph analysis; Automatizacion de un microfotometro para analisis espectrografico cuantitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez E, C Y.A.

    1997-12-31

    A Microphotometer is used to increase the sharpness of dark spectral lines. Analyzing these lines one sample content and its concentration could be determined and the analysis is known as Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis. The Quantitative Spectrographic Analysis is carried out in 3 steps, as follows. 1. Emulsion calibration. This consists of gauging a photographic emulsion, to determine the intensity variations in terms of the incident radiation. For the procedure of emulsion calibration an adjustment with square minimum to the data obtained is applied to obtain a graph. It is possible to determine the density of dark spectral line against the incident light intensity shown by the microphotometer. 2. Working curves. The values of known concentration of an element against incident light intensity are plotted. Since the sample contains several elements, it is necessary to find a work curve for each one of them. 3. Analytical results. The calibration curve and working curves are compared and the concentration of the studied element is determined. The automatic data acquisition, calculation and obtaining of resulting, is done by means of a computer (PC) and a computer program. The conditioning signal circuits have the function of delivering TTL levels (Transistor Transistor Logic) to make the communication between the microphotometer and the computer possible. Data calculation is done using a computer programm.

  16. The Behavior of Warm Molecules in Planet-forming Disks and CHESS: a Pathfinder UV Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of gas over the lifetime of protoplanetary disks provides us with important clues about how planet formation mechanisms drive the diversity of exoplanetary systems observed to date. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how we use emission line observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the warm molecular regions (a CHESS), built as a demonstration of one component of the LUVOIR spectrograph and new technological improvements to UV optical components for the next generation of near- to far-UV astrophysical observatories. CHESS is a far-UV sounding rocket experiment designed to probe the warm and cool atoms and molecules near sites of recent star formation in the local interstellar medium. I will talk about the science goals, design, research and development (R&D) components, and calibration of the CHESS instrument. I will end by presenting the initial data reduction and results of the flight observations taken during the second launch of CHESS.

  17. Lead shielded cells for the spectrographic analysis of radioisotope solutions; Descripcion de un equipo, con recintos blindados, para el analisis espectrografico de soluciones de radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, M; Capdevila, C; Cruz, F de la

    1967-07-01

    Two lead shielded cells for the spectrochemical analysis of radioisotope samples are described. One of them is devoted to the evaporation of samples before excitation and the other one contains a suitable spectrographic excitation stand for the copper spark technique. A special device makes it possible the easy displacement of the excitation cell on wheels and rails for its accurate and reproducible position as well as its replacement by a glove box for plutonium analysis. In order to guarantee safety the room in which the spectrograph and the source are set up in separated from the active laboratory by a wall with a suitable window. (Author) 1 refs.

  18. A Search for Rarely Seen Ultraviolet Coma Emissions and New Species Upper Limits at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Using the Rosetta-Alice Ultraviolet Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, J.; Stern, S. A.; Parker, J. W.; Keeney, B. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Feldman, P.; Steffl, A.; Feaga, L. M.; Bertaux, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Alice far/extreme-UV spectrograph aboard Rosetta is one of three US instruments provided by NASA; it is the first UV spectrograph to reach any comet. Numerous scientific results have been obtained regarding 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by this instrument. Here we summarize two new sets of results from a search for rarely appearing atomic and molecular spectral emission features and a grand sum spectrum allowing us to place new atomic and molecular neutral and ionized species upper limits in the comet's coma.

  19. Spectrographic study of neodymium complexing with hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, E.G.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution spectrography is used to study neodymium (3) complexing with hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (H 4 X) in aqueous solution with hydrogen ion concentration being 0.35-4.5 g-ion/l. It is shown that complex of NdH 2 X + composition characterized by λ=4290 A absorption band in electron spectrum in transition range 4 I 9/2 → 2 P 1/2 is formed in a system. The lgK stab =5.62 ± 0.07 value is calculated. It is supposed that high stability of a complex is conditioned by participation of ligand nondissociated alcohol group in coordination

  20. Voltage optimization of a 4-element injection lens on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, G.; Fernández-Martín, M. [Dept. Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sise, O. [Dept. of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A. [Dept. of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR 15310 Agia Paraskevi (Greece); Laoutaris, A. [Dept. of Applied Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR 15780 Zografou (Greece); Zouros, T.J.M. [Dept. of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR 15310 Agia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    We present simulation results for a biased paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer equipped with a 4-element input lens and a position sensitive detector used in our zero-degree Auger projectile spectroscopy apparatus. Calculations of electron trajectories traversing the lens and analyzer fields were performed and cross checked using both boundary-element and finite-difference methods. The two middle lens electrode voltages were varied as free parameters, while various criteria were used to select their optimal values in an effort to obtain improved energy resolution.

  1. Mechanical time-shutter for spectrograph with exposure times from 1.5 {mu}s to 3 ms; Un obturateur mecanique pour spectrographe dont le temps d'exposition varie de 1,5 microseconde a 3 millisecondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L; Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Association Euratom - CEA, Groupe de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A mechanical time-shutter for exposure-times ranging from l,5 {mu}s to 3 ms is described. The apparatus is designed for spectrographic observations of pulsed electrical discharges which show rapidly varying spectral emissivities. For the mechanical part of the shutter we used a specially formed fast rotating disk having a slit. Triggering of the discharge is achieved by the rotating disk - in connection with photocells. Both the instant at which - after the beginning of the electrical discharge - the exposure shall begin, and the duration of exposure which will then follow can be 'preselected' on a special electronic control device. All functions: rotation of the disk - ignition of the discharge - exposure - switch-off of the disk are controlled electronically. The principle and the main electronic control parts of this versatile instrument are described. (authors) [French] On decrit un obturateur spectrographique rapide ayant des temps d'exposition allant de 1,5 {mu}s a 3 ms. L'obturateur est concu pour faire des observations spectrographiques de decharges pulsees dont l'emission spectrale varie rapidement. En ce qui concerne la partie mecanique nous avons utilise un disque comprenant une fente, qui tourne devant la fente d'entree du spectrographe. L'amorcage de la decharge est assure par le disque lui-meme, a l'aide de cellules photoelectriques. L'instant a partir duquel l'observation doit commencer - apres avoir amorce la decharge -, ainsi que la duree d'exposition qui suit, peuvent etre preselectionnes sur un tiroir electronique. Toutes les fonctions: mise en rotation du disque - amorcage de la decharge - exposition - freinage du disque se suivent automatiquement. Le principe ainsi que les circuits electroniques de controle de cet appareil sont decrits. (auteur)

  2. Radiochemical studies in chemical separation and spectrographic determination of rare earths in thorium oxide matrix (Preprint No. RA.06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeshwari, B.; Bangia, T.R.; Sastry, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    A chemical separation procedure was standardised for the separation of traces of rare earths from ThO 2 matrix using HDEHP (Di 2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The studies were carried out using both nitric acid and hydrochloric acid medium in different concentrations. The extraction studies were also carried out using radioactive isotopes of rare earths viz. 141 Ce, 152-154 Eu, 153 Gd, 170 Tm etc. The extraction was effective in both media. In 0.1 M HDEHP/xylene and 3 M HNO 3 , Ce was partially extracted into organic phase. So HCl/xylene medium was chosen for extraction purposes. The recovery was confirmed by both gamma counting and emission spectropgraphic method. It was found to be quantitative within experimental error. The separation procedure development here was used for determination of rare earths in thorium oxide matrix by emission spectrographic method. (author)

  3. First Direct Mass Measurements of Nuclides around Z =100 with a Multireflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Schury, P.; Wada, M.; Arai, F.; Haba, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishizawa, S.; Kaji, D.; Kimura, S.; Koura, H.; MacCormick, M.; Miyatake, H.; Moon, J. Y.; Morimoto, K.; Morita, K.; Mukai, M.; Murray, I.; Niwase, T.; Okada, K.; Ozawa, A.; Rosenbusch, M.; Takamine, A.; Tanaka, T.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Wollnik, H.; Yamaki, S.

    2018-04-01

    The masses of 246Es, 251Fm, and the transfermium nuclei Md-252249 and 254No, produced by hot- and cold-fusion reactions, in the vicinity of the deformed N =152 neutron shell closure, have been directly measured using a multireflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph. The masses of 246Es and 249,250,252Md were measured for the first time. Using the masses of Md,250249 as anchor points for α decay chains, the masses of heavier nuclei, up to 261Bh and 266Mt, were determined. These new masses were compared with theoretical global mass models and demonstrated to be in good agreement with macroscopic-microscopic models in this region. The empirical shell gap parameter δ2 n derived from three isotopic masses was updated with the new masses and corroborates the existence of the deformed N =152 neutron shell closure for Md and Lr.

  4. The spectrographic analysis of plutonium oxide or mixed plutonium oxide/uranium oxide fuel pellets by the dried residue technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarbo, G.J.; Faught, P.; Hildebrandt, B.

    1980-05-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the quantitative determination of metallic impurities in plutonium oxide and mixed plutonium oxide/uranium oxide is described. The fuel is dissolved in nitric acid and the plutonium and/or uranium extracted with tributyl phosphate. A small aliquot of the aqueous residue is dried on a 'mini' pyrolitic graphite plate and excited by high voltage AC spark in an oxygen atmosphere. Spectra are recorded in a region which has been specially selected to record simultaneously lines of boron and cadmium in the 2nd order and all the other elements of interest in the 1st order. Indium is used as an internal standard. The excitation of very small quantities of the uraniumm/plutonium free residue by high voltage spark, together with three separate levels of containment reduce the hazards to personnel and the environment to a minimum with limited effect on sensitivity and accuracy of the results. (auth)

  5. Quantitative spectrographic analysis of Li, Na and Ca in uranium base materials, using the carrier distillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.P.; Brito, J. de.

    1978-01-01

    A spectrographic method for the quantitative determination of Ca, Li and Na in uranium base materials is described. The carrier destillation technique is used and a study is made for the selection of best carrier compounds. In U 3 O 8 matrix, the best results are obtained with 4% In 2 O 3 for the determination of Na and a 15% mixed carrier (3 NaCl + 1 Y 2 O 3 ) for the determination of Ca and Li. The minium determination limit for Ca and Li is 1 ppm while for Na it is 15 ppm. The precision of the method is calculated and the relative standard deviation is found to be 11, 16 and 6,5% for Ca, Li and Na respectively [pt

  6. Spatial Variability in the Ratio of Interstellar Atomic Deuterium to Hydrogen. II. Observations toward γ2 Velorum and ζ Puppis by the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Tripp, Todd M.; Ferlet, Roger; Jenkins, Edward B.; Sofia, U. J.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Woźniak, Prezemysław R.

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the early-type stars γ2 Vel and ζ Pup were obtained to measure the interstellar deuterium abundances in these directions. The observations were made with the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in 1996. IMAPS spectra cover the wavelength range 930-1150 Å with λ/Δλ~80,000. The interstellar D I features are resolved and cleanly separated from interstellar H I in the Lyδ and Lyɛ profiles of both sight lines and also in the Lyγ profile of ζ Pup. The D I profiles were modeled using a velocity template derived from several N I lines in the IMAPS spectra recorded at higher signal-to-noise ratio. To find the best D I column density, we minimized χ2 for model D I profiles that included not only the N(D I) as a free parameter, but also the effects of several potential sources of systematic error, which were allowed to vary as free parameters. H I column densities were measured by analyzing Lyα absorption profiles in a large number of IUE high-dispersion spectra for each of these stars and applying this same χ2-minimization technique. Ultimately we found that D/H=2.18+0.36-0.31×10-5 for γ2 Vel and 1.42+0.25-0.23×10-5 for ζ Pup, values that contrast markedly with D/H derived in Paper I for δ Ori A (the stated errors are 90% confidence limits). Evidently, the atomic D/H ratio in the ISM, averaged over path lengths of 250-500 pc, exhibits significant spatial variability. Furthermore, the observed spatial variations in D/H do not appear to be anticorrelated with N/H, one measure of heavy-element abundances. We briefly discuss some hypotheses to explain the D/H spatial variability. Within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large value of D/H found toward γ2 Vel is equivalent to a cosmic baryon density of ΩBh2=0.023+/-0.002, which we regard as an upper limit since there is no correction for the destruction of deuterium in stars. This paper is

  7. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  8. Waveguide image-slicers for ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas; Andersen, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Waveguide image-slicer prototypes with resolutions up to 310.000 for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 30 μm have been manufactured. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of 7 and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 4.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image-slicer stacks can be used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to be implemented in a set of four, measurements indicate an overall efficiency of above 80% for them.

  9. Multi-resolution waveguide image slicer for the PEPSI instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Erik; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Harnisch, Gerd; Hornaff, Marcel; Weber, Michael; Barnes, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    A waveguide image slicer with resolutions up to 270.000 (planned: 300.000) for the fiber fed PEPSI echelle spectrograph at the LBT and single waveguide thicknesses of down to 70 μm has been manufactured and tested. The waveguides were macroscopically prepared, stacked up to an order of seven and thinned back to square stack cross sections. A high filling ratio was achieved by realizing homogenous adhesive gaps of 3.6 μm, using index matching adhesives for TIR within the waveguides. The image slicer stacks are used in immersion mode and are miniaturized to enable implementation in a set of 2x8. The overall efficiency is between 92 % and 96 %.

  10. High-resolution spectroscopic search for the thermal emission of the extrasolar planet HD 217107 b

    OpenAIRE

    Cubillos, Patricio E.; Rojo, Patricio; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the combined near-infrared spectrum of a star-planet system with thermal emission atmospheric models, based on the composition and physical parameters of the system. The main objective of this work is to obtain the inclination of the orbit, the mass of the exoplanet, and the planet-to-star flux ratio. We present the results of our routines on the planetary system HD 217107, which was observed with the high-resolution spectrograph Phoenix at 2.14 microns. We revisited and tuned a c...

  11. Measurements of spatially resolved high resolution spectra of laser-produced plasmas. FY 83 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, U.

    1984-01-01

    A high resolution grazing incidence spectrograph, provided by the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has been installed on the Omega laser facility of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester. This 3 meter instrument, with a 1200 lines/mm grating blazed at 2 0 35', has produced extremely high quality spectra in the wavelength region 10 A to 100 A. Spectra have been obtained from glass microballoon targets that are coated with a variety of high-Z materials. Transitions from the Na-like and Ne-like ionization stages of Fe, Ni, Cu, and Kr have been identified

  12. BATMAN: a DMD-based multi-object spectrograph on Galileo telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Spano, Paolo; Lanzoni, Patrick; Ramarijaona, Harald; Moschetti, Manuele; Riva, Marco; Bon, William; Nicastro, Luciano; Molinari, Emilio; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Gonzalez, Manuel; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cirami, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Valenziano, Luca

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation infrared astronomical instrumentation for ground-based and space telescopes could be based on MOEMS programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). This astronomical technique is used extensively to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. We are developing a 2048x1080 Digital-Micromirror-Device-based (DMD) MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope and called BATMAN. A two-arm instrument has been designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. The field of view (FOV) is 6.8 arcmin x 3.6 arcmin with a plate scale of 0.2 arcsec per micromirror. The wavelength range is in the visible and the spectral resolution is R=560 for 1 arcsec object (typical slit size). The two arms will have 2k x 4k CCD detectors. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. It permits to determine the instrument integration procedure, including optics and mechanics integration, alignment procedure and optical quality. First images and spectra have been obtained and measured: typical spot diameters are within 1.5 detector pixels, and spectra generated by one micro-mirror slits are displayed with this optical quality over the whole visible wavelength range. Observation strategies are studied and demonstrated for the scientific optimization strategy over the whole FOV. BATMAN on the sky is of prime importance for characterizing the actual performance of this new family of MOS instruments, as well as investigating the operational procedures on astronomical objects. This instrument will be placed on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo mid-2015.

  13. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  14. K-KIDS: K Dwarfs and Their Companions. First Results from Radial Velocity Survey with CHIRON Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Leonardo; Henry, Todd; Nusdeo, Daniel; Winters, J.; Dincer, Tolga

    2018-01-01

    We present the K-KIDS project, an effort to survey a large sample of K dwarfs and their companions, the KIDS. We are observing a carefully vetted equatorial sample (DEC = -30 to +30) of more than 1000 K dwarfs within 50 pc to make a comprehensive assessment of stellar, substellar and planetary companions with separations of 0.1 to 10,000 AU.The initial sample of 1048 stars has been compiled using astrometric data from Hipparcos and photometric data from Tycho-2 and 2MASS. Four different imaging and spectroscopic surveys are underway. Here we present the strategy and initial results for our high-precision radial velocity survey for the closest companions using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5m telescope. Individual measurements with CHIRON at R = 80,000 using ThAr wavelength calibration, indicate that for K dwarf radial velocity standards with V = 5.8, 7.0 and 8.0 yield precisions over 6 weeks of observing of 7.4 m/s, 9.8 m/s and 5.7 m/s. In the first two months, a core sample of 42 K dwarfs, including carefully selected calibration systems as well as previously unobserved stars, was observed every few nights to detect the radial velocity signals of close companions. In our calibration stellar systems, we have confirmed the suitability of CHIRON for our studies, by having found periodic radial velocity perturbations consistent with hot Jupiter and stellar companions previously detected. This set forms the foundation of our one-year survey of 100 K dwarfs with magnitudes as faint as V = 11.5, for which we should detect companions with masses as low as Jupiter.In light of the promising performance and efficiency of the CHIRON spectrograph for a long-term radial velocity survey, we have expanded our initial sample using Gaia Data Release 1 to 1824 K dwarfs within 50 pc. Ultimately, the combination of all four surveys will provide an unprecedented portrait of K dwarfs and their kids.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grant AST-1517413, and

  15. Land-use Scene Classification in High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images by Multiscale Deeply Described Correlatons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, K.; Qingfeng, G.

    2017-12-01

    With the popular use of High-Resolution Satellite (HRS) images, more and more research efforts have been placed on land-use scene classification. However, it makes the task difficult with HRS images for the complex background and multiple land-cover classes or objects. This article presents a multiscale deeply described correlaton model for land-use scene classification. Specifically, the convolutional neural network is introduced to learn and characterize the local features at different scales. Then, learnt multiscale deep features are explored to generate visual words. The spatial arrangement of visual words is achieved through the introduction of adaptive vector quantized correlograms at different scales. Experiments on two publicly available land-use scene datasets demonstrate that the proposed model is compact and yet discriminative for efficient representation of land-use scene images, and achieves competitive classification results with the state-of-art methods.

  16. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European extremely large telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.J.; Puech, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Caffau, E.; Disseau, K.; Flores, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Aussel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (=40 arcmin 2 ) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of ≥100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of ≥10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the top level requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process. (authors)

  17. Mg IX emission lines in an active region spectrum obtained with the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Thomas, R. J.; Neupert, W. M.; Conlon, E. S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical electron-temperature-sensitive Mg IX emission line ratios are presented for R(sub 1) = I(443.96 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 2) = I(439.17 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 3) = I(443.37 A)/I(368.06 A), R(sub 4) = I(441.22 A)/I(368.06 A), and R(sub 5) = I(448.28 A)/I(368.06 A). A comparison of these with observational data for a solar active region, obtained during a rocket flight by the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), reveals excellent agreement between theory and observation for R(sub 1) through R(sub 4), with discrepancies that average only 9%. This provides experimental support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations, and also resolves discrepancies found previously when the theoretical results were compared with solar data from the S082A instrument on board Skylab. However in the case of R(sub 5), the theoretical and observed ratios differ by almost a factor of 2. This may be due to the measured intensity of the 448.28 A line being seriously affected by instrumental effects, as it lies very close to the long wavelength edge of the SERTS spectral coverage (235.46-448.76 A).

  18. Quantitative analysis of selected minor and trace elements through use of a computerized automatic x-ray spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbi, B.P.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Espos, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    Upgrading a manual X-ray spectrograph, interfacing with an 8K computer, and employment of interelement correction programs have resulted in a several-fold increase in productivity for routine quantitative analysis and an accompanying decrease in operator bias both in measurement procedures and in calculations. Factors such as dead time and self-absorption also are now computer corrected, resulting in improved accuracy. All conditions of analysis except for the X-ray tube voltage are controlled by the computer, which enhances precision of analysis. Elemental intensities are corrected for matrix effects, and from these the percent concentrations are calculated and printed via teletype. Interelement correction programs utilizing multiple linear regression are employed for the determination of the following minor and trace elements: K, S, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr in silicate rocks, and Ba, As, Sb, and Zn in both silicate and carbonate rock samples. The last named elements use the same regression curves for both rock types. All these elements are determined in concentrations generally ranging from 0.0025 percent to 4.00 percent. The sensitivities obtainable range from 0.0001 percent for barium to 0.001 percent for antimony. The accuracy, as measured by the percent relative error for a variety of silicate and carbonate rocks, is on the order of 1-7 percent. The exception is yttrium

  19. Spectro-photometric calibration of the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph in the Nearby Supernova Factory collaboration framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buton, Clement

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, type Ia supernovae used as distances indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. Today, a second generation of surveys has significantly increased the high-redshift type Ia supernovae sample. The low-redshift sample was however still limiting the cosmological analysis using SNe. In this framework, the Nearby Supernova Factory has followed 200 nearby type Ia supernovae using the dedicated Supernovae Integral Field Spectrograph with spectro-photometric capacities. My PhD thesis has been carried out at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon and at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the framework of the international cosmological project SNfactory. In order to reach the design spectrophotometric accuracy, attention has been focused on several key aspects of the calibration procedure, including: determination of a dedicated point spread function for 3D point source extraction, estimating the nightly photometric quality, derivation of the nightly sky extinction over the extended optical domain, its modeling in terms of physical components and its variability within a given night. A full multi-standards calibration pipeline has been implemented using approximately 4000 observations of spectrophotometric standard stars taken throughout the night over nearly 500 individual nights. Preliminary scientific results of the whole SNfactory collaboration will be presented at the end of this thesis. (author)

  20. Data reduction pipeline for the CHARIS integral-field spectrograph I: detector readout calibration and data cube extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Rizzo, Maxime; Groff, Tyler; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Greco, Johnny P.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Limbach, Mary Anne; Galvin, Michael; Loomis, Craig; Knapp, Gillian; McElwain, Michael W.; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Currie, Thayne; Mede, Kyle; Tamura, Motohide; Takato, Naruhisa; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2017-10-01

    We present the data reduction pipeline for CHARIS, a high-contrast integral-field spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope. The pipeline constructs a ramp from the raw reads using the measured nonlinear pixel response and reconstructs the data cube using one of three extraction algorithms: aperture photometry, optimal extraction, or χ2 fitting. We measure and apply both a detector flatfield and a lenslet flatfield and reconstruct the wavelength- and position-dependent lenslet point-spread function (PSF) from images taken with a tunable laser. We use these measured PSFs to implement a χ2-based extraction of the data cube, with typical residuals of ˜5% due to imperfect models of the undersampled lenslet PSFs. The full two-dimensional residual of the χ2 extraction allows us to model and remove correlated read noise, dramatically improving CHARIS's performance. The χ2 extraction produces a data cube that has been deconvolved with the line-spread function and never performs any interpolations of either the data or the individual lenslet spectra. The extracted data cube also includes uncertainties for each spatial and spectral measurement. CHARIS's software is parallelized, written in Python and Cython, and freely available on github with a separate documentation page. Astrometric and spectrophotometric calibrations of the data cubes and PSF subtraction will be treated in a forthcoming paper.

  1. The spectrographic analysis of inorganic impurities in heavy water; Analyse spectrographique des impuretes minerales dans l'eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Normand, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Analyses et de Recherches Chimiques Appliquees, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Vie, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service d' Etude de Traitement des Combustibles Irradies, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Inorganic impurities in heavy water are determined by two spectrographic methods. First is described the copper-spark method which is sensitive and directly applicable, and is particular useful because of the absence of a support. Secondly the graphite impregnation method is given; this is used when the first method is not applicable (determination of copper) and for the alkali metals. For the usual elements, the sensitivity of the copper spark method is of the order of 0,1 {mu}g/ml whereas for the graphite impregnation method the sensitivity is only 0,3 {mu}g/ml. (author) [French] Les impuretes minerales dans l'eau lourde sont dosees au moyen de deux methodes spectrographiques. On decrit en premier lieu la methode 'copper spark' sensible directement applicable, et particulierement favorable du fait de l'absence de matrice. En second lieu, on decrit la methode d'impregnation du graphite, utilisee lorsque la methode precedente tombe en defaut (recherche du cuivre) et pour les alcalins. Avec la methode 'copper spark' nous obtenons pour les elements courants, des sensibilites de l'ordre de 0,1 {mu}g/ml, alors qu'elles ne sont que de 0,3 {mu}g/ml pour les alcalins doses a l'arc sur graphite impregne. (auteur)

  2. Non-Maxwellian Analysis of the Transition-region Line Profiles Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena [Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Polito, Vanessa; Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zanna, Giulio Del, E-mail: dudik@asu.cas.cz [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-10

    We investigate the nature of the spectral line profiles for transition-region (TR) ions observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) . In this context, we analyzed an active-region observation performed by IRIS in its 1400 Å spectral window. The TR lines are found to exhibit significant wings in their spectral profiles, which can be well fitted with a non-Maxwellian κ distribution. The fit with a κ distribution can perform better than a double-Gaussian fit, especially for the strongest line, Si iv 1402.8 Å. Typical values of κ found are about 2, occurring in a majority of spatial pixels where the TR lines are symmetric, i.e., the fit can be performed. Furthermore, all five spectral lines studied (from Si iv, O iv, and S iv) appear to have the same full-width at half-maximum irrespective of whether the line is an allowed or an intercombination transition. A similar value of κ is obtained for the electron distribution by the fitting of the line intensities relative to Si iv 1402.8 Å, if photospheric abundances are assumed. The κ distributions, however, do not remove the presence of non-thermal broadening. Instead, they actually increase the non-thermal width. This is because, for κ distributions, TR ions are formed at lower temperatures. The large observed non-thermal width lowers the opacity of the Si iv line sufficiently enough for this line to become optically thin.

  3. Far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers for the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.P.; Meier, R.R.; Wolfram, K.D.; Picone, J.M.; Thonnard, S.E.; Fritz, G.G.; Morrill, J.S.; Christensen, A.B.; Kayser, D.C.; Pranke, J.B.; Straus, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment is an optical remote sensing platform consisting of eight sensors, (spectrographs, spectrometers, and photometers) covering the wavelength range 550 to 8744 angstrom. RAIDS employs a mechanical scan platform to view the Earth's limb and measure line-of-sight column emission from tangent altitudes from 50 to 750 km. These measurements provide vertical profiles of atmospheric dayglow and nightglow from the mesosphere to the upper regions of the F-region ionosphere. RAIDS will be flown on the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) J weather satellite through the auspices of the US Air Force Space Test Program. The RAIDS wavelength and altitude coverage allows remote sensing of the major and many minor constituents in the thermosphere and ionosphere. These measurements will be used as part of a proof of concept for remote sensing of ionospheric and neutral density profiles. The RAIDS database will be used to study composition, thermal structure, and couplings between the mesosphere, thermosphere, thermal structure, and couplings between the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere. RAIDS is a joint venture of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the Aerospace Corporation. The authors describe the subset of RAIDS instruments developed at NRL covering the far to near UV regions (1,300 to 4,000 angstrom)

  4. Spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine; Dosage du chlore et du fluor par spectrographie d'emission en atmosphere inerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contamin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    Experimental conditions have been investigated in order to obtain the highest sensitivity in spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine using the Fassel method of excitation in an inert atmosphere. The influence of the nature of the atmosphere, of the discharge conditions and of the matrix material has been investigated. The following results have been established: 1. chlorine determination is definitely possible: a working curve has been drawn between 10 {mu}g and 100 {mu}g, the detection limit being around 5 {mu}g; 2. fluorine determination is not satisfactory: the detection limit is still of the order of 80 {mu}g. The best operating conditions have been defined for both elements. (author) [French] Nous avons recherche quelles etaient les conditions permettant d'obtenir la meilleure sensibilite dans le dosage spectrographique du chlore et du fluor par la methode d'excitation en atmosphere inerte (methode de Fassel). Nous avons etudie l'influence de l'atmosphere gazeuse, des conditions de la decharge et du materiau de pastillage. Les points suivants ont ete etablis: 1. le dosage du chlore est possible: une courbe de dosage a ete tracee entre 10 {mu}g et 100 {mu}g et la limite de detection est de l'ordre de 5 {mu}g; 2. le dosage du fluor n'est pas satisfaisant: la limite de detection obtenue etant encore de l'ordre de 80 {mu}g. Les conditions operatoires ont ete precisees pour ces deux elements. (auteur)

  5. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  6. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ammonium bifluoride. IV.Study of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation of the elements Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F.A.; Capdevila, C.; Roca, M.

    1981-01-01

    The influences of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation on the shape of the volatilization-excitation curves and on the values of the spectra-line intensities have been investigated in a method for the spectrographic determination of Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Si in ammonium bifluoride samples by direct current arc Ga 2 O 3 , GeO 2 , MgO and ZnO. The reaction products in the electrode cavity have been identified by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and the porcentages of vaporized and diffused element evaluated through analysis by total-burning spectrographic methods. In addition, the values of both the number of particles entering the discharge column and the transport efficiencies have been calculated. Thus, the origin of most observed differences has been explained. (author)

  7. Gemini Near Infrared Field Spectrograph Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy MRK 573: In Situ Acceleration of Ionized and Molecular Gas Off Fueling Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Machuca, C.; Diniz, M. R.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Riffel, R. A.; Schmitt, H. R.; Baron, F.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in approximately 700 x 2100 pc(exp 2) circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  8. Spectrographic determination of impurities in ammonium bifluoride. III. Study of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation of the elements Al, B, Cu and Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alduan, F. A.; Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1979-01-01

    The influences of the processes of vaporization, transport and excitation on the shape of the volatilization-excitation curves and on the values of the spectral-line intensities have been investigated in a method for the spectrographic determination of Al, B, Cu and Cr In ammonium bifluoride samples by direct current are excitation in Scribner type electrodes, with addition of different matrices (graphite, 63203, GeO 2 , MgO and Zn0). The reaction products in the electrode cavity have been identified by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and the percentages of vaporized and diffused element evaluated through analysis by total-burning spectrographic methods. In addition, the values of both the number of particles entering the discharge column and the transport efficiencies have been calculated. Thus, the origin of most observed differences has been explained. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Reduction of spectra exposed by the 700mm CCD camera of the Ondřejov telescope coudé spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoda, Petr; Slechta, Miroslav

    We present a brief cook-book for the reduction of spectra exposed by the Ondřejov 2-meter telescope coudé spectrograph. For the data reduction, we use standard IRAF packages running on Solaris and Linux. The sequence of commands is given for the typical reduction session together with short explanation and detailed list of parameter settings. The reduction progress is illustrated by example plots.

  10. Top down viewing of the inductively coupled plasma using a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and an all mirror optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, C.T.; Duchane, D.V.; Palmer, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Using an all-mirror optical system, an inductively coupled plasma is viewed top down and the light is directed to a dual grating, direct reading spectrograph. Top down viewing of the plasma, with masking of the image of the argon plasma torus at the spectrograph entrance slit, significantly reduces background signal from the source and permits the use of the depth of field of the optical system to achieve compromise conditions for viewing the plasma. Light from the plasma source is introduced to the optical system by means of a mirror situated directly over the plasma. The system is exhausted in such a way that cool air flowing past the mirror forms a thermal barrier between the mirror and the plasma. Elements such as copper and lead have atomic and ionic lines which tend to exhibit self absorption when viewed top down through the cooler ground state atoms in the plume of the plasma. One of the approaches to this problem is to shear off the plume of the plasma with a jet of air directed across the tip of the plasma. A second approach is to make use of the dual grating, direct reading spectrograph and real-time computer system which easily permits the setting of alternate lines for each element so that self absorption and matrix effects are minimized. The design of the dual-grating, direct-reading spectrograph allows for the mounting of more than 200 13-mm-dia photomultiplier tubes along the focal curves. In an effort to demonstrate the use of fiber optics as a viable technique for the closer placement of exit slits, a red sensitive photomultiplier tube was coupled with a 30-cm fiber-optic ribbon to detect light from the Li 670.784 nm line on the focal curve. It was successful and had the added advantages of absorbing second-order ultraviolet light

  11. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy in Astronomy Proceedings of an ESO Workshop Held at Garching, Germany, 18-21 November 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Käufl, Hans Ulrich; Moorwood, Alan F. M

    2005-01-01

    Two specialized new instruments for ESO's VLT, VISIR and CRIRES, spawned the idea for this workshop. CRIRES is a dedicated very high resolution infrared spectrograph; VISIR features a high resolution spectroscopic mode. Together, the instruments combine the sensitivity of an 8m-telescope with the now well-established reliability of VLT-facility instruments. High resolution here means that lines in cool stellar atmospheres and HII-regions can be resolved. The astrophysical topics discussed in this rather specialized workshop range from the inner solar system to active galactic nuclei. There are many possibilities for new discoveries with these instruments, but the unique capability, which becomes available through high-resolution infrared spectroscopy, is the observation of molecular rotational-vibrational transitions in many astrophysical environments. Particularly interesting and surprising in this context, many papers on modeling and laboratory spectroscopy at the workshop appear to indicate that astronomic...

  12. Recovering the colour-dependent albedo of exoplanets with high-resolution spectroscopy: from ESPRESSO to the ELT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J. H. C.; Figueira, P.; Santos, N. C.; Melo, C.; Garcia Muñoz, A.; Faria, J.; Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.

    2018-05-01

    The characterization of planetary atmospheres is a daunting task, pushing current observing facilities to their limits. The next generation of high-resolution spectrographs mounted on large telescopes - such as ESPRESSO@VLT and HIRES@ELT - will allow us to probe and characterize exoplanetary atmospheres in greater detail than possible to this point. We present a method that permits the recovery of the colour-dependent reflectivity of exoplanets from high-resolution spectroscopic observations. Determining the wavelength-dependent albedo will provide insight into the chemical properties and weather of the exoplanet atmospheres. For this work, we simulated ESPRESSO@VLT and HIRES@ELT high-resolution observations of known planetary systems with several albedo configurations. We demonstrate how the cross correlation technique applied to theses simulated observations can be used to successfully recover the geometric albedo of exoplanets over a range of wavelengths. In all cases, we were able to recover the wavelength dependent albedo of the simulated exoplanets and distinguish between several atmospheric models representing different atmospheric configurations. In brief, we demonstrate that the cross correlation technique allows for the recovery of exoplanetary albedo functions from optical observations with the next generation of high-resolution spectrographs that will be mounted on large telescopes with reasonable exposure times. Its recovery will permit the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres in terms of composition and dynamics and consolidates the cross correlation technique as a powerful tool for exoplanet characterization.

  13. Experimental studies of the break-up of 156 MeV 6Li-ions at extreme forward angles using the Karlsruhe magnetic spectrograph 'Little John'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelitto, H.

    1987-05-01

    6 Li-induced break-up reactions have been investigated at reaction angles in extreme forward direction including O 0 with the Karlsruhe Magnetic Spectrograph 'Little John'. The experiments were characterized by the minimization of the high experimental background that dominates at small emission angles. Inclusive alpha-particle and deuteron spectra from the bombardement of 12 C- and 208 Pb-targets with 156 MeV 6 Li-ions have been measured. Below the grazing angle the Coulomb interaction shows a distinct influence on the angular distributions of the fragments. A simple spectator-model and a more realistic description within the DWBA-formalism largely allows a reproduction of the data. In the light of the reverse reaction α + d → 6 Li + γ at small α-d-relative energies, which is of considerable interest for astrophysics, a particle-particle-coincidence measurement with θ α = 5 0 and θ d = -2 0 has been performed. The result could be reproduced reasonably well by a simple Monte-Carlo-simulation. Beside the treatment of a physical problem this work deals with the start-up of the magnetic spectrograph and the clarification of spectrograph specific questions concerning the data reduction. (orig.) [de

  14. A high-resolution atlas of composite Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Csabai, István.; Yip, Ching-Wa; Budavári, Tamás.; Wild, Vivienne; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-02-01

    In this work we present an atlas of composite spectra of galaxies based on the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7). Galaxies are classified by colour, nuclear activity and star formation activity to calculate average spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and resolution (? at Δλ= 1 Å), using an algorithm that is robust against outliers. Besides composite spectra, we also compute the first five principal components of the distributions in each galaxy class to characterize the nature of variations of individual spectra around the averages. The continua of the composite spectra are fitted with BC03 stellar population synthesis models to extend the wavelength coverage beyond the coverage of the SDSS spectrographs. Common derived parameters of the composites are also calculated: integrated colours in the most popular filter systems, line-strength measurements and continuum absorption indices (including Lick indices). These derived parameters are compared with the distributions of parameters of individual galaxies, and it is shown on many examples that the composites of the atlas cover much of the parameter space spanned by SDSS galaxies. By co-adding thousands of spectra, a total integration time of several months can be reached, which results in extremely low noise composites. The variations in redshift not only allow for extending the spectral coverage bluewards to the original wavelength limit of the SDSS spectrographs, but also make higher spectral resolution achievable. The composite spectrum atlas is available online at .

  15. CONTAMINATION OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY BY NEBULAR EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES: INVESTIGATIONS WITH KECK'S MOSFIRE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; Konidaris, Nick P; Stark, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≅ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 28 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use these data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable with estimates derived using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al. Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consistent with that inferred for Hα based on SED fitting of Stark et al.'s larger sample of 3.8 < z < 5 galaxies. For a subset of survey galaxies, we use the combination of optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify kinematics of outflows in z ≅ 3.5 star-forming galaxies and discuss the implications for reionization measurements. The trends we uncover underline the dangers of relying purely on broadband photometry to estimate the physical properties of high-redshift galaxies and emphasize the important role of diagnostic spectroscopy

  16. Propagating wave in active region-loops, located over the solar disk observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Hou, Y. J.; Zhang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to ascertain the physical parameters of a propagating wave over the solar disk detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Methods: Using imaging data from the IRIS and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), we tracked bright spots to determine the parameters of a propagating transverse wave in active region (AR) loops triggered by activation of a filament. Deriving the Doppler velocity of Si IV line from spectral observations of IRIS, we have determined the rotating directions of active region loops which are relevant to the wave. Results: On 2015 December 19, a filament was located on the polarity inversion line of the NOAA AR 12470. The filament was activated and then caused a C1.1 two-ribbon flare. Between the flare ribbons, two rotation motions of a set of bright loops were observed to appear in turn with opposite directions. Following the end of the second rotation, a propagating wave and an associated transverse oscillation were detected in these bright loops. In 1400 Å channel, there was bright material flowing along the loops in a wave-like manner, with a period of 128 s and a mean amplitude of 880 km. For the transverse oscillation, we tracked a given loop and determine the transverse positions of the tracking loop in a limited longitudinal range. In both of 1400 Å and 171 Å channels, approximately four periods are distinguished during the transverse oscillation. The mean period of the oscillation is estimated as 143 s and the displacement amplitude as between 1370 km and 690 km. We interpret these oscillations as a propagating kink wave and obtain its speed of 1400 km s-1. Conclusions: Our observations reveal that a flare associated with filament activation could trigger a kink propagating wave in active region loops over the solar disk. Movies associated to Figs. 1-4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  17. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Observations of the Galactic Center: Quantifying the Extreme Ultraviolet/Soft X-ray Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been shown that the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the ionizing stars of H II regions can be estimated by comparing the observed line emission to detailed models. In the Galactic Center (GC), however, previous observations have shown that the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local photon field is strange, producing both very low excitation ionized gas (indicative of ionization by late O stars) and also widespread diffuse emission from atoms too highly ionized to be found in normal H II regions. This paper describes the analysis of all GC spectra taken by Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In it, H II region densities and abundances are described, and serendipitously discovered candidate planetary nebulae, compact shocks, and candidate young stellar objects are tabulated. Models were computed with Cloudy, using SEDs from Starburst99 plus additional X-rays, and compared to the observed mid-infrared forbidden and recombination lines. The ages inferred from the model fits do not agree with recent proposed star formation sequences (star formation in the GC occurring along streams of gas with density enhancements caused by close encounters with the black hole, Sgr A*), with Sgr B1, Sgr C, and the Arches Cluster being all about the same age, around 4.5 Myr old, with similar X-ray requirements. The fits for the Quintuplet Cluster appear to give a younger age, but that could be caused by higher-energy photons from shocks from stellar winds or from a supernova.

  18. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orphan stream high-resolution spectroscopic study (Casey+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, A. R.; Keller, S. C.; da Costa, G.; Frebel, A.; Maunder, E.

    2017-06-01

    High-resolution spectra for five Orphan stream candidates and seven well-studied standard stars have been obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph (Bernstein et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1694B) on the Magellan Clay telescope. These objects were observed in 2011 March using a 1" wide slit in mean seeing of 0.9". This slit configuration provides continuous spectral coverage from 333 nm to 915 nm, with a spectral resolution of R=25000 in the blue arm and R=28000 in the red arm. A minimum of 10 exposures of each calibration type (biases, flat fields, and diffuse flats) were observed in the afternoon of each day, with additional flat-field and Th-Ar arc lamp exposures performed throughout the night to ensure an accurate wavelength calibration. (3 data files).

  20. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  1. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atoms created in plasma heated by subpicosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The investigations of ultrashort (0.4-0.6 ps) laser pulse radiation interaction with solid targets have been carried out. The Trident subpicosecond laser system was used for plasma creation. The X-ray plasma emission was investigated with the help of high-resolution spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals. It is shown that when high contrast ultrashort laser pulses were used for plasma heating its emission spectra could not be explained in terms of commonly used theoretical models, and transitions in so called hollow atoms must be taken into account for adequate description of plasma radiation

  2. Search for trans-iron elements in hot, helium-rich white dwarfs with the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, D.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2018-04-01

    The metal abundances in the atmospheres of hot white dwarfs (WDs) entering the cooling sequence are determined by the preceding Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) evolutionary phase and, subsequently, by the onset of gravitational settling and radiative levitation. In this paper, we investigate three hot He-rich WDs, which are believed to result from a late He-shell flash. During such a flash, the He-rich intershell matter is dredged up and dominates the surface chemistry. Hence, in contrast to the usual H-rich WDs, their spectra allow direct access to s-process element abundances in the intershell that were synthesized during the AGB stage. In order to look for trans-iron group elements (atomic number Z > 29), we performed a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere analysis of new ultraviolet spectra taken with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. One of our program stars is of PG 1159 spectral type; this star, PG 1707+427, has effective temperature Teff = 85 000 K, and surface gravity logg = 7.5. The two other stars are DO white dwarfs: WD 0111+002 has Teff = 58 000 K and log g = 7.7, and PG 0109+111 has Teff = 70 000 K and log g = 8.0. These stars trace the onset of element diffusion during early WD evolution. While zinc is the only trans-iron element we could detect in the PG 1159 star, both DOs exhibit lines from Zn, Ga, Ge, Se; one additionally exhibits lines from Sr, Sn, Te, and I and the other from As. Generally, the trans-iron elements are very abundant in the DOs, meaning that radiative levitation must be acting. Most extreme is the almost six orders of magnitude oversolar abundance of tellurium in PG 0109+111. In terms of mass fraction, it is the most abundant metal in the atmosphere. The two DOs join the hitherto unique hot DO RE 0503-289, in which 14 trans-iron elements had even been identified. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which

  3. INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ≅ 1.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Lai, K.; Younger, J. D.; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D.; Daddi, E.; Laird, E. S.; Omont, A.; Wu, Y.; Bundy, K.; Cattaneo, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; Dickinson, M.; Egami, E.; Im, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papovich, C.; Rigopoulou, D.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a sample of galaxies chosen to have F 24μm > 0.5 mJy and satisfy a certain IRAC color criterion. Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra yield redshifts, spectral types, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) luminosities, to which we add broadband photometry from optical through IRAC wavelengths, MIPS from 24-160 μm, 1.1 mm, and radio at 1.4 GHz. Stellar population modeling and IRS spectra together demonstrate that the double criteria used to select this sample have efficiently isolated massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.9. This is the first starburst (SB)-dominated ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG) sample at high redshift with total infrared luminosity measured directly from FIR and millimeter photometry, and as such gives us the first accurate view of broadband spectral energy distributions for SB galaxies at extremely high luminosity and at all wavelengths. Similar broadband data are assembled for three other galaxy samples-local SB galaxies, local active galactic nucleus (AGN)/ULIRGs, and a second 24 μm-luminous z ∼ 2 sample dominated by AGN. L PAH /L IR for the new z ∼ 2 SB sample is the highest ever seen, some three times higher than in local SBs, whereas in AGNs this ratio is depressed below the SB trend, often severely. Several pieces of evidence imply that AGNs exist in this SB-dominated sample, except two of which even host very strong AGN, while they still have very strong PAH emission. The Advanced Camera for Surveys images show that most objects have very extended morphologies in the rest-frame ultraviolet band, thus extended distribution of PAH molecules. Such an extended distribution prevents further destruction PAH molecules by central AGNs. We conclude that objects in this sample are ULIRGs powered mainly by SB; and the total infrared luminosity density contributed by this type of objects is 0.9-2.6 x 10 7 L sun Mpc -3 .

  4. High resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya. [Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI (MISDC), Mendeleevo, Moscow region, (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years new classes of X-ray spectroscopic instruments possessing both dispersive and focusing properties have been manufactured. Their principal advantage over more traditional instruments is that they combine very high luminosity with high spatial resolution, while preserving the highest possible spectral resolution of their dispersive elements. These instruments opened up the registration of plasmas in new regimes and surroundings. The measurements delivered new information about the properties of even previously studied traditional plasma objects (e.g. ns-laser produced plasmas). Also the detailed investigation of relatively new plasma laboratory sources with very small dimensions and low energy content (e.g. mJ fs-laser pulses) became possible. The purpose of this report is to give a short review of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the past few years by MISDC (Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center) research team in the field of X-ray spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma. Experimental spectra have been obtained at various laser installations with nanosecond, sub-nanosecond, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses interacting with solid, gaseous or cluster targets in collaborations with research teams from Russia, USA, Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Italy, China and Israel. Practically all results have been obtained with the help of spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals operating in FSSR-1D, 2D schemes. (author)

  5. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6°N, 72.8°E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm^{-1} and 1024× 1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80° along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, cz, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period `τ ', the vertical wavelength, λ z, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, λ y, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters (τ , cz, λ z, and λ y), and results on the statistical study of MTIs that exist in the earth's mesospheric

  6. Optimal operation of a 4-element injection lens in a hemispherical spectrograph: FDM/BEM simulation and experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G; Madesis, I; Dimitriou, A; Zouros, T J M; Laoutaris, A; Sise, O

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the voltage settings for the 4-element injection lens of a biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA) with virtual entry aperture using numerical methods. The two lens electrode voltages were varied as free parameters while the electron optical properties of the analyzer were calculated from trajectories with test initial distributions for different pre-retardation factors in an effort to obtain improved energy resolution. The resulting lens voltages were then also tested on the existing HDA spectrometer at the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, while simulated and measured line profile characteristics were compared, particularly at the best resolution working points. (paper)

  7. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  8. Semiquantitative spectrographic analysis of nuclear interest minerals and of various products; Analisis espectrografico semicuantitativo de minerales de interes nuclear y productos diversos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Gonzalez, F; Roca Adell, M; Fernandez Cellini, R

    1958-07-01

    Because the great number of samples of various kinds receiving in the Chemical Division, minerals in the most part, for its complete analysis, a rapid spectrographic method has been developed. It permits the determination of the following elements with a semiquantitative character. Al, As, Ag, Au, B, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hn, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, P, Pb, Pt, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn and Zr. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  10. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  11. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  12. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  13. Resolution 1540 (2004) overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk, N.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the Resolution 1540, its features and its status of implementation. Resolution 1540 is a response to the risk that non-State actors may acquire, develop, traffic in weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. Resolution 1540 was adopted on 28 April 2004 by the U.N. Security Council at the unanimity of its members. Resolution 1540 deals with the 3 kinds of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons) as well as 'related materials'. This resolution implies 3 sets of obligations: first no support of non-state actors concerning weapons of mass destruction, secondly to set national laws that prohibit any non-state actors to deal with weapons of mass destruction and thirdly to enforce domestic control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery. Four working groups operated by the 1540 Committee have been settled: - Implementation (coordinator: Germany); - Assistance (coordinator: France); - International cooperation (interim coordinator: South Africa); and - Transparency and media outreach (coordinator: USA). The status of implementation of the resolution continues to improve since 2004, much work remains to be done and the gravity of the threat remains considerable. (A.C.)

  14. The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Bristow, Paul; Cumani, Claudio; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Grunhut, Jason; Haimerl, Andreas; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Hinterschuster, Renate; Ives, Derek J.; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Klein, Barbara; Lavaila, Alexis; Lizon, Jean Louis; Löwinger, Tom; Molina-Conde, Ignacio; Nicholson, Belinda; Marquart, Thomas; Oliva, Ernesto; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jérôme; Piskunov, Nikolai; Reiners, Ansgar; Seemann, Ulf; Stegmeier, Jörg; Stempels, Eric; Tordo, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) assisted CRIRES instrument is an IR (0.92 - 5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrograph was in operation from 2006 to 2014 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) observatory. CRIRES was a unique instrument, accessing a parameter space (wavelength range and spectral resolution) up to now largely uncharted. It consisted of a single-order spectrograph providing long-slit (40 arcsecond) spectroscopy with a resolving power up to R=100 000. However the setup was limited to a narrow, single-shot, spectral range of about 1/70 of the central wavelength, resulting in low observing efficiency for many scientific programmes requiring a broad spectral coverage. The CRIRES upgrade project, CRIRES+, transforms this VLT instrument into a cross-dispersed spectrograph to increase the simultaneously covered wavelength range by a factor of ten. A new and larger detector focal plane array of three Hawaii 2RG detectors with 5.3 μm cut-off wavelength will replace the existing detectors. For advanced wavelength calibration, custom-made absorption gas cells and an etalon system will be added. A spectro-polarimetric unit will allow the recording of circular and linear polarized spectra. This upgrade will be supported by dedicated data reduction software allowing the community to take full advantage of the new capabilities offered by CRIRES+. CRIRES+ has now entered its assembly and integration phase and will return with all new capabilities by the beginning of 2018 to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. This article will provide the reader with an update of the current status of the instrument as well as the remaining steps until final installation at the Paranal Observatory.

  15. Temporal Variations of Water Vapor in the Coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as Observed by Rosetta’s Alice FUV Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Andrew J.; Feaga, Lori M.; A'Hearn, Michael; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Feldman, Paul D.; Keeney, Brian A.; Knight, Matthew M.; Medina, Richard; Noonan, John; Parker, Joel Wm.; Pineau, Jon; Schindhelm, Eric; Stern, S. Alan; Versteeg, Maarten H.; Vervack, Ronald J.; Weaver, Harold A.

    2017-10-01

    During the Rosetta mission, the Alice far-ultraviolet (FUV) imaging spectrograph obtained spatially-resolved spectra of the coma and nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko over the wavelength range of 700-2050Å. Typically, Alice detected emissions from the neutral atomic daughter and granddaughter products (H, O, C, and S) of the primary molecular species in the coma: H2O, CO2, CO, and O2. However, during a six-month period centered near perihelion, Alice directly detected water vapor in absorption of sunlight reflected from the nucleus. We present here analyses of the water vapor column density as measured by the Alice FUV spectrograph. Alice is sensitive to water vapor at column densities greater than ~1016 cm-2 along the sum of the Sun-nucleus and nucleus-spacecraft lines of sight. Due to the excellent temporal coverage provided by the Alice instrument (exposures were typically obtained every 5-10 minutes), we are able to show variations of water vapor in the coma caused by the changing heliocentric distance of the comet, the comet’s ~12-hour rotation period, and short-term outbursts. We compare our water vapor column densities to those derived from other instruments aboard the Rosetta spacecraft and use models to estimate the water production rate.Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. The Alice team acknowledges continuing support from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory through contract 1336850 to the Southwest Research Institute.

  16. Evaluation of a compact spectrograph for in-situ and stand-off Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analyses of geological samples on Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salle, Beatrice; Cremers, David A.; Maurice, Sylvestre; Wiens, Roger C.; Fichet, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is actively under development for future use on surface probes to Mars. The analytical method can be deployed for in-situ and/or stand-off analysis with the latter embodiment providing the greatest advantages compared to previous and current elemental analysis methods used for planetary surface analysis. For this application, LIBS must be thoroughly investigated in terms of analytical capabilities and flight-rated instruments must be developed. Because of the low pressure of the predominantly CO 2 atmosphere on Mars, studies are needed to understand analytical requirements and to determine performance under these conditions. Stand-off analysis demands the most stringent requirements on instrumentation. Therefore, it must be determined if the high performance components that are normally used in a typical LIBS laboratory setup, which are generally not optimized for small size and weight, are essential to obtain the maximum scientific return from a mission. A key component of a LIBS apparatus is the detection system consisting of a spectrograph and a detector. Here we present an evaluation of one design of a compact spectrograph (Ocean Optics HR2000) for in-situ and stand-off LIBS analyses of geological samples under Mars atmospheric conditions

  17. GEMINI NEAR INFRARED FIELD SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SEYFERT 2 GALAXY MRK 573: IN SITU ACCELERATION OF IONIZED AND MOLECULAR GAS OFF FUELING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Straughn, A. N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Machuca, C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Baron, F.; Revalski, M.; Pope, C. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Schmitt, H. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Storchi-Bergmann, T., E-mail: travis.c.fischer@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical emission-line and stellar kinematics of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573 using the Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) at Gemini North and Dual Imaging Spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory, respectively. By obtaining full kinematic maps of the infrared ionized and molecular gas and stellar kinematics in a ∼700 × 2100 pc{sup 2} circumnuclear region of Mrk 573, we find that kinematics within the Narrow-Line Region are largely due to a combination of both rotation and in situ acceleration of material originating in the host disk. Combining these observations with large-scale, optical long-slit spectroscopy that traces ionized gas emission out to several kpcs, we find that rotation kinematics dominate the majority of the gas. We find that outflowing gas extends to distances less than 1 kpc, suggesting that outflows in Seyfert galaxies may not be powerful enough to evacuate their entire bulges.

  18. A mass spectrographic investigation of the methods for obtaining quantitative analyses for the mass balance of P and B through a submerged arc silicon smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.E.C.; Jones, D.S.; Wegman, J.W.; Brain, L.; Van Wamelen, J.

    1983-11-01

    Mass spectrographic analyses of silica, silicon and silica reducing agents have been made using an arc discharge mass spectrograph. Analyses of certified standards and standard mixtures are given. An evaluation of doping techniques shows that the solid doping technique is satisfactory and that the liquid doping technique leads to significant errors. The amount of liquid dopant absorbed onto the substrate matrix varied from one compound to another and from one matrix to another. Comparison of analyses of solid-doped and undoped certified standards shows that all of the solid dopant is taken up by the sample. Analysis of silica reducing agents used in the arc reduction furnace shows that the major source of contamination by B and P is likely to be the coal and wood. Silica contains 0.4 ppm of B and 4 ppm of P and is a minor source of contamination. The levels in silicon are about 10 ppm for B and 20 ppm for P. A mass balance on P cannot be made and the missing amount is larger than the inaccuracy of the analysis. For analyses of feedstocks where the smelter outlet fumes are not sampled an accuracy of analysis to a factor of two is sufficient for the analysis of the coal and wood chips

  19. High-Resolution Spectroscopy at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory: Setting TESS Science on FHiRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Pierce, Michael J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Kobulnicky, Henry; McLane, Jacob N.

    2018-01-01

    The Fiber High Resolution Echelle (FHiRE) spectrograph is a new instrument designed for the 2.3-m Wyoming InfraRed Observatory (WIRO). With the construction of a vacuum chamber for FHiRE to stabilize the spectrograph and a temperature-stabilized Thorium-Argon lamp for precise velocity calibration, we will be able to achieve 1 m/s RV precision, making it an ideal instrument for finding exoplanets. Details of the design of FHiRE are presented in a companion poster (Pierce et al.). The construction of this instrument is well-timed with the planned 2018 launch of NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. TESS will require a great deal of follow-up spectroscopy to characterize potential exoplanet host stars as well as radial velocity measurements to confirm new exoplanets. WIRO is ideally suited to acquire the long-term, high-cadence observations that will be required to make progress in this frontier area of astrophysics. We will coordinate our efforts with the TESS Follow-up Observing Program (TFOP), specifically as part of the Recon Spectroscopy and Precise Radial Velocity Work sub-groups.This work is supported by a grant from NASA EPSCOR.

  20. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  1. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  2. SOLARNET: a high resolution mission to complement the ILWS programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, L.; Clade, S.; Malherbe, J. M.

    SOLARNET is a medium size high resolution solar physics mission proposed to CNES for a new start in 2006 and a possible launch in 2010. Partnerships with Germany, Belgium, China and India are under discussion. At the center of the SOLARNET mission is a 3-telescopes interferometer of 1 meter baseline capable to provide 50 times the best ever spatial resolution achieved in Space with previous, current or even planned solar missions: 20 mas - 20 km on the Sun in the FUV. The interferometer is associated to an on-axis subtractive double monochromator (imaging spectrograph) capable of high spectral (0.01 nm) and high temporal resolutions (50 ms) on a field of view of 40 arcsec and over the FUV and UV spectral domains (from 117.5 to 400 nm). This will allow to access process scales of magnetic reconnection, dissipation, emerging flux and much more, from the high chromosphere to the low corona with emphasis on the transition zone where the magnetic confinement is expected to be maximum. A whole new chapter of the physics of solar magnetic field structuring and evolution will be opened. The interferometer is complemented by several other instruments providing larger field of view and higher temperature (EUV-XUV coronal imaging) to define the context and extension of the solar phenomena. Helioseismology, a strong asset of SOHO, is also intended with both velocity and diameter measures, allowed by a non-eclipsing Sun synchronous orbit. The SOLARNET interferometer design results of an extensive laboratory demonstration program of interferometric imaging of extended objects. It started 10 years ago and culminates this year with the first interferometric observations (images) of the Sun at Meudon Observatory at the "Grand Siderostat de Foucault" with a complete 3 telescopes cophased interferometer representative of SOLARNET. We will review the scientific program of SOLARNET, describe the interferometer concept and design, present the first solar imaging results of the

  3. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  4. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  5. High-resolution elastic recoil detection utilizing Bayesian probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.; Dollinger, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Genchev, I.; Goergens, L.; Fischer, R.; Ronning, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2001-01-01

    Elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis is improved in view of depth resolution and the reliability of the measured spectra. Good statistics at even low ion fluences is obtained utilizing a large solid angle of 5 msr at the Munich Q3D magnetic spectrograph and using a 40 MeV 197 Au beam. In this way the elemental depth profiles are not essentially altered during analysis even if distributions with area densities below 1x10 14 atoms/cm 2 are measured. As the energy spread due to the angular acceptance is fully eliminated by ion-optical and numerical corrections, an accurate and reliable apparatus function is derived. It allows to deconvolute the measured spectra using the adaptive kernel method, a maximum entropy concept in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. In addition, the uncertainty of the reconstructed spectra is quantified. The concepts are demonstrated at 13 C depth profiles measured at ultra-thin films of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). Depth scales of those profiles are given with an accuracy of 1.4x10 15 atoms/cm 2

  6. High-Resolution Measurements of Low-Energy Conversion Electrons

    CERN Multimedia

    Gizon, A; Putaux, J

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of low-energy internal conversion electrons have been performed with high energy resolution in some N = 105 odd and odd-odd nuclei using a semi-circular spectrograph associated to a specific tape transport system. These experiments aimed to answer the following questions~: \\begin{itemize} \\item Do M3 isomeric transitions exist in $^{183}$Pt and $^{181}$Os, isotones of $^{184}$Au~? \\item Are the neutron configurations proposed to describe the isomeric and ground states of $^{184}$Au right or wrong~? \\item Does it exist an isomeric state in $^{182}$Ir, isotone of $^{181}$Os, $^{183}$Pt and $^{184}$Au~? \\item What are the spin and parity values of the excited states of $^{182}$Ir~? \\end{itemize} In $^{183}$Pt, the 35.0 keV M3 isomeric transition has been clearly observed and the reduced transition probability has been determined. The deduced hindrance factor is close to that observed in the neighbouring odd-odd $^{184}$Au nucleus. This confirms the neutron configurations previously proposed for the ...

  7. THE DEEP BLUE COLOR OF HD 189733b: ALBEDO MEASUREMENTS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Pont, Frederic; Sing, David K. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Desert, Jean-Michel; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gibson, Neale [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain, E-mail: tom.evans@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b across the wavelength range 290-570 nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of A{sub g} = 0.40 {+-} 0.12 across 290-450 nm and A{sub g} < 0.12 across 450-570 nm at 1{sigma} confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond {approx}450 nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD 189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  8. Microshutter Array Development for the Multi-Object Spectrograph for the New Generation Space Telescope, and Its Ground-based Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.; Moseley, Harvey; Fettig, Rainer; Kutyrev, Alexander; Ge, Jian; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The 6.5-m NASA/ESA/Canada New Generation Space Telescope to be operated at the L2 Lagrangian point will require a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) operating from 1 to 5 microns. Up to 3000 targets will be selected for simultaneous spectroscopy using a programmable cryogenic (approx. 35K) aperture array, consisting of a mosaic of arrays of micromirrors or microshutters. We describe the current status of the GSFC microshutter array development. The 100 micron square shutters are opened magnetically and latched open or closed electrostatically. Selection will be by two crossed one-dimensional addressing circuits. We will demonstrate the use of a 512 x 512 unit array on a ground-based IR MOS which will cover 0.6 to 5 microns, and operate rapidly to include spectroscopy of gamma ray burst afterglows.

  9. Diamond x-ray optics: Transparent, resilient, high-resolution, and wavefront preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Blank, Vladimir; Terentyev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Diamond features a unique combination of outstanding physical properties perfect for numerous x-ray optics applications, where traditional materials such as silicon fail to perform. In the last two decades, impressive progress has been achieved in synthesizing diamond with high crystalline perfection, in manufacturing efficient, resilient, high-resolution, wavefront-preserving diamond optical components, and in implementing them in cutting-edge x-ray instruments. Diamond optics are essential for tailoring x-rays to the most challenging needs of x-ray research. Furthermore, they are becoming vital for the generation of fully coherent hard x-rays by seeded x-ray free-electron lasers. In this article, we review progress in manufacturing flawless diamond crystal components and their applications in diverse x-ray optical devices, such as x-ray monochromators, beam splitters, high-reflectance backscattering mirrors, lenses, phase plates, diffraction gratings, bent-crystal spectrographs, and windows.

  10. Characterization of nova plasmas using an x-ray spectrometer with temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kauffman, R.L.; Bell, P.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    Spectroscopic diagnostics have great potential to obtain high temperature measurements of plasmas created in ICF targets. The plasmas may be over 1 mm in size and therefore, one of the first steps in making accurate spectroscopic measurements has been to improve the resolution of the instrument. A spectrograph is now available for Nova experiments which takes advantage of gated technology by coupling a Bragg crystal to a microchannel plate that can record data over a 250 ps time frame. The crystal disperses the x-rays, while slits add the ability to image the plasmas in the perpendicular direction. The characteristics of this diagnostic, TSPEC, will be evaluated for laser-produced plasmas. Recent data will be presented from colliding plasmas and large-scale hohlraums which indicate that imaging can greatly enhance the ability to diagnose these plasmas

  11. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  12. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  13. Particle detector spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs

  14. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  15. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  16. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  17. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, J.M.; Adrian, B.M.; Church, S.E.; McDougal, C.M.; Fife, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

  18. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...... of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  19. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...... of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  20. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  1. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  2. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  3. The super-resolution debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for nanoscopy with super-resolution, consensus from the imaging community is that super-resolution is not always needed and that scientists should choose an imaging technique based on their specific application.

  4. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  5. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  6. Resolution of praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Woelfle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for the worldwide treatment and control of schistosomiasis. The drug is synthesized and administered as a racemate. Use of the pure active enantiomer would be desirable since the inactive enantiomer is associated with side effects and is responsible for the extremely bitter taste of the pill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified two resolution approaches toward the production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer. One approach starts with commercially available praziquantel and involves a hydrolysis to an intermediate amine, which is resolved with a derivative of tartaric acid. This method was discovered through an open collaboration on the internet. The second method, identified by a contract research organisation, employs a different intermediate that may be resolved with tartaric acid itself. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both resolution procedures identified show promise for the large-scale, economically viable production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer for a low price. Additionally, they may be employed by laboratories for the production of smaller amounts of enantiopure drug for research purposes that should be useful in, for example, elucidation of the drug's mechanism of action.

  7. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  8. The results of spectrographic analysis of pigments from known aboriginal quarries and other outcrops in South Australia, and from painting sites in the Olary district of South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobbs, J.M.; Nobbs, M.F.; Moyle, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pigments are minerals that provide the colour to paints and the pigments most commonly used by Aboriginal people are derived from red and yellow ochre and white minerals for example, gypsum and kaolin. During the early 1980s, the opportunity arose to collect pigments from many sources in South Australia. The sources included samples from known Aboriginal quarries and other outcrops. Pinhead-size samples of paint were collected from figures in some of the rock painting sites in the Olary District. These samples were analysed using Emission Spectrography with the aim of determining the nature of the pigments that is their constituent elements, and to investigate the possibility of finger-printing the sources of the pigments used by Aboriginal people. The ability of being able to source pigments found on the decorated surface of artefacts; pieces of ochre found in archaeological deposits or painted figures in a rock painting is important for understanding the trading and exchange network known to criss-cross Australia in the past. Facilities for Emission Spectrographic analyses were readily available and the capability to analyse (for twenty six elements) samples in milligram proportions suggested its use for the determination of the composition of material from unlimited sources and the compilation of a data-base detailing the results of the analyses in a form suitable for comparison. Examination of this database could then lead to further investigations with narrower and more specific aims. The results of the spectrographic analyses for red ochre from eighteen sources and yellow ochres from eight sources were tabulated as: strongly present >10%; present 1-10%; strong trace 0.1-1% ; trace 0.01-0.1%; faint trace <0.01%. Major elements, for example iron, aluminium, and silica showed in the Strongly Present and Present categories, while Trace and Faint Trace elements were variable. The results of the analyses of seventeen samples of red pigment and five

  9. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  10. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  11. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  12. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Controlling Robots over Time Delay Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This element involves the development of software that enables easier commanding of a wide range of NASA relevant robots through the Robot Application Programming...

  13. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic ISRU Acquisition Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic ISRU Resource Acquisition project element will develop two technologies:Exploration Ground Data Systems (xGDS)Sample Acquisition on...

  14. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  15. GALACTIC-SCALE ABSORPTION OUTFLOW IN THE LOW-LUMINOSITY QUASAR IRAS F04250-5718: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, Doug; Borguet, Benoit; Arav, Nahum; Dunn, Jay P.; Penton, Steve; Kriss, Gerard A.; Korista, Kirk; Bautista, Manuel; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle; Steenbrugge, Katrien; Ignacio Gonzalez-Serrano, J.; Benn, Chris; Aoki, Kentaro; Behar, Ehud; Micheal Crenshaw, D.; Everett, John; Gabel, Jack; Moe, Maxwell; Scott, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present absorption line analysis of the outflow in the quasar IRAS F04250-5718. Far-ultraviolet data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope reveal intrinsic narrow absorption lines from high ionization ions (e.g., C IV, N V, and O VI) as well as low ionization ions (e.g., C II and Si III). We identify three kinematic components with central velocities ranging from ∼-50 to ∼-230 km s -1 . Velocity-dependent, non-black saturation is evident from the line profiles of the high ionization ions. From the non-detection of absorption from a metastable level of C II, we are able to determine that the electron number density in the main component of the outflow is ∼ -3 . Photoionization analysis yields an ionization parameter log U H ∼ -1.6 ± 0.2, which accounts for changes in the metallicity of the outflow and the shape of the incident spectrum. We also consider solutions with two ionization parameters. If the ionization structure of the outflow is due to photoionization by the active galactic nucleus, we determine that the distance to this component from the central source is ∼>3 kpc. Due to the large distance determined for the main kinematic component, we discuss the possibility that this outflow is part of a galactic wind.

  16. Volatilization mechanism of certain elements in a method of semiquantitative spectrographic analysis; Mecanismo de volatilizacion de ciertos elementos en un metodo de analisis espectrografico semicuantitativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Guerra, J P

    1972-07-01

    The efficiency of the compounds GeO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and SrCO{sub 3} as spectrochemical buffers, in the development of a semiquantitative spectrographic method of analysis, that can be applied to the determination of 47 elements in different matrices, has been tested. It has been shown that trough the use of Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} or Geo{sub 2} adequate accuracy is obtained, attaining with the latter the detection of much lower concentrations, specially for the elements Mo. Ti, V and W. In order to account for the different behaviour of these elements their volatilization mechanism has been studied. MoB{sub 2}, TiB{sub 2}, VB{sub 2}.{delta}WB and {epsilon}-WB were found, by x-ray diffraction analysis, to be reaction products in the case of mixtures with Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. (Author)

  17. Linking the X3D Pathway to Integral Field Spectrographs: YSNR 1E 0102.2-7219 in the SMC as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Dopita, Michael A.; Ruiter, Ashley J.

    2017-05-01

    The concept of the x3d pathway was introduced by Vogt et al. as a new approach to sharing and publishing three-dimensional structures interactively in online scientific journals. The core characteristics of the x3d pathway are that: (1) it does not rely on specific software, but rather a file format (x3d), (2) it can be implemented using fully open-source tools, and (3) article readers can access the interactive models using most main stream web browsers without the need for any additional plugins. In this article, we further demonstrate the potential of the x3d pathway to visualize data sets from optical integral field spectrographs. We use recent observations of the oxygen-rich young supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud to implement additional x3dom tools & techniques and expand the range of interactions that can be offered to article readers. In particular, we present a set of javascript functions allowing the creation and interactive handling of clip planes, effectively allowing users to take measurements of distances and angles directly from the interactive model itself.

  18. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  19. Tele-AAC Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide.  Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems.  The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation; determine the communication competence levels achieved  by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’  perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability; maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. 

  20. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian; Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daiel; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  1. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full‐waveform

  2. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  3. "Planar" Tautologies Hard for Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan; Riis, Søren

    2001-01-01

    We prove exponential lower bounds on the resolution proofs of some tautologies, based on rectangular grid graphs. More specifically, we show a 2Ω(n) lower bound for any resolution proof of the mutilated chessboard problem on a 2n×2n chessboard as well as for the Tseitin tautology (G. Tseitin, 196...

  4. Resolution function in neutron diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, N.

    1987-01-01

    The resolution function in the neutron diffractometry is defined, on base of generalizing the resolution formerly formulated for the double axis neutron spectrometer. A polemical discussion is raised concerning an approach to this function existent in literature. The actual approach is concretized for the DN-2 time-of-flight diffractometer installed at the IBR-2 reactor

  5. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40/sup 0/ biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals.

  6. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40 0 biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals

  7. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  8. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  9. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  10. CONTAMINATION OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY BY NEBULAR EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES: INVESTIGATIONS WITH KECK'S MOSFIRE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, Matthew A; Ellis, Richard S; Konidaris, Nick P [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, Daniel P, E-mail: schenker@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Earlier work has raised the potential importance of nebular emission in the derivation of the physical characteristics of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies. Within certain redshift ranges, and especially at z ≅ 6-7, such lines may be strong enough to reduce estimates of the stellar masses and ages of galaxies compared with those derived assuming the broadband photometry represents stellar light alone. To test this hypothesis at the highest redshifts where such lines can be probed with ground-based facilities, we examine the near-infrared spectra of a representative sample of 28 3.0 < z < 3.8 Lyman break galaxies using the newly commissioned MOSFIRE near-infrared spectrograph at the Keck I telescope. We use these data to derive the rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of [O III] emission and show that these are comparable with estimates derived using the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique introduced for sources of known redshift by Stark et al. Although our current sample is modest, its [O III] EW distribution is consistent with that inferred for Hα based on SED fitting of Stark et al.'s larger sample of 3.8 < z < 5 galaxies. For a subset of survey galaxies, we use the combination of optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify kinematics of outflows in z ≅ 3.5 star-forming galaxies and discuss the implications for reionization measurements. The trends we uncover underline the dangers of relying purely on broadband photometry to estimate the physical properties of high-redshift galaxies and emphasize the important role of diagnostic spectroscopy.

  11. Spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine; Dosage du chlore et du fluor par spectrographie d'emission en atmosphere inerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contamin, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    Experimental conditions have been investigated in order to obtain the highest sensitivity in spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine using the Fassel method of excitation in an inert atmosphere. The influence of the nature of the atmosphere, of the discharge conditions and of the matrix material has been investigated. The following results have been established: 1. chlorine determination is definitely possible: a working curve has been drawn between 10 {mu}g and 100 {mu}g, the detection limit being around 5 {mu}g; 2. fluorine determination is not satisfactory: the detection limit is still of the order of 80 {mu}g. The best operating conditions have been defined for both elements. (author) [French] Nous avons recherche quelles etaient les conditions permettant d'obtenir la meilleure sensibilite dans le dosage spectrographique du chlore et du fluor par la methode d'excitation en atmosphere inerte (methode de Fassel). Nous avons etudie l'influence de l'atmosphere gazeuse, des conditions de la decharge et du materiau de pastillage. Les points suivants ont ete etablis: 1. le dosage du chlore est possible: une courbe de dosage a ete tracee entre 10 {mu}g et 100 {mu}g et la limite de detection est de l'ordre de 5 {mu}g; 2. le dosage du fluor n'est pas satisfaisant: la limite de detection obtenue etant encore de l'ordre de 80 {mu}g. Les conditions operatoires ont ete precisees pour ces deux elements. (auteur)

  12. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF THE GAS OUTBURSTS IN COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO OBSERVED BY THE ALICE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROGRAPH ON ROSETTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Paul D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); A’Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bertaux, Jean-Loup [LATMOS, CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Noonan, John; Parker, Joel Wm.; Schindhelm, Eric; Steffl, Andrew J.; Stern, S. Alan [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Suite 300, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Weaver, Harold A., E-mail: pfeldman@jhu.edu [Space Exploration Sector, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ALICE is a far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph on board Rosetta that, among multiple objectives, is designed to observe emissions from various atomic and molecular species from within the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The initial observations, made following orbit insertion in 2014 August, showed emissions of atomic hydrogen and oxygen spatially localized close to the nucleus and attributed to photoelectron impact dissociation of H{sub 2}O vapor. Weaker emissions from atomic carbon were subsequently detected and also attributed to electron impact dissociation, of CO{sub 2}, the relative H i and C i line intensities reflecting the variation of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O column abundance along the line of sight through the coma. Beginning in 2015 mid-April, Alice sporadically observed a number of outbursts above the sunward limb characterized by sudden increases in the atomic emissions, particularly the semi-forbidden O i λ 1356 multiplet, over a period of 10–30 minutes, without a corresponding enhancement in long-wavelength solar reflected light characteristic of dust production. A large increase in the brightness ratio O i λ 1356/O i λ 1304 suggests O{sub 2} as the principal source of the additional gas. These outbursts do not correlate with any of the visible images of outbursts taken with either OSIRIS or the navigation camera. Beginning in 2015 June the nature of the Alice spectrum changed considerably with CO Fourth Positive band emission observed continuously, varying with pointing but otherwise fairly constant in time. However, CO does not appear to be a major driver of any of the observed outbursts.

  13. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-Millimetre Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M.; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda = 35-435 microns and with R = lambda/(delta)lambda approx. 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10(exp -20) W/Hz(1/2) and response time t or = 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(1/2) and tapprox.5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEPapprox.1.5x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+0.3)x10(exp -19)W/Hz(1/2) in our array test system.

  14. Development of Fast, Background-Limited Transition-Edge Sensors for the Background-Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS) for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Runyan, M. C.; Kenyon, M.; Echternach, P. M .; Chui, T.; Bumble, B.; Bradford, C. M.; Holmes, W. A.; Bock, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental progress toward demonstrating background-limited arrays of membrane-isolated transition-edge sensors (TESs) for the Background Limited Infrared/Sub-mm Spectrograph (BLISS). BLISS is a space-borne instrument with grating spectrometers for wavelengths lambda=35-435 micron and with R=lambda/delta lambda approximately equals 500. The goals for BLISS TESs are: noise equivalent power (NEP) = 5x10 (sup -20) W/Hz(exp 1/2) and response time tau = 135mK) and Mo/Cu proximitized bilayers, where T(sub c) is the thermistor transition temperature. We measured the Ir TES arrays in our 50mK adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator test system, which can measure up to eight 1x32 arrays simultaneously using a time-division multiplexer, as well as our single-pixel test system which can measure down to 15mK. In our previous Ir array measurements our best reported performance was NEP=2.5x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sub 1/2) and Tau approximately equals 5ms for straight-beam TESs. In fact, we expected NEP approximately equals 1.5x10(exp -19)?W/Hz(sup 1/2) for meander beam TESs, but did not achieve this previously due to 1/f noise. Here, we detail improvements toward measuring the expected NEP and demonstrate NEP=(1.3+0.2)x10 (sup -19)W/Hz(exp 1/2) in our single-pixel test system and NEP=(1.6+/-0.3)x10(sup -19)W/Hz(sup 1/2) in our array test system.

  15. High spatial resolution in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.; Epurescu, G.; Perea, A.; Gordillo-Vazquez, F.J.; Gonzalo, J.; Afonso, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report a technique that is able to achieve high spatial resolution in the measurement of the temporal and spectral emission characteristics of laser-induced expanding plasmas. The plasma is imaged directly onto the slit of an imaging spectrograph coupled to a time-gated intensified camera, with the plasma expansion direction being parallel to the slit extension. In this way, a single hybrid detection system is used to acquire the spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics of the laser induced plasma. The parallel acquisition approach of this technique ensures a much better spatial resolution in the expansion direction, reproducibility and data acquisition speed than commonly obtained by sequential measurements at different distances from the target. We have applied this technique to study the laser-induced plasma in LiNbO 3 and Bi 12 Ge 1 O 20 , revealing phenomena not seen in such detail with standard instruments. These include extreme line broadening up to a few nanometers accompanied by self-absorption near the target surface, as well as different ablation and expansion dynamics for the different species ejected. Overall, the high precision and wealth of quantitative information accessible with this technique open up new possibilities for the study of fundamental plasma expansion processes during pulsed laser ablation

  16. HUNTING THE PARENT OF THE ORPHAN STREAM: IDENTIFYING STREAM MEMBERS FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Andrew R.; Da Costa, Gary; Keller, Stefan C.; Maunder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We present candidate K-giant members in the Orphan Stream that have been identified from low-resolution data taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. From modest signal-to-noise spectra and independent cuts in photometry, kinematics, gravity, and metallicity we yield self-consistent, highly probable stream members. We find a revised stream distance of 22.5 ± 2.0 kpc near the celestial equator and our kinematic signature peaks at V GSR = 82.1 ± 1.4 km s –1 . The observed velocity dispersion of our most probable members is consistent with arising from the velocity uncertainties alone. This indicates that at least along this line of sight, the Orphan Stream is kinematically cold. Our data indicate an overall stream metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.63 ± 0.19 dex which is more metal-rich than previously found and unbiased by spectral type. Furthermore, the significant metallicity dispersion displayed by our most probable members, σ([Fe/H]) = 0.56 dex, suggests that the unidentified Orphan Stream parent is a dSph satellite. We highlight likely members for high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up.

  17. Super-resolution biomolecular crystallography with low-resolution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T

    2010-04-22

    X-ray diffraction plays a pivotal role in the understanding of biological systems by revealing atomic structures of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes, with much recent interest in very large assemblies like the ribosome. As crystals of such large assemblies often diffract weakly (resolution worse than 4 A), we need methods that work at such low resolution. In macromolecular assemblies, some of the components may be known at high resolution, whereas others are unknown: current refinement methods fail as they require a high-resolution starting structure for the entire complex. Determining the structure of such complexes, which are often of key biological importance, should be possible in principle as the number of independent diffraction intensities at a resolution better than 5 A generally exceeds the number of degrees of freedom. Here we introduce a method that adds specific information from known homologous structures but allows global and local deformations of these homology models. Our approach uses the observation that local protein structure tends to be conserved as sequence and function evolve. Cross-validation with R(free) (the free R-factor) determines the optimum deformation and influence of the homology model. For test cases at 3.5-5 A resolution with known structures at high resolution, our method gives significant improvements over conventional refinement in the model as monitored by coordinate accuracy, the definition of secondary structure and the quality of electron density maps. For re-refinements of a representative set of 19 low-resolution crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank, we find similar improvements. Thus, a structure derived from low-resolution diffraction data can have quality similar to a high-resolution structure. Our method is applicable to the study of weakly diffracting crystals using X-ray micro-diffraction as well as data from new X-ray light sources. Use of homology information is not restricted to X

  18. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszyński, M., E-mail: M.Moszynski@ncbj.gov.pl; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  19. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias: a consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and ESC Council on Hypertension, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Manolis, Antonis S; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Oto, Ali; Potpara, Tatjana S; Steffel, Jan; Marín, Francisco; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Márcio Jansen; de Simone, Giovanni; Tzou, Wendy S; Chiang, Chern-En; Williams, Bryan; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Gorenek, Bulent; Fauchier, Laurent; Savelieva, Irina; Hatala, Robert; van Gelder, Isabelle; Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Erdine, Serap; Lovic, Dragan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Salinas-Arce, Jorge; Field, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Hypertension is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal insufficiency. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in hypertensive patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or HF. Also, some of the antihypertensive drugs commonly used to reduce blood pressure, such as thiazide diuretics, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesemia), further contributing to arrhythmias, whereas effective control of blood pressure may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between hypertension and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit to comprehensively review the available evidence to publish a joint consensus document on hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias, and to provide up-to-date consensus recommendations for use in clinical practice. The ultimate judgment regarding care of a particular patient must be made by the healthcare provider and the patient in light of all of the circumstances presented by that patient. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  1. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  2. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  3. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  4. Estimating uncertainty in resolution tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available frequencies yields a biased estimate, and we provide an improved estimator. An application illustrates how the results derived can be incorporated into a larger un- certainty analysis. ? 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. H20851DOI: 10....1117/1.2202914H20852 Subject terms: resolution testing; USAF 1951 test target; resolution uncertainity. Paper 050404R received May 20, 2005; revised manuscript received Sep. 2, 2005; accepted for publication Sep. 9, 2005; published online May 10, 2006. 1...

  5. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms.

  6. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (CPRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  7. WHY IS NON-THERMAL LINE BROADENING OF SPECTRAL LINES IN THE LOWER TRANSITION REGION OF THE SUN INDEPENDENT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; McIntosh, S.; Peter, H.; Pereira, T. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral observations of the solar transition region (TR) and corona show broadening of spectral lines beyond what is expected from thermal and instrumental broadening. The remaining non-thermal broadening is significant (5–30 km s −1 ) and correlated with intensity. Here we study spectra of the TR Si iv 1403 Å line obtained at high resolution with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the large improvement in spatial resolution (0.″33) of IRIS compared to previous spectrographs (2″) does not resolve the non-thermal line broadening which, in most regions, remains at pre-IRIS levels of about 20 km s −1 . This invariance to spatial resolution indicates that the processes behind the broadening occur along the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or on spatial scales (perpendicular to the LOS) smaller than 250 km. Both effects appear to play a role. Comparison with IRIS chromospheric observations shows that, in regions where the LOS is more parallel to the field, magneto-acoustic shocks driven from below impact the TR and can lead to significant non-thermal line broadening. This scenario is supported by MHD simulations. While these do not show enough non-thermal line broadening, they do reproduce the long-known puzzling correlation between non-thermal line broadening and intensity. This correlation is caused by the shocks, but only if non-equilibrium ionization is taken into account. In regions where the LOS is more perpendicular to the field, the prevalence of small-scale twist is likely to play a significant role in explaining the invariance and correlation with intensity. (letters)

  8. Hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias: executive summary of a consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and ESC Council on Hypertension, endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Manolis, Antonis S; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Oto, Ali; Potpara, Tatjana S; Steffel, Jan; Marín, Francisco; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Márcio Jansen; de Simone, Giovanni; Tzou, Wendy S; En Chiang, Chern; Williams, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in HTN patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), CAD, or HF. In addition, high doses of thiazide diuretics commonly used to treat HTN, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia), contributing further to arrhythmias, while effective blood pressure control may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between HTN and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence and publishing a joint consensus document on HTN and cardiac arrhythmias, and providing up-to-date consensus recommendations for use in clinical practice. The ultimate judgment on the care of a specific patient must be made by the healthcare provider and the patient in light of all individual factors presented. This is an executive summary of the full document co-published by EHRA in EP-Europace. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  10. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  11. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  12. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  13. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  14. A METHOD TO CALIBRATE THE HIGH-RESOLUTION CATANIA ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY SPECTROPOLARIMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, F.; Gangi, M.; Giarrusso, M.; Scalia, C. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Avila, G. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Bellassai, G.; Bruno, P.; Catalano, S.; Benedetto, R. Di; Stefano, A. Di; Greco, V.; Martinetti, E.; Miraglia, M.; Munari, M.; Pontoni, C.; Scuderi, S.; Spanó, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS) is a white-pupil cross-dispersed échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of up to R  = 55,000 in the 375–1100 nm range in a single exposure, with complete coverage up to 856 nm. CAOS is linked to the 36-inch telescope, at Mount Etna Observatory, with a couple of 100 μ m optical fibers and it achieves a signal-to-noise ratio better than 60 for a V  = 10 mag star in one hour. CAOS is thermally stabilized in temperature within a 0.01 K rms, so that radial velocities are measured with a precision better than 100 m s{sup −1} from a single spectral line. Linear and circular spectropolarimetric observations are possible by means of a Savart plate working in series with a half-wave and a quarter-wave retarder plate in the 376–850 nm range. As is usual for high-resolution spectropolarimeters, CAOS is suitable to measure all Stokes parameters across spectral lines and it cannot measure the absolute degree of polarization. Observations of unpolarized standard stars show that instrumental polarization is generally zero at 550 nm and can increase up to 3% at the other wavelengths. Since polarized and unpolarized standard stars are useless, we suggest a method to calibrate a high-resolution spectropolarimeter on the basis of the polarimetric properties of spectral lines formed in the presence of a magnetic field. As applied to CAOS, observations of magnetic chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence show that the cross-talk from linear to circular polarization is smaller than 0.4% and that conversion from circular to linear is less than 2.7%. Strength and wavelength dependences of cross-talk can be entirely ascribed, via numerical simulations, to the incorrect retardance of achromatic wave plates.

  15. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  16. USI A-43 resolution positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    NUREG-0869 is comprised of the following documents: Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.82, Revision 1, Sump for Emergency Core Cooling and Containment Spray Systems; The Value-Impact Statement for USI A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance; and Background and Summary of Minutes of Meetings of the Committee to Review Generic Requirements Regarding Unresolved Safety Issue A-43 Resolution. The report has been assembled to facilitate obtaining for comment feedback on the position developed for resolution of USI A-43. There are no licensing requirements contained in NUREG-0869, and it should be clearly noted that this for comment report will not be used as interim requirements

  17. Connecticut church passes genetics resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, B J

    1984-11-09

    The Connecticut Conference of the United Church of Christ, which represents the largest Protestant denomination in the state, has passed a resolution affirming an ethical duty to do research on human gene therapy and is planning to form local church groups to study the scientific and ethical issues involved. The resolution is intended to counter an earlier one proposed by Jeremy Rifkin to ban all efforts at engineering specific traits into the human germline. The Rifkin proposal had been endorsed by a large number of religious leaders, including the head of the U.S. United Church of Christ, but was subsequently characterized by many of the church leaders as overly restrictive.

  18. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  19. Resolution 1540, ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Adopted on the 28 April 2004 by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Resolution 1540 is a composite tool that was hitherto unprecedented. To recap, States are bound to 'refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery' (par. 1), and to prohibit and prevent non-State actors from the aforementioned through 'appropriate and effective' (par. 2,3) legal, judiciary, and administrative means. A Committee was established to which States had to submit a first report outlining the steps 'they have taken or intend to take to implement this resolution' (par. 4). This Committee was initially established for two years and has been regularly renewed since, and its mandate was extended in 2011 for ten years. It is not a surveillance mechanism. Finally, with the aim of remedying difficulties that certain States may experience in implementing the Resolution, 'States in a position to do so' are invited to offer assistance (par. 7). The level of the application of Resolution 1540 was originally based on a delicate three-pronged balance of obligation, good will, and partnership. It is not a matter of designating certain States to the rest of the international community, whilst avoiding that the exercise be limited to the submission of national reports, instead aiming to initiate a dynamic. The wager was a risky one. Ten years on, 90% of UN member States have submitted one or several implementation reports. 170 States and 50 international and regional organisations have taken part in outreach and implementation support events. Whatever quantitative or qualitative conclusions that can be reached, we should continue to promote the Re-solution's universal adoption, and to ensure that the implementation of its provisions is undertaken in a lasting manner, taking account of the national

  20. RESOLUTION

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    Research without a budget = Europe without a future !   Noting that the CERN Management has submitted to the Member States for the Finance Committee meeting on 25th August 2010 a budget for 2011 and a medium-term plan (MTP) for the period 2012-2015; Deploring the fact that, on the Member States’ request, this plan proposes a reduction of resources of 478 million Swiss francs over the period 2011–2015, compared to the initial proposal by the Management, which corresponded even then to the minimum needed to exploit the machines and experiments; Recalling that, following a decision by Council in 1996, CERN has suffered an annual budget cut of 100 million Swiss francs; Considering that this approach equates to an abandonment by the Member States of the European Union of a policy agreed upon in Barcelona in 2003 to invest 3% of their GDP in R&D by 2010, and today they can barely manage 1.85%; Considering that these budget cuts imposed on CERN compromise not on...

  1. Investigation on the Combined Use of Ground Penetrating Radar, Cone Penetrometer and High Resolution Seismic Data for Near Surface and Vadose Zone Characterization in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    This study compares data from Cone Penetrometer Tests (CPT), high resolution surface reflection seismic (HRS) data and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data in the upper 120 feet (40 meters) of the A/M Area, Upper Three Runs Watershed at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The CPT, GPR, and HRS data were obtained along the Silverton Road in the western sector of the A/M Area groundwater plume, and adjacent to Geophysical Correlation Boring number-sign 1 (GCB-1). This location allows for multiple correlations to be made between the various data sources, and supports shallow investigations for near surface affects of the Crackerneck Fault, a major structural feature in the area. Borehole geophysical data from GCB-1 were used to provide subsurface constraints on the CPT, GPR, and HRS data. core data, natural gamma ray, spectral gamma data, multi-level induction resistivity, density and sonic data were utilized to distinguish clays, sands and silts. The CPT data provided tip bearing and sleeve stress, as an indicator of stratigraphy. Reflection seismic data provided continuous subsurface profiles of key marker horizons. Ground Penetrating Radar provided information on shallow subsurface geological features. Conclusions from this study suggest that there is a high degree of correlation between the CPT and borehole geophysical data, specifically, the Friction Ratio and gamma/spectral gamma curves. The Upland/Tobacco Road, Tobacco Road/Dry Branch, Dry Branch/Santee, Santee/Warley Hill and the Warley Hill/Congaree contacts are discernible. From these contacts it is possible to map structural relationships in the shallow subsurface that are tied to regional data. Because formation contacts are discernible, CPT, HRS, GPR, and geophysical log intra-formational anomalies are mappable. These features allow for stratigraphic and facies mapping using the GPR and HRS data for continuity and the CPT and geophysical data for lithofacies analysis. It is possible to use the

  2. High Spectral Resolution SOFIA/EXES Observations of C2H2 toward Orion IRc2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Le Gal, Romane; Acharyya, Kinsuk; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Herbst, Eric; deWitt, Curtis; Richter, Matt; Boogert, Adwin; McKelvey, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We present high spectral resolution observations from 12.96 to 13.33 microns toward Orion IRc2 using the mid-infrared spectrograph, Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES), at Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). These observations probe the physical and chemical conditions of the Orion hot core, which is sampled by a bright, compact, mid-infrared background continuum source in the region, IRc2. All 10 of the rovibrational C2H2 transitions expected in our spectral coverage are detected with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns), yielding continuous coverage of the R-branch lines from J = 9–8 to J = 18–17, including both ortho and para species. Eight of these rovibrational transitions are newly reported detections. The isotopologue, 13CCH2, is clearly detected with a high S/N. This enabled a direct measurement of the 12C/13C isotopic ratio for the Orion hot core of 14 ± 1 and an estimated maximum value of 21. We also detected several HCN rovibrational lines. The ortho and para C2H2 ladders are clearly separate, and tracing two different temperatures, 226 K and 164 K, respectively, with a non-equilibrium ortho to para ratio (OPR) of 1.7 ± 0.1. Additionally, the ortho and para V LSR values differ by about 1.8 ± 0.2 km s‑1, while the mean line widths differ by 0.7 ± 0.2 km s‑1, suggesting that these species are not uniformly mixed along the line of sight to IRc2. We propose that the abnormally low C2H2 OPR could be a remnant from an earlier, colder phase, before the density enhancement (now the hot core) was impacted by shocks generated from an explosive event 500 years ago.

  3. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  4. Fractional charge resolution in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Christie, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results obtained with MUSIC (MUltiple Sampling Ionization Chamber) for La and Ar beams at the Bevalac show resolutions better than ΔZ(FWHM) = 0.3 e. These results suggest the use of MUSIC in future ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

  5. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  6. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  7. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory.

  8. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  12. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na I D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He I λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca II K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na I D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  13. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Upper Scorpius Eclipsing Binary EPIC 203868608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; McLane, Jacob; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-06-01

    EPIC 203868608 is a source in the ~10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Using K2 photometry and ground-based follow-up observations, David et al. (2016) found that it consists of two brown dwarfs with a tertiary object at a projected separation of ~20 AU; the former objects appear to be a double-lined eclipsing binary with a period of 4.5 days. This is one of only two known eclipsing SB2s where both components are below the hydrogen-burning limit. We present additional follow-up observations of this system from the IGRINS high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Our measured radial velocities do not follow the orbital solution presented by David et al. (2016). Instead, our combined IGRINS plus literature radial velocity dataset appears to indicate a period significantly different than that of the eclipsing binary obvious from the K2 light curve. We will discuss possible scenarios to account for the conflicting observations of this system.

  14. High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of an Intriguing High-Latitude B-Type Star HD119608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present an LTE analysis of high resolution echelle optical spectra obtained with the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the UCLES spectrograph for a B1Ib high galactic latitude supergiant HD119608. A fresh determination of the atmospheric parameters using line-blanketed LTE model atmospheres and spectral synthesis provided T eff = 23 300 ± 1000 K, log g = 3.0 ± 0.3, and the microturbulent velocity ξ = 6.0 ± 1.0 kms-1 and [Fe/H] = 0.16. The rotational velocity of the star was derived fromC, O, N, Al, and Fe lines as v sin i = 55.8 ± 1.3 kms-1. Elemental abundances were obtained for 10 different species. He, Al, and P abundances of the star were determined for the first time. In the spectra, hot post-AGB status as well as the Pop I characteristics of the star were examined. The approximately solar carbon and oxygen abundances, along with mild excess in helium and nitrogen abundances do not stipulate a CNO processed surface composition, hence a hot post-AGB status. The LTE abundances analysis also indicates solar sulphur and moderately enriched magnesium abundances. The average abundances of B dwarfs of well studied OB associations and Population I stars show a striking resemblance to abundances obtained for HD119608 in this study. This may imply a runaway status for the star.

  15. Development of a High Resolution BRDF/Albedo Product by Fusing Airborne CASI Reflectance with MODIS Daily Reflectance in the Oasis Area of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqin You

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A land-cover-based linear BRDF (bi-directional reflectance distribution function unmixing (LLBU algorithm based on the kernel-driven model is proposed to combine the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI reflectance with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS daily reflectance product to derive the BRDF/albedo of the two sensors simultaneously in the foci experimental area (FEA of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER, which was carried out in the Heihe River basin, China. For each land cover type, an archetypal BRDF, which characterizes the shape of its anisotropic reflectance, is extracted by linearly unmixing from the MODIS reflectance with the assistance of a high-resolution classification map. The isotropic coefficients accounting for the differences within a class are derived from the CASI reflectance. The BRDF is finally determined by the archetypal BRDF and the corresponding isotropic coefficients. Direct comparisons of the cropland archetypal BRDF and CASI albedo with in situ measurements show good agreement. An indirect validation which compares retrieved BRDF/albedo with that of the MCD43A1 standard product issued by NASA and aggregated CASI albedo also suggests reasonable reliability. LLBU has potential to retrieve the high spatial resolution BRDF/albedo product for airborne and spaceborne sensors which have inadequate angular samplings. In addition, it can shorten the timescale for coarse spatial resolution product like MODIS.

  16. SPITZER INFRARED LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Maiolino, Roberto; Nakagawa, Takao

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution infrared 5-35 μm spectroscopy of 17 nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z 12 L sun , are found in eight sources. We combine these results with those of our previous research to investigate the energy function of buried AGNs in a complete sample of optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs in the local universe at z < 0.3 (85 sources). We confirm a trend that we previously discovered: that buried AGNs are more common in galaxies with higher infrared luminosities. Because optical Seyferts also show a similar trend, we argue more generally that the energetic importance of AGNs is intrinsically higher in more luminous galaxies, suggesting that the AGN-starburst connections are luminosity dependent. This may be related to the stronger AGN feedback scenario in currently more massive galaxy systems, as a possible origin of the galaxy downsizing phenomenon.

  17. Spatial resolution in Micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bayb, A; Giomataris, Ioanis; Zaccone, Henri; Bay, A; Perroud, Jean-Pierre; Ronga, F

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a telescope of Micromegas detectors has been studied in a pion beam at the CERN PS. With a gas filling of CF/sub 4 / and 20% isobutane and with a strip pitch of 100 mu m an accuracy of 14+or-3 mu m on the spatial resolution has been measured at normal incidence. A simulation demonstrates that the resolution is limited by the size of the holes of the mesh of the detector and could be reduced to 11 mu m in the same conditions with smaller holes. Even further improvement down to 8.5 mu m is feasible for the same gas with an optimized 75 mu m strip pitch. (5 refs).

  18. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  19. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  1. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  2. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  3. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  4. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  5. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  6. Abundance Analysis of 17 Planetary Nebulae from High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Cameroun G.; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Madonna, Simone; Mashburn, Amanda

    2017-06-01

    We present an abundance analysis of 17 planetary nebulae (PNe) observed with the 2D-coudé echelle spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. The spectra cover the wavelength range 3600--10,400 Å at a resolution R = 36,700, and are the first high-resolution optical spectra for many objects in our sample. The number of emission lines detected in individual nebulae range from ~125 to over 600. We derive temperatures, densities, and abundances from collisionally-excited lines using the PyNeb package (Luridiana et al. 2015, A&A, 573, A42) and the ionization correction factor scheme of Delgado-Inglada et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 536). The abundances of light elements agree with previous estimates for most of the PNe. Several objects exhibit emission lines of refractory elements such as K and Fe, and neutron-capture elements that can be enriched by the s-process. We find that K and Fe are depleted relative to solar by ~0.3--0.7~dex and 1-2 dex, respectively, and find evidence for s-process enrichments in 10 objects. Several objects in our sample exhibit C, N, and O recombination lines that are useful for abundance determinations. These transitions are used to compute abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs), the ratio of ionic abundances derived from permitted lines to those from collisionally-excited transitions. We explore relations among depletion factors, ADFs, s-process enrichment factors, and other nebular stellar and nebular properties. We acknowledge support from NSF awards AST-901432 and AST-0708429.

  7. M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott; McWilliam, Andrew; Cohen, Judith G.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first detailed chemical abundances for five globular clusters (GCs) in M31 from high-resolution (R ∼ 25,000) spectroscopy of their integrated light (IL). These GCs are the first in a larger set of clusters observed as part of an ongoing project to study the formation history of M31 and its GC population. The data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope and are analyzed using a new IL spectra analysis method that we have developed. In these clusters, we measure abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, and Ba, ages ≥10 Gyr, and a range in [Fe/H] of -0.9 to -2.2. As is typical of Milky Way GCs, we find these M31 GCs to be enhanced in the α-elements Ca, Si, and Ti relative to Fe. We also find [Mg/Fe] to be low relative to other [α/Fe], and [Al/Fe] to be enhanced in the IL abundances. These results imply that abundances of Mg, Al (and likely O, Na) recovered from IL do display the inter- and intra-cluster abundance variations seen in individual Milky Way GC stars, and that special care should be taken in the future in interpreting low- or high-resolution IL abundances of GCs that are based on Mg-dominated absorption features. Fe-peak and the neutron-capture elements Ba and Y also follow Milky Way abundance trends. We also present high-precision velocity dispersion measurements for all five M31 GCs, as well as independent constraints on the reddening toward the clusters from our analysis.

  8. High-resolution spectra of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, P.; Decock, A.; Korsun, P. P.; Jehin, E.; Kulyk, I.; Manfroid, J.; Hutsemékers, D.

    2015-08-01

    Context. High-resolution spectra of comets permit deriving the physical properties of the coma. In the optical range, relative production rates can be computed, and information about isotopic ratios and the origin of oxygen atoms can be obtained. Aims: The main objective of the work presented here was to obtain information about the chemical composition of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), a bright and long-period comet that passed perihelion (0.81 au) on 22 December 2013. Methods: We used the HARPS-North echelle spectrograph at the 3.5 m telescope TNG to obtain high-resolution spectra of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) in the optical range immediately after its perihelion passage during four consecutive nights in the period December 23 to 26, 2013. Results: Our results demonstrate the ability of HARPS-North to efficiently obtain cometary spectra. Very faint emission lines, such as those of 15NH2, have been detected, leading to a rough estimate of the 14N/15N ratio in NH2. The 12C/13C ratio was measured in the C2 lines and is equal to 80 ± 30. The oxygen lines were studied as well (green to red line intensity ratios and widths), confirming that H2O is the main parent molecule that photodissociates to produce oxygen atoms. This suggests that this comet has a high CO2 abundance. Relative production rates for C2 and NH2 were computed, but we found no significant deviation from a typical NH2/C2 ratio. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  9. THE PROMPT, HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC VIEW OF THE 'NAKED-EYE' GRB080319B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elia, V.; Fiore, F.; Nicastro, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Guetta, D.; Perna, R.; Lazzati, D.; Krongold, Y.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Guidorzi, C.; Molinari, E.; Valle, M. Della; Goldoni, P.; Meurs, E. J. A.; Mirabel, F.; Norci, L.

    2009-01-01

    GRB080319B reached fifth optical magnitude during the burst prompt emission. Thanks to the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) rapid response mode, we observed its afterglow just 8m:30s after the gamma-ray burst (GRB) onset when the magnitude was R ∼ 12. This allowed us to obtain the best signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectrum of a GRB afterglow ever (S/N per resolution element ∼50). The spectrum is rich of absorption features belonging to the main system at z = 0.937, divided in at least six components spanning a total velocity range of 100 km s -1 . The VLT/UVES observations caught the absorbing gas in a highly excited state, producing the strongest Fe II fine structure lines ever observed in a GRB. A few hours later, the optical depth of these lines was reduced by a factor of 4-20, and the optical/UV flux by a factor of ∼60. This proves that the excitation of the observed fine structure lines is due to 'pumping' by the GRB UV photons. A comparison of the observed ratio between the number of photons absorbed by the excited state and those in the Fe II ground state suggests that the six absorbers are ∼2-6 kpc from the GRB site, with component I ∼ 3 times closer to the GRB site than components III-VI. Component I is characterized also by the lack of Mg I absorption, unlike all other components. This may be both due to a closer distance and a lower density, suggesting a structured interstellar matter in this galaxy complex.

  10. Nuclear structure studies using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility: Progress report, [1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.W.

    1986-12-01

    A major part of the work done this past year was associated with research conducted at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and the External Proton Beam (EPB). The research focussed on (1) providing p + nucleus data which test nonrelativistic and relativistic models of the medium energy proton + nucleus interaction, (2) providing (p,p) and (p,n) data which are to be analyzed to provide new nuclear structure information (both ground state and excited state), (3) providing nucleon + nucleon data to aid in the systematic study of the fundamental nucleon-nucleon interaction, (4) developing and improving the pA models themselves, and (5) initiating new experimental programs whose goals are to search for new phenomena in nuclear physics

  11. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  12. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.

    1987-01-01

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources. 14 references

  13. Improvement of spectrographic analyses by the use of a mechanical packer in the arc distillation technique; Amelioration de l'analyse spectrograpique par l'utilisation d'un tasseur mecanique dans la methode de distillation dans l'arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffereau, M; Deniaud, S; Pichotin, B; Violet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    One studies improvement of spectrographic analysis by the 'carrier distillation' method with the help of a mechanical device. Experiments and advantages of such an apparatus are given (precision and reproducibility improvement, operator factor suppression). A routine apparatus (French patent no 976.493) is described. (authors) [French] On etudie l'amelioration des analyses spectrographiques par la methode de distillation avec entra eur dans l'arc au moyen d'un tasseur mecanique. On indique les experiences realisees et les avantages de l'emploi d'un tel appareil (amelioration de la precision et de la reproductibilite, suppression du facteur operateur). On decrit l'appareil de routine objet du brevet no 976.493 du 29 mai 1964. (auteurs)

  14. On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.

  15. Likelihood Ratio Based Mixed Resolution Facial Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for low-resolution face recognition. It is especially useful for a common situation in forensic search where faces of low resolution, e.g. on surveillance footage or in a crowd, must be compared to a high-resolution reference. This method is based on the

  16. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  17. Resolution on the program energy-climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  18. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  19. Microscopic resolution broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S; Watson, P; Prance, R J

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a non-contact measurement system capable of micron level spatial resolution. It utilises the novel electric potential sensor (EPS) technology, invented at Sussex, to image the electric field above a simple composite dielectric material. EP sensors may be regarded as analogous to a magnetometer and require no adjustments or offsets during either setup or use. The sample consists of a standard glass/epoxy FR4 circuit board, with linear defects machined into the surface by a PCB milling machine. The sample is excited with an a.c. signal over a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, from the reverse side, by placing it on a conducting sheet connected to the source. The single sensor is raster scanned over the surface at a constant working distance, consistent with the spatial resolution, in order to build up an image of the electric field, with respect to the reference potential. The results demonstrate that both the surface defects and the internal dielectric variations within the composite may be imaged in this way, with good contrast being observed between the glass mat and the epoxy resin.

  20. Microscopic resolution broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Watson, P.; Prance, R. J.

    2011-08-01

    Results are presented for a non-contact measurement system capable of micron level spatial resolution. It utilises the novel electric potential sensor (EPS) technology, invented at Sussex, to image the electric field above a simple composite dielectric material. EP sensors may be regarded as analogous to a magnetometer and require no adjustments or offsets during either setup or use. The sample consists of a standard glass/epoxy FR4 circuit board, with linear defects machined into the surface by a PCB milling machine. The sample is excited with an a.c. signal over a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, from the reverse side, by placing it on a conducting sheet connected to the source. The single sensor is raster scanned over the surface at a constant working distance, consistent with the spatial resolution, in order to build up an image of the electric field, with respect to the reference potential. The results demonstrate that both the surface defects and the internal dielectric variations within the composite may be imaged in this way, with good contrast being observed between the glass mat and the epoxy resin.

  1. Super Resolution Algorithm for CCTVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohshi, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, security cameras and CCTV systems have become an important part of our daily lives. The rising demand for such systems has created business opportunities in this field, especially in big cities. Analogue CCTV systems are being replaced by digital systems, and HDTV CCTV has become quite common. HDTV CCTV can achieve images with high contrast and decent quality if they are clicked in daylight. However, the quality of an image clicked at night does not always have sufficient contrast and resolution because of poor lighting conditions. CCTV systems depend on infrared light at night to compensate for insufficient lighting conditions, thereby producing monochrome images and videos. However, these images and videos do not have high contrast and are blurred. We propose a nonlinear signal processing technique that significantly improves visual and image qualities (contrast and resolution) of low-contrast infrared images. The proposed method enables the use of infrared cameras for various purposes such as night shot and poor lighting environments under poor lighting conditions.

  2. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  3. Reconcile: A Coreference Resolution Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V; Cardie, C; Gilbert, N; Riloff, E; Buttler, D; Hysom, D

    2009-10-29

    Despite the availability of standard data sets and metrics, approaches to the problem of noun phrase coreference resolution are hard to compare empirically due to the different evaluation setting stemming, in part, from the lack of comprehensive coreference resolution research platforms. In this tech report we present Reconcile, a coreference resolution research platform that aims to facilitate the implementation of new approaches to coreference resolution as well as the comparison of existing approaches. We discuss Reconcile's architecture and give results of running Reconcile on six data sets using four evaluation metrics, showing that Reconcile's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art systems in coreference resolution.

  4. Comparison of super-resolution benefits for downsampled iages and real low-resolution data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Gökberk, B.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, more and more researchers are exploring the benefits of super-resolution methods on low-resolution face recognition. However, often results presented are obtained on downsampled high-resolution face images. Because downsampled images are different from real images taken at low resolution,

  5. 40 CFR 22.18 - Quick resolution; settlement; alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; alternative dispute resolution. 22.18 Section 22.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...; alternative dispute resolution. (a) Quick resolution. (1) A respondent may resolve the proceeding at any time... complaint. (d) Alternative means of dispute resolution. (1) The parties may engage in any process within the...

  6. Super resolution for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  7. Hadron energy resolution at ICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Moon Moon; Ghosh, Anushree; Kaur, Daljeet; Mohan, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a simulation study for determining the hadron energy resolution of INO-ICAL detector within a GEANT4 based simulation framework. We do this by propagating single pions from a fixed or a randomised vertex, as also with the NUANCE (neutrino event generator) generated events in which hadrons are produced in the energy range (0.5 ≤ E ≤ 15 GeV). Hadron interactions produce a shower of hits inside the detector. The energy of hadrons can therefore be reconstructed only by taking these hits into account. Hit distribution for each energy and angle bin has been obtained and analyzed. In order to find the suitable fit for such hit distributions a comparative study has been performed by applying different fit functions and results will be shown

  8. Resolution of the Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    You were many to attend the public information meetings organised in October and we thank you for your interest. In this decision phase of the current Five-Yearly Review of our employment conditions they provided an opportunity to review the Management proposals in detail. They were a moment of exchange also on the various topics under review, and your comments were many and very valuable. Meeting on Thursday 29th October, the Staff Council discussed once more these proposals. It considered that the "package" of proposed measures is not balanced enough in its current form. It decided to formulate additional requests to the Management, relating mainly to the effects of the introduction of the proposed new career system. The resolution adopted this morning also implies that the consultation of staff, originally foreseen next week, is postponed. The staff Council will reconvene in a special session on Thursday, 5th November to reassess its position depending on the progress made regarding its d...

  9. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  10. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  11. Atomic-resolution neutron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cser, L.; Toeroek, Gy.; Krexner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Atomic-resolution neutron holography can be realised by two different schemes. In the frame of the first approach a point-like source of slow neutrons is produced inside the investigated crystal. Due to the extremely large value of the incoherent-scattering cross-section of the proton, hydrogen atoms imbedded in a metal single-crystal lattice may serve as point-like sources when the sample is irradiated by a monochromatic beam of slow neutrons. The second approach utilizes the registration of the interference between the incident and scattered waves by means of a point-like detector inserted in the lattice of the crystal under investigation. In addition, neutron-induced electron holography is considered. The feasibility of these ideas is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R

    2016-11-13

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U (1) -U (0) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  14. The investigation of the decay of the deformed 167Yb, 164Tm, 225Ac, 221Fr nuclei. Beta-spectrograph with positional-sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butabaev, Yu.S.

    1994-01-01

    The decay of the deformed 167 Yb, 164 Tm, 225 Ac, 221 Fr nuclei is investigated in this work. For 167 Yb and 164 Tm decays the specters of the conversion electrons were measured. 32 γ-transitions were found for 167 Yb decay, 6 of which were found for the first time. The multipolarities for 9 γ-transitions were found. For 164 Tm decay 23 new γ-transitions were found. The theoretical investigations of the collective states in the nucleus were carried out. Octupole-rotatory line with k=1 - was found in the measurement of conversion electrons specters of the short-life nuclei. Device' nonlinearity was 0,04%. Resolution was Δβρ/βρ 0,11%. Effective light yield was 1-2 %. The decay of 225 Ac and 221 Fr nuclei were investigated. The investigations of α-γ -coincidence, α-γ - rays were carried out. 24 new γ -transitions for 225 Ac and 13 ones for 221 Fr were found. The new levels and their intensities were defined more precisely. Intensity balance calculations were carried out and the full populations of the nuclear levels were calculated. (author). 3 tabs.; 10 figs

  15. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    shortcoming in preventing impasses is a need to have a priori information on the future demand for resources, and it is not always possible.One of ways to "struggle" against impasses when there is no a priori information on the process demand for resources is to detect deadlocks. Detection of impasses (without leading to their resolution yet is a periodical use of the algorithm which checks current distribution of resources to reveal whether there is an impasse and if it exists what processes are involved in it.The work objective is to develop methods and algorithms allowing us to minimize losses because of impasses in CS using the optimum strategy of conflict resolution. The offered approach is especially effective to eliminate deadlocks in management (control computer systems having a fixed set of programmes.The article offers a developed efficient strategy of the information processes management in multiprocessing CS, which detects and prevents impasses. The strategy is based on allocation of indivisible resources to computing processes so that losses caused by conflicts are minimized. The article studies a multi-criterion problem of indivisible resources allocation to the processes, with the optimality principle expressed by the known binary relation over set of average vectors of penalties for conflicts in each of resources. It is shown that sharing a decision theory tool and a classical one allows more efficient problem solution to eliminate deadlock. The feature of suggesting effective methods and algorithms to eliminate deadlocks is that they can be used in CS development and operation in real time. The article-given example shows that the proposed method and algorithm for the impasse resolution in multiprocessing CS are capable and promising.The offered method and algorithm provide reducing the average number of CS conflicts by 30-40 %.

  16. Conflict resolution: practical principles for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Berger, David H; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L; Martinez, George; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2008-11-01

    Historically, surgeons have had little formal training in conflict resolution; however, there has been an increasing body of evidence that poor conflict resolution skills may have an adverse impact on patient outcomes and career advancement. Furthermore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has recognized the importance of conflict resolution skills in resident training by mandating the training of communication skills and professionalism. These skills have often been taught in other professions, and surgeons may need to acquaint themselves with the literature from those fields. Conflict resolution techniques such as the 7-step model or principle-based conflict resolution can be applied to conflict in the operating room, wards, and among colleagues. We propose a model for conflict resolution by using the basic tools of the history and physical exam, a process well known to all physicians.

  17. Constraining the Volatile Composition and Coma Photochemistry in Jupiter Family Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak with High Resolution IR and Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; DiSanti, Michael; Cochran, Anita; Dello Russo, Neil; Bonev, Boncho; Vervack, Ronald; Gibb, Erika; Roth, Nathan; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years optical and IR spectroscopy of cometary comae has expanded our understanding both of cometary volatile composition and coma photochemistry. However, these observations tend to be biased towards Nearly Isotropic Comets (NIC'S) from the Oort Cloud, rather than the generally fainter and less active Jupiter Family Comets (JFC's) that are thought to originate from the Scattered Disk. However, early 2017 provided a rare opportunity to study several JFC's. We present preliminary results from IR and optical spectroscopy of JFC 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak obtained during its 2017 apparition. IR spectra were obtained with the NIRSPEC instrument on Keck II and the new iSHELL spectrograph on NASA IRTF. High spectral resolution optical spectra were obtained with the Tull Coude spectrograph on the 2.7-meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We will discuss mixing ratios of HCN, NH3, C2H6, C2H2, H2CO, and CH3OH compared to H2O and compare these to previous observations of comets. Preliminary results from the NIRSPEC observations indicate that 41P has typical C2H2 and HCN abundances compared to other JFC's, while the C2H6 abundance is similar to that of NIC's, but is enriched compared to other JFC's. H2CO appears to be heavily depleted in 41P. Analysis of the iSHELL spectra is underway and we will include results from these observations, which complement those from NIRSPEC and extend the scope or our compositional study by measuring additional molecules. We will also present abundances for CN, C2, NH2, C3, and CH obtained from the optical spectra and discuss the implications for the coma photochemistry.This work is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program, administered by the Universities Space Research Association, with additional funding from the NSF and NASA PAST.

  18. Shipments/receipts resolution program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) has initiated an aggressive program aimed at improving shipper/receiver (S/R) posture. The site is routinely involved in 800 nuclear material transfers/year. This many transactions between facilities provides many opportunities for resolving S/R differences. Resolution of S/R differences requires considerable effort from both DOE offices and contractors, presents legitimate safeguards concerns if the receiving quantity is less than the quantity shipped, and must be resolved for shipments to continue. This paper discusses the programs in place at SRP to resolve S/R differences. S/R agreements provide a method of communicating between the shipping and receiving facilities and protect both facilities by eliminating misunderstandings. Nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation allows the facility to obtain an accountability quality value for receipt before the material is processed. More accurate and precise analytical techniques are in use wherever SRP does not have the capability to measure a shipment or receipt by NDA. S/R values are graphed to identify trends and/or biases that may not have exceeded any error limits. The central Material Control and Accountability (MCandA) division has become more involved in analyzing the data from shipments and receipts including the calculation of limits of error (LOE's), instrument biases, and analyzing trends

  19. Interactively variable isotropic resolution in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, Robert M; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kachelriess, Marc; Wilharm, Sylvia; Kalender, Willi A

    2008-01-01

    An individual balancing between spatial resolution and image noise is necessary to fulfil the diagnostic requirements in medical CT imaging. In order to change influencing parameters, such as reconstruction kernel or effective slice thickness, additional raw-data-dependent image reconstructions have to be performed. Therefore, the noise versus resolution trade-off is time consuming and not interactively applicable. Furthermore, isotropic resolution, expressed by an equivalent point spread function (PSF) in every spatial direction, is important for the undistorted visualization and quantitative evaluation of small structures independent of the viewing plane. Theoretically, isotropic resolution can be obtained by matching the in-plane and through-plane resolution with the aforementioned parameters. Practically, however, the user is not assisted in doing so by current reconstruction systems and therefore isotropic resolution is not commonly achieved, in particular not at the desired resolution level. In this paper, an integrated approach is presented for equalizing the in-plane and through-plane spatial resolution by image filtering. The required filter kernels are calculated from previously measured PSFs in x/y- and z-direction. The concepts derived are combined with a variable resolution filtering technique. Both approaches are independent of CT raw data and operate only on reconstructed images which allows for their application in real time. Thereby, the aim of interactively variable, isotropic resolution is achieved. Results were evaluated quantitatively by measuring PSFs and image noise, and qualitatively by comparing the images to direct reconstructions regarded as the gold standard. Filtered images matched direct reconstructions with arbitrary reconstruction kernels with standard deviations in difference images of typically between 1 and 17 HU. Isotropic resolution was achieved within 5% of the selected resolution level. Processing times of 20-100 ms per frame

  20. 2 DOF resolution adjustment laser position sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available means. [19, 20] Other - Displacement measuring instruments utilizing eddy currents, capacitive and inductive properties exist, but are not as widely spread as the technologies mentioned. Accelerometers and Gyroscopes are used to determine... resolution. The current accuracy of the IRB 340 Flex Picker, a rapid pick and place machine, is 0.1 mm. The lower limit on screen resolution for absolute 2D positioning would then be 400 phototransistors per square mm, a screen with twice the resolution...