WorldWideScience

Sample records for resolution scale preliminary

  1. High-resolution chemical composition of geothermal scalings from Hungary: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Ronny; Dietzel, Martin; Deák, József; Leis, Albrecht; Mindszenty, Andrea; Demeny, Attila

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal fluids originating from several hundreds to thousands meters depth mostly hold a high potential for secondary mineral precipitation (scaling) due to high total dissolved solid contents at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The precipitation of e.g. carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and silica has shown to cause severe problems in geothermal heat and electric power production, when clogging of drill-holes, downhole pumps, pipes and heat exchangers occurs (e.g. deep geothermal doublet systems). Ongoing scaling reduces the efficiency in energy extraction and might even question the abandonment of installations in worst cases. In an attempt to study scaling processes both temporally and spatially we collected mineral precipitates from selected sites in Hungary (Bükfürdo, Szechenyi, Szentes, Igal, Hajduszoboszlo). The samples of up to 8 cm thickness were recovered from different positions of the geothermal systems and precipitated from waters of various temperatures (40-120 °C) and variable overall chemical composition. Most of these scalings show fine lamination patterns representing mineral deposition from weeks up to 45 years at our study sites. Solid-fluid interaction over time captured in the samples are investigated applying high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser-ablation mass-spectrometry and electron microprobe, micromill-sampling for stable isotope analysis, and micro-XRD combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. A detailed investigation of the processes determining the formation and growth of precipitates can help to elucidate the short-term versus long-term geothermal performance with regard to anthropogenic and natural reservoir and production dynamics. Changes in fluid chemistry, temperature, pressure, pH, degassing rate (CO2) and flow rate are reflected by the mineralogical, chemical and isotopic composition of the precipitates. Consequently, this high-resolution approach is intended as a contribution to decipher the

  2. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  3. A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jan Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish Zero anaphora is an element of the coreference resolution task that has not yet been directly addressed in Polish and, in most studies, it has been left as the most challenging aspect for further investigation. This article presents an initial study of this problem. The preparation of a machine learning approach, alongside engineering features based on linguistic study of the KPWr corpus, is discussed. This study utilizes existing tools for Polish coreference resolution as sources of partial coreferential clusters containing pronoun, noun and named entity mentions. They are also used as baseline zero coreference resolution systems for comparison with our system. The evaluation process is focused not only on clustering correctness, without taking into account types of mentions, using standard CoNLL-2012 measures, but also on the informativeness of the resulting relations. According to the annotation approach used for coreference to the KPWr corpus, only named entities are treated as mentions that are informative enough to constitute a link to real world objects. Consequently, we provide an evaluation of informativeness based on found links between zero anaphoras and named entities. For the same reason, we restrict coreference resolution in this study to mention clusters built around named entities.   Wstępne studium rozwiązywania problemu koreferencji anafory zerowej w języku polskim Koreferencja zerowa, w języku polskim, jest jednym z zagadnień rozpoznawania koreferencji. Dotychczas nie była ona bezpośrednim przedmiotem badań, gdyż ze względu na jej złożoność była pomijana i odsuwana na dalsze etapy badań. Artykuł prezentuje wstępne studium problemu, jakim jest rozpoznawanie koreferencji zerowej. Przedstawiamy podejście wykorzystujące techniki uczenia maszynowego oraz proces tworzenia cech w oparciu o analizę lingwistyczną korpusu KPWr. W przedstawionej

  4. Hierarchical modeling and robust synthesis for the preliminary design of large scale complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Patrick Nathan

    Large-scale complex systems are characterized by multiple interacting subsystems and the analysis of multiple disciplines. The design and development of such systems inevitably requires the resolution of multiple conflicting objectives. The size of complex systems, however, prohibits the development of comprehensive system models, and thus these systems must be partitioned into their constituent parts. Because simultaneous solution of individual subsystem models is often not manageable iteration is inevitable and often excessive. In this dissertation these issues are addressed through the development of a method for hierarchical robust preliminary design exploration to facilitate concurrent system and subsystem design exploration, for the concurrent generation of robust system and subsystem specifications for the preliminary design of multi-level, multi-objective, large-scale complex systems. This method is developed through the integration and expansion of current design techniques: (1) Hierarchical partitioning and modeling techniques for partitioning large-scale complex systems into more tractable parts, and allowing integration of subproblems for system synthesis, (2) Statistical experimentation and approximation techniques for increasing both the efficiency and the comprehensiveness of preliminary design exploration, and (3) Noise modeling techniques for implementing robust preliminary design when approximate models are employed. The method developed and associated approaches are illustrated through their application to the preliminary design of a commercial turbofan turbine propulsion system; the turbofan system-level problem is partitioned into engine cycle and configuration design and a compressor module is integrated for more detailed subsystem-level design exploration, improving system evaluation.

  5. Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resolute large scale mining company contribution to health services of Lusu ... in terms of socio economic, health, education, employment, safe drinking water, ... The data were analyzed using Scientific Package for Social Science (SPSS).

  6. Reference resolution in multi-modal interaction: Preliminary observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González González, G.R.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can apply

  7. Innovations in Measuring Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Children with LI: Exploring the Accessibility of a Visual Analogue Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol…

  8. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM 2.5 as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM 2.5 ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM 2.5 levels and wind speed. - Highlights: ► The correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreases as AOD resolution is degraded. ► High resolution MAIAC AOD 1 km retrieval can be used to investigate within-city PM 2.5 variability. ► Low pollution days exhibit higher spatial variability of AOD and PM 2.5 then moderate pollution days. ► AOD spatial variability within urban area is higher during the lower wind speed conditions. - The correlation between PM 2.5 and AOD decreases as AOD resolution is degraded. The new high-resolution MAIAC AOD retrieval has the potential to capture PM 2.5 variability at the intra-urban scale.

  9. Sensitivity of point scale surface runoff predictions to rainfall resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Hearman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of using non-linear, high resolution rainfall, compared to time averaged rainfall on the triggering of hydrologic thresholds and therefore model predictions of infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff at the point scale. The bounded random cascade model, parameterized to three locations in Western Australia, was used to scale rainfall intensities at various time resolutions ranging from 1.875 min to 2 h. A one dimensional, conceptual rainfall partitioning model was used that instantaneously partitioned water into infiltration excess, infiltration, storage, deep drainage, saturation excess and surface runoff, where the fluxes into and out of the soil store were controlled by thresholds. The results of the numerical modelling were scaled by relating soil infiltration properties to soil draining properties, and in turn, relating these to average storm intensities. For all soil types, we related maximum infiltration capacities to average storm intensities (k* and were able to show where model predictions of infiltration excess were most sensitive to rainfall resolution (ln k*=0.4 and where using time averaged rainfall data can lead to an under prediction of infiltration excess and an over prediction of the amount of water entering the soil (ln k*>2 for all three rainfall locations tested. For soils susceptible to both infiltration excess and saturation excess, total runoff sensitivity was scaled by relating drainage coefficients to average storm intensities (g* and parameter ranges where predicted runoff was dominated by infiltration excess or saturation excess depending on the resolution of rainfall data were determined (ln g*<2. Infiltration excess predicted from high resolution rainfall was short and intense, whereas saturation excess produced from low resolution rainfall was more constant and less intense. This has important implications for the accuracy of current hydrological models that use time

  10. Preliminary conceptual study of engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong-In; Chong, Won-Myung; You, Gil-Sung; Ku, Jeong-Hoe; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The conceptual design of a pyroprocess demonstration facility was performed. ► The design requirements for the pyroprocess hot cell and equipment were determined. ► The maintenance concept for the pyroprocess hot cell was presented. -- Abstract: The development of an effective management technology of spent fuel is important to enhance environmental friendliness, cost viability and proliferation resistance. In Korea, pyroprocess technology has been considered as a fuel cycle option to solve the spent fuel accumulation problems. PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) has been developed from 2007 to 2012 in Korea as a cold test facility to support integrated pyroprocessing and an equipment demonstration, which is essential to verify the pyroprocess technology. As the next stage of PRIDE, the design requirements of an engineering-scale demonstration facility are being developed, and the preliminary conceptual design of the facility is being performed for the future. In this paper, the main design requirements for the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility were studied in the throughput of 10tHM a year. For the preliminary conceptual design of the facility, the design basis of the pyroprocess hot cell was suggested, and the main equipment, main process area, operation area, maintenance area, and so on were arranged in consideration of the effective operation of the hot cells. Also, the argon system was designed to provide and maintain a proper inert environment for the pyroprocess. The preliminary conceptual design data will be used to review the validity of the engineering-scale pyroprocess demonstration facility that enhances both safety and nonproliferation

  11. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra A; Kostinski, Alex; Lyapustin, Alexei; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not adequate for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM(2.5) as measured by the EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated at varying spatial scales. Our analysis suggested that the correlation between PM(2.5) and AOD decreased significantly as AOD resolution was degraded. This is so despite the intrinsic mismatch between PM(2.5) ground level measurements and AOD vertically integrated measurements. Furthermore, the fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 km scale. Finally, this spatial variability of AOD within the urban domain was shown to depend on PM(2.5) levels and wind speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Statistical Examination of the Resolution of a Block-Scale Urban Drainage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A.; Montalto, F. A.; Digiovanni, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Stormwater drainage models are utilized by cities in order to plan retention systems to prevent combined sewage overflows and design for development. These models aggregate subcatchments and ignore small pipelines providing a coarse representation of a sewage network. This study evaluates the importance of resolution by comparing two models developed on a neighborhood scale for predicting the total quantity and peak flow of runoff to observed runoff measured at the site. The low and high resolution models were designed for a 2.6 ha block in Bronx, NYC in EPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) using a single catchment and separate subcatchments based on surface cover, respectively. The surface covers represented included sidewalks, street, buildings, and backyards. Characteristics for physical surfaces and the infrastructure in the high resolution mode were determined from site visits, sewer pipe maps, aerial photographs, and GIS data-sets provided by the NYC Department of City Planning. Since the low resolution model was depicted at a coarser scale, generalizations were assumed about the overall average characteristics of the catchment. Rainfall and runoff data were monitored over a four month period during the summer rainy season. A total of 53 rain fall events were recorded but only 29 storms produced significant amount of runoffs to be evaluated in the simulations. To determine which model was more accurate at predicting the observed runoff, three characteristics for each storm were compared: peak runoff, total runoff, and time to peak. Two statistical tests were used to determine the significance of the results: the percent difference for each storm and the overall Chi-squared Goodness of Fit distribution for both the low and high resolution model. These tests will evaluate if there is a statistical difference depending on the resolution of scale of the stormwater model. The scale of representation is being evaluated because it could have a profound impact on

  13. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Coma Arousal Communication Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Julie; Reina, Margot; DeiCas, Paula; Rousseaux, Marc

    To develop a Coma Arousal Communication Scale and perform preliminary validation. A group of experts developed a questionnaire to assess communication between patients emerging from coma and caregiver (participation, communication modes, and themes) and the strategies used to facilitate communication. To assess the scale's psychometric characteristics, it was presented to the caregivers of 40 inpatients admitted to 5 coma units and (to obtain reference data) to 29 control participants. The Coma Arousal Communication Scale displayed good intra- and interrater reliability as judged by intraclass correlation coefficients (between 0.76 and 0.98) and Bland and Altman plots. Cohen κ coefficient revealed moderate to almost perfect levels of agreement for most individual items and slight levels for a few items dealing with compensatory strategies. We observed good internal consistency, relations with the Wessex Head Injury Matrix, and sensitivity to change for patients who had sustained brain injury in the previous 6 months. The Coma Arousal Communication Scale provides accurate information about communication skills of individuals emerging from coma. However, some compensatory strategies adopted by caregivers are difficult to characterize.

  14. Resolution, Scales and Predictability: Is High Resolution Detrimental To Predictability At Extended Forecast Times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The traditional views hold that high-resolution limited area models (LAMs) down- scale large-scale lateral boundary information, and that predictability of small scales is short. Inspection of various rms fits/errors has contributed to these views. It would follow that the skill of LAMs should visibly deteriorate compared to that of their driver models at more extended forecast times. The limited area Eta Model at NCEP has an additional handicap of being driven by LBCs of the previous Avn global model run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. This should make its relative skill compared to that of the Avn deteriorate even faster. These views are challenged by various Eta results including rms fits to raobs out to 84 h. It is argued that it is the largest scales that contribute the most to the skill of the Eta relative to that of the Avn.

  15. Preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epel, L.G.; Majeski, S.J.; Schweitzer, D.G.; Sheehan, T.V.

    1979-08-01

    A preliminary design study of a large scale graphite oxidation loop was performed in order to assess feasibility and to estimate capital costs. The nominal design operates at 50 atmospheres helium and 1800 F with a graphite specimen 30 inches long and 10 inches in diameter. It was determined that a simple single walled design was not practical at this time because of a lack of commercially available thick walled high temperature alloys. Two alternative concepts, at reduced operating pressure, were investigated. Both were found to be readily fabricable to operate at 1800 F and capital cost estimates for these are included. A design concept, which is outside the scope of this study, was briefly considered

  16. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  17. A high-resolution global-scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water. It plays a vital role in satisfying basic needs for drinking water, agriculture and industrial activities. During times of drought groundwater sustains baseflow to rivers and wetlands, thereby supporting ecosystems. Most global-scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, mainly due to lack of geohydrological data at the global scale. For the simulation of lateral flow and groundwater head dynamics, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system is needed, especially for GHMs that run at finer resolutions. In this study we present a global-scale groundwater model (run at 6' resolution) using MODFLOW to construct an equilibrium water table at its natural state as the result of long-term climatic forcing. The used aquifer schematization and properties are based on available global data sets of lithology and transmissivities combined with the estimated thickness of an upper, unconfined aquifer. This model is forced with outputs from the land-surface PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) model, specifically net recharge and surface water levels. A sensitivity analysis, in which the model was run with various parameter settings, showed that variation in saturated conductivity has the largest impact on the groundwater levels simulated. Validation with observed groundwater heads showed that groundwater heads are reasonably well simulated for many regions of the world, especially for sediment basins (R2 = 0.95). The simulated regional-scale groundwater patterns and flow paths demonstrate the relevance of lateral groundwater flow in GHMs. Inter-basin groundwater flows can be a significant part of a basin's water budget and help to sustain river baseflows, especially during droughts. Also, water availability of larger aquifer systems can be positively affected by additional recharge from inter-basin groundwater flows.

  18. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-11-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as "Muon Central Slice Theorem". Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction.

  19. Preliminary frequency-domain analysis for the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, B.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Wu, D.; Zeng, Z.; Zeng, M.; Yi, H.; Luo, Z.; Yue, X.; Cheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    Muon tomography is an advanced technology to non-destructively detect high atomic number materials. It exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering information of muon to reconstruct the scattering density image of the traversed object. Because of the statistics of muon scattering, the measurement error of system and the data incompleteness, the reconstruction is always accompanied with a certain level of interference, which will influence the reconstructed spatial resolution. While statistical noises can be reduced by extending the measuring time, system parameters determine the ultimate spatial resolution that one system can reach. In this paper, an effective frequency-domain model is proposed to analyze the reconstructed spatial resolution of muon tomography. The proposed method modifies the resolution analysis in conventional computed tomography (CT) to fit the different imaging mechanism in muon scattering tomography. The measured scattering information is described in frequency domain, then a relationship between the measurements and the original image is proposed in Fourier domain, which is named as M uon Central Slice Theorem . Furthermore, a preliminary analytical expression of the ultimate reconstructed spatial is derived, and the simulations are performed for validation. While the method is able to predict the ultimate spatial resolution of a given system, it can also be utilized for the optimization of system design and construction

  20. THE IMPACT OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL RESOLUTIONS IN TROPICAL SUMMER RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples’ life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007, accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG. However, the models’ resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF and cumulative distribution functions(CDF of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  1. The Impact of Spatial and Temporal Resolutions in Tropical Summer Rainfall Distribution: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Chiu, L. S.; Hao, X.

    2017-10-01

    The abundance or lack of rainfall affects peoples' life and activities. As a major component of the global hydrological cycle (Chokngamwong & Chiu, 2007), accurate representations at various spatial and temporal scales are crucial for a lot of decision making processes. Climate models show a warmer and wetter climate due to increases of Greenhouse Gases (GHG). However, the models' resolutions are often too coarse to be directly applicable to local scales that are useful for mitigation purposes. Hence disaggregation (downscaling) procedures are needed to transfer the coarse scale products to higher spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the statistical parameters of rainfall at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree, 3 hourly grid rainfall data for a summer is aggregated to 0.5,1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 degree and at 6, 12, 24 hourly, pentad (five days) and monthly resolutions. The probability distributions (PDF) and cumulative distribution functions(CDF) of rain amount at these resolutions are computed and modeled as a mixed distribution. Parameters of the PDFs are compared using the Kolmogrov-Smironov (KS) test, both for the mixed and the marginal distribution. These distributions are shown to be distinct. The marginal distributions are fitted with Lognormal and Gamma distributions and it is found that the Gamma distributions fit much better than the Lognormal.

  2. Multi-scale Analysis of High Resolution Topography: Feature Extraction and Identification of Landscape Characteristic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Sangireddy, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of digital terrain data, detailed information on terrain characteristics and on scale and location of geomorphic features is available over extended areas. Our ability to observe landscapes and quantify topographic patterns has greatly improved, including the estimation of fluxes of mass and energy across landscapes. Challenges still remain in the analysis of high resolution topography data; the presence of features such as roads, for example, challenges classic methods for feature extraction and large data volumes require computationally efficient extraction and analysis methods. Moreover, opportunities exist to define new robust metrics of landscape characterization for landscape comparison and model validation. In this presentation we cover recent research in multi-scale and objective analysis of high resolution topography data. We show how the analysis of the probability density function of topographic attributes such as slope, curvature, and topographic index contains useful information for feature localization and extraction. The analysis of how the distributions change across scales, quantified by the behavior of modal values and interquartile range, allows the identification of landscape characteristic scales, such as terrain roughness. The methods are introduced on synthetic signals in one and two dimensions and then applied to a variety of landscapes of different characteristics. Validation of the methods includes the analysis of modeled landscapes where the noise distribution is known and features of interest easily measured.

  3. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  4. Green leaf phenology at Landsat resolution: scaling from the plot to satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. I.; Mustard, J. F.; Vadeboncour, M.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the large number of in situ, plot-level phenological measurements and satellite-derived phenological studies, there has been little success to date in merging these records temporally or spatially. In particular, while most phenological patterns and trends derived from satellites appear realistic and coherent, they may not reflect spatial and temporal patterns at the plot level. An obvious explanation is the drastic scale difference from plot-level to most satellite observations. In this research, we bridge this scale gap through higher resolution satellite records (Landsat) and quantify the accuracy of satellite-derived metrics with direct field measurements. We compiled fifty-seven Landsat scenes from southern New England (P12 R51) from 1984 to 2002. Green vegetation areal abundance for each scene was derived from spectral mixture analysis and a single set of endmembers. The leaf area signal was fit with a logistic-growth simulating sigmoid curve to derive phenological markers (half-maximum leaf-onset and offset). Spring leaf-onset dates in homogenous stands of deciduous forests displayed significant and persistent local variability. The local variability was validated with multiple springtime ground observations (r2 = 0.91). The highest degree of verified small-scale variation occurred where contiguous forests displayed leaf-onset gradients of 10-14 days over short distances (example, our results indicate that deciduous forests in the Providence, RI metropolitan area leaf out 5-7 days earlier than comparable rural areas. In preliminary work, we validated the Landsat-derived metrics with similar analyses of MODIS and AVHRR, and demonstrate that aggregating diverse local phenologies into coarse grids may convolute interpretations. Despite these complications, the platform-independent curve-fit methodology may be extended across platforms and field data. The methodologically consistent approach, in tandem with Landsat data, allows us to effectively scale

  5. High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and

  6. Accurate atmospheric parameters at moderate resolution using spectral indices: Preliminary application to the marvels survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff , metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ∼ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff , 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test

  7. Accurate Atmospheric Parameters at Moderate Resolution Using Spectral Indices: Preliminary Application to the MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Pepper, Joshua; Wang, Ji; Paegert, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ~ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was

  8. Construction and preliminary validation of the Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Qureshi, Adil; Antonin, Montserrat; Collazos, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    In the study of mental health and migration, an increasing number of researchers have shifted the focus away from the concept of acculturation towards the stress present in the migratory experience. The bulk of research on acculturative stress has been carried out in the United States, and thus the definition and measurement of the construct has been predicated on that cultural and demographic context, which is of dubious applicability in Europe in general, and Spain in particular. Further, some scales have focused on international students, which down-played the importance of the migratory process, because it deals with a special subset of people who are not formally immigrating. The Barcelona Immigration Stress Scale was developed to measure acculturative stress appropriate to immigrants in Spain, using expert and focus group review and has 42 items. The scale shows acceptable internal validity, and, consistent with other scales, suggests that immigration stress is a complex construct.

  9. Tuneable resolution as a systems biology approach for multi-scale, multi-compartment computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Denise E; Hunt, C Anthony; Marino, Simeone; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2014-01-01

    The use of multi-scale mathematical and computational models to study complex biological processes is becoming increasingly productive. Multi-scale models span a range of spatial and/or temporal scales and can encompass multi-compartment (e.g., multi-organ) models. Modeling advances are enabling virtual experiments to explore and answer questions that are problematic to address in the wet-lab. Wet-lab experimental technologies now allow scientists to observe, measure, record, and analyze experiments focusing on different system aspects at a variety of biological scales. We need the technical ability to mirror that same flexibility in virtual experiments using multi-scale models. Here we present a new approach, tuneable resolution, which can begin providing that flexibility. Tuneable resolution involves fine- or coarse-graining existing multi-scale models at the user's discretion, allowing adjustment of the level of resolution specific to a question, an experiment, or a scale of interest. Tuneable resolution expands options for revising and validating mechanistic multi-scale models, can extend the longevity of multi-scale models, and may increase computational efficiency. The tuneable resolution approach can be applied to many model types, including differential equation, agent-based, and hybrid models. We demonstrate our tuneable resolution ideas with examples relevant to infectious disease modeling, illustrating key principles at work. © 2014 The Authors. WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Resolution of reservoir scale electrical anisotropy from marine CSEM data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, V.; Hoversten, G.M.; Key, K.; Chen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A combination of 1D and 3D forward and inverse solutions is used to quantify the sensitivity and resolution of conventional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data collected using a horizontal electric dipole source to transverse electrical anisotropy located in a deep-water exploration reservoir target. Since strongly anisotropic shale layers have a vertical resistivity that can be comparable to many reservoirs, we examine how CSEM can discriminate confounding shale layers through their characteristically lower horizontal resistivity. Forward modeling demonstrates that the sensitivity to reservoir level anisotropy is very low compared to the sensitivity to isotropic reservoirs, especially when the reservoir is deeper than about 2 km below the seabed. However, for 1D models where the number of inversion parameters can be fixed to be only a few layers, both vertical and horizontal resistivity of the reservoir can be well resolved using a stochastic inversion. We find that the resolution of horizontal resistivity increases as the horizontal resistivity decreases. We show that this effect is explained by the presence of strong horizontal current density in anisotropic layers with low horizontal resistivity. Conversely, when the reservoir has a vertical to horizontal resistivity ratio of about 10 or less, the current density is vertically polarized and hence has little sensitivity to the horizontal resistivity. Resistivity anisotropy estimates from 3D inversion for 3D targets suggest that resolution of reservoir level anisotropy for 3D targets will require good a priori knowledge of the background sediment conductivity and structural boundaries.

  11. The Bereavement Guilt Scale : Development and preliminary validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jie; Stroebe, Margaret; Chan, Cecilia L.W.; Chow, Amy Y.M.

    The rationale, development, and validation of the Bereavement Guilt Scale (BGS) are described in this article. The BGS was based on a theoretically developed, multidimensional conceptualization of guilt. Part 1 describes the generation of the item pool, derived from in-depth interviews, and review

  12. Preliminary Validation of the Motor Skills Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Chen, Wei-Bing; Blodgett, Julia; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Mashburn, Andrew J.; Brock, Laura L.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a questionnaire designed for classroom teachers of children in early elementary school. Items were developed with the guidance of two occupational therapists, and factor structure was examined with an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The resulting model showed…

  13. Transforming SWAT for continental-scale high-resolution modeling of floodplain dynamics: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, A.; Merwade, V.; Liu, Z.; Lane, C.; Golden, H. E.; Tavakoly, A. A.; Follum, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    There have been many initiatives to develop frameworks for continental-scale modeling and mapping floodplain dynamics. The choice of a model for such needs should be governed by its suitability to be executed in high performance cyber platforms, ability to integrate supporting hydraulic/hydrodynamic tools, and ability to assimilate earth observations. Furthermore, disseminating large volume of outputs for public use and interoperability with similar frameworks should be considered. Considering these factors, we have conducted a series of modeling experiments and developed a suite of cyber-enabled platforms that have transformed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) into an appropriate model for use in a continental-scale, high resolution, near real-time flood information framework. Our first experiment uses a medium size watershed in Indiana, USA and attempts burning-in a high resolution, National Hydrography Dataset Plus(NHDPlus) into the SWAT model. This is crucial with a view to make the outputs comparable with other global/national initiatives. The second experiment is built upon the first attempt to add a modified landscape representation in the model which differentiates between the upland and floodplain processes. Our third experiment involves two separate efforts: coupling SWAT with a hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP and a new generation, low complexity hydraulic model AutoRoute. We have executed the prototype "loosely-coupled" models for the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin in the USA, encompassing 1 million square km drainage area and nearly 0.2 million NHDPlus river reaches. The preliminary results suggest reasonable accuracy for both streamflow and flood inundation. In this presentation, we will also showcase three cyber-enabled platforms, including SWATShare to run and calibrate large scale SWAT models online using high performance computational resources, HydroGlobe to automatically extract and assimilate multiple remotely sensed earth observations in

  14. The development of the Adolescent Nervios Scale: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanis, Andrew; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the construction of a scale to measure the culture-bound syndrome of nervios in Latino early adolescents, ages 11 to 14. Informed by nervios literature and experts, we developed the 31-item Adolescent Nervios Scale (ANS) with items comprised of symptoms representing various psychiatric conditions common to Western culture. In contrast to 277 non-Latino early adolescents who responded to the items as representing disparate constructs, 307 Latino early adolescents responded to ANS items in a unitary fashion. For Latino early adolescents, the ANS demonstrated good internal consistency and stability as well as concurrent, discriminative, and criterion-based validity. The results support the measurement of nervios and its relationship to the school performance and adjustment of Latino youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Single Image Super-Resolution Based on Multi-Scale Competitive Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofeng; Qu, Xiaobo; He, Yifan; Guo, Di

    2018-03-06

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are successful in single-image super-resolution. Traditional CNNs are limited to exploit multi-scale contextual information for image reconstruction due to the fixed convolutional kernel in their building modules. To restore various scales of image details, we enhance the multi-scale inference capability of CNNs by introducing competition among multi-scale convolutional filters, and build up a shallow network under limited computational resources. The proposed network has the following two advantages: (1) the multi-scale convolutional kernel provides the multi-context for image super-resolution, and (2) the maximum competitive strategy adaptively chooses the optimal scale of information for image reconstruction. Our experimental results on image super-resolution show that the performance of the proposed network outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Lai, C.H.; Stow, S.H.

    1987-05-01

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made

  17. Portuguese Version of Teacher Feedback Scale: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Laranjeira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Teacher feedback in the classroom has a powerful influence on pupils’ performance and motivation. The study aims to analyze psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Teacher Feedback Scale (TFS in a sample of 228 children in the 4th grade of schooling. Exploratory factor analysis shows similarities with the original version, and the differences observed were based on the children’s cognitive development characteristics and cultural specificities of the two samples. The relationship between teacher feedback and students’ motivational variables was confirmed, such as the preference that the children expressed for the school subjects. The possibility to make some changes in the items is contemplated, in order to increase validity and reliability of the measure. The data highlight the potential of using the TFS in schools, which could contribute towards clarifying the teachers’ role in the formation of pupils’ self-concept.

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Existing self-report questionnaires for the assessment of emotional eating do not differentiate between specific types of emotions and between increased or decreased food intake in response to these emotions. Therefore, we developed a new measure of emotional eating-the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale (SEES)-for which higher scores indicate eating more than usual in response to emotions and lower scores indicate eating less than usual in response to emotions. In study 1, a pool of items describing 40 emotional states was used. Factor analysis yielded four factors, which represented both positive ( happiness subscale) and negative emotions ( sadness, anger , and anxiety subscales). Subsequently, the scale was reduced to 20 items (5 items for each subscale) and its four-factor structure was replicated in studies 2 and 3. In all three studies, internal consistencies of each subscale were α > 0.70 and mean subscale scores significantly differed from each other such that individuals reported the strongest tendency to eat more than usual when being sad and the strongest tendency to eat less than usual when being anxious (sadness > happiness > anger > anxiety). Higher scores on the happiness subscale related to lower scores on the negative emotions subscales, lower body mass index (BMI), and lower eating pathology. In contrast, higher scores on the negative emotions subscales related to lower scores on the happiness subscale, higher BMI, and higher eating pathology. The SEES represents a useful measure for the investigation of emotional eating by increasing both specificity (differentiation between specific emotional states) and breadth (differentiation between increase and decrease of food intake) in the assessment of the emotion-eating relationship.

  19. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor…

  20. Translation of the Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale (MCSS) into Danish and a preliminary psychometric validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Gonge, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for the translation of the MCSS from English into Danish and to present a preliminary psychometric validation of the Danish version of the scale. Methods included a formal translation/back-translation procedure and statistical analyses. The sample consisted of MCSS scores from 139 Danish mental health nursing staff...

  1. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, Ilker; Johansen, Geir A.

    2013-01-01

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  2. 77 FR 70433 - Resolute Marine Energy, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14438-000] Resolute Marine..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 25, 2012, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (Resolute... megawatthours. Applicant Contact: Mr. P. William Staby, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., 3 Post Office Square, 3rd...

  3. Preliminary Results of Testing of Flow Effects on Evaporator Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, M.Z.

    2002-02-15

    This investigation has focused on the effects of fluid flow on solids deposition from solutions that simulate the feed to the 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site. Literature studies indicate that the fluid flow (or shear) affects particle-particle and particle-surface interactions and thus the phenomena of particle aggregation in solution and particle deposition (i.e., scale formation) onto solid surfaces. Experimental tests were conducted with two configurations: (1) using a rheometer to provide controlled shear conditions and (2) using controlled flow of reactive solution through samples of stainless steel tubing. All tests were conducted at 80 C and at high silicon and aluminum concentrations, 0.133 M each, in solutions containing 4 M sodium hydroxide and 1 A4 each of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Two findings from these experiments are important for consideration in developing approaches for reducing or eliminating evaporator scaling problems: (1) The rheometer tests suggested that for the conditions studied, maximum solids deposition occurs at a moderate shear rate, approximately 12 s{sup -1}. That value is expected to be on the order of shear rates that will occur in various parts of the evaporator system; for instance, a 6 gal/min single-phase liquid flow through the 2-in. lift or gravity drain lines would result in a shear rate of approximately 16 s{sup -1}. These results imply that engineering approaches aimed at reducing deposits through increased mixing would need to generate shear near all surfaces significantly greater than 12 s{sup -1}. However, further testing is needed to set a target value for shear that is applicable to evaporator operation. This is because the measured trend is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval due to variability in the results. In addition, testing at higher temperatures and lower concentrations of aluminum and silicon would more accurately represent conditions in the evaporator. Without

  4. Climate SPHINX: High-resolution present-day and future climate simulations with an improved representation of small-scale variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davini, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Corti, Susanna; Subramanian, Aneesh; Weisheimer, Antje; Christensen, Hannah; Juricke, Stephan; Palmer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The PRACE Climate SPHINX project investigates the sensitivity of climate simulations to model resolution and stochastic parameterization. The EC-Earth Earth-System Model is used to explore the impact of stochastic physics in 30-years climate integrations as a function of model resolution (from 80km up to 16km for the atmosphere). The experiments include more than 70 simulations in both a historical scenario (1979-2008) and a climate change projection (2039-2068), using RCP8.5 CMIP5 forcing. A total amount of 20 million core hours will be used at end of the project (March 2016) and about 150 TBytes of post-processed data will be available to the climate community. Preliminary results show a clear improvement in the representation of climate variability over the Euro-Atlantic following resolution increase. More specifically, the well-known atmospheric blocking negative bias over Europe is definitely resolved. High resolution runs also show improved fidelity in representation of tropical variability - such as the MJO and its propagation - over the low resolution simulations. It is shown that including stochastic parameterization in the low resolution runs help to improve some of the aspects of the MJO propagation further. These findings show the importance of representing the impact of small scale processes on the large scale climate variability either explicitly (with high resolution simulations) or stochastically (in low resolution simulations).

  5. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. R. Mateo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale river models (GRMs are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction, the suitability of GRMs for application to finer resolutions needs to be assessed. This study investigates the impacts of spatial resolution and flow connectivity representation on the predictive capability of a GRM, CaMa-Flood, in simulating the 2011 extreme flood in Thailand. Analyses show that when single downstream connectivity (SDC is assumed, simulation results deteriorate with finer spatial resolution; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients decreased by more than 50 % between simulation results at 10 km resolution and 1 km resolution. When multiple downstream connectivity (MDC is represented, simulation results slightly improve with finer spatial resolution. The SDC simulations result in excessive backflows on very flat floodplains due to the restrictive flow directions at finer resolutions. MDC channels attenuated these effects by maintaining flow connectivity and flow capacity between floodplains in varying spatial resolutions. While a regional-scale flood was chosen as a test case, these findings should be universal and may have significant impacts on large- to global-scale simulations, especially in regions where mega deltas exist.These results demonstrate that a GRM can be used for higher resolution simulations of large-scale floods, provided that MDC in rivers and floodplains is adequately represented in the model structure.

  6. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Cherry May R.; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Champathong, Adisorn; Vaze, Jai; Oki, Taikan

    2017-10-01

    Global-scale river models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction, the suitability of GRMs for application to finer resolutions needs to be assessed. This study investigates the impacts of spatial resolution and flow connectivity representation on the predictive capability of a GRM, CaMa-Flood, in simulating the 2011 extreme flood in Thailand. Analyses show that when single downstream connectivity (SDC) is assumed, simulation results deteriorate with finer spatial resolution; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients decreased by more than 50 % between simulation results at 10 km resolution and 1 km resolution. When multiple downstream connectivity (MDC) is represented, simulation results slightly improve with finer spatial resolution. The SDC simulations result in excessive backflows on very flat floodplains due to the restrictive flow directions at finer resolutions. MDC channels attenuated these effects by maintaining flow connectivity and flow capacity between floodplains in varying spatial resolutions. While a regional-scale flood was chosen as a test case, these findings should be universal and may have significant impacts on large- to global-scale simulations, especially in regions where mega deltas exist.These results demonstrate that a GRM can be used for higher resolution simulations of large-scale floods, provided that MDC in rivers and floodplains is adequately represented in the model structure.

  7. Application of up-sampling and resolution scaling to Fresnel reconstruction of digital holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Logan A; Nehmetallah, Georges; Aylo, Rola; Banerjee, Partha P

    2015-02-20

    Fresnel transform implementation methods using numerical preprocessing techniques are investigated in this paper. First, it is shown that up-sampling dramatically reduces the minimum reconstruction distance requirements and allows maximal signal recovery by eliminating aliasing artifacts which typically occur at distances much less than the Rayleigh range of the object. Second, zero-padding is employed to arbitrarily scale numerical resolution for the purpose of resolution matching multiple holograms, where each hologram is recorded using dissimilar geometric or illumination parameters. Such preprocessing yields numerical resolution scaling at any distance. Both techniques are extensively illustrated using experimental results.

  8. Scaling law for noise variance and spatial resolution in differential phase contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghong; Zambelli, Joseph; Li Ke; Bevins, Nicholas; Qi Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The noise variance versus spatial resolution relationship in differential phase contrast (DPC) projection imaging and computed tomography (CT) are derived and compared to conventional absorption-based x-ray projection imaging and CT. Methods: The scaling law for DPC-CT is theoretically derived and subsequently validated with phantom results from an experimental Talbot-Lau interferometer system. Results: For the DPC imaging method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both in theory and experimental results, in DPC-CT the noise variance scales with spatial resolution following an inverse linear relationship with fixed slice thickness. Conclusions: The scaling law in DPC-CT implies a lesser noise, and therefore dose, penalty for moving to higher spatial resolutions when compared to conventional absorption-based CT in order to maintain the same contrast-to-noise ratio.

  9. Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechi, V.; Brussaard, L.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.

    2015-01-01

    Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the

  10. Choice of resolution by functional trait or taxonomy affects allometric scaling in soil webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechi, V.; Brussaard, L.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.

    2014-01-01

    Belowground organisms often display a shift in their mass-abundance scaling relationships due to environmental factors such as soil chemistry and atmospheric deposition. Here we present new empirical data that show strong differences in allometric scaling according to whether the resolution at the

  11. Development and preliminary testing of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale, a brief scale to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Kwisoon

    2014-06-01

    Hope has received attention as a central component of recovery from mental illness; however, most instruments measuring hope were developed outside the mental health field. To measure the effects of mental health programs on hope in people with schizophrenia, a specialized scale is needed. This study examined the psychometric properties of the newly developed 9-item Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) designed to measure hope in individuals with schizophrenia. A descriptive survey design. Participants were recruited from three psychiatric hospitals and two community mental health centers in South Korea. A total of 347 individuals over age 18 with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (competent to provide written informed consent) participated in this study; 149 (94 men, 55 women) completed a preliminary scale consisting of 40 revised items, and 198 (110 men, 88 women) completed the second scale of 17 items. Scale items were first selected from extensive literature reviews and a qualitative study on hope in people with schizophrenia; the validity and reliability of a preliminary scale was then evaluated by an expert panel and exploratory factor analysis. The remaining 9 items forming the Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) were evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis. The SHS-9 demonstrates promising psychometric integrity. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a score range of 0-18 and a mean total score of 12.06 (SD=4.96), with higher scores indicating higher levels of hope. Convergent validity was established by correlating the SHS-9 to the State-Trait Hope Inventory, r=0.61 (phope accounting for 61.77% of the total item variance. As hope has been shown to facilitate recovery from mental illness, the accurate assessment of hope provided by the short, easy-to-use Schizophrenia Hope Scale (SHS-9) may aid clinicians in improving the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia. Copyright

  12. Multi-scale climate modelling over Southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, FA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available -mail: fengelbrecht@csir.co.za Multi-scale climate modelling over Southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model FA Engelbrecht1, 2*, WA Landman1, 3, CJ Engelbrecht4, S Landman5, MM Bopape1, B Roux6, JL McGregor7 and M Thatcher7 1 CSIR Natural... improvement. Keywords: multi-scale climate modelling, variable-resolution atmospheric model Introduction Dynamic climate models have become the primary tools for the projection of future climate change, at both the global and regional scales. Dynamic...

  13. A large scale code resolution service network in the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Zhang, Hongli; Fang, Binxing; Yu, Xiangzhan

    2012-11-07

    In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT’s advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS.

  14. A Large Scale Code Resolution Service Network in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzhan Yu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT’s advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS.

  15. A Large Scale Code Resolution Service Network in the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Zhang, Hongli; Fang, Binxing; Yu, Xiangzhan

    2012-01-01

    In the Internet of Things a code resolution service provides a discovery mechanism for a requester to obtain the information resources associated with a particular product code immediately. In large scale application scenarios a code resolution service faces some serious issues involving heterogeneity, big data and data ownership. A code resolution service network is required to address these issues. Firstly, a list of requirements for the network architecture and code resolution services is proposed. Secondly, in order to eliminate code resolution conflicts and code resolution overloads, a code structure is presented to create a uniform namespace for code resolution records. Thirdly, we propose a loosely coupled distributed network consisting of heterogeneous, independent; collaborating code resolution services and a SkipNet based code resolution service named SkipNet-OCRS, which not only inherits DHT's advantages, but also supports administrative control and autonomy. For the external behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, a novel external behavior mode named QRRA mode is proposed to enhance security and reduce requester complexity. For the internal behaviors of SkipNet-OCRS, an improved query algorithm is proposed to increase query efficiency. It is analyzed that integrating SkipNet-OCRS into our resolution service network can meet our proposed requirements. Finally, simulation experiments verify the excellent performance of SkipNet-OCRS. PMID:23202207

  16. Preliminary report on the development of a high resolution PET camera using semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Ishii, Keizo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sato, Takemi; Aoki, Yasushi; Aoki, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a PET camera using small semiconductor detectors, whose resolution is equivalent to the physical limit of spatial resolution. First, a coincidence system of 16 Schottky CdTe detectors of 0.5 mm width obtained a resolution of <1 mm and it was confirmed that the Schottky CdTe detector is suitable for high resolution PET. Next, the performance of a pair of 32 channel CdTe arrays (1.2 mm width per channel) was investigated for the development of the prototype of high resolution PET. The time resolution between opposing detector pair was 13 ns (FWHM) when high voltage (700 V) was applied. The image of a 0.6 mm diameter point source was obtained in an experiment with opposing detector arrays using four channels, indicating that, a higher resolution can be achieved with the 32 channel CdTe array

  17. Reliability of the Filipino version of the Parent Satisfaction Scale: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Palad, Yves Y.; Madriaga, Gilbert O.

    2014-01-01

    Parent satisfaction is vital in improving the delivery of paediatric health care. However, there are no linguistically appropriate instruments that measure parent satisfaction among Filipino parents of children receiving occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech pathology services. This study aimed to provide preliminary information about the reliability of the Filipino version of the Parent Satisfaction Scale (F-PSS). Research procedures included forward- and backward-translation of...

  18. Downscaling Surface Water Inundation from Coarse Data to Fine-Scale Resolution: Methodology and Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water surface inundation with high spatial resolution is of fundamental importance in several applications such as hydrology, meteorology and ecology. Medium spatial resolution sensors, like MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, exhibit a significant potential to study inundation dynamics over large areas because of their high temporal resolution. However, the low spatial resolution provided by MODIS is not appropriate to accurately delineate inundation over small scale. Successful downscaling of water inundation from coarse to fine resolution would be crucial for improving our understanding of complex inundation characteristics over the regional scale. Therefore, in this study, we propose an innovative downscaling method based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI statistical regression algorithm towards generating small-scale resolution inundation maps from MODIS data. The method was then applied to the Poyang Lake of China. To evaluate the performance of the proposed downscaling method, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were conducted between the inundation extent of MODIS (250 m, Landsat (30 m and downscaled MODIS (30 m. The results indicated that the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation showed significant improvement over the original MODIS observations when compared with simultaneous Landsat (30 m inundation. The edges of the lakes become smoother than the results from original MODIS image and some undetected water bodies were delineated with clearer shapes in the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation map. With respect to high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inundation, the downscaling procedure has significantly increased the R2 and reduced RMSE and MAE both for the inundation area and for the value of landscape metrics. The main conclusion of this study is that the downscaling algorithm is promising and quite feasible for the inundation mapping over small-scale lakes.

  19. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. R. Mateo; C. M. R. Mateo; D. Yamazaki; D. Yamazaki; H. Kim; A. Champathong; J. Vaze; T. Oki; T. Oki

    2017-01-01

    Global-scale river models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representations of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development...

  20. Impacts of spatial resolution and representation of flow connectivity on large-scale simulation of floods

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, Cherry May R.; Yamazaki, Dai; Kim, Hyungjun; Champathong, Adisorn; Vaze, Jai; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Global-scale River Models (GRMs) are core tools for providing consistent estimates of global flood hazard, especially in data-scarce regions. Due to former limitations in computational power and input datasets, most GRMs have been developed to use simplified representation of flow physics and run at coarse spatial resolutions. With increasing computational power and improved datasets, the application of GRMs to finer resolutions is becoming a reality. To support development in this direction,...

  1. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, Michael; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  2. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel

  3. On absolute scaling in protein crystallography using sums of low-resolution intensities and Wilson statistics at low resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method of absolute scaling of diffraction data is proposed, based on the calculation of the sum of the intensity diffracted at low resolution (Bragg d spacing > 15 A). This sum is proportional to the mean-square deviation of the scattering-length density in the unit cell, and this property is used to determine the scale factor. The method is applied to the case of neutron diffraction using contrast variation experiments with biological molecules, and it is used to check the validity of some assumptions concerning the system under study, such as the global rate of H/D exchange or the uniformity of scattering-length density in the molecules. The use of this method requires an asymptotic correction of the sum of intensity. This correction is based on Porod's law, whose application to diffraction experiments is discussed, in particular for contrast variation experiments. An analysis of the spherical average of the diffracted intensity as a function of the scattering vector, compared to isotropic solution scattering, allows the conditions of applicability of Wilson statistics to be specified at low and medium resolution, i.e. the random statistical model underlying the Wilson statistics in this scattering range to be defined. (orig.)

  4. Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Merlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an English language measure of problematic mobile phone use. Participants were recruited from a university campus, health science center, and other public locations. The sample included 244 individuals (68.4% female aged 18–75. Results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the 20-item self-report Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP Scale. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.94. Strong correlations (r=.76, P<.001 were found between the PUMP Scale and an existing scale of cellular phone dependency that was validated in Asia, as well as items assessing frequency and intensity of mobile phone use. Results provide preliminary support for the use of the PUMP Scale to measure problematic use of mobile phones.

  5. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  6. 8 CFR 1003.104 - Filing of complaints; preliminary inquiries; resolutions; referral of complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorities within the Department to ensure that neither the disciplinary process nor criminal prosecutions... Professional Conduct for Practitioners-Rules and Procedures § 1003.104 Filing of complaints; preliminary... Immigration Courts shall be filed with the EOIR disciplinary counsel. Disciplinary complaints must be...

  7. The effect of high-resolution orography on numerical modelling of atmospheric flow: a preliminary experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarani, C.; Tampieri, F.; Tibaldi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of increasing the resolution of the topography in models of numerical weather prediction is assessed. Different numerical experiments have been performed, referring to a case of cyclogenesis in the lee of the Alps. From the comparison, it appears that the lower atmospheric levels are better described by the model with higherresolution topography; comparable horizontal resolution runs with smoother topography appear to be less satisfactory in this respect. It turns out also that the vertical propagation of the signal due to the front-mountain interaction is faster in the high-resolution experiment

  8. Large Scale Flood Risk Analysis using a New Hyper-resolution Population Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Neal, J. C.; Bates, P. D.; Quinn, N.; Wing, O.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present the first national scale flood risk analyses, using high resolution Facebook Connectivity Lab population data and data from a hyper resolution flood hazard model. In recent years the field of large scale hydraulic modelling has been transformed by new remotely sensed datasets, improved process representation, highly efficient flow algorithms and increases in computational power. These developments have allowed flood risk analysis to be undertaken in previously unmodeled territories and from continental to global scales. Flood risk analyses are typically conducted via the integration of modelled water depths with an exposure dataset. Over large scales and in data poor areas, these exposure data typically take the form of a gridded population dataset, estimating population density using remotely sensed data and/or locally available census data. The local nature of flooding dictates that for robust flood risk analysis to be undertaken both hazard and exposure data should sufficiently resolve local scale features. Global flood frameworks are enabling flood hazard data to produced at 90m resolution, resulting in a mis-match with available population datasets which are typically more coarsely resolved. Moreover, these exposure data are typically focused on urban areas and struggle to represent rural populations. In this study we integrate a new population dataset with a global flood hazard model. The population dataset was produced by the Connectivity Lab at Facebook, providing gridded population data at 5m resolution, representing a resolution increase over previous countrywide data sets of multiple orders of magnitude. Flood risk analysis undertaken over a number of developing countries are presented, along with a comparison of flood risk analyses undertaken using pre-existing population datasets.

  9. The impact of the resolution of meteorological datasets on catchment-scale drought studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Jost; Stahl, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    Gridded meteorological datasets provide the basis to study drought at a range of scales, including catchment scale drought studies in hydrology. They are readily available to study past weather conditions and often serve real time monitoring as well. As these datasets differ in spatial/temporal coverage and spatial/temporal resolution, for most studies there is a tradeoff between these features. Our investigation examines whether biases occur when studying drought on catchment scale with low resolution input data. For that, a comparison among the datasets HYRAS (covering Central Europe, 1x1 km grid, daily data, 1951 - 2005), E-OBS (Europe, 0.25° grid, daily data, 1950-2015) and GPCC (whole world, 0.5° grid, monthly data, 1901 - 2013) is carried out. Generally, biases in precipitation increase with decreasing resolution. Most important variations are found during summer. In low mountain range of Central Europe the datasets of sparse resolution (E-OBS, GPCC) overestimate dry days and underestimate total precipitation since they are not able to describe high spatial variability. However, relative measures like the correlation coefficient reveal good consistencies of dry and wet periods, both for absolute precipitation values and standardized indices like the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) or Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI). Particularly the most severe droughts derived from the different datasets match very well. These results indicate that absolute values of sparse resolution datasets applied to catchment scale might be critical to use for an assessment of the hydrological drought at catchment scale, whereas relative measures for determining periods of drought are more trustworthy. Therefore, studies on drought, that downscale meteorological data, should carefully consider their data needs and focus on relative measures for dry periods if sufficient for the task.

  10. Developing Local Scale, High Resolution, Data to Interface with Numerical Storm Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, R.; Becker, A.; Stempel, P.

    2017-12-01

    High resolution, physical storm models that can rapidly predict storm surge, inundation, rainfall, wind velocity and wave height at the intra-facility scale for any storm affecting Rhode Island have been developed by Researchers at the University of Rhode Island's (URI's) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) (Ginis et al., 2017). At the same time, URI's Marine Affairs Department has developed methods that inhere individual geographic points into GSO's models and enable the models to accurately incorporate local scale, high resolution data (Stempel et al., 2017). This combination allows URI's storm models to predict any storm's impacts on individual Rhode Island facilities in near real time. The research presented here determines how a coastal Rhode Island town's critical facility managers (FMs) perceive their assets as being vulnerable to quantifiable hurricane-related forces at the individual facility scale and explores methods to elicit this information from FMs in a format usable for incorporation into URI's storm models.

  11. The revised critical thinking skills scale for a life-and-death course: preliminary scale refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Huei-Lih; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2010-12-01

    Death education involves acquiring knowledge, changing behavior, and developing proper views of life in both the affective and the value domains. Critical thinking that is honed through reflecting on life-and-death issues represents a way to reach these goals. Designing assessments able to measure college student content and critical thinking skills related to life-and-death issues is thus important. The Test of Critical Thinking Skills for Life-And-Death content (TCTS-LD) instrument requires the administration of additional tests to assess reliability and validity for future use in the assessment of perceptions on life and death. The purpose of this study was to refine the TCTS-LD. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to recruit 715 college students in southern Taiwan. Three structured scales were administered in class to the participants. Data were collected in 2004 and 2006. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to validate the structure of scales. Examination of the reliability of the three-factor and 15-item scale revealed a Kuder-Richardson coefficient of internal consistency of .54. The split-half reliability coefficients were .47 in the Spearman-Brown correlation and .40 in the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The test-retest reliability coefficients (n = 22) were .58 in Pearson correlation and .56 in ICC. In addition to content validity verification by experts and face validity by students, the validity of this test was assessed using three methods, including (a) a comparable validity rating between this test and the TCTS-A (r = .34, p < .001; (b) a contrast-group technique with different responses to the instrument between those in education and nursing majors (t = 2.71, p < .01), with scores of 10.98 (SD = 2.42) and 9.82 (SD = 2.25), respectively; and (c) a confirmatory factor analysis confirming that TCTS-LD is related to the three dimensions of assumption, evaluation, and induction (χ = 81.800, p = .158, normed chi-square

  12. Integrated laboratory scale demonstration experiment of the hybrid sulphur cycle and preliminary scale-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.; Rivalier, P.; Saturnin, A.; Charton, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid sulphur cycle is today one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen on a massive scale within the scope of high temperature nuclear reactors development. Thus, the Fuel Cycle Technology Department at CEA Marcoule is involved in studying the hybrid sulphur process from a technical and economical performance standpoint. Based on mass and energy balance calculations, a ProsimPlus TM flow sheet and a commercial plant design were prepared. This work includes a study on sizing of the main equipment. The capital cost has been estimated using the major characteristics of main equipment based upon formulae and charts published in literature. A specific approach has been developed for electrolysers. Operational costs are also proposed for a plant producing 1000 mol/s H 2 . Bench scale and pilot experiments must focus on the electrochemical step due to limited experimental data. Thus, a pilot plant with a hydrogen capacity of 100 NL/h was built with the aim of acquiring technical and technological data for electrolysis. This pilot plant was designed to cover a wide range of operating conditions: sulphuric acid concentrations up to 60 wt.%, temperatures up to 100 deg. C and pressures up to 10 bar. New materials and structures recently developed for fuel cells, which are expected to yield significant performance improvements when applied to classical electrochemical processes, will be tested. All experiments will be coupled with phenomenological simulation tools developed jointly with the experimental programme. (authors)

  13. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  14. The development and preliminary validation of the Challenge and Threat in Sport (CAT-Sport) Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato, C.J.L.; Uphill, M.A.; Swain, J.; Coleman, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the development and preliminary validation of a sport-specific measure of\\ud athletes’ experience of challenge and threat. Three independent studies assess the content\\ud validity, factor structure, criterion validity and internal consistency of the Challenge and\\ud Threat in Sport (CAT-Sport) Scale. In study 1, a group of 25 athletes and 2 experts assessed\\ud the content validity of items derived from existing measures of challenge and threat.\\ud Participants examined a p...

  15. MULTI-SCALE SEGMENTATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BY INTEGRATING MULTIPLE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Di

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of multi-scale segmentation algorithms are not aiming at high resolution remote sensing images and have difficulty to communicate and use layers’ information. In view of them, we proposes a method of multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features. First, Canny operator is used to extract edge information, and then band weighted distance function is built to obtain the edge weight. According to the criterion, the initial segmentation objects of color images can be gained by Kruskal minimum spanning tree algorithm. Finally segmentation images are got by the adaptive rule of Mumford–Shah region merging combination with spectral and texture information. The proposed method is evaluated precisely using analog images and ZY-3 satellite images through quantitative and qualitative analysis. The experimental results show that the multi-scale segmentation of high resolution remote sensing images by integrating multiple features outperformed the software eCognition fractal network evolution algorithm (highest-resolution network evolution that FNEA on the accuracy and slightly inferior to FNEA on the efficiency.

  16. Conflict Resolution Styles Scale in Romantic Relationship: The Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to test the reliability and validity of the 'Conflict Resolution Styles Scale' (CRSS, which was developed by the researchers. For this aim, two studies have been conducted. In the first study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants who are either married or involved in romantic relationship. A large item pool was generated with the items developed from the interviews and the items developed by the authors after reviewing the related literature. Exploratory factor analysis with 200 dating participants (M= 23.13, SD = 2.96 revealed that four factor solution is suitable for the CRSS. These factors were named as negative conflict resolution style, positive conflict resolution style, subordination, and retreat. In order to confirm the factor structure of the scale, 140 married couples (280 individuals; M = 38.09, SD = 10.35 were participated to the second study. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the factor structure of the scale. The results of these analyses and the correlations with the related variables showed that CRSS was reliable and valid measurement tool in the assessment of the conflict resolution styles.

  17. Preliminary analysis of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a research program to investigate the integrity of nuclear containment structures. As part of the program Sandia will construct an instrumented 1:4 scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR), which will be pressure tested up to its ultimate capacity. One of the key program objectives is to develop validated methods to predict the structural performance of containment vessels when subjected to beyond design basis loadings. Analytical prediction of structural performance requires a stepwise, systematic approach that addresses all potential failure modes. The analysis effort includes two and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analyses of the PCCV test model to evaluate its structural performance under very high internal pressurization. Such analyses have been performed using the nonlinear concrete constitutive model, ANACAP-U, in conjunction with the ABAQUS general purpose finite element code. The analysis effort is carried out in three phases: preliminary analysis; pretest prediction; and post-test data interpretation and analysis evaluation. The preliminary analysis phase serves to provide instrumentation support and identify candidate failure modes. The associated tasks include the preliminary prediction of failure pressure and probable failure locations and the development of models to be used in the detailed failure analyses. This paper describes the modeling approaches and some of the results obtained in the first phase of the analysis effort

  18. SUPER-RESOLUTION ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY WITH A RING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUANG, LIANJIE [Los Alamos National Laboratory; SIMONETTI, FRANCESCO [NON LANL; DURIC, NEBOJSA [NON LANL; RAMA, OLSI [NON LANL

    2007-01-18

    Ultrasound tomography attempts to retrieve the structure of an objective by exploiting the interaction of acoustic waves with the object. A fundamental limit of ultrasound tomography is that features cannot be resolved if they are spaced less than {lambda}/2 apart, where {lambda} is wavelength of the probing wave, regardless of the degree of accuracy of the measurements. Therefore, since the attenuation of the probing wave with propagation distance increases as {lambda} decreases, resolution has to be traded against imaging depth. Recently, it has been shown that the {lambda}/2 limit is a consequence of the Born approximation (implicit in the imaging algorithms currently employed) which neglects the distortion of the probing wavefield as it travels through the medium to be imaged. On the other hand, such a distortion, which is due to the multiple scattering phenomenon, can encode unlimited resolution in the radiating component of the scattered field. Previously, a resolution better than {lambda}/3 has been reported in these proceedings [F. Simonetti, pp. 126 (2006)] in the case of elastic wave probing. In this paper, they demonstrate experimentally a resolution better than {lambda}/4 for objects immersed in a water bth probed by means of a ring array which excites and detects pressure waves in a full view configuration.

  19. Extended-Range High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling over a Continental-Scale Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution mesoscale simulations, when applied for downscaling meteorological fields over large spatial domains and for extended time periods, can provide valuable information for many practical application scenarios including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. In the present study, a strategy has been proposed to dynamically downscale coarse-resolution meteorological fields from Environment Canada's regional analyses for a period of multiple years over the entire Canadian territory. The study demonstrates that a continuous mesoscale simulation over the entire domain is the most suitable approach in this regard. Large-scale deviations in the different meteorological fields pose the biggest challenge for extended-range simulations over continental scale domains, and the enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is not sufficient to restrict such deviations. A scheme has therefore been developed to spectrally nudge the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields at the different model vertical levels towards those embedded in the coarse-resolution driving fields derived from the regional analyses. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimal nudging strategy including the appropriate nudging length scales, nudging vertical profile and temporal relaxation. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil-moisture, and snow conditions, towards their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme was also devised to limit any considerable deviation in the evolving surface fields due to extended-range temporal integrations. The study shows that ensuring large-scale atmospheric similarities helps to deliver near-surface statistical scores for temperature, dew point temperature and horizontal wind speed that are better or comparable to the operational regional forecasts issued by Environment Canada. Furthermore, the meteorological fields

  20. Scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient: Evidence and preliminary interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, Yingqi; Molz, Fred J.

    2006-01-01

    matrix-diffusion coefficient, and to develop a preliminary explanation for this scale-dependent behavior

  1. Scale Dependence of the Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient : Evidence and Preliminary Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.H. Liu; Y. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    matrix-diffusion coefficient, and to -develop a preliminary explanation for this scale-dependent behavior

  2. Development and preliminary validation of the physician support of skin self-examination scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroiu, Adina; Moran, Chelsea; Garland, Rosalind; Körner, Annett

    2018-05-01

    Skin self-examination (SSE) is a crucial preventive health behaviour in melanoma survivors, as it facilitates early detection. Physician endorsement of SSE is important for the initiation and maintenance of this behaviour. This study focussed on the preliminary validation of a new nine-item measure assessing physician support of SSE in melanoma patients. English and French versions of this measure were administered to 188 patients diagnosed with melanoma in the context of a longitudinal study investigating predictors and facilitators of SSE. Structural validity was investigated using exploratory factor analysis conducted in Mplus and convergent and divergent validity was assessed using bivariate correlations conducted in spss. Results suggest that the scale is a unidimensional and reliable measure of physician support for SSE. Given the uncertainty regarding the optimal frequency of SSE for at-risk individuals, we recommend that future psychometric evaluations of this scale consider tailoring items according to the most up-to-date research on SSE effectiveness.

  3. The role of cloud-scale resolution on radiative properties of oceanic cumulus clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Ackerman, Thomas; Kollias, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    Both individual and combined effects of the horizontal and vertical variability of cumulus clouds on solar radiative transfer are investigated using a two-dimensional (x- and z-directions) cloud radar dataset. This high-resolution dataset of typical fair-weather marine cumulus is derived from ground-based 94GHz cloud radar observations. The domain-averaged (along x-direction) radiative properties are computed by a Monte Carlo method. It is shown that (i) different cloud-scale resolutions can be used for accurate calculations of the mean absorption, upward and downward fluxes; (ii) the resolution effects can depend strongly on the solar zenith angle; and (iii) a few cloud statistics can be successfully applied for calculating the averaged radiative properties

  4. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model's representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev's electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species' smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  5. The Adolescent HIV Disclosure Cognition and Affect Scale: Preliminary Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Globally, there are 2 million HIV-positive 10-19-year-olds. One challenge for this population is sharing their HIV status with others (onward HIV disclosure). There are no multi-item, multidimensional scales of HIV disclosure cognitions and affect for young people living with HIV. An 18-item measure of HIV disclosure cognition and affect was developed, administered to 65 adolescents living with HIV (aged 12-16 years). Data were explored using principal component analysis and preliminary construct and criterion validity assessed. Three factors were revealed: negative disclosure attitudes and feelings, self-efficacy, and positive disclosure attitudes and feelings. The full scale and its subscales were internally consistent. The total score showed statistically significant positive relationships with HIV disclosure in the past 6 months, HIV disclosure intention and self-perception. Preliminary evidence of the measure's good psychometric properties suggests it may be helpful in future clinical and research work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  7. Obtaining high-resolution stage forecasts by coupling large-scale hydrologic models with sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, K. J.; Kerkez, B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how "big" quantities of distributed sensor data can be coupled with a large-scale hydrologic model, in particular the National Water Model (NWM), to obtain hyper-resolution forecasts. The recent launch of the NWM provides a great example of how growing computational capacity is enabling a new generation of massive hydrologic models. While the NWM spans an unprecedented spatial extent, there remain many questions about how to improve forecast at the street-level, the resolution at which many stakeholders make critical decisions. Further, the NWM runs on supercomputers, so water managers who may have access to their own high-resolution measurements may not readily be able to assimilate them into the model. To that end, we ask the question: how can the advances of the large-scale NWM be coupled with new local observations to enable hyper-resolution hydrologic forecasts? A methodology is proposed whereby the flow forecasts of the NWM are directly mapped to high-resolution stream levels using Dynamical System Identification. We apply the methodology across a sensor network of 182 gages in Iowa. Of these sites, approximately one third have shown to perform well in high-resolution flood forecasting when coupled with the outputs of the NWM. The quality of these forecasts is characterized using Principal Component Analysis and Random Forests to identify where the NWM may benefit from new sources of local observations. We also discuss how this approach can help municipalities identify where they should place low-cost sensors to most benefit from flood forecasts of the NWM.

  8. Generalized Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm for High-Resolution Highly Squint SAR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tianzhu; He, Zhihua; He, Feng; Dong, Zhen; Wu, Manqing

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a modified approach for high-resolution, highly squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data processing. Several nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS) algorithms have been proposed to solve the azimuth variance of the frequency modulation rates that are caused by the linear range walk correction (LRWC). However, the azimuth depth of focusing (ADOF) is not handled well by these algorithms. The generalized nonlinear chirp scaling (GNLCS) algorithm that is proposed in this paper uses the method of series reverse (MSR) to improve the ADOF and focusing precision. It also introduces a high order processing kernel to avoid the range block processing. Simulation results show that the GNLCS algorithm can enlarge the ADOF and focusing precision for high-resolution highly squint SAR data.

  9. Generalized Nonlinear Chirp Scaling Algorithm for High-Resolution Highly Squint SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhu Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified approach for high-resolution, highly squint synthetic aperture radar (SAR data processing. Several nonlinear chirp scaling (NLCS algorithms have been proposed to solve the azimuth variance of the frequency modulation rates that are caused by the linear range walk correction (LRWC. However, the azimuth depth of focusing (ADOF is not handled well by these algorithms. The generalized nonlinear chirp scaling (GNLCS algorithm that is proposed in this paper uses the method of series reverse (MSR to improve the ADOF and focusing precision. It also introduces a high order processing kernel to avoid the range block processing. Simulation results show that the GNLCS algorithm can enlarge the ADOF and focusing precision for high-resolution highly squint SAR data.

  10. Large-scale ruthenium- and enzyme-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution of (rac-1-phenylethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bäckvall Jan-E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scale-up of the ruthenium- and enzyme-catalyzed dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR of (rac-1-phenylethanol (2 is addressed. The immobilized lipase Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB was employed for the resolution, which shows high enantioselectivity in the transesterification. The ruthenium catalyst used, (η 5-C5Ph5RuCl(CO2 1, was shown to possess very high reactivity in the "in situ" redox racemization of 1-phenylethanol (2 in the presence of the immobilized enzyme, and could be used in 0.05 mol% with high efficiency. Commercially available isopropenyl acetate was employed as acylating agent in the lipase-catalyzed transesterifications, which makes the purification of the product very easy. In a successful large-scale DKR of 2, with 0.05 mol% of 1, (R-1-phenylethanol acetate (3 was obtained in 159 g (97% yield in excellent enantiomeric excess (99.8% ee.

  11. Knowledge Guided Disambiguation for Large-Scale Scene Classification With Multi-Resolution CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Guo, Sheng; Huang, Weilin; Xiong, Yuanjun; Qiao, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made remarkable progress on scene recognition, partially due to these recent large-scale scene datasets, such as the Places and Places2. Scene categories are often defined by multi-level information, including local objects, global layout, and background environment, thus leading to large intra-class variations. In addition, with the increasing number of scene categories, label ambiguity has become another crucial issue in large-scale classification. This paper focuses on large-scale scene recognition and makes two major contributions to tackle these issues. First, we propose a multi-resolution CNN architecture that captures visual content and structure at multiple levels. The multi-resolution CNNs are composed of coarse resolution CNNs and fine resolution CNNs, which are complementary to each other. Second, we design two knowledge guided disambiguation techniques to deal with the problem of label ambiguity. (i) We exploit the knowledge from the confusion matrix computed on validation data to merge ambiguous classes into a super category. (ii) We utilize the knowledge of extra networks to produce a soft label for each image. Then the super categories or soft labels are employed to guide CNN training on the Places2. We conduct extensive experiments on three large-scale image datasets (ImageNet, Places, and Places2), demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, our method takes part in two major scene recognition challenges, and achieves the second place at the Places2 challenge in ILSVRC 2015, and the first place at the LSUN challenge in CVPR 2016. Finally, we directly test the learned representations on other scene benchmarks, and obtain the new state-of-the-art results on the MIT Indoor67 (86.7\\%) and SUN397 (72.0\\%). We release the code and models at~\\url{https://github.com/wanglimin/MRCNN-Scene-Recognition}.

  12. Joint Multi-scale Convolution Neural Network for Scene Classification of High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Zhuo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution remote sensing imagery scene classification is important for automatic complex scene recognition, which is the key technology for military and disaster relief, etc. In this paper, we propose a novel joint multi-scale convolution neural network (JMCNN method using a limited amount of image data for high resolution remote sensing imagery scene classification. Different from traditional convolutional neural network, the proposed JMCNN is an end-to-end training model with joint enhanced high-level feature representation, which includes multi-channel feature extractor, joint multi-scale feature fusion and Softmax classifier. Multi-channel and scale convolutional extractors are used to extract scene middle features, firstly. Then, in order to achieve enhanced high-level feature representation in a limit dataset, joint multi-scale feature fusion is proposed to combine multi-channel and scale features using two feature fusions. Finally, enhanced high-level feature representation can be used for classification by Softmax. Experiments were conducted using two limit public UCM and SIRI datasets. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, the JMCNN achieved improved performance and great robustness with average accuracies of 89.3% and 88.3% on the two datasets.

  13. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  14. The assembly, calibration, and preliminary results from the Colorado high-resolution Echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Schultz, Ted; Beasley, Matthew; Green, James; Kulow, Jen; Kersgaard, Eliot; Fleming, Brian

    2014-07-01

    The Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS) is a far ultraviolet (FUV) rocket-borne experiment designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent interstellar clouds. CHESS is an objective echelle spectrograph operating at f/12.4 and resolving power of 120,000 over a band pass of 100 - 160 nm. The echelle flight grating is the product of a research and development project with LightSmyth Inc. and was coated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Al+LiF. It has an empirically-determined groove density of 71.67 grooves/mm. At the Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA) at the University of Colorado (CU), we measured the efficiencies of the peak and adjacent dispersion orders throughout the 90 - 165 nm band pass to characterize the behavior of the grating for pre-flight calibrations and to assess the scattered-light behavior. The crossdispersing grating, developed and ruled by Horiba Jobin-Yvon, is a holographically-ruled, low line density (351 grooves/mm), powered optic with a toroidal surface curvature. The CHESS cross-disperser was also coated at GSFC; Cr+Al+LiF was deposited to enhance far-UV efficiency. Results from final efficiency and reflectivity measurements of both optics are presented. We utilize a cross-strip anode microchannel plate (MCP) detector built by Sensor Sciences to achieve high resolution (25 μm spatial resolution) and data collection rates (~ 106 photons/second) over a large format (40mm round, digitized to 8k x 8k) for the first time in an astronomical sounding rocket flight. The CHESS instrument was successfully launched from White Sands Missile Range on 24 May 2014. We present pre-flight sensitivity, effective area calculations, lab spectra and calibration results, and touch on first results and post-flight calibration plans.

  15. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  16. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions. Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions. Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences. Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson

  17. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recombinant bovine uteroglobin at 1.6 Å resolution: a preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken, Victoria von der; Delbrück, Heinrich; Herrler, Andreas; Beier, Henning M.; Fischer, Rainer; Hoffmann, Kurt M. V.

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization of recombinant bovine uteroglobin. Uteroglobin (UG) is a conserved protein which is induced by progesterone and secreted by the epithelia of various mammalian reproductive and respiratory organs. Recombinant bovine uteroglobin (recbUG), consisting of 80 amino acids with a C-terminal His 6 tag, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The protein was crystallized in two geometric forms, rhomboid and cuneate (wedge-shaped), by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 295 K. The rhomboid crystals diffracted to a maximum resolution of 1.6 Å using synchrotron radiation. These crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.42, b = 82.82, c = 45.26 Å, and contain four monomers per asymmetric unit. The cuneate crystals diffracted to 2.35 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator. These crystals belong to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 43.39, b = 93.94, c = 77.30 Å, and contain two molecules per asymmetric unit

  19. Measuring attitudes towards suicide: Preliminary evaluation of an attitude towards suicide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Jan Christopher; Till, Benedikt; Bieda, Angela; Blackwell, Simon E; Walter, Carolin; Teismann, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to validate a previously published scale assessing attitudes towards suicide. Factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictive validity were investigated. Adult German participants (N=503; mean age=24.74years; age range=18-67years) anonymously completed a set of questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and incongruous items were deleted. Subsequently, scale properties of the reduced scale and its construct validity were analyzed. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted in an independent sample (N=266; mean age=28.77years; age range=18-88years) to further confirm the factor structure of the questionnaire. Parallel analysis indicated a three-factor solution, which was also supported by confirmatory factor analysis: right to commit suicide, interpersonal gesture and resilience. The subscales demonstrated acceptable construct and discriminant validity. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.67 to 0.83, explaining 49.70% of the total variance. Positive attitudes towards suicide proved to be predictive of suicide risk status, providing preliminary evidence for the utility of the scale. Future studies aiming to reproduce the factor structure in a more heterogeneous sample are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Paleoclimatic scales in the past 800ka based on the high resolution EDC dust record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Fabrice; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2017-04-01

    Dust fluxes from the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C ice-core with unprecedented near complete 25 year resolution over more than 800 kyrs are systematically analyzed over 8 glacial-interglacial cycles and within each cycle over 8 "phases", each "phase" a successive segments of a cycle. This is the first scaling analysis that has documented systematic changes within the ice age cycle while confirming the relative robustness of the cycle itself over 8 cycles. We find that whereas there is relatively little systematic variation from one ice age to another, there is a strong dependency of the scale by scale variability (as revealed by scaling fluctuation analysis) on the phase of the ice age. The analysis reveales that the transition scale from macroweather to climate (from fluctuations decreasing with scale to fluctuation increasing with scale) starts off in the range 1 - 2kyrs in the first two phases (i.e. at the end of a cycle), but then decreases to ca. 300 years over the last 6 phases (the long glacial inception). A long transition scale means that fluctuations at a fixed scale (e.g. 10 kyr) will be small since they have not had much of a range of time scales over which to develop. We also consider the intermittency, the tendency for the series to be "spiky", non Gaussian. We find a similar transition for medium intermittency - comparable to turbulence - to high intermittency over the middle phases (intermediate glacial conditions). Finally, we examine the probability distributions of concentration changes at the 25 year scale. This shows that the fluctuations are of the extreme power law, "fat tailed" type associated with "black swan" events.

  1. Multi-scale method for the resolution of the neutronic kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, St.

    2008-10-01

    In this PhD thesis and in order to improve the time/precision ratio of the numerical simulation calculations, we investigate multi-scale techniques for the resolution of the reactor kinetics equations. We choose to focus on the mixed dual diffusion approximation and the quasi-static methods. We introduce a space dependency for the amplitude function which only depends on the time variable in the standard quasi-static context. With this new factorization, we develop two mixed dual problems which can be solved with Cea's solver MINOS. An algorithm is implemented, performing the resolution of these problems defined on different scales (for time and space). We name this approach: the Local Quasi-Static method. We present here this new multi-scale approach and its implementation. The inherent details of amplitude and shape treatments are discussed and justified. Results and performances, compared to MINOS, are studied. They illustrate the improvement on the time/precision ratio for kinetics calculations. Furthermore, we open some new possibilities to parallelize computations with MINOS. For the future, we also introduce some improvement tracks with adaptive scales. (author)

  2. Matching soil grid unit resolutions with polygon unit scales for DNDC modelling of regional SOC pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. D.; Yu, D. S.; Ni, Y. L.; Zhang, L. M.; Shi, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Matching soil grid unit resolution with polygon unit map scale is important to minimize uncertainty of regional soil organic carbon (SOC) pool simulation as their strong influences on the uncertainty. A series of soil grid units at varying cell sizes were derived from soil polygon units at the six map scales of 1:50 000 (C5), 1:200 000 (D2), 1:500 000 (P5), 1:1 000 000 (N1), 1:4 000 000 (N4) and 1:14 000 000 (N14), respectively, in the Tai lake region of China. Both format soil units were used for regional SOC pool simulation with DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) process-based model, which runs span the time period 1982 to 2000 at the six map scales, respectively. Four indices, soil type number (STN) and area (AREA), average SOC density (ASOCD) and total SOC stocks (SOCS) of surface paddy soils simulated with the DNDC, were attributed from all these soil polygon and grid units, respectively. Subjecting to the four index values (IV) from the parent polygon units, the variation of an index value (VIV, %) from the grid units was used to assess its dataset accuracy and redundancy, which reflects uncertainty in the simulation of SOC. Optimal soil grid unit resolutions were generated and suggested for the DNDC simulation of regional SOC pool, matching with soil polygon units map scales, respectively. With the optimal raster resolution the soil grid units dataset can hold the same accuracy as its parent polygon units dataset without any redundancy, when VIV indices was assumed as criteria to the assessment. An quadratic curve regression model y = -8.0 × 10-6x2 + 0.228x + 0.211 (R2 = 0.9994, p < 0.05) was revealed, which describes the relationship between optimal soil grid unit resolution (y, km) and soil polygon unit map scale (1:x). The knowledge may serve for grid partitioning of regions focused on the investigation and simulation of SOC pool dynamics at certain map scale.

  3. Micro-CT Pore Scale Study Of Flow In Porous Media: Effect Of Voxel Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, pore scale studies have become the key to understanding the complex fluid flow processes in the fields of groundwater remediation, hydrocarbon recovery and environmental issues related to carbon storage and capture. A pore scale study is often comprised of two key procedures: 3D pore scale imaging and numerical modelling techniques. The essence of a pore scale study is to test the physics implemented in a model of complicated fluid flow processes at one scale (microscopic) and then apply the model to solve the problems associated with water resources and oil recovery at other scales (macroscopic and field). However, the process of up-scaling from the pore scale to the macroscopic scale has encountered many challenges due to both pore scale imaging and modelling techniques. Due to the technical limitations in the imaging method, there is always a compromise between the spatial (voxel) resolution and the physical volume of the sample (field of view, FOV) to be scanned by the imaging methods, specifically X-ray micro-CT (XMT) in our case In this study, a careful analysis was done to understand the effect of voxel size, using XMT to image the 3D pore space of a variety of porous media from sandstones to carbonates scanned at different voxel resolution (4.5 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) but keeping the scanned FOV constant for all the samples. We systematically segment the micro-CT images into three phases, the macro-pore phase, an intermediate phase (unresolved micro-pores + grains) and the grain phase and then study the effect of voxel size on the structure of the macro-pore and the intermediate phases and the fluid flow properties using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) and pore network (PN) modelling methods. We have also applied a numerical coarsening algorithm (up-scale method) to reduce the computational power and time required to accurately predict the flow properties using the LB and PN method.

  4. Experimental prediction of severe droughts on seasonal to intra-annual time scales with GFDL High-Resolution Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lin, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regional heat waves and drought have major economic and societal impacts on regional and even global scales. For example, during and following the 2010-2011 La Nina period, severe droughts have been reported in many places around the world including China, the southern US, and the east Africa, causing severe hardship in China and famine in east Africa. In this study, we investigate the feasibility and predictability of severe spring-summer draught events, 3 to 6 months in advance with the 25-km resolution Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory High-Resolution Atmosphere Model (HiRAM), which is built as a seamless weather-climate model, capable of long-term climate simulations as well as skillful seasonal predictions (e.g., Chen and Lin 2011, GRL). We adopted a similar methodology and the same (HiRAM) model as in Chen and Lin (2011), which is used successfully for seasonal hurricane predictions. A series of initialized 7-month forecasts starting from Dec 1 are performed each year (5 members each) during the past decade (2000-2010). We will then evaluate the predictability of the severe drought events during this period by comparing model predictions vs. available observations. To evaluate the predictive skill, in this preliminary report, we will focus on the anomalies of precipitation, sea-level-pressure, and 500-mb height. These anomalies will be computed as the individual model prediction minus the mean climatology obtained by an independent AMIP-type "simulation" using observed SSTs (rather than using predictive SSTs in the forecasts) from the same model.

  5. Gluon distributions in nucleons and pions at a low resolution scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, H.R.

    2000-10-01

    In this paper we study the gluon distribution functions in nucleons and pions at a low resolution Q 2 scale. This is an important issue since parton densities at low Q 2 have always been taken as an external input which is adjusted through DGLAP evolution to fit the experimental data at higher scales. Here, in the framework of a model recently developed, it is shown that the hypothetical cloud of neutral pions surrounding nucleons and pions appears to be responsible for the characteristic valence-like gluon distributions needed at the initial low scale. As an additional result, we get the remarkable prediction that neutral and charged ions have different intrinsic sea flavor contents. (author)

  6. Preliminary studies of adaptation of Self- efficacy Scale for Sources of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Flores, Celia María

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of educational psychologically the construct of self-efficacy has received special attention. It has been shown that those students who trust in their own abilities get better academic performance. However, few studies analyze the sources of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy believes are developed according to how people interpret information coming from four different sources: experience skills, vicarious learning, social persuasion, and physiological states. Recently, Usher & Pajares (2009 developed an instrument to assess sources of self-efficacy in Math. The goal of the present work was to evaluate psychometric properties of this scale in a local sample of adolescents from 13 to 15 years old. Preliminary results supported the use of this measure as an adequate alternative to assess self-efficacy in Math. However, more studies are needed in order to obtain a measure more contextualized to the educational system of local students.

  7. The NET articulated boom: Preliminary investigations and justification for a full scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppan, A.

    1990-12-01

    The articulated boom system is the favourite in-vessel handling system for NET which will be used to maintain or replace in-vessel components during short term interventions. The testbed EDITH is the prototype of this system and is the logical step between the proof of principle of the system, which is already performed by the JET articulated boom, and the operational equipment for NET. EDITH is required to demonstrate that maintenance of plasma facing components can be carried out with the anticipated reliability and time. To achieve this aim EDITH is based on the experience of the JET boom and will be constructed in full scale, supplemented by a full scale mock-up. A further goal of EDITH is to allow the testing of boom components and subassemblies. The results of preliminary investigations for the boom are summarized, the need of the testbed EDITH and a full scale mock-up is discussed and both EDITH and the mock-up are described. (orig.) [de

  8. Community males show multiple-perpetrator rape proclivity: development and preliminary validation of an interest scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Wood, Jane L

    2014-02-01

    The literature on Multiple Perpetrator Rape (MPR) is scant; however, a significant proportion of sexual offending involves multiple perpetrators. In addition to the need for research with apprehended offenders of MPR, there is also a need to conduct research with members of the general public. Recent advances in the forensic literature have led to the development of self-report proclivity scales. These scales have enabled researchers to conduct evaluative studies sampling from members of the general public who may be perpetrators of sexual offenses and have remained undetected, or at highest risk of engaging in sexual offending. The current study describes the development and preliminary validation of the Multiple-Perpetrator Rape Interest Scale (M-PRIS), a vignette-based measure assessing community males' sexual arousal to MPR, behavioral propensity toward MPR and enjoyment of MPR. The findings show that the M-PRIS is a reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in MPR with high internal reliability and temporal stability. In a sample of university males we found that a large proportion (66%) did not emphatically reject an interest in MPR. We also found that rape-supportive cognitive distortions, antisocial attitudes, and high-risk sexual fantasies were predictors of sexual interest in MPR. We discuss these findings and the implications for further research employing proclivity measures referencing theory development and clinical practice.

  9. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  10. Repository thermal response: A preliminary evaluation of the effects of modeled waste stream resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Dunn, E.

    1995-09-01

    One of the primary factors that influences our predictions of host-rock thermal response within a high level waste repository is how the waste stream's represented in the models. In the context of thermal modeling, waste stream refers to an itemized listing of the type (pressurized-water or boiling-water reactor), age, burnup, and enrichment of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies entering the repository over the 25-year emplacement phase. The effect of package-by-package variations in spent fuel characteristics on predicted repository thermal response is the focus of this report. A three-year portion of the emplacement period was modeled using three approaches to waste stream resolution. The first assumes that each package type emplaced in a given year is adequately represented by average characteristics. For comparison, two models that explicitly account for each waste package's individual characteristics were run; the first assuming a random selection of packages and the second an ordered approach aimed at locating the higher power output packages toward the center of the emplacement area. Results indicate that the explicit representation of packages results in hot and cold spots that could have performance assessment and design implications. Furthermore, questions are raised regarding the representativeness of average characteristics with respect to integrated energy output and the possible implications of a mass-based repository loading approach

  11. High-resolution CT findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yoon Ho; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Han, Heon; Chung, Hyo Sun; Cha, Yoo Mi; Kim, Young Chae; Kim, Sang Hee

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate high resolution CT(HRCT) findings in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD). In 13 infants(age range, 1-12 months;11 premature babies, two full-term babies; birth weight, 0.97-3.88kg;mean 2,03kg) with clinico-radiologically suggested BPD, HRCT findings of the lung were reviewed retrospectively. Spiral CT using ultra high bone algorithm, 1mm collimation with 5-8mm interval, and 0.7sec scan time was performed without regard to breathing-control of infants. Three radiologists each analysed the HRCT findings twice. HRCT findings of BPD were as follows:parenchymal bands(n=13), interlobular septal thickenings (n=12), multifocal hyperaeration involving lobar or segmental distribution(n=7), and involving lobular distribution or small cyst-like lesion(n=4), centrilobular nodules(n=7), consolidation and/or atelectasis(n=7), and bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6). Parenchymal bands, interlobular septal thickenings, and multifocal hyperaerations were the major findings in cases of bronchopulmonary dysplasia whereas, centrilobular nodules, consolidation and/or atelectasis, and bronchovascular bundle thickenings were the minor findings. These findings may be used as basic data in the evaluation of BPD in future studies

  12. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 2. Scale awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; Toto, Tami; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Endo, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multiscale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scales larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.

  13. High Resolution Mineral Mapping of the Oman Drilling Project Cores with Imaging Spectroscopy: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, R. N.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Manning, C. E.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the formation and alteration of oceanic crust and peridotite. Key to answering the main questions of the project are a characterization of the primary and secondary minerals present within the drill core and their spatial relationships. To that end, we used the Caltech imaging spectrometer system to scan the entire 1.5-km archive half of the core from all four gabbro and listvenite boreholes (GT1A, GT2A, GT3A, and BT1B) at 250 µm/pixel aboard the JAMSTEC Drilling Vessel Chikyu during the ChikyuOman core description campaign. The instrument measures the visible and shortwave infrared reflectance spectra of the rocks as a function of wavelength from 0.4 to 2.6 µm. This wavelength range is sensitive to many mineral groups, including hydrated minerals (phyllosilicates, zeolites, amorphous silica polytypes), carbonates, sulfates, and transition metals, most commonly iron-bearing mineralogies. To complete the measurements, the core was illuminated with a halogen light source and moved below the spectrometer at 1 cm/s by the Chikyu's Geotek track. Data are corrected and processed to reflectance using measurements of dark current and a spectralon calibration panel. The data provide a unique view of the mineralogy at high spatial resolution. Analysis of the images for complete downhole trends is ongoing. Thus far, a variety of minerals have been identified within their petrologic contexts, including but not limited to magnesite, dolomite, calcite, quartz (through an Si-OH absorption due to minor H2O), serpentine, chlorite, epidote, zeolites, mica (fuchsite), kaolinite, prehnite, gypsum, amphibole, and iron oxides. Further analysis will likely identify more minerals. Results include rapidly distinguishing the cations present within carbonate minerals and identifying minerals of volumetrically-low abundance within the matrix and veins of core samples. This technique, for example, accurately identifies

  14. Scaling of Thermal Images at Different Spatial Resolution: The Mixed Pixel Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlyn G. Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of changes in spatial resolution for application of thermal imagery in plant phenotyping in the field are discussed. Where image pixels are significantly smaller than the objects of interest (e.g., leaves, accurate estimates of leaf temperature are possible, but when pixels reach the same scale or larger than the objects of interest, the observed temperatures become significantly biased by the background temperature as a result of the presence of mixed pixels. Approaches to the estimation of the true leaf temperature that apply both at the whole-pixel level and at the sub-pixel level are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  16. High resolution seismic stratigraphy and Mass Transport Deposits of the proximal continental margin, offshore Quarteira, South Portugal: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Débora; Santos, Joana; Terrinha, Pedro; Brito, Pedro; Noiva, João; Ribeiro, Carlos; Roque, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    More than 300 nautical miles of multichannel seismic reflection data were acquired in the scope of the ASTARTE project (Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), off Quarteira, Algarve, South Portugal. The main goal of this very high resolution multichannel seismic survey was to obtain high-resolution images of the sedimentary record to try to discern the existence of high energy events, possibly tsunami backwash deposits associated with large magnitude earthquakes generated at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary This seismic dataset was processed at the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), with the SeisSpace PROMAX Seismic Processing software. A tailor-made processing flow was applied, focusing in the removal of the seafloor multiple and in the enhancement of the superficial layers. A sparker source, using with 300 J of energy and a fire rate of 0,5 s was used onboard Xunauta, an 18 m long vessel. The preliminary seismostratigraphic interpretation of the Algarve ASTARTE seismic dataset allowed the identification of a complex sequence seismic units of progradational and agradational bodies as well as Mass Transported Deposits (MTD). The MTD package of sediments has a very complex internal structure, 20m of thickness, is apparently spatially controlled by an escarpment probably associated to past sea level low stands. The MTD covers across an area, approximately parallel to an ancient coastline, with >30 km (length) x 5 km (across). Acknowledgements: This work was developed as part of the project ASTARTE (603839 FP7) supported by the grant agreement No 603839 of the European Union's Seventh. The Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera acknowledges support by Landmark Graphics (SeisWorks) via the Landmark University Grant Program.

  17. In Situ Vitrification preliminary results from the first large-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Westsik, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The first large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) has been completed. In Situ Vitrification is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline waste form. The LSRT was conducted at an actual transuranic contaminated soil site on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The test had two objectives: 1) determine large-scale processing performance and 2) produce a waste form that can be fully evaluated as a potential technique for the final disposal of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. This accomplishment has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. The LSRT was completed in June 1987 after 295 hours of operation and 460 MWh of electrical energy dissipated to the molten soil. This resulted in a minimum of a 450-t block of vitrified soil extending to a depth of 7.3m (24 ft). The primary contaminants vitrified during the demonstration were Pu and Am transuranics, but also included up to 26,000 ppm fluorides. Preliminary data show that their retention in the vitrified product exceeded predictions meaning that fewer contaminants needed to be removed from the gaseous effluents by the processing equipment. The gaseous effluents were contained and treated throughout the run; that is, no radioactive or hazardous chemical releases were detected

  18. In situ vitrification: Preliminary results from the first large-scale radioactive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Westsik, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    The first large-scale radioactive test (LSRT) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) has been completed. In Situ Vitrification is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline waste form. The LSRT was conducted at an actual transuranic contaminated soil site on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The test had two objectives: (1) determine large-scale processing performance and (2) produce a waste form that can be fully evaluated as a potential technique for the final disposal of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. This accomplishment has provided technical data to evaluate the ISV process for its potential in the final disposition of transuranic-contaminated soil sites at Hanford. Because of the test's successful completion, within a year technical data on the vitrified soil will be available to determine how well the process incorporates transuranics into the waste form and how well the form resists leaching of transuranics. Preliminary results available include retention of transuranics and other elements within the waste form during processing and the efficiency of the off-gas treatment system in removing contaminants from the gaseous effluents. 13 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  19. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  20. Solving the problem of imaging resolution: stochastic multi-scale image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsanina, Marina; Mallants, Dirk; Gilyazetdinova, Dina; Gerke, Kiril

    2016-04-01

    Structural features of porous materials define the majority of its physical properties, including water infiltration and redistribution, multi-phase flow (e.g. simultaneous water/air flow, gas exchange between biologically active soil root zone and atmosphere, etc.) and solute transport. To characterize soil and rock microstructure X-ray microtomography is extremely useful. However, as any other imaging technique, this one also has a significant drawback - a trade-off between sample size and resolution. The latter is a significant problem for multi-scale complex structures, especially such as soils and carbonates. Other imaging techniques, for example, SEM/FIB-SEM or X-ray macrotomography can be helpful in obtaining higher resolution or wider field of view. The ultimate goal is to create a single dataset containing information from all scales or to characterize such multi-scale structure. In this contribution we demonstrate a general solution for merging multiscale categorical spatial data into a single dataset using stochastic reconstructions with rescaled correlation functions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by merging three images representing macro, micro and nanoscale spatial information on porous media structure. Images obtained by X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy were fused into a single image with predefined resolution. The methodology is sufficiently generic for implementation of other stochastic reconstruction techniques, any number of scales, any number of material phases, and any number of images for a given scale. The methodology can be further used to assess effective properties of fused porous media images or to compress voluminous spatial datasets for efficient data storage. Potential practical applications of this method are abundant in soil science, hydrology and petroleum engineering, as well as other geosciences. This work was partially supported by RSF grant 14-17-00658 (X-ray microtomography study of shale

  1. Large-scale runoff generation - parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2011-08-01

    World water resources have primarily been analysed by global-scale hydrological models in the last decades. Runoff generation in many of these models are based on process formulations developed at catchments scales. The division between slow runoff (baseflow) and fast runoff is primarily governed by slope and spatial distribution of effective water storage capacity, both acting at very small scales. Many hydrological models, e.g. VIC, account for the spatial storage variability in terms of statistical distributions; such models are generally proven to perform well. The statistical approaches, however, use the same runoff-generation parameters everywhere in a basin. The TOPMODEL concept, on the other hand, links the effective maximum storage capacity with real-world topography. Recent availability of global high-quality, high-resolution topographic data makes TOPMODEL attractive as a basis for a physically-based runoff-generation algorithm at large scales, even if its assumptions are not valid in flat terrain or for deep groundwater systems. We present a new runoff-generation algorithm for large-scale hydrology based on TOPMODEL concepts intended to overcome these problems. The TRG (topography-derived runoff generation) algorithm relaxes the TOPMODEL equilibrium assumption so baseflow generation is not tied to topography. TRG only uses the topographic index to distribute average storage to each topographic index class. The maximum storage capacity is proportional to the range of topographic index and is scaled by one parameter. The distribution of storage capacity within large-scale grid cells is obtained numerically through topographic analysis. The new topography-derived distribution function is then inserted into a runoff-generation framework similar VIC's. Different basin parts are parameterised by different storage capacities, and different shapes of the storage-distribution curves depend on their topographic characteristics. The TRG algorithm is driven by the

  2. Large-scale runoff generation – parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available World water resources have primarily been analysed by global-scale hydrological models in the last decades. Runoff generation in many of these models are based on process formulations developed at catchments scales. The division between slow runoff (baseflow and fast runoff is primarily governed by slope and spatial distribution of effective water storage capacity, both acting at very small scales. Many hydrological models, e.g. VIC, account for the spatial storage variability in terms of statistical distributions; such models are generally proven to perform well. The statistical approaches, however, use the same runoff-generation parameters everywhere in a basin. The TOPMODEL concept, on the other hand, links the effective maximum storage capacity with real-world topography. Recent availability of global high-quality, high-resolution topographic data makes TOPMODEL attractive as a basis for a physically-based runoff-generation algorithm at large scales, even if its assumptions are not valid in flat terrain or for deep groundwater systems. We present a new runoff-generation algorithm for large-scale hydrology based on TOPMODEL concepts intended to overcome these problems. The TRG (topography-derived runoff generation algorithm relaxes the TOPMODEL equilibrium assumption so baseflow generation is not tied to topography. TRG only uses the topographic index to distribute average storage to each topographic index class. The maximum storage capacity is proportional to the range of topographic index and is scaled by one parameter. The distribution of storage capacity within large-scale grid cells is obtained numerically through topographic analysis. The new topography-derived distribution function is then inserted into a runoff-generation framework similar VIC's. Different basin parts are parameterised by different storage capacities, and different shapes of the storage-distribution curves depend on their topographic characteristics. The TRG algorithm

  3. Development of computational infrastructure to support hyper-resolution large-ensemble hydrology simulations from local-to-continental scales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of computational infrastructure to support hyper-resolution large-ensemble hydrology simulations from local-to-continental scales A move is currently...

  4. Comparison of 12-bit and 8-bit gray scale resolution in MR imaging of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.J.; Bakke, S.J.; Smevik, B.; Hald, J.K.; Moen, G.; Rudenhed, B.; Abildgaard, A.

    1992-01-01

    A reduction in gray scale resolution of digital images from 12 to 8 bits per pixel usually means halving the storage space needed for the images. Theoretically, important diagnostic information may be lost in the process. We compared the sensitivity and specificity achieved by 4 radiologists in reading laser-printed films of original 12-bit MR images and cathode ray tube displays of the same images which had been compressed to 8 bits per pixel using a specially developed computer program. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed no significant differences between film reading and screen reading. A paired 2-tailed t-test, applied on the data for actually positive cases, showed that the combined, average performance of the reviewers was significantly better at screen reading than at film reading. No such differences were found for actually negative cases. Some individual differences were found, but it is concluded that gray scale resolution of MR images may be reduced from 12 to 8 bits per pixel without any significant reduction in diagnostic information. (orig.)

  5. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sang, X.; Xu, W.; Dycus, J.H.; LeBeau, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J.; Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. - Highlights: • Absolute scale quantification of 2D atomic-resolution EDX maps is demonstrated. • Factors contributing to remaining small quantitative discrepancies are identified. • Experiment confirms large probe-forming apertures suppress channelling enhancement. • The thickness range suitable for reliable column-by-column analysis is discussed.

  6. High-resolution time-frequency representation of EEG data using multi-scale wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Cui, Wei-Gang; Luo, Mei-Lin; Li, Ke; Wang, Lina

    2017-09-01

    An efficient time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) modelling scheme that expands the time-varying parameters onto the multi-scale wavelet basis functions is presented for modelling nonstationary signals and with applications to time-frequency analysis (TFA) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In the new parametric modelling framework, the time-dependent parameters of the TVAR model are locally represented by using a novel multi-scale wavelet decomposition scheme, which can allow the capability to capture the smooth trends as well as track the abrupt changes of time-varying parameters simultaneously. A forward orthogonal least square (FOLS) algorithm aided by mutual information criteria are then applied for sparse model term selection and parameter estimation. Two simulation examples illustrate that the performance of the proposed multi-scale wavelet basis functions outperforms the only single-scale wavelet basis functions or Kalman filter algorithm for many nonstationary processes. Furthermore, an application of the proposed method to a real EEG signal demonstrates the new approach can provide highly time-dependent spectral resolution capability.

  7. Application of multi-scale wavelet entropy and multi-resolution Volterra models for climatic downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, V.; Lakhanpal, A.; Maheswaran, R.; Khosa, R.; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a wavelet-based multi-resolution modeling approach for statistical downscaling of GCM variables to mean monthly precipitation for five locations at Krishna Basin, India. Climatic dataset from NCEP is used for training the proposed models (Jan.'69 to Dec.'94) and are applied to corresponding CanCM4 GCM variables to simulate precipitation for the validation (Jan.'95-Dec.'05) and forecast (Jan.'06-Dec.'35) periods. The observed precipitation data is obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation product at 0.25 degree spatial resolution. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Scale Wavelet Entropy (MWE) based approach for clustering climatic variables into suitable clusters using k-means methodology. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to obtain the representative Principal Components (PC) explaining 90-95% variance for each cluster. A multi-resolution non-linear approach combining Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Second Order Volterra (SoV) is used to model the representative PCs to obtain the downscaled precipitation for each downscaling location (W-P-SoV model). The results establish that wavelet-based multi-resolution SoV models perform significantly better compared to the traditional Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based frameworks. It is observed that the proposed MWE-based clustering and subsequent PCA, helps reduce the dimensionality of the input climatic variables, while capturing more variability compared to stand-alone k-means (no MWE). The proposed models perform better in estimating the number of precipitation events during the non-monsoon periods whereas the models with clustering without MWE over-estimate the rainfall during the dry season.

  8. Findings and Challenges in Fine-Resolution Large-Scale Hydrological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-resolution large-scale (FL) modeling can provide the overall picture of the hydrological cycle and transport while taking into account unique local conditions in the simulation. It can also help develop water resources management plans consistent across spatial scales by describing the spatial consequences of decisions and hydrological events extensively. FL modeling is expected to be common in the near future as global-scale remotely sensed data are emerging, and computing resources have been advanced rapidly. There are several spatially distributed models available for hydrological analyses. Some of them rely on numerical methods such as finite difference/element methods (FDM/FEM), which require excessive computing resources (implicit scheme) to manipulate large matrices or small simulation time intervals (explicit scheme) to maintain the stability of the solution, to describe two-dimensional overland processes. Others make unrealistic assumptions such as constant overland flow velocity to reduce the computational loads of the simulation. Thus, simulation efficiency often comes at the expense of precision and reliability in FL modeling. Here, we introduce a new FL continuous hydrological model and its application to four watersheds in different landscapes and sizes from 3.5 km2 to 2,800 km2 at the spatial resolution of 30 m on an hourly basis. The model provided acceptable accuracy statistics in reproducing hydrological observations made in the watersheds. The modeling outputs including the maps of simulated travel time, runoff depth, soil water content, and groundwater recharge, were animated, visualizing the dynamics of hydrological processes occurring in the watersheds during and between storm events. Findings and challenges were discussed in the context of modeling efficiency, accuracy, and reproducibility, which we found can be improved by employing advanced computing techniques and hydrological understandings, by using remotely sensed hydrological

  9. Geophysical Modelling and Multi-Scale Studies in the Arctic Seiland Igneous Province: Millimeter to Micrometer Scale Mapping of the Magnetic Sources by High Resolution Magnetic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Z.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Oda, H.; ter Maat, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Rocks samples can have wide range of magnetic properties depending on composition, amount of ferromagnetic minerals, grain sizes and microstructures. These influence the magnetic anomalies from the micro to the global scale making the study of the magnetic properties of interest for multiple applications. Later geological processes such as serpentinization can significantly influence these properties and change the nature of the magnetic anomalies. Particularly, magnetic properties such as remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are directly linked to the magnetic mineralogy composition and grain size and can provide useful information about the geological history of the source. Scanning magnetic microscopy is a highly sensitive and high-resolution magnetometric technique for mapping the magnetic field over a planar surface of a rock sample. The device measures the vertical component of the field above the thin sections and the technique offers a spatial resolution down to tens of micrometers and thus can be used to investigate discrete magnetic mineral grains or magnetic textures and structures, and the magnetic history of the sample. This technique allows a direct correlation between the mineral chemistry (through both electron and optical microscopy) and the magnetic properties. We present as case-study three thin section magnetic scans of two dunite samples from the Reinfjord Ultramafic complex, in northern Norway. The selected thin sections show different magnetic properties which reflect the magnetic petrology. One of the thin sections is from a pristine dunite sample; the other two are highly serpentinized with newly formed magnetite found in multiple, few micrometer thick, veins. We present the preliminary results obtained applying a forward modelling approach on the magnetic anomaly maps acquired over the thin sections. Modelling consists of uniformly-magnetized polygonal bodies whose geometry is constrained by the thickness of the thin section

  10. Small scale denitrification variability in riparian zones: Results from a high-resolution dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Knöller, Kay; Musolff, Andreas; Popp, Felix; Lüders, Tillmann; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Riparian zones are important compartments at the interface between groundwater and surface water where biogeochemical processes like denitrification are often enhanced. Nitrate loads of either groundwater entering a stream through the riparian zone or streamwater infiltrating into the riparian zone can be substantially reduced. These processes are spatially and temporally highly variable, making it difficult to capture solute variabilities, estimate realistic turnover rates and thus to quantify integral mass removal. A crucial step towards a more detailed characterization is to monitor solutes on a scale which adequately resemble the highly heterogeneous distribution and on a scale where processes occur. We measured biogeochemical parameters in a spatial high resolution within a riparian corridor of a German lowland river system over the course of one year. Samples were taken from three newly developed high-resolution multi-level wells with a maximum vertical resolution of 5 cm and analyzed for major ions, DOC and N-O isotopes. Sediment derived during installation of the wells was analyzed for specific denitrifying enzymes. Results showed a distinct depth zonation of hydrochemistry within the shallow alluvial aquifer, with a 1 m thick zone just below the water table with lower nitrate concentrations and EC values similar to the nearby river. Conservative parameters were consistent inbetween the three wells, but nitrate was highly variable. In addition, spots with low nitrate concentrations showed isotopic and microbial evidence for higher denitrification activities. The depth zonation was observed throughout the year, with stronger temporal variations of nitrate concentrations just below the water table compared to deeper layers. Nitrate isotopes showed a clear seasonal trend of denitrification activities (high in summer, low in winter). Our dataset gives new insight into river-groundwater exchange processes and shows the highly heterogeneous distribution of

  11. Results of the Preliminary Test in the 1/4-Scale RCCS of the PMR200 VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Bae, Yoon-Yeong; Hong, Sung-Deok; Kim, Chan-Soo; Cho, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hwan [Nuclear Hydrogen Reactor Technology Development Dep., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a key ex-vessel passive safety system that will ensure the safety of the PMR200, and its performance needs to be verified. For the difficulty of the full-scale test, a 1/4-scale RCCS facility, NACEF (Natural Cooling Experimental Facility), has been constructed at KAERI, and a shakedown test has been performed. A brief design and the preliminary test results of this facility are described. A 1/4-scale RCCS mockup of PMR200, NACEF, was constructed and tested preliminarily. The functioning of the facility worked quite well. Moreover, the preliminary test results show a fairly good agreement with past work except for the conductive heat transfer region in the riser bottom. After a remedy such as the installation of more precise flow meters and a more improved insulation, the test facility is likely to work well.

  12. Regional Scale High Resolution δ18O Prediction in Precipitation Using MODIS EVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Shou-De; Lo, Yi-Chen; Huang, Bo-Wen; Hatch, Kent A.; Shiu, Hau-Jie; You, Cheng-Feng; Chang, Yuan-Mou; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The natural variation in stable water isotope ratio data, also known as water isoscape, is a spatiotemporal fingerprint and a powerful natural tracer that has been widely applied in disciplines as diverse as hydrology, paleoclimatology, ecology and forensic investigation. Although much effort has been devoted to developing a predictive water isoscape model, it remains a central challenge for scientists to generate high accuracy, fine scale spatiotemporal water isoscape prediction. Here we develop a novel approach of using the MODIS-EVI (the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer-Enhanced Vegetation Index), to predict δ18O in precipitation at the regional scale. Using a structural equation model, we show that the EVI and precipitated δ18O are highly correlated and thus the EVI is a good predictor of precipitated δ18O. We then test the predictability of our EVI-δ18O model and demonstrate that our approach can provide high accuracy with fine spatial (250×250 m) and temporal (16 days) scale δ18O predictions (annual and monthly predictabilities [r] are 0.96 and 0.80, respectively). We conclude the merging of the EVI and δ18O in precipitation can greatly extend the spatial and temporal data availability and thus enhance the applicability for both the EVI and water isoscape. PMID:23029053

  13. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  14. Kinetics experiments and bench-scale system: Background, design, and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofer, C.K.

    1987-10-01

    The project, Supercritical Water Oxidation of Hazardous Chemical Waste, is a Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Research and Development task being carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its objective is to obtain information for use in understanding the basic technology and for scaling up and applying oxidation in supercritical water as a viable process for treating a variety of DOE-DP waste streams. This report gives the background and rationale for kinetics experiments on oxidation in supercritical water being carried out as a part of this HAZWRAP Research and Development task. It discusses supercritical fluid properties and their relevance to applying this process to the destruction of hazardous wastes. An overview is given of the small emerging industry based on applications of supercritical water oxidation. Factors that could lead to additional applications are listed. Modeling studies are described as a basis for the experimental design. The report describes plug flow reactor and batch reactor systems, and presents preliminary results. 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Development of dynamic kinetic resolution on large scale for (±-1-phenylethylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Thalén

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB and racemization catalyst 4 were combined in the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR of (±-1-phenylethylamine (1. Several reaction parameters have been investigated to modify the method for application on multigram scale. A comparison of isopropyl acetate and alkyl methoxyacetates as acyl donors was carried out. It was found that lower catalyst loadings could be used to obtain (R-2-methoxy-N-(1-phenylethylacetamide (3 in good yield and high ee when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as acyl donors compared to when isopropyl acetate was used as the acyl donor. The catalyst loading could be decreased to 1.25 mol % Ru-catalyst 4 and 10 mg CALB per mmol 1 when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as the acyl donor.

  16. Development of dynamic kinetic resolution on large scale for (±)-1-phenylethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, Lisa K; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2010-09-13

    Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and racemization catalyst 4 were combined in the dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of (±)-1-phenylethylamine (1). Several reaction parameters have been investigated to modify the method for application on multigram scale. A comparison of isopropyl acetate and alkyl methoxyacetates as acyl donors was carried out. It was found that lower catalyst loadings could be used to obtain (R)-2-methoxy-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide (3) in good yield and high ee when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as acyl donors compared to when isopropyl acetate was used as the acyl donor. The catalyst loading could be decreased to 1.25 mol % Ru-catalyst 4 and 10 mg CALB per mmol 1 when alkyl methoxyacetates were used as the acyl donor.

  17. Small-scale sediment transport patterns and bedform morphodynamics: New insights from high resolution multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Rubin, David M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2011-01-01

    New multibeam echosounder and processing technologies yield sub-meter-scale bathymetric resolution, revealing striking details of bedform morphology that are shaped by complex boundary-layer flow dynamics at a range of spatial and temporal scales. An inertially aided post processed kinematic (IAPPK) technique generates a smoothed best estimate trajectory (SBET) solution to tie the vessel motion-related effects of each sounding directly to the ellipsoid, significantly reducing artifacts commonly found in multibeam data, increasing point density, and sharpening seafloor features. The new technique was applied to a large bedform field in 20–30 m water depths in central San Francisco Bay, California (USA), revealing bedforms that suggest boundary-layer flow deflection by the crests where 12-m-wavelength, 0.2-m-amplitude bedforms are superimposed on 60-m-wavelength, 1-m-amplitude bedforms, with crests that often were strongly oblique (approaching 90°) to the larger features on the lee side, and near-parallel on the stoss side. During one survey in April 2008, superimposed bedform crests were continuous between the crests of the larger features, indicating that flow detachment in the lee of the larger bedforms is not always a dominant process. Assessment of bedform crest peakedness, asymmetry, and small-scale bedform evolution between surveys indicates the impact of different flow regimes on the entire bedform field. This paper presents unique fine-scale imagery of compound and superimposed bedforms, which is used to (1) assess the physical forcing and evolution of a bedform field in San Francisco Bay, and (2) in conjunction with numerical modeling, gain a better fundamental understanding of boundary-layer flow dynamics that result in the observed superimposed bedform orientation.

  18. Stoic beliefs and health: development and preliminary validation of the Pathak-Wieten Stoicism Ideology Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Elizabeth B; Wieten, Sarah E; Wheldon, Christopher W

    2017-11-14

    We developed and validated a new parsimonious scale to measure stoic beliefs. Key domains of stoicism are imperviousness to strong emotions, indifference to death, taciturnity and self-sufficiency. In the context of illness and disease, a personal ideology of stoicism may create an internal resistance to objective needs, which can lead to negative consequences. Stoicism has been linked to help-seeking delays, inadequate pain treatment, caregiver strain and suicide after economic stress. During 2013-2014, 390 adults aged 18+ years completed a brief anonymous paper questionnaire containing the preliminary 24-item Pathak-Wieten Stoicism Ideology Scale (PW-SIS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test an a priori multidomain theoretical model. Content validity and response distributions were examined. Sociodemographic predictors of strong endorsement of stoicism were explored with logistic regression. The final PW-SIS contains four conceptual domains and 12 items. CFA showed very good model fit: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07), goodness-of-fit index=0.96 and Tucker-Lewis Index=0.93. Cronbach's alpha was 0.78 and ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 for the subscales. Content validity analysis showed a statistically significant trend, with respondents who reported trying to be a stoic 'all of the time' having the highest PW-SIS scores. Men were over two times as likely as women to fall into the top quartile of responses (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.68, P<0.001). ORs showing stronger endorsement of stoicism by Hispanics, Blacks and biracial persons were not statistically significant. The PW-SIS is a valid and theoretically coherent scale which is brief and practical for integration into a wide range of health behaviour and outcomes research studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  19. Extended-range high-resolution dynamical downscaling over a continental-scale spatial domain with atmospheric and surface nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, S. Z.; Separovic, L.; Yu, W.; Fernig, D.

    2014-12-01

    Extended-range high-resolution mesoscale simulations with limited-area atmospheric models when applied to downscale regional analysis fields over large spatial domains can provide valuable information for many applications including the weather-dependent renewable energy industry. Long-term simulations over a continental-scale spatial domain, however, require mechanisms to control the large-scale deviations in the high-resolution simulated fields from the coarse-resolution driving fields. As enforcement of the lateral boundary conditions is insufficient to restrict such deviations, large scales in the simulated high-resolution meteorological fields are therefore spectrally nudged toward the driving fields. Different spectral nudging approaches, including the appropriate nudging length scales as well as the vertical profiles and temporal relaxations for nudging, have been investigated to propose an optimal nudging strategy. Impacts of time-varying nudging and generation of hourly analysis estimates are explored to circumvent problems arising from the coarse temporal resolution of the regional analysis fields. Although controlling the evolution of the atmospheric large scales generally improves the outputs of high-resolution mesoscale simulations within the surface layer, the prognostically evolving surface fields can nevertheless deviate from their expected values leading to significant inaccuracies in the predicted surface layer meteorology. A forcing strategy based on grid nudging of the different surface fields, including surface temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, toward their expected values obtained from a high-resolution offline surface scheme is therefore proposed to limit any considerable deviation. Finally, wind speed and temperature at wind turbine hub height predicted by different spectrally nudged extended-range simulations are compared against observations to demonstrate possible improvements achievable using higher spatiotemporal

  20. Micro-computed tomography pore-scale study of flow in porous media: Effect of voxel resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. M.; Gray, F.; Crawshaw, J. P.; Boek, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of flow in porous media at the pore-scale is necessary to be able to upscale average displacement processes from core to reservoir scale. The study of fluid flow in porous media at the pore-scale consists of two key procedures: Imaging - reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) pore space images; and modelling such as with single and two-phase flow simulations with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) or Pore-Network (PN) Modelling. Here we analyse pore-scale results to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity, single-phase permeability and multi-phase properties at different length scales. The fundamental issue is to understand the image resolution dependency of transport properties, in order to up-scale the flow physics from pore to core scale. In this work, we use a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanner to image and reconstruct three dimensional pore-scale images of five sandstones (Bentheimer, Berea, Clashach, Doddington and Stainton) and five complex carbonates (Ketton, Estaillades, Middle Eastern sample 3, Middle Eastern sample 5 and Indiana Limestone 1) at four different voxel resolutions (4.4 μm, 6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm), scanning the same physical field of view. Implementing three phase segmentation (macro-pore phase, intermediate phase and grain phase) on pore-scale images helps to understand the importance of connected macro-porosity in the fluid flow for the samples studied. We then compute the petrophysical properties for all the samples using PN and LB simulations in order to study the influence of voxel resolution on petrophysical properties. We then introduce a numerical coarsening scheme which is used to coarsen a high voxel resolution image (4.4 μm) to lower resolutions (6.2 μm, 8.3 μm and 10.2 μm) and study the impact of coarsening data on macroscopic and multi-phase properties. Numerical coarsening of high resolution data is found to be superior to using a lower resolution scan because it

  1. Preliminary Laboratory-scale Study Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Sensor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippayakul, C.; Petchrak, A.; Wetchagarun, S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widespread uses of radiotracers in the industrial applications is the leak detection of the systems. This technique can be applied, for example, to detect leak in heat exchangers or along buried industrial pipelines. Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) is currently conducting R&D on this technique aiming to promote the radiotracer use in Thailand. In this paper, a preliminary study of the leak detection using radiotracer on laboratory-scale was presented. Br-82 was selected for this work due to its chemical property, its suitable half-life and its on-site availability. The radiotracer in form of NH4Br powder was irradiated in Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) to produce Br-82. The irradiated target was subsequently prepared in the form of aqueous solution in a hot cell ready for injection into the experimental system as the radiotracer. A relatively simplified experimental setup was used with three NaI detectors being placed along the pipelines to measure system flow rate and to detect the leakage from the piping system. The results obtained from the radiotracer technique were compared to those measured by other methods. It is found that the flow rate obtained from the radiotracer technique agreed well with the one obtained from the flow meter. The leak rate result, however, showed discrepancy between results obtained from two different measuring methods indicating that the simplified experimental setup was not adequate for the leak rate study. Hence, further study with more elaborate experimental setup was required before applying this technique in the actual industrial system.

  2. Fabrication of high-resolution reflective scale grating for an optical encoder using a patterned self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shanjin; Jiang, Weitao; Li, Xuan; Yu, Haoyu; Lei, Biao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Chen, Bangdao; Liu, Hongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Steel tape scale grating of a reflective incremental linear encoder has a key impact on the measurement accuracy of the optical encoder. However, it is difficult for conventional manufacturing processes to fabricate scale grating with high-resolution grating strips, due to process and material problems. In this paper, self-assembly technology was employed to fabricate high-resolution steel tape scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. Graphene oxide nanoparticles were adopted to form anti-reflective grating strips of steel tape scale grating. They were deposited in the tape, which had a hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern when the dispersion of the nanoparticles evaporated. A standard lift-off process was employed to fabricate the hydrophobic grating strips on the steel tape. Simultaneously, the steel tape itself presents a hydrophilic property. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern was thus obtained. In this study, octafluorocyclobutane was used to prepare the hydrophobic grating strips, due to its hydrophobic property. High-resolution graphene oxide steel tape scale grating with a pitch of 20 μ m was obtained through the self-assembly process. The photoelectric signals of the optical encoder containing the graphene oxide scale grating and conventional scale grating were tested under the same conditions. Comparison test results showed that the graphene oxide scale grating has a better performance in its amplitude and harmonic components than that of the conventional steel tape scale. A comparison experiment of position errors was also conducted, demonstrating an improvement in the positioning error of the graphene oxide scale grating. The comparison results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed self-assembly process to fabricate high-resolution graphene oxide scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. (paper)

  3. Towards a High-resolution Time Scale for the Early Devonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, M. J.; da Silva, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution time scales are crucial to understand Earth's history in detail. The construction of a robust geological time scale, however, inevitably becomes increasingly harder further back in time. Uncertainties associated with anchor radiometric ages increase in size, not speaking of the mere presence of suitable datable strata. However, durations of stages can be tightly constrained by making use of cyclic expressions in sediments, an approach that revolutionized the Cenozoic time scale. When precisely determined durations are stitched together, ultimately, a very precise time scale is the result. For the Mesozoic and Paleozoic an astronomical solution as a tuning target is not available but the dominant periods of eccentricity, obliquity and precession are reasonably well constrained for the entire Phanerozoic which enables their detection by means of spectral analysis. Eccentricity is time-invariant and is used as the prime building block. Here we focus on the Early Devonian, on its lowermost three stages: the Lochkovian, Pragian and Emsian. The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. The preservation of climatic cycles in diagenetically or even anchimetamorphically affected successions, however, is essential. The fit of spectral peak ratios with those calculated for orbital cycles, is classically used as a strong argument for a preserved climatic signal. Here we use primarily the low field magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy parameter, supported by gamma-ray spectrometry to test for consistency. Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multitaper Method, and Average Spectral Misfit are used to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. We report on classic Early Devonian sections from the Czech Republic: the Pozar-CS (Lochkovian and Pragian), Pod Barrandovem (Pragian and Lower Emsian), and Zlichov (Middle-Upper Emsian). Also a Middle-Upper Emsian section from the US

  4. The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales: preliminary reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varni James W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales (PedsQL™ VAS were designed as an ecological momentary assessment (EMA instrument to rapidly measure present or at-the-moment functioning in children and adolescents. The PedsQL™ VAS assess child self-report and parent-proxy report of anxiety, sadness, anger, worry, fatigue, and pain utilizing six developmentally appropriate visual analogue scales based on the well-established Varni/Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaire (PPQ Pain Intensity VAS format. Methods The six-item PedsQL™ VAS was administered to 70 pediatric patients ages 5–17 and their parents upon admittance to the hospital environment (Time 1: T1 and again two hours later (Time 2: T2. It was hypothesized that the PedsQL™ VAS Emotional Distress Summary Score (anxiety, sadness, anger, worry and the fatigue VAS would demonstrate moderate to large effect size correlations with the PPQ Pain Intensity VAS, and that patient" parent concordance would increase over time. Results Test-retest reliability was demonstrated from T1 to T2 in the large effect size range. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated for the PedsQL™ VAS Total Symptom Score (patient self-report: T1 alpha = .72, T2 alpha = .80; parent proxy-report: T1 alpha = .80, T2 alpha = .84 and Emotional Distress Summary Score (patient self-report: T1 alpha = .74, T2 alpha = .73; parent proxy-report: T1 alpha = .76, T2 alpha = .81. As hypothesized, the Emotional Distress Summary Score and Fatigue VAS were significantly correlated with the PPQ Pain VAS in the medium to large effect size range, and patient and parent concordance increased from T1 to T2. Conclusion The results demonstrate preliminary test-retest and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the PedsQL™ Present Functioning VAS instrument for both pediatric patient self-report and parent proxy-report. Further field testing is required to extend these initial

  5. Preliminary psychometric properties of the brief Negative Symptom Scale in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Chapman, Hannah C

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-resolution C and O stable isotope geochemistry of the early Aptian OAE1a at Cau (Prebetic Zone, Spain): Preliminary results from sediment core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Ortiz, Pedro; Aguado, Roque; Castro, José Manuel; Gallego, David; de Gea, Ginés Alfonso; Jarvis, Ian; Molina, José Miguel; Nieto, Luis Miguel; Pancost, Richard; Quijano, María Luisa; Reolid, Matías; Rodriguez, Rafael; Skelton, Peter; Weisser, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    correlation with previously defined and worldwide recognized C-isotope segments of Menegatti et al. [2]. Along with the C-isotope stratigraphy, correlated with previous biostratigraphic and geochemical data from outcrop studies, profiles of magnetic susceptibility data (measured from the core in the laboratory) and geophysical log profiles measured down-hole, are presented. Preliminary sedimentological analyses of the core have been completed, with a focus on lithology and sedimentary structures, including ichnofacies of bioturbated levels. The facies association is dominated by dark marlstones, displaying a cyclic vertical organization. These results confirm and refine previous data, and will be the base for ongoing analytical studies at a high-resolution scale, covering geochemical, biostratigraphic, sedimentological, ichnological and cyclostratigraphic analyses of the core. Acknowledgements: This work is a contribution of the research project CGL2014-55274-P (Gov. of Spain) and Research Group RNM-200 (PAIDI-JA). [1] Robinson et al. (2017). Sedimentology, 64, 1-15 [2] Menegatti et al. (1998). Paleoceanography 13, 530-545. [3] Gea et al. (2003) Palaeo3. 200, 207-219. [4] Quijano et al. (2012). Palaeo3. 365-366, 276-293. [5] Naafs et al. (2016). Nat. Geosc. 9 (2), 135-139. [6] Ruiz-Ortiz et al. (2016). Sci. Dril. 21, 41-46.

  7. Tools for Virtual Collaboration Designed for High Resolution Hydrologic Research with Continental-Scale Data Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Christopher; Leonard, Lorne; Shi, Yuning; Bhatt, Gopal; Hanson, Paul; Gil, Yolanda; Yu, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Using a series of recent examples and papers we explore some progress and potential for virtual (cyber-) collaboration inspired by access to high resolution, harmonized public-sector data at continental scales [1]. The first example describes 7 meso-scale catchments in Pennsylvania, USA where the watershed is forced by climate reanalysis and IPCC future climate scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). We show how existing public-sector data and community models are currently able to resolve fine-scale eco-hydrologic processes regarding wetland response to climate change [2]. The results reveal that regional climate change is only part of the story, with large variations in flood and drought response associated with differences in terrain, physiography, landuse and/or hydrogeology. The importance of community-driven virtual testbeds are demonstrated in the context of Critical Zone Observatories, where earth scientists from around the world are organizing hydro-geophysical data and model results to explore new processes that couple hydrologic models with land-atmosphere interaction, biogeochemical weathering, carbon-nitrogen cycle, landscape evolution and ecosystem services [3][4]. Critical Zone cyber-research demonstrates how data-driven model development requires a flexible computational structure where process modules are relatively easy to incorporate and where new data structures can be implemented [5]. From the perspective of "Big-Data" the paper points out that extrapolating results from virtual observatories to catchments at continental scales, will require centralized or cloud-based cyberinfrastructure as a necessary condition for effectively sharing petabytes of data and model results [6]. Finally we outline how innovative cyber-science is supporting earth-science learning, sharing and exploration through the use of on-line tools where hydrologists and limnologists are sharing data and models for simulating the coupled impacts of catchment

  8. Muon reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution in pp collisions at 8TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrievska, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment identifies and reconstructs muons with two high precision tracking systems, the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer, which provide independent measurements of the muon momentum. This poster summarizes the performance of the combined muon reconstruction in terms of reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution. Data-driven techniques are used to derive corrections to be applied to simulation in order to reproduce the reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution as observed in experimental data, and to asses systematic uncertainties on these quantities. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb−1 from 8 TeV pp collisions recorded in 2012.

  9. Comparing SMAP to Macro-scale and Hyper-resolution Land Surface Models over Continental U. S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming; Cai, Xitian; Chaney, Nathaniel; Wood, Eric

    2016-04-01

    SMAP sensors collect moisture information in top soil at the spatial resolution of ~40 km (radiometer) and ~1 to 3 km (radar, before its failure in July 2015). Such information is extremely valuable for understanding various terrestrial hydrologic processes and their implications on human life. At the same time, soil moisture is a joint consequence of numerous physical processes (precipitation, temperature, radiation, topography, crop/vegetation dynamics, soil properties, etc.) that happen at a wide range of scales from tens of kilometers down to tens of meters. Therefore, a full and thorough analysis/exploration of SMAP data products calls for investigations at multiple spatial scales - from regional, to catchment, and to field scales. Here we first compare the SMAP retrievals to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale land surface model simulations over the continental U. S. region at 3 km resolution. The forcing inputs to the model are merged/downscaled from a suite of best available data products including the NLDAS-2 forcing, Stage IV and Stage II precipitation, GOES Surface and Insolation Products, and fine elevation data. The near real time VIC simulation is intended to provide a source of large scale comparisons at the active sensor resolution. Beyond the VIC model scale, we perform comparisons at 30 m resolution against the recently developed HydroBloks hyper-resolution land surface model over several densely gauged USDA experimental watersheds. Comparisons are also made against in-situ point-scale observations from various SMAP Cal/Val and field campaign sites.

  10. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road.

  11. Land use/land cover mapping using multi-scale texture processing of high resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) maps are useful for many purposes, and for a long time remote sensing techniques have been used for LULC mapping using different types of data and image processing techniques. In this research, high resolution satellite data from IKONOS was used to perform land use/land cover mapping in Johor Bahru city and adjacent areas (Malaysia). Spatial image processing was carried out using the six texture algorithms (mean, variance, contrast, homogeneity, entropy, and GLDV angular second moment) with five difference window sizes (from 3×3 to 11×11). Three different classifiers i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Supported Vector Machine (SVM) were used to classify the texture parameters of different spectral bands individually and all bands together using the same training and validation samples. Results indicated that texture parameters of all bands together generally showed a better performance (overall accuracy = 90.10%) for land LULC mapping, however, single spectral band could only achieve an overall accuracy of 72.67%. This research also found an improvement of the overall accuracy (OA) using single-texture multi-scales approach (OA = 89.10%) and single-scale multi-textures approach (OA = 90.10%) compared with all original bands (OA = 84.02%) because of the complementary information from different bands and different texture algorithms. On the other hand, all of the three different classifiers have showed high accuracy when using different texture approaches, but SVM generally showed higher accuracy (90.10%) compared to MLC (89.10%) and ANN (89.67%) especially for the complex classes such as urban and road

  12. Scale effect challenges in urban hydrology highlighted with a Fully Distributed Model and High-resolution rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiba, Abdellah; Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Bompard, Philippe; Ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest on small-scale rainfall information, provided by weather radars, to be used in urban water management and decision-making. Therefore, an increasing interest is in parallel devoted to the development of fully distributed and grid-based models following the increase of computation capabilities, the availability of high-resolution GIS information needed for such models implementation. However, the choice of an appropriate implementation scale to integrate the catchment heterogeneity and the whole measured rainfall variability provided by High-resolution radar technologies still issues. This work proposes a two steps investigation of scale effects in urban hydrology and its effects on modeling works. In the first step fractal tools are used to highlight the scale dependency observed within distributed data used to describe the catchment heterogeneity, both the structure of the sewer network and the distribution of impervious areas are analyzed. Then an intensive multi-scale modeling work is carried out to understand scaling effects on hydrological model performance. Investigations were conducted using a fully distributed and physically based model, Multi-Hydro, developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. The model was implemented at 17 spatial resolutions ranging from 100 m to 5 m and modeling investigations were performed using both rain gauge rainfall information as well as high resolution X band radar data in order to assess the sensitivity of the model to small scale rainfall variability. Results coming out from this work demonstrate scale effect challenges in urban hydrology modeling. In fact, fractal concept highlights the scale dependency observed within distributed data used to implement hydrological models. Patterns of geophysical data change when we change the observation pixel size. The multi-scale modeling investigation performed with Multi-Hydro model at 17 spatial resolutions confirms scaling effect on hydrological model

  13. Interpreting forest biome productivity and cover utilizing nested scales of image resolution and biogeographical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Louis R.; Cook, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Robin L.; Olson, Jerry S.; Frank, Thomas D.; Ying, KE

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to relate spectral imagery of varying resolution with ground-based data on forest productivity and cover, and to create models to predict regional estimates of forest productivity and cover with a quantifiable degree of accuracy. A three stage approach was outlined. In the first stage, a model was developed relating forest cover or productivity to TM surface reflectance values (TM/FOREST models). The TM/FOREST models were more accurate when biogeographic information regarding the landscape was either used to stratigy the landscape into more homogeneous units or incorporated directly into the TM/FOREST model. In the second stage, AVHRR/FOREST models that predicted forest cover and productivity on the basis of AVHRR band values were developed. The AVHRR/FOREST models had statistical properties similar to or better than those of the TM/FOREST models. In the third stage, the regional predictions were compared with the independent U.S. Forest Service (USFS) data. To do this regional forest cover and forest productivity maps were created using AVHRR scenes and the AVHRR/FOREST models. From the maps the county values of forest productivity and cover were calculated. It is apparent that the landscape has a strong influence on the success of the approach. An approach of using nested scales of imagery in conjunction with ground-based data can be successful in generating regional estimates of variables that are functionally related to some variable a sensor can detect.

  14. Scanning, Multibeam, Single Photon Lidars for Rapid, Large Scale, High Resolution, Topographic and Bathymetric Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Degnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several scanning, single photon sensitive, 3D imaging lidars are herein described that operate at aircraft above ground levels (AGLs between 1 and 11 km, and speeds in excess of 200 knots. With 100 beamlets and laser fire rates up to 60 kHz, we, at the Sigma Space Corporation (Lanham, MD, USA, have interrogated up to 6 million ground pixels per second, all of which can record multiple returns from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies. High range resolution has been achieved through the use of subnanosecond laser pulsewidths, detectors and timing receivers. The systems are presently being deployed on a variety of aircraft to demonstrate their utility in multiple applications including large scale surveying, bathymetry, forestry, etc. Efficient noise filters, suitable for near realtime imaging, have been shown to effectively eliminate the solar background during daytime operations. Geolocation elevation errors measured to date are at the subdecimeter level. Key differences between our Single Photon Lidars, and competing Geiger Mode lidars are also discussed.

  15. Evaluation of general-purpose collimators against high-resolution collimators with resolution recovery with a view to reducing radiation dose in myocardial perfusion SPECT: A preliminary phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Saint, Kimberley J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing focus on reducing radiation dose to patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging. This preliminary phantom study aims to evaluate the use of general-purpose collimators with resolution recovery (RR) to allow a reduction in patient radiation dose. Images of a cardiac torso phantom with inferior and anterior wall defects were acquired on a GE Infinia and Siemens Symbia T6 using both high-resolution and general-purpose collimators. Imaging time, a surrogate for administered activity, was reduced between 35% and 40% with general-purpose collimators to match the counts acquired with high-resolution collimators. Images were reconstructed with RR with and without attenuation correction. Two pixel sizes were also investigated. Defect contrast was measured. Defect contrast on general-purpose images was superior or comparable to the high-resolution collimators on both systems despite the reduced imaging time. Infinia general-purpose images required a smaller pixel size to be used to maintain defect contrast, while Symbia T6 general-purpose images did not require a change in pixel size to that used for standard myocardial perfusion SPECT. This study suggests that general-purpose collimators with RR offer a potential for substantial dose reductions while providing similar or better image quality to images acquired using high-resolution collimators.

  16. Flexible hydrological modeling - Disaggregation from lumped catchment scale to higher spatial resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Quan; Willems, Patrick; Pannemans, Bart; Blanckaert, Joris; Pereira, Fernando; Nossent, Jiri; Cauwenberghs, Kris; Vansteenkiste, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Based on an international literature review on model structures of existing rainfall-runoff and hydrological models, a generalized model structure is proposed. It consists of different types of meteorological components, storage components, splitting components and routing components. They can be spatially organized in a lumped way, or on a grid, spatially interlinked by source-to-sink or grid-to-grid (cell-to-cell) routing. The grid size of the model can be chosen depending on the application. The user can select/change the spatial resolution depending on the needs and/or the evaluation of the accuracy of the model results, or use different spatial resolutions in parallel for different applications. Major research questions addressed during the study are: How can we assure consistent results of the model at any spatial detail? How can we avoid strong or sudden changes in model parameters and corresponding simulation results, when one moves from one level of spatial detail to another? How can we limit the problem of overparameterization/equifinality when we move from the lumped model to the spatially distributed model? The proposed approach is a step-wise one, where first the lumped conceptual model is calibrated using a systematic, data-based approach, followed by a disaggregation step where the lumped parameters are disaggregated based on spatial catchment characteristics (topography, land use, soil characteristics). In this way, disaggregation can be done down to any spatial scale, and consistently among scales. Only few additional calibration parameters are introduced to scale the absolute spatial differences in model parameters, but keeping the relative differences as obtained from the spatial catchment characteristics. After calibration of the spatial model, the accuracies of the lumped and spatial models were compared for peak, low and cumulative runoff total and sub-flows (at downstream and internal gauging stations). For the distributed models, additional

  17. IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on Recommended Zero Points for the Absolute and Apparent Bolometric Magnitude Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamajek, E. E.; Torres, G.; Prsa, A.

    2015-01-01

    The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after...... consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale...... such that a radiation source with $M_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W...

  18. Femtosecond resolution timing jitter correction on a TW scale Ti:sapphire laser system for FEL pump-probe experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatari Divall, Marta; Mutter, Patrick; Divall, Edwin J; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-11-16

    Intense ultrashort pulse lasers are used for fs resolution pump-probe experiments more and more at large scale facilities, such as free electron lasers (FEL). Measurement of the arrival time of the laser pulses and stabilization to the machine or other sub-systems on the target, is crucial for high time-resolution measurements. In this work we report on a single shot, spectrally resolved, non-collinear cross-correlator with sub-fs resolution. With a feedback applied we keep the output of the TW class Ti:sapphire amplifier chain in time with the seed oscillator to ~3 fs RMS level for several hours. This is well below the typical pulse duration used at FELs and supports fs resolution pump-probe experiments. Short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented. Applicability to other wavelengths and integration into the timing infrastructure of the FEL are also covered to show the full potential of the device.

  19. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results. Technical project report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, M.

    1978-12-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  20. A Multi-Scale Validation Strategy for Albedo Products over Rugged Terrain and Preliminary Application in Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue for the validation of land surface remote sensing albedo products over rugged terrain is the scale effects between the reference albedo measurements and coarse scale albedo products, which is caused by the complex topography. This paper illustrates a multi-scale validation strategy specified for coarse scale albedo validation over rugged terrain. A Mountain-Radiation-Transfer-based (MRT-based albedo upscaling model was proposed in the process of multi-scale validation strategy for aggregating fine scale albedo to coarse scale. The simulated data of both the reference coarse scale albedo and fine scale albedo were used to assess the performance and uncertainties of the MRT-based albedo upscaling model. The results showed that the MRT-based model could reflect the albedo scale effects over rugged terrain and provided a robust solution for albedo upscaling from fine scale to coarse scale with different mean slopes and different solar zenith angles. The upscaled coarse scale albedos had the great agreements with the simulated coarse scale albedo with a Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE of 0.0029 and 0.0017 for black sky albedo (BSA and white sky albedo (WSA, respectively. Then the MRT-based model was preliminarily applied for the assessment of daily MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Albedo Collection V006 products (MCD43A3 C6 over rugged terrain. Results showed that the MRT-based model was effective and suitable for conducting the validation of MODIS albedo products over rugged terrain. In this research area, it was shown that the MCD43A3 C6 products with full inversion algorithm, were generally in agreement with the aggregated coarse scale reference albedos over rugged terrain in the Heihe River Basin, with the BSA RMSE of 0.0305 and WSA RMSE of 0.0321, respectively, which were slightly higher than those over flat terrain.

  1. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Barrett; Haddad, D.E.; Rockwell, T.K.; Arrowsmith, R.; Madugo, C.; Zielke, O.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter-scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator’s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  2. Validation of meter-scale surface faulting offset measurements from high-resolution topographic data

    KAUST Repository

    Salisbury, J. Barrett

    2015-10-24

    Studies of active fault zones have flourished with the availability of high-resolution topographic data, particularly where airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and structure from motion (SfM) data sets provide a means to remotely analyze submeter- scale fault geomorphology. To determine surface offset at a point along a strike-slip earthquake rupture, geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) are measured days to centuries after the event. Analysis of these and cumulatively offset features produces offset distributions for successive earthquakes that are used to understand earthquake rupture behavior. As researchers expand studies to more varied terrain types, climates, and vegetation regimes, there is an increasing need to standardize and uniformly validate measurements of tectonically displaced geomorphic features. A recently compiled catalog of nearly 5000 earthquake offsets across a range of measurement and reporting styles provides insight into quality rating and uncertainty trends from which we formulate best-practice and reporting recommendations for remote studies. In addition, a series of public and beginner-level studies validate the remote methodology for a number of tools and emphasize considerations to enhance measurement accuracy and precision for beginners and professionals. Our investigation revealed that (1) standardizing remote measurement methods and reporting quality rating schemes is essential for the utility and repeatability of fault-offset measurements; (2) measurement discrepancies often involve misinterpretation of the offset geomorphic feature and are a function of the investigator\\'s experience; (3) comparison of measurements made by a single investigator in different climatic regions reveals systematic differences in measurement uncertainties attributable to variation in feature preservation; (4) measuring more components of a displaced geomorphic landform produces more consistently repeatable estimates of offset; and (5

  3. Family resilience – definition of construct and preliminary results of the Polish adaptation of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nadrowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The article describes construct of family resilience with the main focus on the model Walsh. The aim of this article is to present preliminary results: adaptation, reliability, statistical analyses of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS for the Polish population. Participants and procedure Participants (n = 329, aged 18-35, completed experimental Polish version of the FRAS (SPR – Skala Prężności Rodzinnej. In the procedure of adaptation, scale was translated and modified into Polish. Scale consists of the following subscales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Utilizing Social and Economic Resources, Maintaining a Positive Outlook, Family Connectedness, Family Spirituality and Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity. Results The reliability of the experimental Polish version of the FRAS for the entire scale and five subscales are satisfactory. Only subscale Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity obtained reliability of less than 0.7. Taking into account the diversity of gender and declaring the passage through the difficult events were observed significant differences in the three scales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Family Connectedness, Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity and total scale of FRAS. Conclusions The work on the questionnaire is still in progress and the results presented here should be considered as preliminary. In the next steps, the number of men should be increased in order to perform confirmatory factor analysis. Future studies should take into account a number of factors and contexts (e.g. family structure, social and cultural context and the type of stressful event.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-02-07

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L ₀ gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements.

  5. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L0 gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements. PMID:29414893

  6. Non Invasive 3D Characterization of Materials at Multi scale Resolution in Correlative and 4D microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a suite of novel lab-based X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems for high contrast 3D characterization of hard to soft materials with resolution across length scales. The system has similar resolution and contrast range obtained from x-ray micro and nano tomography systems in synchrotron radiation facilities, except it makes use of conventional lab sources. Samples with dimensions from several cm to several microns may be imaged non invasively at varying resolution from tens of microns to 20 nm voxel. The novel multi scale CT helps bridge the resolution, scaling and 3D visualization gap in the traditional destructive 2D imaging modalities such as optical microscopes, AFM, SEM, SEM-FIB and TEM. It provides a direct non-invasive volumetric imaging technique at the macro to nano scale, making it ideal for accurate prediction and modeling of whole systems and components. For example, using 3D visualization, segmentation and computational analysis tools, pore networks, FEA, fluid, thermal and ionic transport in various systems and materials from ceramics, geo materials, composites, metals, and coatings may be characterized and modeled. The high resolution and unique phase contrast features of the novel CTs also lend themselves very well to characterize inherently low contrast soft materials such as polymers; membranes and biological tissue or to differentiate small differences in material and mineral phases in geo material and composites. Tomography of samples may be acquired at different volume vs resolution using local tomography technique, often without sample destruction. In the emerging field of 3D correlative microscopy, these larger CT volumetric data sets can be correlated at the different length scales with conventional 2D imaging modalities. For example, after a CT scan, specimen may undergo destructive sample sectioning at specific region of interest, to obtain the corresponding 2D slices with SEM and TEM or with X-ray microanalysis derive its

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies to near-atomic resolution of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, Benjamin R.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Dogovski, Con; Jameson, Geoffrey B.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.45 Å resolution of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant S. aureus is reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. DHDPS is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, coupling (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an important bacterial pathogen, are reported. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly from PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.45 Å resolution. The space group was P1 and the unit-cell parameters were a = 65.4, b = 67.6, c = 78.0 Å, α = 90.1, β = 68.9, γ = 72.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) was 2.34 Å 3 Da −1 , with an estimated solvent content of 47% for four monomers per asymmetric unit. The structure of the enzyme will help to guide the design of novel therapeutics against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus pathogen

  8. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  9. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care—Patient’s Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Ignatyev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate and examine an instrument that integrates relevant aspects of cross-sectoral (in- and outpatients mental health care, is simply to use and shows satisfactory psychometric properties. The development of the scale comprised literature research, held 14 focus groups and 12 interviews with patients and health care providers, item-pool generation, content validation by a scientific expert panel, and face validation by 90 patients. The preliminary scale was tested on 385 patients across seven German hospitals with cross-sectoral mental health care (CSMHC as part of their treatment program. Psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated using genuine and transformed data scoring. To check reliability and postdictive validity of the scale, Cronbach’s α coefficient and multivariable linear regression were used. This development process led to the development of an 18-item scale called the “Scale for Evaluation of Psychiatric Integrative and Continuous Care (SEPICC” with a two-point and five-point response options. The scale consists of two sections. The first section assesses the presence or absence of patients’ experiences with various CSMHC’ relevant components such as home treatment, flexibility of treatments’ switching, case management, continuity of care, cross-sectoral therapeutic groups, and multidisciplinary teams. The second section evaluates the patients’ opinions about these relevant components. Using raw and transformed scoring resulted into comparable results. However, data distribution using transformed scoring showed a smaller deviation from normality. For the overall scale, the Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.82. Self-reported experiences with relevant components of the CSMHC were positively associated with the patients approval of these components. In conclusion, the new scale provides a good starting point for further validation. It can be used as a tool to evaluate CSMHC

  10. RUSLE2015: Modelling soil erosion at continental scale using high resolution input layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Poesen, Jean; Ballabio, Cristiano; Lugato, Emanuele; Montanarella, Luca; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation in the Europe. On the occasion of the 2015 celebration of the International Year of Soils, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) published the RUSLE2015, a modified modelling approach for assessing soil erosion in Europe by using the best available input data layers. The objective of the recent assessment performed with RUSLE2015 was to improve our knowledge and understanding of soil erosion by water across the European Union and to accentuate the differences and similarities between different regions and countries beyond national borders and nationally adapted models. RUSLE2015 has maximized the use of available homogeneous, updated, pan-European datasets (LUCAS topsoil, LUCAS survey, GAEC, Eurostat crops, Eurostat Management Practices, REDES, DEM 25m, CORINE, European Soil Database) and have used the best suited approach at European scale for modelling soil erosion. The collaboration of JRC with many scientists around Europe and numerous prominent European universities and institutes resulted in an improved assessment of individual risk factors (rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, cover-management, topography and support practices) and a final harmonized European soil erosion map at high resolution. The mean soil loss rate in the European Union's erosion-prone lands (agricultural, forests and semi-natural areas) was found to be 2.46 t ha-1 yr-1, resulting in a total soil loss of 970 Mt annually; equal to an area the size of Berlin (assuming a removal of 1 meter). According to the RUSLE2015 model approximately 12.7% of arable lands in the European Union is estimated to suffer from moderate to high erosion(>5 t ha-1 yr-1). This equates to an area of 140,373 km2 which equals to the surface area of Greece (Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 438-447; 2015). Even the mean erosion rate outstrips the mean formation rate (walls and contouring) through the common agricultural

  11. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2015-01-01

    approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i

  12. The Sport Motivation Scale for Children: preliminary analysis in physical education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariadis, Panayotis N; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

    2005-08-01

    This study was done to test the psychometric properties of the modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for children in physical education. Participants were elementary school students (N = 452, M(age) = 13.9 +/- 1.04) who responded to the Sport Motivation Scale for Children. The scale assesses three types of motivation at the contextual level, namely, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation. Results supported the construct validity (CFI = .95), and internal consistency of the scale (Cronbach alpha > .65). Correlations indicated Sport Motivation Scale for Children simplex pattern exhibiting higher correlations among adjacent subscales than subscales farther apart. The concurrent validity, examined through correlations with scores on the Physical Self-description Questionnaire was satisfactory. Sex differences were examined to assess the discriminant validity. Boys were more intrinsically motivated than girls. Overall, the scale seems a useful one for assessment of motivation in physical education.

  13. Muon reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution in pp collisions at 8TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrievska, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Sforza, F

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment identifies and reconstructs muons with two high precision tracking systems, the inner detector and the muon spectrometer, which provide independent measurements of the muon momentum. This poster summarizes the performance of the combined muon reconstruction in terms of reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution. Data-driven techniques are used to derive corrections to be applied to simulation in order to reproduce the reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution as observed in experimental data, and to asses systematic uncertainties on these quantities. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb−1 from pp collisions at center of mass enegy of 8 TeV recorded in 2012.

  14. Antisocial and Schizoid Personality Disorder Scales: Conceptual bases and preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav - Sorin Căndel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the development and validation of two scales which can be used in evaluating schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. Both scales were developed relying on descriptions from DSM 5 and ICD 10. For validation, the scales have been tested on 125 subjects, together with two well-known psychometric instruments, DA12profile Personality Inventory, and SCL-90. Internal consistency is calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Schizoid Scale contains 20 items and shows a good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .77 and Antisocial Scale contains 22 items and has excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91. The correlations between the scores of the two scales and the scores of DA12profile Personality Inventory and SCL-90 are statistically significant. The factorial analysis reveals that the two scales and DA12profile Personality Inventory sub-scales are clustered in four factors, explaining 68.31 % of the variance. Based on these results, we discussed the importance the scales have for psychological research and for psycho-diagnostic, their limitations and our future directions of research.

  15. Correct approach to consideration of experimental resolution in parametric analysis of scaling violation in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.V.; Usubov, Z.U.; Zhigunov, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    A problem of parametric analysis of the scaling violation in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon interactions in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered. For a correct consideration of the experimental resolution we use the χ 2 -method, which is demonstrated by numeric experiments and analysis of the 15-foot bubble chamber neutrino experimental data. The model parameters obtained in this approach differ noticeably from those obtained earlier. (orig.)

  16. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  17. Global-Scale Associations of Vegetation Phenology with Rainfall and Temperature at a High Spatio-Temporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Clinton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology response to climatic variables is a vital indicator for understanding changes in biosphere processes as related to possible climate change. We investigated global phenology relationships to precipitation and land surface temperature (LST at high spatial and temporal resolution for calendar years 2008–2011. We used cross-correlation between MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, MODIS LST and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN gridded rainfall to map phenology relationships at 1-km spatial resolution and weekly temporal resolution. We show these data to be rich in spatiotemporal information, illustrating distinct phenology patterns as a result of complex overlapping gradients of climate, ecosystem and land use/land cover. The data are consistent with broad-scale, coarse-resolution modeled ecosystem limitations to moisture, temperature and irradiance. We suggest that high-resolution phenology data are useful as both an input and complement to land use/land cover classifiers and for understanding climate change vulnerability in natural and anthropogenic landscapes.

  18. Double inflation: A possible resolution of the large-scale structure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Villumsen, J.V.; Vittorio, N.; Silk, J.; Juszkiewicz, R.

    1986-11-01

    A model is presented for the large-scale structure of the universe in which two successive inflationary phases resulted in large small-scale and small large-scale density fluctuations. This bimodal density fluctuation spectrum in an Ω = 1 universe dominated by hot dark matter leads to large-scale structure of the galaxy distribution that is consistent with recent observational results. In particular, large, nearly empty voids and significant large-scale peculiar velocity fields are produced over scales of ∼100 Mpc, while the small-scale structure over ≤ 10 Mpc resembles that in a low density universe, as observed. Detailed analytical calculations and numerical simulations are given of the spatial and velocity correlations. 38 refs., 6 figs

  19. Human tRNAGly acceptor-stem microhelix: crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.2 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, Charlotte; Szkaradkiewicz, Karol; Perbandt, Markus; Brauer, Arnd B. E.; Borowski, Tordis; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2007-01-01

    The human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis revealed diffraction to a resolution of up to 1.2 Å. The major dissimilarities between the eukaryotic/archaebacterial-type and eubacterial-type glycyl-tRNA synthetase systems (GlyRS; class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases) represent an intriguing example of evolutionarily divergent solutions to similar biological functions. The differences in the identity elements of the respective tRNA Gly systems are located within the acceptor stem and include the discriminator base U73. In the present work, the human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem microhelix was crystallized in an attempt to analyze the structural features that govern the correct recognition of tRNA Gly by the eukaryotic/archaebacterial-type glycyl-tRNA synthetase. The crystals of the human tRNA Gly acceptor-stem helix belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.12, b = 37.49, c = 30.38 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 113.02°, and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. A high-resolution data set was acquired using synchrotron radiation and the data were processed to 1.2 Å resolution

  20. Preliminary Validation of a Spanish Language Translation of the Children's Hope Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; McDermott, Diane; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto; LaRue, Stephanie; Stone, Marion E.; Diamond, Kandi L.; Spalitto, Susan V.

    As society becomes increasingly diverse, the issue about language used for assessments becomes critical. Research suggests that completing measures in a language other than one's native language may result in inaccurate scores. The Children's Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1997), a scale assessing dispositional hope in children ages 8 to 16, was…

  1. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  2. [Preliminary study on civil capacity rating scale for mental disabled patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin-Ting; Pang, Yan-Xia; Cai, Wei-Xiong; Tang, Tao; Huang, Fu-Yin

    2010-10-01

    To create civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients, and explore its feasibility during the forensic psychiatric expertise. The civil capacity-related items were determined after discussion and consultation. The civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients was established and the manual was created according to the logistic sequence of the assessment. The rating scale was used during the civil assessment in four institutes. There were 14 items in civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. Two hundred and two subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the experts' opinion on their civil capacities: full civil capacity, partial civil capacity and no civil capacity. The mean score of the three groups were 2.32 +/- 2.45, 11.62 +/- 4.01 and 25.02 +/- 3.90, respectively, and there was statistical differences among the groups. The Cronbach alpha of the rating scale was 0.9724, and during the split-reliability test, the two-splited part of the rating scale were highly correlated (r = 0.9729, P = 0.000). The Spearman correlative coefficient between each item and the score of the rating scale was from 0.643 to 0.882 (P = 0.000). There was good correlation between the conclusion according to the rating scale and the experts' opinion (kappa = 0.841, P = 0.000). When the discriminate analysis was used, 7 items were included into the discrimination equation, and 92.6% subjects were identified as the correct groups using the equation. There is satisfied reliability and validity on civil capacity rating scale for mentally disabled patients. The rating scale can be used as effective tools to grade their civil capacity during the forensic expertise.

  3. [Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE)--reliability and the preliminary assessment of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of reliability, cross-validity and usefulness in everyday clinical practice of two related tools: Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE). Analysis of tests results of 453 females and 172 males diagnosed in the years 2008-2010 in the Outpatient Clinic for Neurotic and Behavioral Disorders of the Cracow University Hospital, including, inter alia, results of the questionnaires SAD and FNE. The scales have been, with the consent of their authors (R. Friend) and the copyright holder (APA), translated into Polish and back-translated. Subjects also completed the symptom checklist KO '0'(n = 512), and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006 (n = 505), as well as the NEO-PI-R personality inventory (n = 46). The reliability and cross-validity coefficients of Polish versions were assessed in the patient population and their results were compared with those of the group of 75 medical students. The translation was verified by retranslation. The reliability coefficients of Polish version of the SAD and FNE scales turned out to be high--Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.94 for both scales, Guttman's split-half reliability coefficient 0.93. Correlations with symptom checklist KO '0 'and neurotic personality questionnaire KON-2006, as well as with the NEO -PI-R personality inventory were significant and indicate a good cross-validity of the analyzed tools. The average results in the patient population for both scales were significantly higher than the results in the preliminary control group of medical students. Polish versions of SAD and FNE questionnaires, like their other translations from English, proved to be reliable and have a high cross-validity with other original Polish tools used in the diagnosis of neurotic disorders, which allows to recommend them to be used in further studies, also in comparing healthy persons with those suffering from a variety of neurotic disorders.

  4. High-resolution Statistics of Solar Wind Turbulence at Kinetic Scales Using the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasapis, Alexandros; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T. N.; Maruca, B. A. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Fuselier, S. A.; Burch, J. L. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Phan, T. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J., E-mail: chasapis@udel.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Cluster missions obtained in the solar wind, we examine second-order and fourth-order structure functions at varying spatial lags normalized to ion inertial scales. The analysis includes direct two-spacecraft results and single-spacecraft results employing the familiar Taylor frozen-in flow approximation. Several familiar statistical results, including the spectral distribution of energy, and the sale-dependent kurtosis, are extended down to unprecedented spatial scales of ∼6 km, approaching electron scales. The Taylor approximation is also confirmed at those small scales, although small deviations are present in the kinetic range. The kurtosis is seen to attain very high values at sub-proton scales, supporting the previously reported suggestion that monofractal behavior may be due to high-frequency plasma waves at kinetic scales.

  5. Measuring death-related anxiety in advanced cancer: preliminary psychometrics of the Death and Dying Distress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Christopher; Hales, Sarah; Zimmermann, Camilla; Gagliese, Lucia; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary

    2011-10-01

    The alleviation of distress associated with death and dying is a central goal of palliative care, despite the lack of routine measurement of this outcome. In this study, we introduce the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS), a new, brief measure we have developed to assess death-related anxiety in advanced cancer and other palliative populations. We describe its preliminary psychometrics based on a sample of 33 patients with advanced or metastatic cancer. The DADDS broadly captures distress about the loss of time and opportunity, the process of death and dying, and its impact on others. The initial version of the scale has a one-factor structure and good internal reliability. Dying and death-related distress was positively associated with depression and negatively associated with spiritual, emotional, physical, and functional well-being, providing early evidence of construct validity. This distress was relatively common, with 45% of the sample scoring in the upper reaches of the scale, suggesting that the DADDS may be a relevant outcome for palliative intervention. We conclude by presenting a revised 15-item version of the scale for further study in advanced cancer and other palliative populations.

  6. The large-scale vented combustion test facility at AECL-WL: description and preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel Sitar, J.; Koroll, G.W.; Dewit, W.A.; Bowles, E.M.; Harding, J.; Sabanski, C.L.; Kumar, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Implementation of hydrogen mitigation systems in nuclear reactor containments requires testing the effectiveness of the mitigation system, reliability and availability of the hardware, potential consequences of its use and the technical basis for hardware placement, on a meaningful scale. Similarly, the development and validation of containment codes used in nuclear reactor safety analysis require detailed combustion data from medium- and large-scale facilities. A Large-Scale Combustion Test Facility measuring 10 m x 4 m x 3 m (volume, 120 m 3 ) has been constructed and commissioned at Whiteshell Laboratories to perform a wide variety of combustion experiments. The facility is designed to be versatile so that many geometrical configurations can be achieved. The facility incorporates extensive capabilities for instrumentation and high speed data acquisition, on-line gas sampling and analysis. Other features of the facility include operation at elevated temperatures up to 150 degrees C, easy access to the interior, and remote operation. Initial thermodynamic conditions in the facility can be controlled to within 0.1 vol% of constituent gases. The first series of experiments examined vented combustion in the full 120 m 3 -volume configuration with vent areas in the range of 0.56 to 2.24 m 2 . The experiments were performed at ∼27 degrees C and near-atmospheric pressures, with hydrogen concentrations in the range of 8 to 12% by volume. This paper describes the Large-Scale Vented Combustion Test Facility and preliminary results from the first series of experiments. (author)

  7. Large-scale runoff generation – parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topography

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gong; S. Halldin; C.-Y. Xu

    2010-01-01

    World water resources have primarily been analysed by global-scale hydrological models in the last decades. Runoff generation in many of these models are based on process formulations developed at catchments scales. The division between slow runoff (baseflow) and fast runoff is primarily governed by slope and spatial distribution of effective water storage capacity, both acting a very small scales. Many hydrological models, e.g. VIC, account for the spatial storage variability in terms...

  8. Classification of high-resolution remote sensing images based on multi-scale superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Wenjie; Liu, Guangjie

    2017-07-01

    Landscape structures and process on different scale show different characteristics. In the study of specific target landmarks, the most appropriate scale for images can be attained by scale conversion, which improves the accuracy and efficiency of feature identification and classification. In this paper, the authors carried out experiments on multi-scale classification by taking the Shangri-la area in the north-western Yunnan province as the research area and the images from SPOT5 HRG and GF-1 Satellite as date sources. Firstly, the authors upscaled the two images by cubic convolution, and calculated the optimal scale for different objects on the earth shown in images by variation functions. Then the authors conducted multi-scale superposition classification on it by Maximum Likelyhood, and evaluated the classification accuracy. The results indicates that: (1) for most of the object on the earth, the optimal scale appears in the bigger scale instead of the original one. To be specific, water has the biggest optimal scale, i.e. around 25-30m; farmland, grassland, brushwood, roads, settlement places and woodland follows with 20-24m. The optimal scale for shades and flood land is basically as the same as the original one, i.e. 8m and 10m respectively. (2) Regarding the classification of the multi-scale superposed images, the overall accuracy of the ones from SPOT5 HRG and GF-1 Satellite is 12.84% and 14.76% higher than that of the original multi-spectral images, respectively, and Kappa coefficient is 0.1306 and 0.1419 higher, respectively. Hence, the multi-scale superposition classification which was applied in the research area can enhance the classification accuracy of remote sensing images .

  9. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed....... Participants with medium-to-severe ABI self-rated their interpersonal communication skills using the modified ICCS. Cronbach Alpha test was performed on both scales followed by a correlation analysis. Results: Seventeen participants with medium-to-severe ABI and staff and relatives (n¼37) were involved...... of the proxy-rating revealed six meaningful sub-groups of interpersonal communication competencies....

  10. The Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale: preliminary validation in cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona Louring

    2009-01-01

    into Danish following the repeated back-translation procedure. Cancer patients for the study were recruited from specialized pain management facilities. Thirty-three patients responded to the DMARS-4, the Danish Barriers Questionnaire II, The Danish version of Patient Perceived Involvement in Care Scale......OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale (DMARS-4) adapted to measure adherence to analgesic regimen among cancer patients. METHODS: The validated English version of the Medication Adherence Report Scale was translated...

  11. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale of symptom specific dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preliminary Psychometric examination of the Davidson Trauma Scale: A study on chileans adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Guerra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS measures the frequency and severity of the posttraumatic Stress Disorder pTSD. Since chile has limited data about validity and reliability of instruments to measure pTSD, this study evaluated psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 130 adolescents between 13 and 18 years (M= 15,78; DT= 1,40. Some of them were traumatized patients and others were from general population. They answered the DTS, a depression and an anxiety scale. The scale obtained adequate internal consistency scores, showed convergent validity (DTS score was associated moderately, directly and significantly with depression and anxiety scores, and discriminated between clinical sample and general population. DTS seems to be a valid and reliable instrument in chilean adolescents.

  13. The Next-generation Berkeley High Resolution NO2 (BEHR NO2) Retrieval: Design and Preliminary Emissions Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughner, J.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work has identified a number of assumptions made in NO2 retrievals that lead to biases in the retrieved NO2 column density. These include the treatment of the surface as an isotropic reflector, the absence of lightning NO2 in high resolution a priori profiles, and the use of monthly averaged a priori profiles. We present a new release of the Berkeley High Resolution (BEHR) OMI NO2 retrieval based on the new NASA Standard Product (version 3) that addresses these assumptions by: accounting for surface anisotropy by using a BRDF albedo product, using an updated method of regridding NO2 data, and revised NO2 a priori profiles that better account for lightning NO2 and daily variation in the profile shape. We quantify the effect these changes have on the retrieved NO2 column densities and the resultant impact these updates have on constraints of urban NOx emissions for select cities throughout the United States.

  14. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  15. Effects of Resolution on the Simulation of Boundary-layer Clouds and the Partition of Kinetic Energy to Subgrid Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anning Cheng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven boundary-layer cloud cases are simulated with UCLA-LES (The University of California, Los Angeles – large eddy simulation model with different horizontal and vertical gridspacing to investigate how the results depend on gridspacing. Some variables are more sensitive to horizontal gridspacing, while others are more sensitive to vertical gridspacing, and still others are sensitive to both horizontal and vertical gridspacings with similar or opposite trends. For cloud-related variables having the opposite dependence on horizontal and vertical gridspacings, changing the gridspacing proportionally in both directions gives the appearance of convergence. In this study, we mainly discuss the impact of subgrid-scale (SGS kinetic energy (KE on the simulations with coarsening of horizontal and vertical gridspacings. A running-mean operator is used to separate the KE of the high-resolution benchmark simulations into that of resolved scales of coarse-resolution simulations and that of SGSs. The diagnosed SGS KE is compared with that parameterized by the Smagorinsky-Lilly SGS scheme at various gridspacings. It is found that the parameterized SGS KE for the coarse-resolution simulations is usually underestimated but the resolved KE is unrealistically large, compared to benchmark simulations. However, the sum of resolved and SGS KEs is about the same for simulations with various gridspacings. The partitioning of SGS and resolved heat and moisture transports is consistent with that of SGS and resolved KE, which means that the parameterized transports are underestimated but resolved-scale transports are overestimated. On the whole, energy shifts to large-scales as the horizontal gridspacing becomes coarse, hence the size of clouds and the resolved circulation increase, the clouds become more stratiform-like with an increase in cloud fraction, cloud liquid-water path and surface precipitation; when coarse vertical gridspacing is used, cloud sizes do not

  16. Attofarad resolution capacitance-voltage measurement of nanometer scale field effect transistors utilizing ambient noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokirmak, Ali; Inaltekin, Hazer; Tiwari, Sandip

    2009-01-01

    A high resolution capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization technique, enabling direct measurement of electronic properties at the nanoscale in devices such as nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) through the use of random fluctuations, is described. The minimum noise level required for achieving sub-aF (10 -18 F) resolution, the leveraging of stochastic resonance, and the effect of higher levels of noise are illustrated through simulations. The non-linear ΔC gate-source/drain -V gate response of FETs is utilized to determine the inversion layer capacitance (C inv ) and carrier mobility. The technique is demonstrated by extracting the carrier concentration and effective electron mobility in a nanoscale Si FET with C inv = 60 aF.

  17. Preliminary Validation of a Brazilian Version of the Sport Motivation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Bara Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sport Motivation Scale was firstly developed in French and later translated into English and validated by Pelletier et al. (1995. It is based on the principles of self-determination theory. The present study translated the English version into Portuguese to access and validate it with Brazilian athletes using a sample of 419 athletes (127 women and 292 men from ten sports. The Brazilian version of the scale showed satisfactory levels of internal consistency and temporal stability over a four-week period. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis partially supported the seven-factor structure. Finally, gender differences were found in all subscales. Taken together, these findings support the use of the Brazilian version of the scale for the assessment of motivation in sport.

  18. Time Resolution Dependence of Information Measures for Spiking Neurons: Scaling and Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Crutchfield

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mutual information between stimulus and spike-train response is commonly used to monitor neural coding efficiency, but neuronal computation broadly conceived requires more refined and targeted information measures of input-output joint processes. A first step towards that larger goal is todevelop information measures for individual output processes, including information generation (entropy rate, stored information (statisticalcomplexity, predictable information (excess entropy, and active information accumulation (bound information rate. We calculate these for spike trains generated by a variety of noise-driven integrate-and-fire neurons as a function of time resolution and for alternating renewal processes. We show that their time-resolution dependence reveals coarse-grained structural properties of interspike interval statistics; e.g., $tau$-entropy rates that diverge less quickly than the firing rate indicate interspike interval correlations. We also find evidence that the excess entropy and regularized statistical complexity of different types of integrate-and-fire neurons are universal in the continuous-time limit in the sense that they do not depend on mechanism details. This suggests a surprising simplicity in the spike trains generated by these model neurons. Interestingly, neurons with gamma-distributed ISIs and neurons whose spike trains are alternating renewal processes do not fall into the same universality class. These results lead to two conclusions. First, the dependence of information measures on time resolution reveals mechanistic details about spike train generation. Second, information measures can be used as model selection tools for analyzing spike train processes.

  19. A multi-resolution analysis of lidar-DTMs to identify geomorphic processes from characteristic topographic length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Characteristic length scales are often present in topography, and they reflect the driving geomorphic processes. The wide availability of high resolution lidar Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) allows us to measure such characteristic scales, but new methods of topographic analysis are needed in order to do so. Here, we explore how transitions in probability distributions (pdfs) of topographic variables such as (log(area/slope)), defined as topoindex by Beven and Kirkby[1979], can be measured by Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) of lidar DTMs [Stark and Stark, 2001; Sangireddy et al.,2012] and used to infer dominant geomorphic processes such as non-linear diffusion and critical shear. We show this correlation between dominant geomorphic processes to characteristic length scales by comparing results from a landscape evolution model to natural landscapes. The landscape evolution model MARSSIM Howard[1994] includes components for modeling rock weathering, mass wasting by non-linear creep, detachment-limited channel erosion, and bedload sediment transport. We use MARSSIM to simulate steady state landscapes for a range of hillslope diffusivity and critical shear stresses. Using the MRA approach, we estimate modal values and inter-quartile ranges of slope, curvature, and topoindex as a function of resolution. We also construct pdfs at each resolution and identify and extract characteristic scale breaks. Following the approach of Tucker et al.,[2001], we measure the average length to channel from ridges, within the GeoNet framework developed by Passalacqua et al.,[2010] and compute pdfs for hillslope lengths at each scale defined in the MRA. We compare the hillslope diffusivity used in MARSSIM against inter-quartile ranges of topoindex and hillslope length scales, and observe power law relationships between the compared variables for simulated landscapes at steady state. We plot similar measures for natural landscapes and are able to qualitatively infer the dominant geomorphic

  20. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2014-01-01

    despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other......Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...

  1. An efficient non hydrostatic dynamical care far high-resolution simulations down to the urban scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaventura, L.; Cesari, D.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations of idealized stratified flows aver obstacles at different spatial scales demonstrate the very general applicability and the parallel efficiency of a new non hydrostatic dynamical care far simulation of mesoscale flows aver complex terrain

  2. The role of coarse woody debris in southeastern pine forests; preliminary results from a large-scale experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCay Timothy, S.; Hanula, James, L.; Loeb, Susan, C.; Lohr, Steven, M.; McMinn, James, W.; Wright-Miley. Bret, D.

    2002-08-01

    McCay, Timothy S., James L. Hanula, Susan C. Loeb, Steven M. Lohr, James W. McMinn, and Bret D. Wright-Miley. 2002. The role of coarse woody debris in southeastern pine forests; preliminary results from a large-scale experiment. 135-144. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology and management of dead wood in western forests. 1999 November 2-4; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture 949 p. ABSTRACT: We initiated a long-term experiment involving manipulation of coarse woody debris (CWD) at the Savannah River National Environmental Research Park in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Each of four 9.3-ha plots in each of four blocks was subject to one of the following treatments: removal of all snags and fallen logs, removal of fallen logs only, felling and girdling to simulate a catastrophic pulse of CWD, and control. Removal treatments were applied in 1996, and the felling or snag-creation treatment will be applied in 2000-2001. Monitoring of invertebrate, herptile, avian, and mammalian assemblages and CWD dynamics began immediately after CWD removal and continues through the present. Removal treatments resulted in a fivefold to tenfold reduction in CWD abundance. To date, significant differences among treatments have only been detected for a few animal taxa. However, preliminary results underscore the benefits of large-scale experiments. This experiment allowed unambiguous tests of hypotheses regarding the effect of CWD abundance on fauna. Coupled with studies of habitat use and trophic interactions, the experimental approach may result in stronger inferences regarding the function of CWD than results obtained through natural history observation or uncontrolled correlative studies.

  3. Brief Self-Efficacy Scales for use in Weight-Loss Trials: Preliminary Evidence of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093

  4. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  5. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette; Orrell, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings. The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. A total of 629 (staff = 306, therapist = 323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test-retest reliability, adequate concurrent validity, and good construct validity. High factor loadings between the five MiDAS Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) items, levels of Interest, Response, Initiation, Involvement, and Enjoyment, were found. This study indicates that MiDAS has good psychometric properties despite the small sample size. Future research with a larger sample size could provide a more in-depth psychometric evaluation, including further exploration of the underlying factors. MiDAS provides a measure of engagement with musical experience and offers insight into who is likely to benefit on other outcomes such as quality of life or reduction in psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. LOHDIM-LES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2016-03-01

    We developed LOcal-scale High-resolution atmospheric DIspersion Model using Large-Eddy Simulation (LOHDIM-LES). This dispersion model is designed based on LES which is effective to reproduce unsteady behaviors of turbulent flows and plume dispersion. The basic equations are the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the scalar conservation equation. Buildings and local terrain variability are resolved by high-resolution grids with a few meters and these turbulent effects are represented by immersed boundary method. In simulating atmospheric turbulence, boundary layer flows are generated by a recycling turbulent inflow technique in a driver region set up at the upstream of the main analysis region. This turbulent inflow data are imposed at the inlet of the main analysis region. By this approach, the LOHDIM-LES can provide detailed information on wind velocities and plume concentration in the investigated area. (author)

  7. Crystals of DhaA mutants from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 diffracted to ultrahigh resolution: crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Koudelakova, Tana; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Pavlova, Martina; Damborsky, Jiri; Kuta Smatanova, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Three mutants of the haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA derived from R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 were crystallized and diffracted to ultrahigh resolution. The enzyme DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 belongs to the haloalkane dehalogenases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of haloalkanes to the corresponding alcohols. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variants can be used to detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Three mutants named DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 were constructed in order to study the importance of tunnels connecting the buried active site with the surrounding solvent to the enzymatic activity. All protein mutants were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of DhaA04 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , while the crystals of the other two mutants DhaA14 and DhaA15 belonged to the triclinic space group P1. Native data sets were collected for the DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 mutants at beamline X11 of EMBL, DESY, Hamburg to the high resolutions of 1.30, 0.95 and 1.15 Å, respectively

  8. Performance analysis of PPP ambiguity resolution with UPD products estimated from different scales of reference station networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyao; Li, Bofeng; Li, Xingxing; Zang, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Integer ambiguity fixing with uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products can significantly shorten the initialization time and improve the accuracy of precise point positioning (PPP). Since the tracking arcs of satellites and the behavior of atmospheric biases can be very different for the reference networks with different scales, the qualities of corresponding UPD products may be also various. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively investigate the influence of different scales of reference station networks on UPD estimation and user ambiguity resolution. Three reference station networks with global, wide-area and local scales are used to compute the UPD products and analyze their impact on the PPP-AR. The time-to-first-fix, the unfix rate and the incorrect fix rate of PPP-AR are analyzed. Moreover, in order to further shorten the convergence time for obtaining precise positioning, a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) and corresponding validation strategy are presented. In this PAR method, the ambiguity subset is determined by removing the ambiguity one by one in the order of ascending elevations. Besides, for static positioning mode, a coordinate validation strategy is employed to enhance the reliability of the fixed coordinate. The experiment results show that UPD products computed by smaller station network are more accurate and lead to a better coordinate solution; the PAR method used in this paper can shorten the convergence time and the coordinate validation strategy can improve the availability of high precision positioning.

  9. Small scale observation of magnetopause motion: preliminary results of the INTERBALL project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Safrankova

    Full Text Available Two satellites of the INTERBALL project were launched on 3 August 1995. The main goals of the present paper are (1 to give a brief information about the VDP plasma device onboard the INTERBALL-1 satellite, (2 to present the Faradays cup data taken in different magnetospheric regions and (3 to expose first results of the two satellite measurements of the magnetopause motion. The presented data illustrate magnetopause crossings as seen by two satellites when separated by about ~ 1000 km. This separation combined with the Faraday's cup time resolution allows to estimate the velocity of the magnetopause and to reconstruct a possible structure of the boundary. Simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field supports the interpretation of the observed ion fluxes as a signature of the wavy motion of the boundary.

  10. The Measurement of Entrepreneurial Outsourcing: Preliminary Scale Development, Dimensionality Assessment, and Construct Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Davari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the outsourcing concept, as a strategy for efficient and effective business management, has been implemented less in the field of entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the present study aims to develop a measurement instrument for measuring entrepreneurial outsourcing construct utilizing empirical evidence in Iran’s telecommunications and automotive industries. Employing a sample of 203 senior managers and executive experts of companies operating in these industries, the gathered data were analyzed using PLS-SEM method. According to our results, the proposed scale of entrepreneurial outsourcing comprises six dimensions: strategic factors, economical factors, technological factors, task specifications, risk relating factors, and entrepreneurial performance. Moreover, the scale enjoys sufficient multidimensionality, reliability, and construct validity in terms of convergent and discriminate validity.

  11. Preliminary psychometric validation of the Multidimensional inventory of sport excellence: attention scales and mental energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport psychologist needs to understand how psychological factors affect athletic performance of an individual, considering individual differences among athletes. Each specific problem in working with athletes must be considered depending on complex factors: the type (specificity of sport; characteristics of the activity (the training or competition; stages of athletes’ sports development; gender and age differences, etc. Although there are numerous psychological instruments, which assess psychological characteristics of athletes, it is important to select instruments adjusted to athletes, working style of sports psychologist, available time and other constraints. Here, we have formulated a preliminary version of our own battery of questionnaires, named Multi¬di¬men¬sional Inventory of Sport Excellence (MUSI, selecting the items for following psychological characteristics: energizing, main¬tain¬ing attention, directing attention, wide internal / external attention and narrow internal / external attention. In this phase of the stu¬dy, participants were stratified only by gender. Sample of 248 participants was examined, of which 103 male athletes (age 24.52 ± 11.80 years and 145 female athletes (age 16.61 ± 6.69 years, from the Croatian sports clubs, competing in 16 different sports (archery, football, handball, bocce, bowling, cycling, karate, rowing, tennis, volleyball, basketball, synchronized swimming, tri¬a¬t¬h¬lon, table tennis, chess, badminton. Data were collected from March to June 2014 in Rijeka, during the trainings in sports clubs. Results of Principal Component Analysis and the reliabilities type internal consistency showed that each of sub-question¬na¬ires from battery MUSI have satisfactory reliability and construct validity, giving positive guidance for future adaptation of the que¬stion¬naire to specific subpopulations of athletes.

  12. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Kavita; Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amarjit; Jadav, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. Materials and Methods: To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Results: Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1–100. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358) showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188), former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Conclusion: Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care. PMID:23271862

  13. Transfrontier consequences to the population of Greece of large scale nuclear accidents: a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, J.G.; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1985-06-01

    In this report the consequences to the population of Greece from hypothetical large scale nuclear accidents at the Kozlodui (Bulgaria) nuclear power station are estimated under some simplifying assumptions. Three different hypothetical accident scenarios - the most serious for pressurized water reactors - are examined. The analysis is performed by the current Greek version of code CRAC2 and includes health and economic consequences to the population of Greece. (author)

  14. Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Merlo, Lisa J.; Stone, Amanda M.; Bibbey, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an English language measure of problematic mobile phone use. Participants were recruited from a university campus, health science center, and other public locations. The sample included 244 individuals (68.4% female) aged 18–75. Results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the 20-item self-report Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP) Scale. Internal consistency was excellent (α = 0.94). Strong correlations (r =...

  15. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Kavita; Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amarjit; Jadav, S L

    2011-07-01

    Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1-100. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358) showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188), former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care.

  16. A preliminary study to measure and develop job satisfaction scale for medical teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Bhatnagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction of medical teachers has an impact on quality of medical education and patient care. In this background, the study was planned to develop scale and measure job satisfaction status of medical teachers. Materials and Methods: To generate items pertaining to the scale of job satisfaction, closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires were administered to medical professionals. The job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and rated on Likert type of rating scale. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to ascertain job satisfaction among 245 health science faculty of an autonomous educational institution. Factor loading was calculated and final items with strong factor loading were selected. Data were statistically evaluated. Results: Average job satisfaction score was 53.97 on a scale of 1-100. The Cronbach′s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.918 for entire set of items. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction level across different age groups (P 0.0358 showing a U-shaped pattern and fresh entrants versus reemployed faculty (P 0.0188, former showing lower satisfaction. Opportunity for self-development was biggest satisfier, followed by work, opportunity for promotion, and job security. Factors contributing toward job dissatisfaction were poor utilization of skills, poor promotional prospects, inadequate pay and allowances, work conditions, and work atmosphere. Conclusion: Tertiary care teaching hospitals in autonomous educational institutions need to build infrastructure and create opportunities for their medical professional. Job satisfaction of young entrants needs to be raised further by improving their work environment. This will pave the way for effective delivery of health care.

  17. The Individual and Group Loyalty Scales (IGLS): construction and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andrew; Watson, David

    2009-05-01

    Trait loyalty has received virtually no attention from researchers; consequently, the basic goal of this research was to create a measure of interpersonal loyalty. Principal factor analyses of an initial pool of items revealed 2 factors: Individual Loyalty (e.g., "I stand by my friends, even when they make mistakes") and Group Loyalty (e.g., "I am loyal to my country"). Analyses of a revised item pool identified the same 2 factors in a second sample. Scales based on these factors were internally consistent and only moderately related to one another. Additional analyses indicated that both scales (a) were stable over time; (b) showed moderate to strong self-peer agreement; (c) positively correlated with conscientiousness, agreeableness, altruism, and positive emotionality; and (d) negatively related to an avoidant attachment style. However, these associations all were moderate in magnitude (in fact, none was as high as |.40|), indicating that the Individual and Group Loyalty Scales tap unique variance that is not captured by existing instruments.

  18. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of child self-rating using the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloes, Kelly Isaacs; Barfell, Kara S Francis; Horn, Paul S; Wu, Steve W; Jacobson, Sarah E; Hart, Kathleen J; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare how children with Tourette syndrome and parents rate tic and non-tic behavioral related impairment in home, school, and social domains; to compare these with clinician tic ratings; and to identify factors that may predict greater impairment. In a sample of 85 Tourette syndrome and 92 healthy control families, the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale, designed for parent-report and which includes 37 items rated for tic and non-tic impairment, was administered to parents and, with the referent modified, to children ages 9 to 17 years. Tic severity was rated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). Analyses utilized descriptive and multivariate statistics. Tourette syndrome children's and parents' impairment ratings were higher than HC (ptic impairment ratings correlated with YGTSS (r=0.36 to 0.37; ptic and all 37 non-tic impairment items. For 29 items, children self-rated impairment higher for tics than non-tics. Diagnoses of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder had larger effects on parent impairment ratings. The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale appears informative for child self-rating in Tourette syndrome. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  20. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the eight-item cognitive load scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatiello, Grant A; Tsivitse, Emily; Hickman, Ronald L

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the psychometric properties of the eight-item cognitive load scale. According to cognitive load theory, the formatting and delivery of healthcare education influences the degree to which patients and/or family members can engage their working memory systems for learning. However, despite its relevance, cognitive load has not yet been evaluated among surrogate decision makers exposed to electronic decision support for healthcare decisions. To date, no psychometric analyses of instruments evaluating cognitive load have been reported within healthcare settings. A convenience sample of 62 surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients were exposed to one of two healthcare decision support interventions were recruited from four intensive care units at a tertiary medical center in Northeast Ohio. Participants were administered a battery of psychosocial instruments and the eight-item cognitive load scale (CLS). The CLS demonstrated a bidimensional factor structure with acceptable discriminant validity and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.75 and 0.89). The CLS is a psychometrically sound instrument that may be used in the evaluation of decision support among surrogate decision makers of the critically ill. The authors recommend application of the cognitive load scale in the evaluation and development of healthcare education and interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Preliminary Detection of Arcminute Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy with the BIMA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. S.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Joy, M.; LaRoque, S. J.; Reese, E. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) array outfitted with sensitive cm-wave receivers to expand our search for minute scale anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The interferometer was placed in a compact configuration to obtain high brightness sensitivity on arcminute scales over its 6.6' FWHM field of view. The sensitivity of this experiment to flat band power peaks at a multipole of 1 = 5530 which corresponds to an angular scale of -2'. We present the analysis of a total of 470 hours of on-source integration time on eleven independent fields which were selected based on their low IR contrast and lack of bright radio sources. Applying a Bayesian analysis to the visibility data, we find CMB anisotropy flat band power Q_flat = 6.1(+2.8/-4.8) microKelvin at 68% confidence. The confidence of a nonzero signal is 76% and we find an upper limit of Q_flat < 12.4 microKelvin at 95% confidence. We have supplemented our BIMA observations with concurrent observations at 4.8 GHz with the VLA to search for and remove point sources. We find the point sources make an insignificant contribution to the observed anisotropy.

  2. Preliminary investigations into macroscopic attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared imaging of intact spherical domains: spatial resolution and image distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everall, Neil J; Priestnall, Ian M; Clarke, Fiona; Jayes, Linda; Poulter, Graham; Coombs, David; George, Michael W

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes preliminary investigations into the spatial resolution of macro attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging and the distortions that arise when imaging intact, convex domains, using spheres as an extreme example. The competing effects of shallow evanescent wave penetration and blurring due to finite spatial resolution meant that spheres within the range 20-140 microm all appeared to be approximately the same size ( approximately 30-35 microm) when imaged with a numerical aperture (NA) of approximately 0.2. A very simple model was developed that predicted this extreme insensitivity to particle size. On the basis of these studies, it is anticipated that ATR imaging at this NA will be insensitive to the size of intact highly convex objects. A higher numerical aperture device should give a better estimate of the size of small spheres, owing to superior spatial resolution, but large spheres should still appear undersized due to the shallow sampling depth. An estimate of the point spread function (PSF) was required in order to develop and apply the model. The PSF was measured by imaging a sharp interface; assuming an Airy profile, the PSF width (distance from central maximum to first minimum) was estimated to be approximately 20 and 30 microm for IR bands at 1600 and 1000 cm(-1), respectively. This work has two significant limitations. First, underestimation of domain size only arises when imaging intact convex objects; if surfaces are prepared that randomly and representatively section through domains, the images can be analyzed to calculate parameters such as domain size, area, and volume. Second, the model ignores reflection and refraction and assumes weak absorption; hence, the predicted intensity profiles are not expected to be accurate; they merely give a rough estimate of the apparent sphere size. Much further work is required to place the field of quantitative ATR-FT-IR imaging on a sound basis.

  3. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  4. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  5. Measurement of replication structures at the nanometer scale using super-resolution light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, D; Chagin, V O; Schermelleh, L; Martin, S; Pombo, A; Carlton, P M; Gahl, A; Domaing, P; Birk, U; Leonhardt, H; Cremer, C; Cardoso, M C

    2010-01-01

    DNA replication, similar to other cellular processes, occurs within dynamic macromolecular structures. Any comprehensive understanding ultimately requires quantitative data to establish and test models of genome duplication. We used two different super-resolution light microscopy techniques to directly measure and compare the size and numbers of replication foci in mammalian cells. This analysis showed that replication foci vary in size from 210 nm down to 40 nm. Remarkably, spatially modulated illumination (SMI) and 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) both showed an average size of 125 nm that was conserved throughout S-phase and independent of the labeling method, suggesting a basic unit of genome duplication. Interestingly, the improved optical 3D resolution identified 3- to 5-fold more distinct replication foci than previously reported. These results show that optical nanoscopy techniques enable accurate measurements of cellular structures at a level previously achieved only by electron microscopy and highlight the possibility of high-throughput, multispectral 3D analyses.

  6. Ecosystem services - from assessements of estimations to quantitative, validated, high-resolution, continental-scale mapping via airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    "Ecosystem services" defined vaguely as "nature's benefits to people" are a trending concept in ecology and conservation. Quantifying and mapping these services is a longtime demand of both ecosystems science and environmental policy. The current state of the art is to use existing maps of land cover, and assign certain average ecosystem service values to their unit areas. This approach has some major weaknesses: the concept of "ecosystem services", the input land cover maps and the value indicators. Such assessments often aim at valueing services in terms of human currency as a basis for decision-making, although this approach remains contested. Land cover maps used for ecosystem service assessments (typically the CORINE land cover product) are generated from continental-scale satellite imagery, with resolution in the range of hundreds of meters. In some rare cases, airborne sensors are used, with higher resolution but less covered area. Typically, general land cover classes are used instead of categories defined specifically for the purpose of ecosystem service assessment. The value indicators are developed for and tested on small study sites, but widely applied and adapted to other sites far away (a process called benefit transfer) where local information may not be available. Upscaling is always problematic since such measurements investigate areas much smaller than the output map unit. Nevertheless, remote sensing is still expected to play a major role in conceptualization and assessment of ecosystem services. We propose that an improvement of several orders of magnitude in resolution and accuracy is possible through the application of airborne LIDAR, a measurement technique now routinely used for collection of countrywide three-dimensional datasets with typically sub-meter resolution. However, this requires a clear definition of the concept of ecosystem services and the variables in focus: remote sensing can measure variables closely related to "ecosystem

  7. The third flight of the Colorado high-resolution echelle stellar spectrograph (CHESS): improvements, calibrations, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Nicholas; Nell, Nicholas; France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri; Fleming, Brian; Kane, Robert; Ulrich, Stefan; Egan, Arika; Beatty, Dawson

    2017-08-01

    In this proceeding, we describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Colorado HighResolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), focusing on the hardware advancements and testing of components for the third launch of the payload (CHESS-3). CHESS is a far ultraviolet rocket-borne instrument designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent cloud regions in the interstellar medium. CHESS is an objective echelle spectrograph, which uses a mechanically-ruled echelle and a powered (f/12.4) crossdispersing grating, and is designed to achieve a resolving power R > 100,000 over the bandpass λλ 1000-1600 Å. Results from final efficiency and reflectivity measurements for the optical components of CHESS-3 are presented. An important role of sounding rocket experiments is the testing and verification of the space flight capabilities of experimental technologies. CHESS-3 utilizes a 40mm-diameter cross-strip anode microchannel plate detector fabricated by Sensor Sciences LLC, capable of achieving high spatial resolution and a high global count rate (˜1 MHz). We present pre-flight laboratory spectra and calibration results, including wavelength solution and resolving power of the instrument. The fourth launch of CHESS (CHESS-4) will demonstrate a δ-doped CCD, assembled in collaboration with the Microdevices Laboratory at JPL and Arizona State University. In support of CHESS-4, the CHESS-3 payload included a photomultiplier tube, used as a secondary confirmation of the optical alignment of the payload during flight. CHESS-3 launched on 26 June 2017 aboard NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.323 UG. We present initial flight results for the CHESS-3 observation of the β1 Scorpii sightline.

  8. Open source large-scale high-resolution environmental modelling with GEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, R.J.; Alberti, K.; Marra, W.A.; Karssenberg, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many environmental, topographic and climate data sets are freely available at a global scale, creating the opportunities to run environmental models for every location on Earth. Collection of the data necessary to do this and the consequent conversion into a useful format is very demanding however,

  9. Attitudes toward elective abortion: preliminary evidence of validity for the Personal Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the Personal Beliefs Scale of Embree and Embree item ratings obtained from 100 Midwestern undergraduates were used to classify participants into neutral, other, or second-order psychosomaticism mind-body belief types. Responses to a hypothetical abnormal pregnancy were used to measure attitude toward abortion (prochoice vs antichoice), meaning of abortion (not murder vs murder), and empathy for the unborn(low, moderate, or high). Values of chi 2 were statistically significant for students classified by mind-body belief type versus attitude toward abortion, and the meaning of abortion, but not for empathy for the unborn.

  10. "It was only harmless banter!" The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Thomas E; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Japanese version of the modified ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and the fibromyalgia symptom scale: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Chie; Hatta, Kotaro; Aratani, Satoko; Yagishita, Naoko; Nishioka, Kenya; Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Itoh, Kenji; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Nishioka, Kusuki

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the modified American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia (mACR 2010-J) and the Fibromyalgia Symptom Scale (mFS-J). According to the ACR 1990 classification criteria, patients with chronic pain were divided into the fibromyalgia group and nonfibromyalgia group (rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis). Patients in both groups were assessed using mACR 2010-J and mFS-J. 294 of 462 (64 %) patients in the fibromyalgia group met mACR 2010-J, whereas 4 % (9/231) of the nonfibromyalgia group did, with sensitivity of 64 %, specificity of 96 %, positive predictive value of 97 %, negative predictive value of 56 %, and positive likelihood ratio of 16.3. Mean total scores on mFS-J significantly differentiated the fibromyalgia from the nonfibromyalgia group. According to the value of the Youden index, the best cutoff score for the mFS-J was 9/10. Our findings indicate that mACR 2010-J as a positive test and mFS-J as a quantification scale might be suitable for assessing fibromyalgia among Japanese chronic pain populations.

  12. Optimisation of small-scale hydropower using quality assurance methods - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt: Optimierung von Kleinwasserkraftwerken durch Qualitaetssicherung. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, S.; Staubli, T.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary project that examined how quality assurance methods can be used in the optimisation of small-scale hydropower projects. The aim of the project, to use existing know-how, experience and synergies, is examined. Discrepancies in quality and their effects on production prices were determined in interviews. The paper describes best-practice guidelines for the quality assurance of small-scale hydro schemes. A flow chart describes the various steps that have to be taken in the project and realisation work. Information collected from planners and from interviews made with them are presented along with further information obtained from literature. The results of interviews concerning planning work, putting to tender and the construction stages of these hydro schemes are presented and commented on. Similarly, the operational phase of such power plant is also examined, including questions on operation and guarantees. The aims of the follow-up main project - the definition of a tool and guidelines for ensuring quality - are briefly reviewed.

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation of a commercial-scale krypton-85 encapsulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Tanner, J.E.; Knecht, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a commercial-scale facility for encapsulating krypton-85 in zeolite-5A or glass at a 2000 MTHM per year nuclear fuel reprocessing plant can be designed to contain fragments and the 340 to 850 kCi krypton-85 inventory from an assumed catastrophic failure of the high pressure vessel. The vessel failure was assumed as a worst case and was not based on a detailed design evaluation or operating experience. The process design is based on existing commercial hot isostatic pressing technology operated at up to 40 times the scale required for krypton encapsulation. From the calculated process gas inventory in the pressure vessel and vessel design, the maximum explosive energy of 8.4 kg TNT and resulting vessel plug and fragment velocities were calculated. The facility Containment Cell housing the high pressure vessel was designed to contain the gases, fragments, and the shock wave energy calculated for a hypothetical vessel failure. The Access Cell located directly above the Containment Cell was designed to be a tertiary confinement of krypton-85, should the access hatch be breached. 3 figures, 2 tables

  14. A Preliminary Assessment of Ethiopian Sacred Grove Status at the Landscape and Ecosystem Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemaheyu Wassie Eshete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The northern Ethiopian landscape is dotted with small patches of church forests that are religious centers for the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church (EOTC. These sacred groves are what remain of the once vast tropical Afromontane dry forest. Herein we review the landscape pattern of sacred groves in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and their local scale nutrient status at two sites, Zahara and Debresena. A total of 1,488 sacred groves were inventoried within the study area, yielding an overall density of one sacred grove for every twenty square kilometers. Sacred groves averaged a little over five hectares and were separated from one another by more than two kilometers. At the local scale we found that soil carbon and nitrogen stocks have decreased significantly between the forest interior and the clearing indicating decreased soil fertility. Together our data indicate that these sacred groves are vulnerable to loss because of their small average size, isolation from seed sources, and decreasing soil status.

  15. Preliminary safety evaluation of a commercial-scale krypton-85 encapsulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Tanner, J.E.; Knecht, D.A.

    1980-09-01

    This report demonstrates that a commercial-scale facility for encapsulating krypton-85 in zeolite-5A or glass at a 2000 MTHM per year nuclear fuel reprocessing plant can be designed to contain fragments and the 340 to 850 kCi krypton-85 inventory from an assumed catastrophic failure of the high pressure vessel. The vessel failure was assumed as a worst case and was not based on a detailed design evaluation or operating experience. The process design is based on existing commercial hot isostatic pressing technology operated at up to 40 times the scale required for krypton encapsulation. From the calculated process gas inventory in the pressure vessel and vessel design, the explosive energy of 8.4 kg TNT and vessel plug and fragment velocities were calculated. The facility Containment Cell housing the high pressure vessel was designed to contain the gases, fragments, and the shock wave energy calculated for vessel failure. The Access Cell located directly above the Containment Cell was designed to be a tertiary confinement of krypton-85, should the access hatch be breached

  16. Development and preliminary psychometric properties of the multidimensional neglectful behavior scale-child report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Holt, Melissa K; Mebert, Carolyn J; Straus, Murray A; Drach, Kerry M; Ricci, Lawrence R; MacAllum, Crystal A; Brown, Wendy

    2004-11-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale-Child Report (MNBS-CR). The measure is broadly conceptualized to tap child neglect across four core domains: cognitive, emotional, physical and supervisory neglect, and it assesses exposure to violence, alcohol-related neglect, abandonment, and children's appraisals of parenting. Features include pictorial items, audio computer-assisted testing, and programming by age and gender of the child and caregiver. A clinical sample of 144 children, age 6 to 15 years, and a comparison sample of 87 children were tested. Results showed that the MNBS-CR has high reliability, with higher reliability found for older children (alpha = .94) than for younger children (alpha = .66). Among older children, the MNBS-CR Supervisory scale was significantly associated with the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and total MNBS-CR scores were significantly associated with clinician reports of behavioral disorders. Younger and older neglected children scored significantly higher on the MNBS-CR than community children.

  17. Five hundred years of gridded high-resolution precipitation reconstructions over Europe and the connection to large-scale circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauling, Andreas [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, Juerg; Wanner, Heinz [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Bern (Switzerland); National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) in Climate, Bern (Switzerland); Casty, Carlo [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-03-15

    We present seasonal precipitation reconstructions for European land areas (30 W to 40 E/30-71 N; given on a 0.5 x 0.5 resolved grid) covering the period 1500-1900 together with gridded reanalysis from 1901 to 2000 (Mitchell and Jones 2005). Principal component regression techniques were applied to develop this dataset. A large variety of long instrumental precipitation series, precipitation indices based on documentary evidence and natural proxies (tree-ring chronologies, ice cores, corals and a speleothem) that are sensitive to precipitation signals were used as predictors. Transfer functions were derived over the 1901-1983 calibration period and applied to 1500-1900 in order to reconstruct the large-scale precipitation fields over Europe. The performance (quality estimation based on unresolved variance within the calibration period) of the reconstructions varies over centuries, seasons and space. Highest reconstructive skill was found for winter over central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Precipitation variability over the last half millennium reveals both large interannual and decadal fluctuations. Applying running correlations, we found major non-stationarities in the relation between large-scale circulation and regional precipitation. For several periods during the last 500 years, we identified key atmospheric modes for southern Spain/northern Morocco and central Europe as representations of two precipitation regimes. Using scaled composite analysis, we show that precipitation extremes over central Europe and southern Spain are linked to distinct pressure patterns. Due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, this dataset allows detailed studies of regional precipitation variability for all seasons, impact studies on different time and space scales, comparisons with high-resolution climate models as well as analysis of connections with regional temperature reconstructions. (orig.)

  18. Nanometer-scale displacement measurement with high resolution using dual cavity Fabry-Pérot interferometer for biomimetic robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    A sensor of a biomimetic robot has to measure very small environmental changes such as, nanometer scale strains or displacements. Fiber optic sensor can be also one of candidates for the biomimetic sensor because the sensor is like thread and the shape of the sensor is similar to muscle fiber. A fiber optic interferometer, which is an optical-based sensor, can measure displacement precisely, so such device has been widely studied for the measurement of displacement on a nanometer-scale. Especially, a Quadrature Phase-Shifted Fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer (QPS-FFPI) uses phase-information for this measurement, allowing it to provide a precision result with high resolution. In theory, the QPS-FFPI generates two sinusoidal signals of which the phase difference should be 90 degrees for the exact measurement of the displacement. In order to guarantee the condition of the phase difference, the relative adjustment of the cavities of the optical fibers is required. However, with such precise adjustment it is very hard to fix the proper difference of the two cavities for quadrature-phase-shifting. In this paper, a dual-cavity FFPI is newly proposed to measure the displacement on a nanometer-scale with a specific type of signal processing. In the signal processing, a novel phase-compensation algorithm is applied to force the phase difference to be exactly 90 degrees without any physical adjustment. As a result, the paper shows that the phase-compensated dual-cavity FFPI can effectively measure nanometer-scale displacement with high resolution under dynamic conditions.

  19. High-resolution LES of the rotating stall in a reduced scale model pump-turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacot, Olivier; Avellan, François; Kato, Chisachi

    2014-01-01

    Extending the operating range of modern pump-turbines becomes increasingly important in the course of the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing power grid. However, at partial load condition in pumping mode, the occurrence of rotating stall is critical to the operational safety of the machine and on the grid stability. The understanding of the mechanisms behind this flow phenomenon yet remains vague and incomplete. Past numerical simulations using a RANS approach often led to inconclusive results concerning the physical background. For the first time, the rotating stall is investigated by performing a large scale LES calculation on the HYDRODYNA pump-turbine scale model featuring approximately 100 million elements. The computations were performed on the PRIMEHPC FX10 of the University of Tokyo using the overset Finite Element open source code FrontFlow/blue with the dynamic Smagorinsky turbulence model and the no-slip wall condition. The internal flow computed is the one when operating the pump-turbine at 76% of the best efficiency point in pumping mode, as previous experimental research showed the presence of four rotating cells. The rotating stall phenomenon is accurately reproduced for a reduced Reynolds number using the LES approach with acceptable computing resources. The results show an excellent agreement with available experimental data from the reduced scale model testing at the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The number of stall cells as well as the propagation speed corroborates the experiment

  20. High-resolution LES of the rotating stall in a reduced scale model pump-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacot, Olivier; Kato, Chisachi; Avellan, François

    2014-03-01

    Extending the operating range of modern pump-turbines becomes increasingly important in the course of the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing power grid. However, at partial load condition in pumping mode, the occurrence of rotating stall is critical to the operational safety of the machine and on the grid stability. The understanding of the mechanisms behind this flow phenomenon yet remains vague and incomplete. Past numerical simulations using a RANS approach often led to inconclusive results concerning the physical background. For the first time, the rotating stall is investigated by performing a large scale LES calculation on the HYDRODYNA pump-turbine scale model featuring approximately 100 million elements. The computations were performed on the PRIMEHPC FX10 of the University of Tokyo using the overset Finite Element open source code FrontFlow/blue with the dynamic Smagorinsky turbulence model and the no-slip wall condition. The internal flow computed is the one when operating the pump-turbine at 76% of the best efficiency point in pumping mode, as previous experimental research showed the presence of four rotating cells. The rotating stall phenomenon is accurately reproduced for a reduced Reynolds number using the LES approach with acceptable computing resources. The results show an excellent agreement with available experimental data from the reduced scale model testing at the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The number of stall cells as well as the propagation speed corroborates the experiment.

  1. Large-scale Validation of AMIP II Land-surface Simulations: Preliminary Results for Ten Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Henderson-Sellers, A; Irannejad, P; McGuffie, K; Zhang, H

    2005-12-01

    This report summarizes initial findings of a large-scale validation of the land-surface simulations of ten atmospheric general circulation models that are entries in phase II of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II). This validation is conducted by AMIP Diagnostic Subproject 12 on Land-surface Processes and Parameterizations, which is focusing on putative relationships between the continental climate simulations and the associated models' land-surface schemes. The selected models typify the diversity of representations of land-surface climate that are currently implemented by the global modeling community. The current dearth of global-scale terrestrial observations makes exacting validation of AMIP II continental simulations impractical. Thus, selected land-surface processes of the models are compared with several alternative validation data sets, which include merged in-situ/satellite products, climate reanalyses, and off-line simulations of land-surface schemes that are driven by observed forcings. The aggregated spatio-temporal differences between each simulated process and a chosen reference data set then are quantified by means of root-mean-square error statistics; the differences among alternative validation data sets are similarly quantified as an estimate of the current observational uncertainty in the selected land-surface process. Examples of these metrics are displayed for land-surface air temperature, precipitation, and the latent and sensible heat fluxes. It is found that the simulations of surface air temperature, when aggregated over all land and seasons, agree most closely with the chosen reference data, while the simulations of precipitation agree least. In the latter case, there also is considerable inter-model scatter in the error statistics, with the reanalyses estimates of precipitation resembling the AMIP II simulations more than to the chosen reference data. In aggregate, the simulations of land-surface latent and

  2. Crystals of DhaA mutants from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 diffracted to ultrahigh resolution: crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Koudelakova, Tana; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Pavlova, Martina; Damborsky, Jiri; Smatanova, Ivana Kuta

    2008-02-01

    The enzyme DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 belongs to the haloalkane dehalogenases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of haloalkanes to the corresponding alcohols. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variants can be used to detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Three mutants named DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 were constructed in order to study the importance of tunnels connecting the buried active site with the surrounding solvent to the enzymatic activity. All protein mutants were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of DhaA04 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), while the crystals of the other two mutants DhaA14 and DhaA15 belonged to the triclinic space group P1. Native data sets were collected for the DhaA04, DhaA14 and DhaA15 mutants at beamline X11 of EMBL, DESY, Hamburg to the high resolutions of 1.30, 0.95 and 1.15 A, respectively.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of RsbS from Moorella thermoacetica at 2.5 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quin, Maureen; Newman, Joseph; Firbank, Susan; Lewis, Richard J.; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization and selenium substructure solution of RsbS from Moorella thermoacetica, the first ab initio phased crystal structure from Diamond. The thermophilic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica possesses an rsb operon that is related to the genetic locus common to many Gram-positive bacteria that regulates the activity of the stress-responsive sigma factor σ B . One of the gene products of this operon is RsbS, a single STAS-domain protein that is a component of higher order assemblies in Bacillus subtilis known as ‘stressosomes’. It is expected that similar complexes are found in M. thermoacetica, but in this instance regulating the biosynthesis of cyclic di-GMP, a ubiquitous secondary messenger. Selenomethionine-labelled MtRsbS protein was crystallized at room temperature using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belonging to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 51.07, b = 60.52, c = 89.28 Å, diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution on beamline I04 of the Diamond Light Source. The selenium substructure was solved using SHELX and it is believed that this represents the first reported ab initio crystal structure to be solved using diffraction data collected at DLS

  4. Preliminary Determination of Natural Radioactivity Levels of the State of Qatar using High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiti, H.A.; Regan, P.H.; Bradley, D.A.; Matthews, M.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.

    2009-01-01

    The State of Qatar is a peninsula with a total area of 11,437 km 2 which lies over a geological formation comprising a sequence of limestone, chalk, clay and gypsum. Establishing a baseline for the radioactivity concentration in Qatar's soil is the main purpose behind the present study. The project is focused on obtaining measurements of representative soil samples from various areas in Qatar to establish concentrations of the 235 U, 238 U and 232 Th natural decay chains and also the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K. The 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A wide range of different gamma-ray energy transitions lines arising from the multiple decay products from the 235 U, 238 U and 232 Th decay chains have been analyzed separately to obtain more statistically significant overall results

  5. Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mohammed, Yasser; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Maron, Gaetano; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; 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Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; 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Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; 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Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-02-22

    Improved jet energy scale corrections, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, are presented. The corrections as a function of pseudorapidity $\\eta$ and transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ are extracted from data and simulated events combining several channels and methods. They account successively for the effects of pileup, uniformity of the detector response, and residual data-simulation jet energy scale differences. Further corrections, depending on the jet flavor and distance parameter (jet size) $R$, are also presented. The jet energy resolution is measured in data and simulated events and is studied as a function of pileup, jet size, and jet flavor. Typical jet energy resolutions at the central rapidities are 15-20% at 30 GeV, about 10% at 100 GeV, and 5% at 1 TeV. The studies exploit events with dijet topology, as well as photon+jet, Z+jet and multijet events. Sev...

  6. Geoscience Meets Social Science: A Flexible Data Driven Approach for Developing High Resolution Population Datasets at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A.; McKee, J.; Weber, E.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Leveraging decades of expertise in population modeling, and in response to growing demand for higher resolution population data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is now generating LandScan HD at global scale. LandScan HD is conceived as a 90m resolution population distribution where modeling is tailored to the unique geography and data conditions of individual countries or regions by combining social, cultural, physiographic, and other information with novel geocomputation methods. Similarities among these areas are exploited in order to leverage existing training data and machine learning algorithms to rapidly scale development. Drawing on ORNL's unique set of capabilities, LandScan HD adapts highly mature population modeling methods developed for LandScan Global and LandScan USA, settlement mapping research and production in high-performance computing (HPC) environments, land use and neighborhood mapping through image segmentation, and facility-specific population density models. Adopting a flexible methodology to accommodate different geographic areas, LandScan HD accounts for the availability, completeness, and level of detail of relevant ancillary data. Beyond core population and mapped settlement inputs, these factors determine the model complexity for an area, requiring that for any given area, a data-driven model could support either a simple top-down approach, a more detailed bottom-up approach, or a hybrid approach.

  7. A preliminary evaluation of the interpersonal music-communication competence scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity Ann; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2017-01-01

    With the aim to develop and test a reliable and valid measure of communicative competencies in music for use in acquired brain injury rehabilitation settings, the interpersonal music-communication competence scale (IMCCS) was constructed, adapted from the interpersonal communication competence...... music-based improvisational exercises in 1:1 sessions with the therapist (dialogue with the therapist, follow the musical ideas of the therapist, maintain musical phrases while therapist intentionally interrupt/challenge, and free improvisation with the therapist). Immediately following...... these improvisations, the participants and therapist completed the IMCCS. Two blinded raters completed the IMCCS-Rater after viewing video recordings of the exercises. Results revealed that the IMCCS-Therapist has good internal consistency (α = .89), the IMCCS-Participant has excellent internal consistency (α = .93...

  8. Development and preliminary validation of a Korean version of the Personal Relative Deprivation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Eunbee; Suh, Eunkook M; Callan, Mitchell J

    2018-01-01

    The current research developed and validated a Korean-translated version of the Personal Relative Deprivation Scale (PRDS). The PRDS measures individual differences in people's tendencies to feel resentful about what they have compared to what other people like them have. Across 2 studies, Exploratory Factor Analyses revealed that the two reverse-worded items from the original PRDS did not load onto the primary factor for the Korean-translated PRDS. A reduced 3-item Korean PRDS, however, showed good convergent validity. Replicating previous findings using Western samples, greater tendencies to make social comparisons of abilities (but not opinions) were associated with higher PRDS (Studies 1 and 2), and participants scoring higher on the 3-item Korean PRDS were more materialistic (Studies 1 and 2), reported worse physical health (Study 1), had lower self-esteem (Study 2) and experienced higher stress (Study 2).

  9. Report of preliminary investigations on the next-generation large-scale synchrotron radiation facility projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Special Committee for Future Project of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research investigated the construction-projects of the large-scaled synchrotron radiation facilities which are presently in progress in Japan. As a result, the following both projects are considered the very valuable research-project which will carry the development of Japan's next-generation synchrotron radiation science: 1. the 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facilities (SPring-8) projected to be constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research under the sponsorship of Science Technology Agency at Harima Science Park City, Hyogo Pref., Japan. 2. The project to utilize the Tristan Main Ring (MR) of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics as the radiation source. Both projects are unique in research theme and technological approach, and complemental each other. Therefore it has been concluded that both projects should be aided and ratified by the Society. (M.T.)

  10. A Person-Centered Approach to Financial Capacity Assessment: Preliminary Development of a New Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Stoltman, Jonathan; Ficker, Lisa J; Iris, Madelyn; Mast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Financial exploitation and financial capacity issues often overlap when a gerontologist assesses whether an older adult's financial decision is an autonomous, capable choice. Our goal is to describe a new conceptual model for assessing financial decisions using principles of person-centered approaches and to introduce a new instrument, the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS). We created a conceptual model, convened meetings of experts from various disciplines to critique the model and provide input on content and structure, and select final items. We then videotaped administration of the LFDRS to five older adults and had 10 experts provide independent ratings. The LFDRS demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The LFDRS is a new tool that allows gerontologists to systematically gather information about a specific financial decision and the decisional abilities in question.

  11. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present open-quotes entry levelclose quotes, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability (open-quotes load curveclose quotes) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested

  12. Development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountoulakis Konstantinos N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of functioning and disability is an important part of the clinical evaluation, since it measures disease burden and reflects the effectiveness of therapeutic planning and interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop such a self-report instrument on the basis of a review of the literature, and compatible with the WHO approach. Material and methods The review of the literature led to the development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S with 25 items assessing different aspects of disability. The study sample included 728 persons from vulnerable populations (homeless, jobless, very low income, single parent families etc.; (29.12% males and 70.88% females; aged 55.96 ± 15.22 years. The protocol included also the STAI and the CES-D. The statistical analysis included factor analysis item analysis and ANCOVA. Results The factor analysis revealed the presence of 4 factors explaining 71% of total variance (Everyday functioning, Social and interpersonal functioning, Severity and Mental disability. Chronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was 0.95 and for subscales were 0.74–0.94. Discussion The results of the current study suggest that the Glo.Di.S. has the potential to serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing functioning and disability. Further research is needed to prove that it could be useful across countries, populations and diseases, and whether it provides data that are culturally meaningful and comparable. It can be used in surveys and in clinical research settings and it can generate information of use in evaluating health needs and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce disability and improve health.

  13. Large-scale, high-resolution multielectrode-array recording depicts functional network differences of cortical and hippocampal cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Ito

    Full Text Available Understanding the detailed circuitry of functioning neuronal networks is one of the major goals of neuroscience. Recent improvements in neuronal recording techniques have made it possible to record the spiking activity from hundreds of neurons simultaneously with sub-millisecond temporal resolution. Here we used a 512-channel multielectrode array system to record the activity from hundreds of neurons in organotypic cultures of cortico-hippocampal brain slices from mice. To probe the network structure, we employed a wavelet transform of the cross-correlogram to categorize the functional connectivity in different frequency ranges. With this method we directly compare, for the first time, in any preparation, the neuronal network structures of cortex and hippocampus, on the scale of hundreds of neurons, with sub-millisecond time resolution. Among the three frequency ranges that we investigated, the lower two frequency ranges (gamma (30-80 Hz and beta (12-30 Hz range showed similar network structure between cortex and hippocampus, but there were many significant differences between these structures in the high frequency range (100-1000 Hz. The high frequency networks in cortex showed short tailed degree-distributions, shorter decay length of connectivity density, smaller clustering coefficients, and positive assortativity. Our results suggest that our method can characterize frequency dependent differences of network architecture from different brain regions. Crucially, because these differences between brain regions require millisecond temporal scales to be observed and characterized, these results underscore the importance of high temporal resolution recordings for the understanding of functional networks in neuronal systems.

  14. New Possibilities for High-Resolution, Large-Scale Ecosystem Assessment of the World's Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, J. A.; Goldblatt, R.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding drivers of land use change - and in particular, levels of ecosystem degradation - in semi-arid regions is of critical importance because these agroecosystems (1) are home to the world's poorest populations, almost all of whom depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, (2) play a critical role in the global carbon and climate cycles, and (3) have in many cases seen dramatic changes in temperature and precipitation, relative to global averages, over the past several decades. However, assessing ecosystem health (or, conversely, degradation) presents a difficult measurement problem. Established methods are very labor intensive and rest on detailed questionnaires and field assessments. High-resolution satellite imagery has a unique role semi-arid ecosystem assessment in that it can be used for rapid (or repeated) and very simple measurements of tree and shrub density, an excellent overall indicator for dryland ecosystem health. Because trees and large shrubs are more sparse in semi-arid regions, sub-meter resolution imagery in conjunction with automated image analysis can be used to assess density differences at high spatial resolution without expensive and time-consuming ground-truthing. This could be used down to the farm level, for example, to better assess the larger-scale ecosystem impacts of different management practices, to assess compliance with REDD+ carbon offset protocols, or to evaluate implementation of conservation goals. Here we present results comparing spatial and spectral remote sensing methods for semi-arid ecosystem assessment across new data sources, using the Brazilian Sertão as an example, and the implications for large-scale use in semi-arid ecosystem science.

  15. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.-C.; Charlet, J.M.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  16. High resolution MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: Feasibility and preliminary experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehammer, T.; Riccabona, M.; Maier, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to assess the value of supplementing heavily T2-weighted, high resolution MR-imaging for detailed anatomic assessment in paediatric lower urogenital tract (UGT) malformations. Patients/methods: Sixteen patients (6 male and 10 female, median age = 1.8 years, range = 0-9 years) with suspected malformations of the lower UGT who were retrospectively identified from the PACS underwent a clinically indicated standard MR-urography study. In order to facilitate a better anatomic assessment of questioned specific lower UGT structures, an additional three-dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State-sequence (3D-CISS) had been acquired in these patients. The final diagnosis was established by all imaging results and surgical or laprascopic findings. The findings from the CISS-sequence were compared to the results from standard MR-urography for complementary anatomic information and conspicuity. Results: Diagnostic 3D-CISS image quality was achieved in all patients. The 3D-CISS confirmed an ectopic ureteral insertion in six patients and reliably excluded ectopic insertion in 10 patients, whereas conventional MR-urography showed an ectopic insertion of the ureter in one case. In six patients with retrovesical complex formations (suspicious for an ectopic cystic renal bud or a cystic genital structure) the 3D-CISS showed increased conspicuity scores for image quality. Conclusion: The additional 3D-CISS-sequence increases the diagnostic yield in the pelvis in children with complex malformations of the lower UGT such as ectopic ureteral insertion or suspected cystic renal or genital malformations at only minimal additional time, compared to standard MR-urography.

  17. High resolution MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: Feasibility and preliminary experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehammer, T., E-mail: ehammer@live.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Riccabona, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Maier, E. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to assess the value of supplementing heavily T2-weighted, high resolution MR-imaging for detailed anatomic assessment in paediatric lower urogenital tract (UGT) malformations. Patients/methods: Sixteen patients (6 male and 10 female, median age = 1.8 years, range = 0-9 years) with suspected malformations of the lower UGT who were retrospectively identified from the PACS underwent a clinically indicated standard MR-urography study. In order to facilitate a better anatomic assessment of questioned specific lower UGT structures, an additional three-dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State-sequence (3D-CISS) had been acquired in these patients. The final diagnosis was established by all imaging results and surgical or laprascopic findings. The findings from the CISS-sequence were compared to the results from standard MR-urography for complementary anatomic information and conspicuity. Results: Diagnostic 3D-CISS image quality was achieved in all patients. The 3D-CISS confirmed an ectopic ureteral insertion in six patients and reliably excluded ectopic insertion in 10 patients, whereas conventional MR-urography showed an ectopic insertion of the ureter in one case. In six patients with retrovesical complex formations (suspicious for an ectopic cystic renal bud or a cystic genital structure) the 3D-CISS showed increased conspicuity scores for image quality. Conclusion: The additional 3D-CISS-sequence increases the diagnostic yield in the pelvis in children with complex malformations of the lower UGT such as ectopic ureteral insertion or suspected cystic renal or genital malformations at only minimal additional time, compared to standard MR-urography.

  18. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is

  19. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-01-01

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.' The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated

  20. High resolution multi-scale air quality modelling for all streets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Becker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The annual concentrations of NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 in 2012 have for the first time been modelled for all 2.4 million addresses in Denmark based on a multi-scale air quality modelling approach. All addresses include residential, industrial, institutional, shop, school, restaurant addresses etc...... concentrations of NO2 for the five available street monitoring stations are within −27% to +12%. The model results were also verified with comparisons with previous model results for NO2 at 98 selected streets in Copenhagen and 31 streets in Aalborg. The verification showed good correlation in Copenhagen (r2 = 0...

  1. Improved Wallis Dodging Algorithm for Large-Scale Super-Resolution Reconstruction Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Fan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sub-block algorithm is usually applied in the super-resolution (SR reconstruction of images because of limitations in computer memory. However, the sub-block SR images can hardly achieve a seamless image mosaicking because of the uneven distribution of brightness and contrast among these sub-blocks. An effectively improved weighted Wallis dodging algorithm is proposed, aiming at the characteristic that SR reconstructed images are gray images with the same size and overlapping region. This algorithm can achieve consistency of image brightness and contrast. Meanwhile, a weighted adjustment sequence is presented to avoid the spatial propagation and accumulation of errors and the loss of image information caused by excessive computation. A seam line elimination method can share the partial dislocation in the seam line to the entire overlapping region with a smooth transition effect. Subsequently, the improved method is employed to remove the uneven illumination for 900 SR reconstructed images of ZY-3. Then, the overlapping image mosaic method is adopted to accomplish a seamless image mosaic based on the optimal seam line.

  2. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine......The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... in equidistant angles on a circle with a radius of about one rotor diameter. The data were analyzed in segments of 2.2 s which is the time for one rotor revolution. The spectra for the TE microphones on the suction side of the blade show a characteristic roll-off pattern around a frequency of 600-700 Hz...

  3. A preliminary and qualitative study of resource ratio theory to nitrifying lab-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Beneduce, Luciano; Graham, David W; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The incorporation of microbial diversity in design would ideally require predictive theory that would relate operational parameters to the numbers and distribution of taxa. Resource ratio-theory (RRT) might be one such theory. Based on Monod kinetics, it explains diversity in function of resource-ratio and richness. However, to be usable in biological engineered system, the growth parameters of all the bacteria under consideration and the resource supply and diffusion parameters for all the relevant nutrients should be determined. This is challenging, but plausible, at least for low diversity groups with simple resource requirements like the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). One of the major successes of RRT was its ability to explain the 'paradox of enrichment' which states that diversity first increases and then decreases with resource richness. Here, we demonstrate that this pattern can be seen in lab-scale-activated sludge reactors and parallel simulations that incorporate the principles of RRT in a floc-based system. High and low ammonia and oxygen were supplied to continuous flow bioreactors with resource conditions correlating with the composition and diversity of resident AOB communities based on AOB 16S rDNA clone libraries. Neither the experimental work nor the simulations are definitive proof for the application of RRT in this context. However, it is sufficient evidence that such approach might work and justify a more rigorous investigation. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Preliminary factor analysis of the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale in a US sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Heman Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy framework, the O’Kelly Women Beliefs Scale (O’Kelly, in press was originally constructed in Australia to measure sex-role beliefs women may develop through sex-role stereotyping. Factor analysis of the 92 original items showed that 64 items loaded into a single component that accounted for 18.2% of the variance in a sample of 974 Australian women. The present exploratory study examined the psychometric properties of the OWBS in a sample of 202 women born and living in the US. A varimax rotation with cutoff eigenvalues of 3, showed that 37 items loaded into 3 components which accounted for 58.48% of the variance. The items were subsequently grouped into two factors: Ir- rationality, with a total of 27 items was created by merging component 1 and 3 (Pearson’s r = 0.8 between them, and Rationality, with the 10 items from component 2. Analyses indicated a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91 for Fac- tor 1, and a Cronbach’s alpha 0.74 for Factor 2. Results indicate that this version of the instrument may be used to evaluate both the rational and irrational content of sex-role beliefs of women born in the US.

  5. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed-preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt

  6. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed-preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leach process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally 20 wt

  7. LYα FOREST TOMOGRAPHY FROM BACKGROUND GALAXIES: THE FIRST MEGAPARSEC-RESOLUTION LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MAP AT z > 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stark, Casey; White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Nao [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Caputi, Karina I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fèvre, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Garilli, Bianca [INAF-IASF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maccagni, Dario [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani,1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nugent, Peter, E-mail: lee@mpia.de [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Lyα forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ∼ 2.3-2.8 within a 5' × 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ∼2 h {sup –1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Lyα forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ≤ z ≤ 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup –1} Mpc × 14 h {sup –1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup –1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ≈3.5 h {sup –1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ∼Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ≳ 10 h {sup –1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Lyα forest spectra for ∼1000 SFGs over ∼1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ∼ 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup –1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  8. Injury Rehabilitation Overadherence: Preliminary Scale Validation and Relationships With Athletic Identity and Self-Presentation Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlog, Leslie; Gao, Zan; Kenow, Laura; Kleinert, Jens; Granquist, Megan; Newton, Maria; Hannon, James

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evidence suggests that nonadherence to rehabilitation protocols may be associated with worse clinical and functional rehabilitation outcomes. Recently, it has been recognized that nonadherence may not only reflect a lack of rehabilitation engagement but that some athletes may “overadhere” to their injury-rehabilitation regimen or risk a premature return to sport. Presently, no measure of overadherence exists, and correlates of overadherence and risking a premature return to sport remain uncertain. Objective: To provide initial validation of a novel injury-rehabilitation overadherence measure (study 1) and to examine correlates of overadherence and risking a premature return to sport (study 2). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High school athletes (study 1) and collegiate athletes (study 2). Patients or Other Participants: In study 1, 118 currently injured US adolescent athletes competing in a range of high school sports participated. In study 2, 105 currently injured collegiate athletes (National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I–III) volunteered. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Rehabilitation Overadherence Questionnaire was a novel instrument developed to assess injured athletes' tendency toward overadherence behaviors and beliefs. We used an adapted version of the Injury Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Scale to assess the tendency to risk a premature return to sport. Results: In study 1, the construct validity of the overadherence measure was supported using principal axis factoring. Moreover, bivariate correlation and regression analyses indicated that self-presentation concerns and athletic identity were positive predictors of adolescent rehabilitation overadherence and a premature return to sport. Study 2 provided support for the 2-factor structure of the overadherence measure found in study 1 via confirmatory factor analysis. Further support for the relationship among self-presentation concerns, athletic identity, and

  9. Measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma: preliminary evaluation of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Karen; West, Anita; Nott, Philippa; Cole, Elaine; Playford, Diane; Liu, Clarence; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Injury severity, disability and care dependency are frequently used as surrogate measures for rehabilitation requirements following trauma. The true rehabilitation needs of patients may be different but there are no validated tools for the measurement of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential utility of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (RCS) version 2 in measuring acute rehabilitation needs in trauma patients. A prospective observation study of 103 patients with traumatic injuries in a Major Trauma Centre. Rehabilitation complexity was measured using the RCS and disability was measured using the Barthel Index. Demographic information and injury characteristics were obtained from the trauma database. The RCS was closely correlated with injury severity (r=0.69, p<0.001) and the Barthel Index (r=0.91, p<0.001). However the Barthel was poor at discriminating between patients rehabilitation needs, especially for patients with higher injury severities. Of 58 patients classified as 'very dependent' by the Barthel, 21 (36%) had low or moderate rehabilitation complexity. The RCS correlated with acute hospital length of stay (r=0.64, p=<0.001) and patients with a low RCS were more likely to be discharged home. The Barthel which had a flooring effect (56% of patients classified as very dependent were discharged home) and lacked discrimination despite close statistical correlation. The RCS outperformed the ISS and the Barthel in its ability to identify rehabilitation requirements in relation to injury severity, rehabilitation complexity, length of stay and discharge destination. The RCS is potentially a feasible and useful tool for the assessment of rehabilitation complexity in acute trauma care by providing specific measurement of patients' rehabilitation requirements. A larger longitudinal study is needed to evaluate the RCS in the assessment of patient need, service provision and trauma system performance

  10. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  11. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  12. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Huckaby, James L.; Karri, Naveen K.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-22

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  14. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to dissolve solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct steam injection to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP2, the slurry is concentrated to nominally

  15. Developing Local Scale, High Resolution, Data to Interface with Numerical Hurricane Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkop, R.; Becker, A.

    2017-12-01

    In 2017, the University of Rhode Island's (URI's) Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) developed hurricane models that specify wind speed, inundation, and erosion around Rhode Island with enough precision to incorporate impacts on individual facilities. At the same time, URI's Marine Affairs Visualization Lab (MAVL) developed a way to realistically visualize these impacts in 3-D. Since climate change visualizations and water resource simulations have been shown to promote resiliency action (Sheppard, 2015) and increase credibility (White et al., 2010) when local knowledge is incorporated, URI's hurricane models and visualizations may also more effectively enable hurricane resilience actions if they include Facility Manager (FM) and Emergency Manager (EM) perceived hurricane impacts. This study determines how FM's and EM's perceive their assets as being vulnerable to quantifiable hurricane-related forces at the individual facility scale while exploring methods to elicit this information from FMs and EMs in a format usable for incorporation into URI GSO's hurricane models.

  16. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF GALAXY-SCALE GRAVITATIONAL LENSES IN HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Bradac, Marusa; Hogg, David W.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Schrabback, Tim; Blandford, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    We expect direct lens modeling to be the key to successful and meaningful automated strong galaxy-scale gravitational lens detection. We have implemented a lens-modeling 'robot' that treats every bright red galaxy (BRG) in a large imaging survey as a potential gravitational lens system. Having optimized a simple model for 'typical' galaxy-scale gravitational lenses, we generate four assessments of model quality that are then used in an automated classification. The robot infers from these four data the lens classification parameter H that a human would have assigned; the inference is performed using a probability distribution generated from a human-classified training set of candidates, including realistic simulated lenses and known false positives drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Extended Groth Strip (EGS) survey. We compute the expected purity, completeness, and rejection rate, and find that these statistics can be optimized for a particular application by changing the prior probability distribution for H; this is equivalent to defining the robot's 'character'. Adopting a realistic prior based on expectations for the abundance of lenses, we find that a lens sample may be generated that is ∼100% pure, but only ∼20% complete. This shortfall is due primarily to the oversimplicity of the model of both the lens light and mass. With a more optimistic robot, ∼90% completeness can be achieved while rejecting ∼90% of the candidate objects. The remaining candidates must be classified by human inspectors. Displaying the images used and produced by the robot on a custom 'one-click' web interface, we are able to inspect and classify lens candidates at a rate of a few seconds per system, suggesting that a future 1000 deg. 2 imaging survey containing 10 7 BRGs, and some 10 4 lenses, could be successfully, and reproducibly, searched in a modest amount of time. We have verified our projected survey statistics, albeit at low significance, using the HST EGS data

  17. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  18. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  19. High-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambot, S.; Minet, J.; Slob, E.; Vereecken, H.; Vanclooster, M.

    2008-12-01

    Measuring soil surface water content is essential in hydrology and agriculture as this variable controls important key processes of the hydrological cycle such as infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. We present a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method for automated, high-resolution, real-time mapping of soil surface dielectric permittivity and correlated water content at the field scale. Field scale characterization and monitoring is not only necessary for field scale management applications, but also for unravelling upscaling issues in hydrology and bridging the scale gap between local measurements and remote sensing. In particular, such methods are necessary to validate and improve remote sensing data products. The radar system consists of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground, ultra-wideband monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up a continuous-wave steeped-frequency GPR. Radar signal analysis is based on three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse modelling. The forward model accounts for all antenna effects, antenna-soil interactions, and wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. A fast procedure was developed to evaluate the involved Green's function, resulting from a singular, complex integral. Radar data inversion is focused on the surface reflection in the time domain. The method presents considerable advantages compared to the current surface characterization methods using GPR, namely, the ground wave and common reflection methods. Theoretical analyses were performed, dealing with the effects of electric conductivity on the surface reflection when non-negligible, and on near-surface layering, which may lead to unrealistic values for the surface dielectric permittivity if not properly accounted for. Inversion strategies are proposed. In particular the combination of GPR with electromagnetic induction data appears to be promising to deal with highly conductive soils

  20. The Hestia Project: High Spatial Resolution Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantification at Hourly Scale in Indianapolis, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface and contribute to sound, quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, quantification of greenhouse gases emissions drivers at fine spatial and temporal scales is essential. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gases, has become a key component to cost-effective CO2 emissions mitigation options and a carbon trading system. Called the ‘Hestia Project’, this pilot study generated CO2 emissions down to high spatial resolution and hourly scale for the greater Indianapolis region in the USA through the use of air quality and traffic monitoring data, remote sensing, GIS, and building energy modeling. The CO2 emissions were constructed from three data source categories: area, point, and mobile. For the area source emissions, we developed an energy consumption model using DOE/EIA survey data on building characteristics and energy consumption. With the Vulcan Project’s county-level CO2 emissions and simulated building energy consumption, we quantified the CO2 emissions for each individual building by allocating Vulcan emissions to roughly 50,000 structures in Indianapolis. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions in each individual building was developed based on temporal patterns of energy consumption. The point sources emissions were derived from the EPA National Emissions Inventory data and effluent monitoring of electricity producing facilities. The mobile source CO2 emissions were estimated at the month/county scale using the Mobile6 combustion model and the National Mobile Inventory Model database. The month/county scale mobile source CO2 emissions were downscaled to the “native” spatial resolution of road segments every hour using a GIS road atlas and traffic monitoring data. The result is shown in Figure 1. The resulting urban-scale inventory can serve as a baseline of current CO2 emissions and should be of immediate use to

  1. High-Resolution Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Observations to Represent Local-Scale Water Table Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulis, D.; Reager, J. T., II; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Andreadis, K.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the numerous advances in hydrologic modeling and improvements in Land Surface Models, an accurate representation of the water table depth (WTD) still does not exist. Data assimilation of observations of the joint NASA and DLR mission, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) leads to statistically significant improvements in the accuracy of hydrologic models, ultimately resulting in more reliable estimates of water storage. However, the usually shallow groundwater compartment of the models presents a problem with GRACE assimilation techniques, as these satellite observations account for much deeper aquifers. To improve the accuracy of groundwater estimates and allow the representation of the WTD at fine spatial scales we implemented a novel approach that enables a large-scale data integration system to assimilate GRACE data. This was achieved by augmenting the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, which is the core component of the Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS), a high-resolution modeling framework developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for hydrologic modeling and data assimilation. The model has insufficient subsurface characterization and therefore, to reproduce groundwater variability not only in shallow depths but also in deep aquifers, as well as to allow GRACE assimilation, a fourth soil layer of varying depth ( 1000 meters) was added in VIC as the bottom layer. To initialize a water table in the model we used gridded global WTD data at 1 km resolution which were spatially aggregated to match the model's resolution. Simulations were then performed to test the augmented model's ability to capture seasonal and inter-annual trends of groundwater. The 4-layer version of VIC was run with and without assimilating GRACE Total Water Storage anomalies (TWSA) over the Central Valley in California. This is the first-ever assimilation of GRACE TWSA for the determination of realistic water table depths, at

  2. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  3. A multi-scale tensor voting approach for small retinal vessel segmentation in high resolution fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, Argyrios; Hurtut, Thomas; Tahar, Houssem Ben; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-09-01

    Segmenting the retinal vessels from fundus images is a prerequisite for many CAD systems for the automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy lesions. So far, research efforts have concentrated mainly on the accurate localization of the large to medium diameter vessels. However, failure to detect the smallest vessels at the segmentation step can lead to false positive lesion detection counts in a subsequent lesion analysis stage. In this study, a new hybrid method for the segmentation of the smallest vessels is proposed. Line detection and perceptual organization techniques are combined in a multi-scale scheme. Small vessels are reconstructed from the perceptual-based approach via tracking and pixel painting. The segmentation was validated in a high resolution fundus image database including healthy and diabetic subjects using pixel-based as well as perceptual-based measures. The proposed method achieves 85.06% sensitivity rate, while the original multi-scale line detection method achieves 81.06% sensitivity rate for the corresponding images (p<0.05). The improvement in the sensitivity rate for the database is 6.47% when only the smallest vessels are considered (p<0.05). For the perceptual-based measure, the proposed method improves the detection of the vasculature by 7.8% against the original multi-scale line detection method (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Algorithm and Application of Gcp-Independent Block Adjustment for Super Large-Scale Domestic High Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y. S.; Zhang, L.; Xu, B.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The accurate positioning of optical satellite image without control is the precondition for remote sensing application and small/medium scale mapping in large abroad areas or with large-scale images. In this paper, aiming at the geometric features of optical satellite image, based on a widely used optimization method of constraint problem which is called Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) and RFM least-squares block adjustment, we propose a GCP independent block adjustment method for the large-scale domestic high resolution optical satellite image - GISIBA (GCP-Independent Satellite Imagery Block Adjustment), which is easy to parallelize and highly efficient. In this method, the virtual "average" control points are built to solve the rank defect problem and qualitative and quantitative analysis in block adjustment without control. The test results prove that the horizontal and vertical accuracy of multi-covered and multi-temporal satellite images are better than 10 m and 6 m. Meanwhile the mosaic problem of the adjacent areas in large area DOM production can be solved if the public geographic information data is introduced as horizontal and vertical constraints in the block adjustment process. Finally, through the experiments by using GF-1 and ZY-3 satellite images over several typical test areas, the reliability, accuracy and performance of our developed procedure will be presented and studied in this paper.

  5. High spatial resolution measurements of large-scale three-dimensional structures in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Callum; Buchmann, Nicolas; Kuehn, Matthias; Soria, Julio

    2011-11-01

    Large-scale three-dimensional (3D) structures in a turbulent boundary layer at Reθ = 2000 are examined via the streamwise extrapolation of time-resolved stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements in a wall-normal spanwise plane using Taylor's hypothesis. Two overlapping SPIV systems are used to provide a field of view similar to that of direct numerical simulations (DNS) on the order of 50 δ × 1 . 5 δ × 3 . 0 δ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively, with an interrogation window size of 40+ ×20+ ×60+ wall units. Velocity power spectra are compared with DNS to examine the effective resolution of these measurements and two-point correlations are performed to investigate the integral length scales associated with coherent velocity and vorticity fluctuations. Individual coherent structures are detected to provide statistics on the 3D size, spacing, and angular orientation of large-scale structures, as well as their contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress. The support of the ARC through Discovery (and LIEF) grants is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Using Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing to Monitor Large Scale Permafrost Transitions: Preliminary Results from a Controlled Thaw Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Wagner, A. M.; Lindsey, N.; Dou, S.; Bjella, K.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Ulrich, C.; Gelvin, A.; Morales, A.; James, S. R.; Saari, S.; Ekblaw, I.; Wood, T.; Robertson, M.; Martin, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    In a warming world, permafrost landscapes are being rapidly transformed by thaw, yielding surface subsidence and groundwater flow alteration. The same transformations pose a threat to arctic infrastructure and can induce catastrophic failure of the roads, runways, and pipelines on which human habitation depends. Scalable solutions to monitoring permafrost thaw dynamics are required to both quantitatively understand biogeochemical feedbacks as well as to protect built infrastructure from damage. Unfortunately, permafrost alteration happens over the time scale of climate change, years to decades, a decided challenge for testing new sensing technologies in a limited context. One solution is to engineer systems capable of rapidly thawing large permafrost units to allow short duration experiments targeting next-generation sensing approaches. We present preliminary results from a large-scale controlled permafrost thaw experiment designed to evaluate the utility of different geophysical approaches for tracking the cause, precursors, and early phases of thaw subsidence. We focus on the use of distributed fiber optic sensing for this challenge and deployed distributed temperature (DTS), strain (DSS), and acoustic (DAS) sensing systems in a 2D array to detect thaw signatures. A 10 x 15 x 1 m section of subsurface permafrost was heated using an array of 120 downhole heaters (60 w) at an experimental site near Fairbanks, AK. Ambient noise analysis of DAS datasets collected at the plot, coupled to shear wave inversion, was utilized to evaluate changes in shear wave velocity associated with heating and thaw. These measurements were confirmed by seismic surveys collected using a semi-permanent orbital seismic source activated on a daily basis. Fiber optic measurements were complemented by subsurface thermistor and thermocouple arrays, timelapse total station surveys, LIDAR, secondary seismic measurements (geophone and broadband recordings), timelapse ERT, borehole NMR, soil

  7. Genome-scale modelling of microbial metabolism with temporal and spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Most natural microbial systems have evolved to function in environments with temporal and spatial variations. A major limitation to understanding such complex systems is the lack of mathematical modelling frameworks that connect the genomes of individual species and temporal and spatial variations in the environment to system behaviour. The goal of this review is to introduce the emerging field of spatiotemporal metabolic modelling based on genome-scale reconstructions of microbial metabolism. The extension of flux balance analysis (FBA) to account for both temporal and spatial variations in the environment is termed spatiotemporal FBA (SFBA). Following a brief overview of FBA and its established dynamic extension, the SFBA problem is introduced and recent progress is described. Three case studies are reviewed to illustrate the current state-of-the-art and possible future research directions are outlined. The author posits that SFBA is the next frontier for microbial metabolic modelling and a rapid increase in methods development and system applications is anticipated. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. High resolution alpha-autoradiography for measurement of 10B distribution in subcellular scale using CR-39 and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuda, N.

    2000-01-01

    In order to measure 10 B distribution in tumor tissues for BNCT at subcellular scale, we have developed a new method for high resolution alpha-autoradiography using contact X-ray microscopy technique with CR-39 plastic track detectors. Sliced sections of boron-injected brain tumors in rats were mounted on CR-39 and irradiated with thermal neutrons at KUR. Then the samples were exposed to soft X-rays from a laser plasma source. After etching the CR-39 in NaOH solution for a short time (1-5 min.), transmission X-ray image of tumor cells appeared as relief on CR-39 surface, and could be observed with the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Very small etch pits of about 100 nm in diameter corresponding to particle tracks from 10 B(n, α) 7 Li reactions were also observed in the image simultaneously. This method provides an accurate distribution of 10 B inside the cell. (author)

  9. Scale-invariance in three-dimensional isotropic turbulence: a paradox and its resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComb, David

    2008-01-01

    If the Reynolds number is large enough, turbulence is expected to exhibit scale invariance in an intermediate ('inertial') range of wave numbers, as shown by power-law behaviour of the energy spectrum and also by a constant rate of energy transfer through wave number. However, although it has long been known that the first of these is true, there has been little recognition of the fact that, if the second is to hold, then there is a contradiction between the definition of the energy flux (as the integral of the transfer spectrum) and the observed behaviour of the transfer spectrum itself. This is because the transfer spectrum T(k) is invariably found to have a zero crossing at a single point (at k 0 , say), implying that the corresponding energy flux cannot have an extended plateau but must instead have a maximum value at k = k 0 . We outline the resulting paradox and note that it may be resolved by the observation that the symmetry of the triadic interactions means that T(k) is not the relevant transfer term in determining the energy flux. Instead the relevant term is a filtered/partitioned version, herein denoted by T +- (k|k c ), where k = k c is the cut-off wave number for low/high-pass filtering. It is known from studies of spectral subgrid transfer that T +- (k|k c ) is zero over an extended range of wave numbers. As this is the case for quite modest Reynolds numbers, it not only resolves the paradox, but may also shed some light on the 'embarrassment of success' of the Kolmogorov theory

  10. Large-scale high-resolution scanning Hall probe microscope used for MgB2 filament characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V; Fedor, J; Gregusova, D; Kovac, P; Husek, I

    2005-01-01

    The scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) is an important imaging tool used for detailed studies of superconductors in basic science as well as in the industrial sector. It can be used for the studies of losses, current distribution, and effects at grain boundaries. However, only a few SHPMs for magnetic field imaging at temperatures below 77 K have been proposed up to now, most of them designed for small-area (∼10x10 μm 2 ) scanning. We present a large-scale low-temperature SHPM developed for imaging the entire magnetic field in close proximity to magnetic and superconducting samples at 4.2-300 K. The microscope combines a large scanned area and high spatial and magnetic field resolution. The instrument is designed as an insert of standard helium flowing cryostats. The Hall sensor scans an area up to 7 x 25 mm 2 in the whole temperature interval with a spatial resolution better than 5 μm. The presented system is used for the study of ex situ prepared MgB 2 filament. We show that external magnetic field induces local supercurrents in the MgB 2 , from which the critical current can be estimated. Moreover, it indicates the microstructure and space homogeneity of the superconductor

  11. High-resolution fluorescence imaging for red and far-red SIF retrieval at leaf and canopy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, L.; Alonso, L.; Cushman, K.; Kellner, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    New commercial-off-the-shelf imaging spectrometers promise the combination of high spatial and spectral resolution needed to retrieve solar induced fluorescence (SIF) at multiple wavelengths for individual plants and even individual leaves from low-altitude airborne or ground-based platforms. Data from these instruments could provide insight into the status of the photosynthetic apparatus at scales of space and time not observable from high-altitude and space-based platforms, and could support calibration and validation activities of current and forthcoming space missions to quantify SIF (OCO-2, OCO-3, FLEX, and GEOCARB). High-spectral resolution enables SIF retrieval from regions of strong telluric absorption by molecular oxygen, and also within numerous solar Fraunhofer lines in atmospheric windows not obscured by oxygen or water absorptions. Here we evaluate algorithms for SIF retrieval using a commercial-off-the-shelf diffraction-grating imaging spectrometer with a spectral sampling interval of 0.05 nm and a FWHM 650 or 700 nm. These filters enable a direct measurement of SIF emission > 650 or 700 nm that serves as a benchmark against which retrievals from reflectance spectra can be evaluated. We repeated this comparison between leaf-level SIF emission spectra and retrieved SIF emission spectra for leaves treated with drought stress and an herbicide (DCMU) that inhibits electron transfer from QA to QB of PSII.

  12. Optical system design with wide field of view and high resolution based on monocentric multi-scale construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Hu; Xiao, Nan; Shen, Yang; Xue, Yaoke

    2018-03-01

    With the development of related technology gradually mature in the field of optoelectronic information, it is a great demand to design an optical system with high resolution and wide field of view(FOV). However, as it is illustrated in conventional Applied Optics, there is a contradiction between these two characteristics. Namely, the FOV and imaging resolution are limited by each other. Here, based on the study of typical wide-FOV optical system design, we propose the monocentric multi-scale system design method to solve this problem. Consisting of a concentric spherical lens and a series of micro-lens array, this system has effective improvement on its imaging quality. As an example, we designed a typical imaging system, which has a focal length of 35mm and a instantaneous field angle of 14.7", as well as the FOV set to be 120°. By analyzing the imaging quality, we demonstrate that in different FOV, all the values of MTF at 200lp/mm are higher than 0.4 when the sampling frequency of the Nyquist is 200lp/mm, which shows a good accordance with our design.

  13. The burden of chronic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining in Zimbabwe: data availability and preliminary estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Pinheiro, Paulo; Plass, Dietrich; Shoko, Dennis; Drasch, Gustav; Bernaudat, Ludovic; Siebert, Uwe; Hornberg, Claudia

    2014-12-13

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a poverty-driven activity practiced in over 70 countries worldwide. Zimbabwe is amongst the top ten countries using large quantities of mercury to extract gold from ore. This analysis was performed to check data availability and derive a preliminary estimate of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to mercury use in ASGM in Zimbabwe. Cases of chronic mercury intoxication were identified following an algorithm using mercury-related health effects and mercury in human specimens. The sample prevalence amongst miners and controls (surveyed by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization in 2004 and the University of Munich in 2006) was determined and extrapolated to the entire population of Zimbabwe. Further epidemiological and demographic data were taken from the literature and missing data modeled with DisMod II to quantify DALYs using the methods from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2004 update published by the World Health Organization (WHO). While there was no disability weight (DW) available indicating the relative disease severity of chronic mercury intoxication, the DW of a comparable disease was assigned by following the criteria 1) chronic condition, 2) triggered by a substance, and 3) causing similar health symptoms. Miners showed a sample prevalence of 72% while controls showed no cases of chronic mercury intoxication. Data availability is very limited why it was necessary to model data and make assumptions about the number of exposed population, the definition of chronic mercury intoxication, DW, and epidemiology. If these assumptions hold, the extrapolation would result in around 95,400 DALYs in Zimbabwe's total population in 2004. This analysis provides a preliminary quantification of the mercury-related health burden from ASGM based on the limited data available. If the determined assumptions hold, chronic mercury intoxication is likely to have been one of the top 20 hazards for population

  14. Small-scale sediment transport patterns and bedform morphodynamics: New insights from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.L.; Erikson, L.H.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    New multibeam echosounder and processing technologies yield sub-meter-scale bathymetric resolution, revealing striking details of bedform morphology that are shaped by complex boundary-layer flow dynamics at a range of spatial and temporal scales. An inertially aided post processed kinematic (IAPPK) technique generates a smoothed best estimate trajectory (SBET) solution to tie the vessel motion-related effects of each sounding directly to the ellipsoid, significantly reducing artifacts commonly found in multibeam data, increasing point density, and sharpening seafloor features. The new technique was applied to a large bedform field in 20-30 m water depths in central San Francisco Bay, California (USA), revealing bedforms that suggest boundary-layer flow deflection by the crests where 12-m-wavelength, 0.2-m-amplitude bedforms are superimposed on 60-m-wavelength, 1-m-amplitude bedforms, with crests that often were strongly oblique (approaching 90??) to the larger features on the lee side, and near-parallel on the stoss side. During one survey in April 2008, superimposed bedform crests were continuous between the crests of the larger features, indicating that flow detachment in the lee of the larger bedforms is not always a dominant process. Assessment of bedform crest peakedness, asymmetry, and small-scale bedform evolution between surveys indicates the impact of different flow regimes on the entire bedform field. This paper presents unique fine-scale imagery of compound and superimposed bedforms, which is used to (1) assess the physical forcing and evolution of a bedform field in San Francisco Bay, and (2) in conjunction with numerical modeling, gain a better fundamental understanding of boundary-layer flow dynamics that result in the observed superimposed bedform orientation. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  15. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  16. Simulation of the Demand Side Management impacts: resolution enhancement of the input parameters at the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Following the integrated energy planning paradigm in the 90's and the recent renewal of decentralized energy planning interests, Demand Side Management (DSM) actions are expected to take a significant role on energy planning activities in the future. Indeed the DSM actions represent a relevant option to achieve environmental and energy commitments or to alleviate some specific problems of electricity supply. DSM actions at the local scale at least in the French context is observed today. There is a need for appropriate methods and tools to assess the impacts of such MDE programs at local level. The local scale involves taking into account the specificities of the territories (physical, social, geographical, economical, institutional, etc.) The objective of this thesis is to improve the spatial resolution of input variables for the use in DSM action simulation tools. Based on a case study in France (PREMIO project: smart architecture for load management applied to a district) and an existing simulation tool we will study the impacts of this local experience to several municipalities. (author)

  17. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  18. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo; Park, Moon Hyang

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  19. Development of high-resolution multi-scale modelling system for simulation of coastal-fluvial urban flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Joanne; Indiana Olbert, Agnieszka; Nash, Stephen; Hartnett, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Urban developments in coastal zones are often exposed to natural hazards such as flooding. In this research, a state-of-the-art, multi-scale nested flood (MSN_Flood) model is applied to simulate complex coastal-fluvial urban flooding due to combined effects of tides, surges and river discharges. Cork city on Ireland's southwest coast is a study case. The flood modelling system comprises a cascade of four dynamically linked models that resolve the hydrodynamics of Cork Harbour and/or its sub-region at four scales: 90, 30, 6 and 2 m. Results demonstrate that the internalization of the nested boundary through the use of ghost cells combined with a tailored adaptive interpolation technique creates a highly dynamic moving boundary that permits flooding and drying of the nested boundary. This novel feature of MSN_Flood provides a high degree of choice regarding the location of the boundaries to the nested domain and therefore flexibility in model application. The nested MSN_Flood model through dynamic downscaling facilitates significant improvements in accuracy of model output without incurring the computational expense of high spatial resolution over the entire model domain. The urban flood model provides full characteristics of water levels and flow regimes necessary for flood hazard identification and flood risk assessment.

  20. Combining photorealistic immersive geovisualization and high-resolution geospatial data to enhance human-scale viewshed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, P.; Petrasova, A.; Baran, P.; Petras, V.; Mitasova, H.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Viewshed modelling- a process of defining, parsing and analysis of landscape visual space's structure within GIS- has been commonly used in applications ranging from landscape planning and ecosystem services assessment to geography and archaeology. However, less effort has been made to understand whether and to what extent these objective analyses predict actual on-the-ground perception of human observer. Moreover, viewshed modelling at the human-scale level require incorporation of fine-grained landscape structure (eg., vegetation) and patterns (e.g, landcover) that are typically omitted from visibility calculations or unrealistically simulated leading to significant error in predicting visual attributes. This poster illustrates how photorealistic Immersive Virtual Environments and high-resolution geospatial data can be used to integrate objective and subjective assessments of visual characteristics at the human-scale level. We performed viewshed modelling for a systematically sampled set of viewpoints (N=340) across an urban park using open-source GIS (GRASS GIS). For each point a binary viewshed was computed on a 3D surface model derived from high-density leaf-off LIDAR (QL2) points. Viewshed map was combined with high-resolution landcover (.5m) derived through fusion of orthoimagery, lidar vegetation, and vector data. Geo-statistics and landscape structure analysis was performed to compute topological and compositional metrics for visual-scale (e.g., openness), complexity (pattern, shape and object diversity), and naturalness. Based on the viewshed model output, a sample of 24 viewpoints representing the variation of visual characteristics were selected and geolocated. For each location, 360o imagery were captured using a DSL camera mounted on a GIGA PAN robot. We programmed a virtual reality application through which human subjects (N=100) immersively experienced a random representation of selected environments via a head-mounted display (Oculus Rift CV1), and

  1. Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES): A product of a high temporal resolution rainfall data collection in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the (R)USLE model. The R-factor is calculated from a series of single storm events by multiplying the total storm kinetic energy with the measured maximum 30-minutes rainfall intensity. This estimation requests high temporal resolution (e.g. 30 minutes) rainfall data for sufficiently long time periods (i.e. 20 years) which are not readily available at European scale. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre(JRC) in collaboration with national/regional meteorological services and Environmental Institutions made an extensive data collection of high resolution rainfall data in the 28 Member States of the European Union plus Switzerland in order to estimate rainfall erosivity in Europe. This resulted in the Rainfall Erosivity Database on the European Scale (REDES) which included 1,541 rainfall stations in 2014 and has been updated with 134 additional stations in 2015. The interpolation of those point R-factor values with a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model has resulted in the first Rainfall Erosivity map of Europe (Science of the Total Environment, 511, 801-815). The intra-annual variability of rainfall erosivity is crucial for modelling soil erosion on a monthly and seasonal basis. The monthly feature of rainfall erosivity has been added in 2015 as an advancement of REDES and the respective mean annual R-factor map. Almost 19,000 monthly R-factor values of REDES contributed to the seasonal and monthly assessments of rainfall erosivity in Europe. According to the first results, more than 50% of the total rainfall erosivity in Europe takes place in the period from June to September. The spatial patterns of rainfall erosivity have significant differences between Northern and Southern Europe as summer is the most erosive period in Central and Northern Europe and autumn in the

  2. Application of Large-Scale, Multi-Resolution Watershed Modeling Framework Using the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw Yen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, large-scale watershed modeling has been implemented broadly in the field of water resources planning and management. Complex hydrological, sediment, and nutrient processes can be simulated by sophisticated watershed simulation models for important issues such as water resources allocation, sediment transport, and pollution control. Among commonly adopted models, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT has been demonstrated to provide superior performance with a large amount of referencing databases. However, it is cumbersome to perform tedious initialization steps such as preparing inputs and developing a model with each changing targeted study area. In this study, the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS is introduced to serve as a national-scale Decision Support System (DSS to conduct challenging watershed modeling tasks. HAWQS is a web-based DSS developed and maintained by Texas A & M University, and supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Three different spatial resolutions of Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC8, HUC10, and HUC12 and three temporal scales (time steps in daily/monthly/annual are available as alternatives for general users. In addition, users can specify preferred values of model parameters instead of using the pre-defined sets. With the aid of HAWQS, users can generate a preliminarily calibrated SWAT project within a few minutes by only providing the ending HUC number of the targeted watershed and the simulation period. In the case study, HAWQS was implemented on the Illinois River Basin, USA, with graphical demonstrations and associated analytical results. Scientists and/or decision-makers can take advantage of the HAWQS framework while conducting relevant topics or policies in the future.

  3. The Development of a Long-Term, Continually Updated Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P.; Perez, R.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K.; Cox, Stephen; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, T.; Hemker, K.; Schlemmer, J.; Kivalov, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the likelihood of global climatic weather pattern changes and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved and continuously updated global Earth surface solar resource information. Toward this end, a project was funded under the NASA Applied Science program involving the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the State University of New York/Albany (SUNY) and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to provide NREL with a global long-term advanced global solar mapping production system for improved depiction of historical solar resources and variability and to provide a mechanism for continual updates of solar resource information. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983. The old version of the ISCCP data provided this information for all the world TMs available geosynchronous satellite systems and NOAA TMs AVHRR data sets at a 30 km effective resolution. This new version aims to provide a new and improved satellite calibration at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will enable NREL to continually update the Earth TM solar resource. Objective and Methods: In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. An assessment of the solar resource values relative to calibration uncertainty and assumptions are presented. Errors resulting assumptions in snow cover and background aerosol

  4. “It Was Only Harmless Banter!” The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Thomas, E.; Pina, Afroditi; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self-report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassm...

  5. A continental-scale hydrology and water quality model for Europe: Calibration and uncertainty of a high-resolution large-scale SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, K. C.; Rouholahnejad, E.; Vaghefi, S.; Srinivasan, R.; Yang, H.; Kløve, B.

    2015-05-01

    A combination of driving forces are increasing pressure on local, national, and regional water supplies needed for irrigation, energy production, industrial uses, domestic purposes, and the environment. In many parts of Europe groundwater quantity, and in particular quality, have come under sever degradation and water levels have decreased resulting in negative environmental impacts. Rapid improvements in the economy of the eastern European block of countries and uncertainties with regard to freshwater availability create challenges for water managers. At the same time, climate change adds a new level of uncertainty with regard to freshwater supplies. In this research we build and calibrate an integrated hydrological model of Europe using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) program. Different components of water resources are simulated and crop yield and water quality are considered at the Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) level. The water resources are quantified at subbasin level with monthly time intervals. Leaching of nitrate into groundwater is also simulated at a finer spatial level (HRU). The use of large-scale, high-resolution water resources models enables consistent and comprehensive examination of integrated system behavior through physically-based, data-driven simulation. In this article we discuss issues with data availability, calibration of large-scale distributed models, and outline procedures for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. The calibrated model and results provide information support to the European Water Framework Directive and lay the basis for further assessment of the impact of climate change on water availability and quality. The approach and methods developed are general and can be applied to any large region around the world.

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION LANDCOVER MODELLING WITH PLÉIADES IMAGERY AND DEM DATA IN SUPPORT OF FINE SCALE LANDSCAPE THERMAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of air-borne thermal infrared imaging sensors, the use of simulated spectral infrared scenery is a cost-effective way to provide input to the sensor. The benefit of simulated scenes includes control over parameters governing the spectral and related thermal behaviour of the terrain as well as atmospheric conditions. Such scenes need to have a high degree of radiometric and geometric accuracy, as well as high resolution to account for small objects having different spectral and associated thermal properties. In support of this, innovative use of tri-stereo, ultra-high resolution Pléiades satellite imagery is being used to generated high detail, small scale quantitative terrain surface data to compliment comparable optical data in order to produce detailed urban and rural landscape datasets representative of different landscape features, within which spectrally defined characteristics can be subsequently matched to thermal signatures. Pléiades tri-stereo mode, acquired from the same orbit during the same pass, is particularly favourable for reaching the required metric accuracy because images are radiometrically and geometrically very homogeneous, which allows a very good radiometric matching for relief computation. The tri-stereo approach reduces noise and allows significantly enhanced relief description in landscapes where simple stereo imaging cannot see features, such as in dense urban areas or valley bottoms in steep, mountainous areas. This paper describes the datasets that have been generated for DENEL over the Hartebeespoort Dam region, west of Pretoria, South Africa. The final terrain datasets are generated by integrated modelling of both height and spectral surface characteristics within an object-based modelling environment. This approach provides an operational framework for rapid and highly accurate mapping of building and vegetation structure of wide areas, as is required in support of the evaluation of thermal

  7. Classification of Small-Scale Eucalyptus Plantations Based on NDVI Time Series Obtained from Multiple High-Resolution Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus, a short-rotation plantation, has been expanding rapidly in southeast China in recent years owing to its short growth cycle and high yield of wood. Effective identification of eucalyptus, therefore, is important for monitoring land use changes and investigating environmental quality. For this article, we used remote sensing images over 15 years (one per year with a 30-m spatial resolution, including Landsat 5 thematic mapper images, Landsat 7-enhanced thematic mapper images, and HJ 1A/1B images. These data were used to construct a 15-year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series for several cities in Guangdong Province, China. Eucalyptus reference NDVI time series sub-sequences were acquired, including one-year-long and two-year-long growing periods, using invested eucalyptus samples in the study region. In order to compensate for the discontinuity of the NDVI time series that is a consequence of the relatively coarse temporal resolution, we developed an inverted triangle area methodology. Using this methodology, the images were classified on the basis of the matching degree of the NDVI time series and two reference NDVI time series sub-sequences during the growing period of the eucalyptus rotations. Three additional methodologies (Bounding Envelope, City Block, and Standardized Euclidian Distance were also tested and used as a comparison group. Threshold coefficients for the algorithms were adjusted using commission–omission error criteria. The results show that the triangle area methodology out-performed the other methodologies in classifying eucalyptus plantations. Threshold coefficients and an optimal discriminant function were determined using a mosaic photograph that had been taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle platform. Good stability was found as we performed further validation using multiple-year data from the high-resolution Gaofen Satellite 1 (GF-1 observations of larger regions. Eucalyptus planting dates

  8. Preliminary discussion on possible genesis of crustal rotation, its impact on geotectonic evolution and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Xiaojing

    2005-01-01

    Hunan province and adjacent regions show ring-form distribution features both on surface geologic structure and geophysical field. Such features might result from the rotation movement of the earth crust and exert serious impact on the geotectonic evolution and large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. This paper makes a preliminary discussion on the possible genesis of such rotation movement, as well as the associated series of geologic processes and its relation to large-scale metallogeny in Hunan province and adjacent regions. (authors)

  9. Mediterranean Thermohaline Response to Large-Scale Winter Atmospheric Forcing in a High-Resolution Ocean Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusinato, Eleonora; Zanchettin, Davide; Sannino, Gianmaria; Rubino, Angelo

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale circulation anomalies over the North Atlantic and Euro-Mediterranean regions described by dominant climate modes, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic/Western Russian (EAWR) and the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), significantly affect interannual-to-decadal climatic and hydroclimatic variability in the Euro-Mediterranean region. However, whereas previous studies assessed the impact of such climate modes on air-sea heat and freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea, the propagation of these atmospheric forcing signals from the surface toward the interior and the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea remains unexplored. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model simulation covering the 1979-2013 period to investigate spatial patterns and time scales of the Mediterranean thermohaline response to winter forcing from NAO, EA, EAWR and MOI. We find that these modes significantly imprint on the thermohaline properties in key areas of the Mediterranean Sea through a variety of mechanisms. Typically, density anomalies induced by all modes remain confined in the upper 600 m depth and remain significant for up to 18-24 months. One of the clearest propagation signals refers to the EA in the Adriatic and northern Ionian seas: There, negative EA anomalies are associated to an extensive positive density response, with anomalies that sink to the bottom of the South Adriatic Pit within a 2-year time. Other strong responses are the thermally driven responses to the EA in the Gulf of Lions and to the EAWR in the Aegean Sea. MOI and EAWR forcing of thermohaline properties in the Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins seems to be determined by reinforcement processes linked to the persistency of these modes in multiannual anomalous states. Our study also suggests that NAO, EA, EAWR and MOI could critically interfere with internal, deep and abyssal ocean dynamics and variability in the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Post-Disturbance Stability of Fish Assemblages Measured at Coarse Taxonomic Resolution Masks Change at Finer Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Emslie, Michael J; Richards, Zoe T

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying changes to coral reef fish assemblages in the wake of cyclonic disturbances is challenging due to spatial variability of damage inherent in such events. Often, fish abundance appears stable at one spatial scale (e.g. reef-wide), but exhibits substantial change at finer scales (e.g. site-specific decline or increase). Taxonomic resolution also plays a role; overall stability at coarse taxonomic levels (e.g. family) may mask species-level turnover. Here we document changes to reef fish communities after severe Tropical Cyclone Ita crossed Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral and reef fish surveys were conducted concurrently before and after the cyclone at four levels of exposure to the prevailing weather. Coral cover declined across all exposures except sheltered sites, with the largest decline at exposed sites. There was no significant overall reduction in the total density, biomass and species richness of reef fishes between 2011 and 2015, but individual fish taxa (families and species) changed in complex and unpredictable ways. For example, more families increased in density and biomass than decreased following Cyclone Ita, particularly at exposed sites whilst more fish families declined at lagoon sites even though coral cover did not decline. All sites lost biomass of several damselfish species, and at most sites there was an increase in macroinvertivores and grazers. Overall, these results suggest that the degree of change measured at coarse taxonomic levels masked high species-level turnover, although other potential explanations include that there was no impact of the storm, fish assemblages were impacted but underwent rapid recovery or that there is a time lag before the full impacts become apparent. This study confirms that in high-complexity, high diversity ecosystems such as coral reefs, species level analyses are essential to adequately capture the consequences of disturbance events.

  11. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  12. High-resolution climate and land surface interactions modeling over Belgium: current state and decennial scale projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Ingrid; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Beckers, Veronique; Berckmans, Julie; Debusscher, Bos; Dury, Marie; Minet, Julien; Hamdi, Rafiq; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Tychon, Bernard; Hambuckers, Alain; François, Louis

    2016-04-01

    The interactions between land surface and climate are complex. Climate changes can affect ecosystem structure and functions, by altering photosynthesis and productivity or inducing thermal and hydric stresses on plant species. These changes then impact socio-economic systems, through e.g., lower farming or forestry incomes. Ultimately, it can lead to permanent changes in land use structure, especially when associated with other non-climatic factors, such as urbanization pressure. These interactions and changes have feedbacks on the climate systems, in terms of changing: (1) surface properties (albedo, roughness, evapotranspiration, etc.) and (2) greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2, CH4, N2O). In the framework of the MASC project (« Modelling and Assessing Surface Change impacts on Belgian and Western European climate »), we aim at improving regional climate model projections at the decennial scale over Belgium and Western Europe by combining high-resolution models of climate, land surface dynamics and socio-economic processes. The land surface dynamics (LSD) module is composed of a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB) calculating the productivity and growth of natural and managed vegetation, and an agent-based model (CRAFTY), determining the shifts in land use and land cover. This up-scaled LSD module is made consistent with the surface scheme of the regional climate model (RCM: ALARO) to allow simulations of the RCM with a fully dynamic land surface for the recent past and the period 2000-2030. In this contribution, we analyze the results of the first simulations performed with the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model over Belgium at a resolution of 1km. This analysis is performed at the species level, using a set of 17 species for natural vegetation (trees and grasses) and 10 crops, especially designed to represent the Belgian vegetation. The CARAIB model is forced with surface atmospheric variables derived from the monthly global CRU climatology or ALARO outputs

  13. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping. Sampsa Hamalainen, Xiaoyuan Geng, and Juanxia, He. AAFC - Agriculture and Agr-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach to assist with Digital Soil Mapping has been developed for some time now, however the purpose of this work was to complement LHS with use of multiple spatial resolutions of covariate datasets and variability in the range of sampling points produced. This allowed for specific sets of LHS points to be produced to fulfil the needs of various partners from multiple projects working in the Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces of Canada. Secondary soil and environmental attributes are critical inputs that are required in the development of sampling points by LHS. These include a required Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and subsequent covariate datasets produced as a result of a Digital Terrain Analysis performed on the DEM. These additional covariates often include but are not limited to Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Length-Slope (LS) Factor, and Slope which are continuous data. The range of specific points created in LHS included 50 - 200 depending on the size of the watershed and more importantly the number of soil types found within. The spatial resolution of covariates included within the work ranged from 5 - 30 m. The iterations within the LHS sampling were run at an optimal level so the LHS model provided a good spatial representation of the environmental attributes within the watershed. Also, additional covariates were included in the Latin Hypercube Sampling approach which is categorical in nature such as external Surficial Geology data. Some initial results of the work include using a 1000 iteration variable within the LHS model. 1000 iterations was consistently a reasonable value used to produce sampling points that provided a good spatial representation of the environmental

  14. Final Report. Evaluating the Climate Sensitivity of Dissipative Subgrid-Scale Mixing Processes and Variable Resolution in NCAR's Community Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, Christiane [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-12-14

    The goals of this project were to (1) assess and quantify the sensitivity and scale-dependency of unresolved subgrid-scale mixing processes in NCAR’s Community Earth System Model (CESM), and (2) to improve the accuracy and skill of forthcoming CESM configurations on modern cubed-sphere and variable-resolution computational grids. The research thereby contributed to the description and quantification of uncertainties in CESM’s dynamical cores and their physics-dynamics interactions.

  15. Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. Part 3: turbulent flow and plume dispersion in building arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakayama, H.; Jurčáková, Klára; Nagai, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 503-519 ISSN 0022-3131 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : local-scale high-resolution dispersion model * nuclear emergency response system * large-eddy simulation * spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2013

  16. Air pollutant dispersion from a large semi-enclosed stadium in an urban area: high-resolution CFD modeling versus full-scale measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: High-resolution CFD simulations and full-scale measurements have been performed to assess the dispersion of air pollutants (CO2) from the large semi-enclosed Amsterdam ArenA football stadium. The dispersion process is driven by natural ventilation by the urban wind flow and by buoyancy,

  17. Repeated 1-cm Resolution Topographic and 2.5-mm Resolution Photomosiac Surveys of Benthic Communities and Fine Scale Bedforms in Monterey Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Risi, M.; Troni, G.; Paull, C. K.; Rock, S.; Padial, J. A.; Hammond, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has developed a low altitude, ROV-based seafloor mapping system that combines lidar laser ranging, multibeam sonar, and stereo photographic imagery. When operated at a 3-m altitude, this system maps seafloor topography with a 1-cm lateral resolution and simultaneously collects 2.5-mm resolution color photography. We have twice mapped an 80-m by 80-m area of a chemosynthetic clam community located at 2850-m depth in the Monterey Canyon axis. Both the topography and the photomosaics resolve changes in the clam community over a six-month interval. Many individual animals have moved, and tracks of those animals are visible in the lidar topography. No other changes in the seafloor at this site can be discerned. We have also performed single surveys of bedforms and scours at both 1850-m and 2850-m depths in Monterey Canyon. The highest resolution bathymetry data are collected using a 3DatDepth SL1 lidar laser scanner. This system has a 30° field of view and ranges continuously, achieving a 1 cm sounding spacing at a 3 m altitude and 0.3 m/s speed. Bathymetry data are also collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 3-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 2.5 cm acrosstrack and 5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Prosilica GX1920 2.4 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. Illumination is provided by dual xenon strobes. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view with less than 1% distortion. At a 3-m altitude the raw image pixels have a 2.5 mm resolution. Position and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz Teledyne RD Instruments Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS

  18. Crystal structure of the disintegrin heterodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 1.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Singh, Tej P

    2005-08-23

    Disintegrins constitute a family of potent polypeptide inhibitors of integrins. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in many diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Thus, disintegrins have a great potential as anticancer and antithrombotic agents. A novel heterodimeric disintegrin was isolated from the venom of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2. The data indicated the presence of a pseudosymmetry. The structure was solved by applying origin shifts to the disintegrin homodimer schistatin solved in space group I4(1)22 with similar cell dimensions. The structure refined to the final R(cryst)/R(free) factors of 0.213/0.253. The notable differences are observed between the loops, (Gln39-Asp48) containing the important Arg42-Gly43-Asp44, of the present heterodimer and schistatin. These differences are presumably due to the presence of two glycines at positions 43 and 46 that allow the molecule to adopt variable conformations. A comparative analysis of the surface-charge distributions of various disintegrins showed that the charge distribution on monomeric disintegrins occurred uniformly over the whole surface of the molecule, while in the dimeric disintegrins, the charge is distributed only on one face. Such a feature may be important in the binding of two integrins to a single dimeric disintegrin. The phylogenetic analysis developed on the basis of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structures indicates that the protein diversification and evolution presumably took place from the medium disintegrins and both the dimeric and short disintegrins evolved from them.

  19. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with medium resolution MODIS-EVI time series at sub-regional scale in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, Olena; Landmann, Tobias; Erasmus, Barend F. N.; Tewes, Andreas; Schellberg, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a lack of knowledge on spatio-temporal patterns of land surface dynamics at medium spatial scale in southern Africa, even though this information is essential for better understanding of ecosystem response to climatic variability and human-induced land transformations. In this study, we analysed vegetation dynamics across a large area in southern Africa using the 14-years (2000-2013) of medium spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS-EVI time-series data. Specifically, we investigated temporal changes in the time series of key phenometrics including overall greenness, peak and timing of annual greenness over the monitoring period and study region. In order to specifically capture spatial and per pixel vegetation changes over time, we calculated trends in these phenometrics using a robust trend analysis method. The results showed that interannual vegetation dynamics followed precipitation patterns with clearly differentiated seasonality. The earliest peak greenness during 2000-2013 occurred at the end of January in the year 2000 and the latest peak greenness was observed at the mid of March in 2012. Specifically spatial patterns of long-term vegetation trends allowed mapping areas of (i) decrease or increase in overall greenness, (ii) decrease or increase of peak greenness, and (iii) shifts in timing of occurrence of peak greenness over the 14-year monitoring period. The observed vegetation decline in the study area was mainly attributed to human-induced factors. The obtained information is useful to guide selection of field sites for detailed vegetation studies and land rehabilitation interventions and serve as an input for a range of land surface models.

  20. Century-scale high-resolution black carbon records in sediment cores from the South Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Hong, Yuehui; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Lirong; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) has received increasing attention in the last 20 years because it is not only an absorbent of toxic pollutants but also a greenhouse substance, preserving fire-history records, and more importantly, acting as an indicator of biogeochemical cycles and global changes. By adopting an improved chemothermal oxidation method (WXY), this study reconstructed the century-scale high-resolution records of BC deposition from two fine-grained sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass in the South Yellow Sea. The BC records were divided into five stages, which exhibited specific sequences with three BC peaks at approximately 1891, 1921, and 2007 AD, representing times at which the first heavy storms appeared just after the termination of long-term droughts. The significant correlation between the times of the BC peaks in the cores and heavy storms in the area of the Huanghe (Yellow) River demonstrated that BC peaks could result from markedly strengthened sedimentation due to surface runoff, which augmented the atmospheric deposition. Stable carbon isotope analysis indicated that the evident increase in carbon isotope ratios of BC in Stage 5 might have resulted from the input of weathered rock-derived graphitic carbon cardinally induced by the annual anthropogenic modulation of water-borne sediment in the Huanghe River since 2005 AD. Numerical calculations demonstrated that the input fraction of graphitic carbon was 22.97% for Stage 5, whereas no graphitic carbon entered during Stages 1 and 3. The obtained data provide new and important understanding of the source-sink history of BC in the Yellow Sea.

  1. Large-scale Watershed Modeling: NHDPlus Resolution with Achievable Conservation Scenarios in the Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H.; White, M. J.; Arnold, J. G.; Keitzer, S. C.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Daggupati, P.; Herbert, M. E.; Sowa, S. P.; Ludsin, S.; Robertson, D. M.; Srinivasan, R.; Rewa, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    By the substantial improvement of computer technology, large-scale watershed modeling has become practically feasible in conducting detailed investigations of hydrologic, sediment, and nutrient processes. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), water quality issues caused by anthropogenic activities are not just interesting research subjects but, have implications related to human health and welfare, as well as ecological integrity, resistance, and resilience. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the finest resolution stream network, NHDPlus, were implemented on the WLEB to examine the interactions between achievable conservation scenarios with corresponding additional projected costs. During the calibration/validation processes, both hard (temporal) and soft (non-temporal) data were used to ensure the modeling outputs are coherent with actual watershed behavior. The results showed that widespread adoption of conservation practices intended to provide erosion control could deliver average reductions of sediment and nutrients without additional nutrient management changes. On the other hand, responses of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) dynamics may be different than responses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus dynamics under the same conservation practice. Model results also implied that fewer financial resources are required to achieve conservation goals if the goal is to achieve reductions in targeted watershed outputs (ex. NO3 or DIP) rather than aggregated outputs (ex. total nitrogen or total phosphorus). In addition, it was found that the model's capacity to simulate seasonal effects and responses to changing conservation adoption on a seasonal basis could provide a useful index to help alleviate additional cost through temporal targeting of conservation practices. Scientists, engineers, and stakeholders can take advantage of the work performed in this study as essential information while conducting policy

  2. The ALMA View of GMCs in NGC 300: Physical Properties and Scaling Relations at 10 pc Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faesi, Christopher M.; Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We have conducted a 12CO(2–1) survey of several molecular gas complexes in the vicinity of H II regions within the spiral galaxy NGC 300 using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Our observations attain a resolution of 10 pc and 1 {km} {{{s}}}-1, sufficient to fully resolve giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and the highest obtained to date beyond the Local Group. We use the CPROPS algorithm to identify and characterize 250 GMCs across the observed regions. GMCs in NGC 300 appear qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those in the Milky Way disk: they show an identical scaling relationship between size R and linewidth ΔV (ΔV ∝ R 0.48±0.05), appear to be mostly in virial equilibrium, and are consistent with having a constant surface density of about 60 {M}ȯ pc‑2. The GMC mass spectrum is similar to those in the inner disks of spiral galaxies (including the Milky Way). Our results suggest that global galactic properties such as total stellar mass, morphology, and average metallicity may not play a major role in setting GMC properties, at least within the disks of galaxies on the star-forming main sequence. Instead, GMC properties may be more strongly influenced by local environmental factors such as the midplane disk pressure. In particular, in the inner disk of NGC 300, we find this pressure to be similar to that in the local Milky Way but markedly lower than that in the disk of M51, where GMCs are characterized by systematically higher surface densities and a higher coefficient for the size–linewidth relation.

  3. Design and preliminary testing of a MEMS microphone phased array for aeroacoustic testing of a small-scale wind turbine airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bale, A.; Orlando, S.; Johnson, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    One of the barriers preventing the widespread utilization of wind turbines is the audible sound that they produce. Developing quieter wind turbines will increase the amount of available land onto which wind farms can be built. Noise emissions from wind turbines can be attributed to the aerodynamic effects between the turbine blades and the air surrounding them. A dominant source of these aeroacoustic emissions from wind turbines is known to originate at the trailing edges of the airfoils. This study investigated the flow physics of noise generation in an effort to reduce noise from small-scale wind turbine airfoils. The trailing edge noise was studied on scale-models in wind tunnels and applied to full scale conditions. Microphone phased arrays are popular research tools in wind tunnel aeroacoustic studies because they can measure and locate noise sources. However, large arrays of microphones can be prohibitively expensive. This paper presented preliminary testing of micro-electrical mechanical system (MEMS) microphones in phased arrays for aeroacoustic testing on a small wind turbine airfoil. Preliminary results showed that MEMS microphones are an acceptable low-cost alternative to costly condenser microphones. 19 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  4. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  5. National-scale crop type mapping and area estimation using multi-resolution remote sensing and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. P.; Potapov, P.; Adusei, B.; King, L.; Khan, A.; Krylov, A.; Di Bella, C. M.; Pickens, A. H.; Stehman, S. V.; Hansen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on agricultural production is essential for ensuring world food security. Freely available medium-resolution satellite data (e.g. Landsat, Sentinel) offer the possibility of improved global agriculture monitoring. Here we develop and test a method for estimating in-season crop acreage using a probability sample of field visits and producing wall-to-wall crop type maps at national scales. The method is first illustrated for soybean cultivated area in the US for 2015. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect field data to estimate national soybean area. The field-based estimate employed historical soybean extent maps from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer to delineate and stratify U.S. soybean growing regions. The estimated 2015 U.S. soybean cultivated area based on the field sample was 341,000 km2 with a standard error of 23,000 km2. This result is 1.0% lower than USDA's 2015 June survey estimate and 1.9% higher than USDA's 2016 January estimate. Our area estimate was derived in early September, about 2 months ahead of harvest. To map soybean cover, the Landsat image archive for the year 2015 growing season was processed using an active learning approach. Overall accuracy of the soybean map was 84%. The field-based sample estimated area was then used to calibrate the map such that the soybean acreage of the map derived through pixel counting matched the sample-based area estimate. The strength of the sample-based area estimation lies in the stratified design that takes advantage of the spatially explicit cropland layers to construct the strata. The success of the mapping was built upon an automated system which transforms Landsat images into standardized time-series metrics. The developed method produces reliable and timely information on soybean area in a cost-effective way and could be implemented in an operational mode. The approach has also been applied for other crops in

  6. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  7. Power-Law Scaling of the Impact Crater Size-Frequency Distribution on Pluto: A Preliminary Analysis Based on First Images from New Horizons' Flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholkmann F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent (14 th July 2015 flyby of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft of the dwarf planet Pluto resulted in the first high-resolution images of the geological surface- features of Pluto. Since previous studies showed that the impact crater size-frequency distribution (SFD of different celestial objects of our solar system follows power-laws, the aim of the present analysis was to determine, for the first time, the power-law scaling behavior for Pluto’s crater SFD based on the first images available in mid-September 2015. The analysis was based on a high-resolution image covering parts of Pluto’s re- gions Sputnik Planum , Al-Idrisi Montes and Voyager Terra . 83 impact craters could be identified in these regions and their diameter ( D was determined. The analysis re- vealed that the crater diameter SFD shows a statistically significant power-law scaling ( α = 2.4926±0.3309 in the interval of D values ranging from 3.75±1.14 km to the largest determined D value in this data set of 37.77 km. The value obtained for the scaling coefficient α is similar to the coefficient determined for the power-law scaling of the crater SFDs from the other celestial objects in our solar system. Further analysis of Pluto’s crater SFD is warranted as soon as new images are received from the spacecraft.

  8. A computationally efficient tool for assessing the depth resolution in large-scale potential-field inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoletti, Valeria; Hansen, Per Christian; Hansen, Mads Friis

    2014-01-01

    In potential-field inversion, careful management of singular value decomposition components is crucial for obtaining information about the source distribution with respect to depth. In principle, the depth-resolution plot provides a convenient visual tool for this analysis, but its computational...... on memory and computing time. We used the ApproxDRP to study retrievable depth resolution in inversion of the gravity field of the Neapolitan Volcanic Area. Our main contribution is the combined use of the Lanczos bidiagonalization algorithm, established in the scientific computing community, and the depth...

  9. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Spatial Statistical and Modeling Strategy for Inventorying and Monitoring Ecosystem Resources at Multiple Scales and Resolution Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin M. Reich; C. Aguirre-Bravo; M.S. Williams

    2006-01-01

    A statistical strategy for spatial estimation and modeling of natural and environmental resource variables and indicators is presented. This strategy is part of an inventory and monitoring pilot study that is being carried out in the Mexican states of Jalisco and Colima. Fine spatial resolution estimates of key variables and indicators are outputs that will allow the...

  11. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  12. A PORTRAIT OF COLD GAS IN GALAXIES AT 60 pc RESOLUTION AND A SIMPLE METHOD TO TEST HYPOTHESES THAT LINK SMALL-SCALE ISM STRUCTURE TO GALAXY-SCALE PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Hughes, Annie; Schruba, Andreas; Rosolowsky, Erik; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Escala, Andres; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Colombo, Dario; Kramer, Carsten; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Meidt, Sharon; Querejeta, Miguel; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Pety, Jerome; Sandstrom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The cloud-scale density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness of the interstellar medium (ISM) vary within and among galaxies. In turbulent models, these properties play key roles in the ability of gas to form stars. New high-fidelity, high-resolution surveys offer the prospect to measure these quantities across galaxies. We present a simple approach to make such measurements and to test hypotheses that link small-scale gas structure to star formation and galactic environment. Our calculations capture the key physics of the Larson scaling relations, and we show good correspondence between our approach and a traditional “cloud properties” treatment. However, we argue that our method is preferable in many cases because of its simple, reproducible characterization of all emission. Using, low- J 12 CO data from recent surveys, we characterize the molecular ISM at 60 pc resolution in the Antennae, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), M31, M33, M51, and M74. We report the distributions of surface density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness at 60 pc scales and show galaxy-to-galaxy and intragalaxy variations in each. The distribution of flux as a function of surface density appears roughly lognormal with a 1 σ width of ∼0.3 dex, though the center of this distribution varies from galaxy to galaxy. The 60 pc resolution line width and molecular gas surface density correlate well, which is a fundamental behavior expected for virialized or free-falling gas. Varying the measurement scale for the LMC and M31, we show that the molecular ISM has higher surface densities, lower line widths, and more self-gravity at smaller scales.

  13. A PORTRAIT OF COLD GAS IN GALAXIES AT 60 pc RESOLUTION AND A SIMPLE METHOD TO TEST HYPOTHESES THAT LINK SMALL-SCALE ISM STRUCTURE TO GALAXY-SCALE PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Blanc, Guillermo A.; Escala, Andres [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, Laboratory for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and Joint Space Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Colombo, Dario [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstrasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Meidt, Sharon; Querejeta, Miguel; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Pety, Jerome [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimtrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin-d’Hères (France); Sandstrom, Karin [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    The cloud-scale density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness of the interstellar medium (ISM) vary within and among galaxies. In turbulent models, these properties play key roles in the ability of gas to form stars. New high-fidelity, high-resolution surveys offer the prospect to measure these quantities across galaxies. We present a simple approach to make such measurements and to test hypotheses that link small-scale gas structure to star formation and galactic environment. Our calculations capture the key physics of the Larson scaling relations, and we show good correspondence between our approach and a traditional “cloud properties” treatment. However, we argue that our method is preferable in many cases because of its simple, reproducible characterization of all emission. Using, low- J {sup 12}CO data from recent surveys, we characterize the molecular ISM at 60 pc resolution in the Antennae, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), M31, M33, M51, and M74. We report the distributions of surface density, velocity dispersion, and gravitational boundedness at 60 pc scales and show galaxy-to-galaxy and intragalaxy variations in each. The distribution of flux as a function of surface density appears roughly lognormal with a 1 σ width of ∼0.3 dex, though the center of this distribution varies from galaxy to galaxy. The 60 pc resolution line width and molecular gas surface density correlate well, which is a fundamental behavior expected for virialized or free-falling gas. Varying the measurement scale for the LMC and M31, we show that the molecular ISM has higher surface densities, lower line widths, and more self-gravity at smaller scales.

  14. High-resolution MR imaging of the elbow using a microscopy surface coil and a clinical 1.5 T MR machine: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Saida, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Kujiraoka, Yuka; Shindo, Masashi; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    To obtain high-resolution MR images of the elbow using a microscopy surface coil with a 1.5 T clinical machine and to evaluate the feasibility of its use for elbow injuries. Five asymptomatic normal volunteers and 13 patients with elbow pain were prospectively studied with MR imaging using a microscopy surface coil 47 mm in diameter. High-resolution MR images using a microscopy coil were obtained with fast spin echo (FSE) proton density-weighted sequence, gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted sequence, and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence, with a 1-2 mm slice thickness, a 50-70 mm field of view, an imaging matrix of 140-224 x 512 using zero fill interpolation, and 2-6 excitations. High-resolution MR images of normal volunteers using a microscopy coil clearly showed each structure of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments on GRE T2*-weighted images and FSE proton-density weighted images. Partial medial collateral ligament injury, a small avulsion of the medial epicondyle, and osteochondritis dissecans were well demonstrated on high-resolution MR images. High-resolution MR imaging of the elbow using a microscopy surface coil with a 1.5 T clinical machine is a promising method for accurately characterizing the normal anatomy of the elbow and depicting its lesions in detail. (orig.)

  15. Scaling between reanalyses and high-resolution land-surface modelling in mountainous areas - enabling better application and testing of reanalyses in heterogeneous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, S.; Fiddes, J.

    2013-12-01

    In mountainous topography, the difference in scale between atmospheric reanalyses (typically tens of kilometres) and relevant processes and phenomena near the Earth surface, such as permafrost or snow cover (meters to tens of meters) is most obvious. This contrast of scales is one of the major obstacles to using reanalysis data for the simulation of surface phenomena and to confronting reanalyses with independent observation. At the example of modelling permafrost in mountain areas (but simple to generalise to other phenomena and heterogeneous environments), we present and test methods against measurements for (A) scaling atmospheric data from the reanalysis to the ground level and (B) smart sampling of the heterogeneous landscape in order to set up a lumped model simulation that represents the high-resolution land surface. TopoSCALE (Part A, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-6-3381-2013) is a scheme, which scales coarse-grid climate fields to fine-grid topography using pressure level data. In addition, it applies necessary topographic corrections e.g. those variables required for computation of radiation fields. This provides the necessary driving fields to the LSM. Tested against independent ground data, this scheme has been shown to improve the scaling and distribution of meteorological parameters in complex terrain, as compared to conventional methods, e.g. lapse rate based approaches. TopoSUB (Part B, see http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1245-2012) is a surface pre-processor designed to sample a fine-grid domain (defined by a digital elevation model) along important topographical (or other) dimensions through a clustering scheme. This allows constructing a lumped model representing the main sources of fine-grid variability and applying a 1D LSM efficiently over large areas. Results can processed to derive (i) summary statistics at coarse-scale re-analysis grid resolution, (ii) high-resolution data fields spatialized to e.g., the fine-scale digital elevation

  16. Development and preliminary validation of the 'Mind the Gap' scale to assess satisfaction with transitional health care among adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K L; Southwood, T R; McDonagh, J E

    2007-07-01

    To develop a scale to assess satisfaction with transitional health care among adolescents with a chronic illness and their parents. The 'Mind the Gap' scale was developed using evidence from a previous needs assessment, in three stages: (1) definition of the construct; (2) design of the scale items, response options and instructions; (3) full administration of the scale, item analysis and dimensionality analysis. The scale was administered to 308 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 303 parents/guardians, prior to and 12 months after the implementation of an evaluation of a structured and co-ordinated programme of transitional care. The patient population involved adolescents with JIA and their parents recruited from 10 major UK rheumatology centres. A total of 301 (97.7%) adolescents and 286 (95.0%) parents chose to complete the questionnaire, with median item completion rates of 100.0% (0-100%) for both adolescents and parents thus confirming feasibility. Face and content validity were confirmed. Factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure which explained 49.5% and 56.1% of the variation in adolescent and parent scores respectively. The internal consistency of each subscale ('management of environment', 'provider characteristics' and 'process issues') was indicated by Cronbach's alphas of 0.71, 0.89 and 0.89 for adolescents, respectively, and 0.83, 0.91 and 0.92 for parents respectively. Cronbach's alphas for the entire scales were 0.91 and 0.94 for the adolescent and parent forms respectively. These preliminary results report the potential of the 'Mind the Gap' scale in evaluating transitional care for adolescents with JIA. In view of the generic nature of transitional care reflected in the scale, this scale has wider potential for use with adolescents with other chronic illness in view of the generic nature of transition. This development is particularly timely in the context of transitional care developments in the UK and further

  17. An efficient implementation of 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data with GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Liu, Linong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-02-01

    De-absorption pre-stack time migration (QPSTM) compensates for the absorption and dispersion of seismic waves by introducing an effective Q parameter, thereby making it an effective tool for 3D, high-resolution imaging of seismic data. Although the optimal aperture obtained via stationary-phase migration reduces the computational cost of 3D QPSTM and yields 3D stationary-phase QPSTM, the associated computational efficiency is still the main problem in the processing of 3D, high-resolution images for real large-scale seismic data. In the current paper, we proposed a division method for large-scale, 3D seismic data to optimize the performance of stationary-phase QPSTM on clusters of graphics processing units (GPU). Then, we designed an imaging point parallel strategy to achieve an optimal parallel computing performance. Afterward, we adopted an asynchronous double buffering scheme for multi-stream to perform the GPU/CPU parallel computing. Moreover, several key optimization strategies of computation and storage based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) were adopted to accelerate the 3D stationary-phase QPSTM algorithm. Compared with the initial GPU code, the implementation of the key optimization steps, including thread optimization, shared memory optimization, register optimization and special function units (SFU), greatly improved the efficiency. A numerical example employing real large-scale, 3D seismic data showed that our scheme is nearly 80 times faster than the CPU-QPSTM algorithm. Our GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing framework significant reduces the computational cost and facilitates 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data.

  18. Preliminary Reliability and Validity of an Exercise Benefits and Barriers for Stroke Prevention Scale in an African American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Dawn M; Clark, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at heightened risk of first stroke, and regular exercise can reduce stroke risk. Benefits and barriers to exercise subscales from 2 instruments were combined to create the Exercise Benefits and Barriers for Stroke Prevention (EBBSP) scale. Reliability and validity of the EBBSP scale were examined in a nonrandom sample of 66 African Americans who were primarily female, average age 43.3 ± 9.4 years, and high school graduates. Both subscales had adequate internal consistency reliability. Factor analysis revealed two factors for each subscale. More benefits and fewer perceived barriers were significantly related to current exercise and future intentions to exercise. The EBBSP scale may be useful in research focused on understanding, predicting, and promoting exercise for stroke prevention in adults.

  19. The greek translation of the symptoms rating scale for depression and anxiety: preliminary results of the validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougoulias Kyriakos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 items and permits the calculation of the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21, the BDI 13, the Melancholia Subscale, the Asthenia Subscale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Mania Subscale Methods 29 depressed patients 30.48 ± 9.83 years old, and 120 normal controls 27.45 ± 10.85 years old entered the study. In 20 of them (8 patients and 12 controls the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. Clinical Diagnosis was reached by consensus of two examiners with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. CES-D and ZDRS were used for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Results The optimal cut-off points were: BDI-21: 14/15, BDI-13: 7/8, Melancholia: 8/9, Asthenia: 9/10, Anxiety: 10/11. Chronbach's alpha ranged between 0.86 and 0.92 for individual scales. Only the Mania subscale had very low alpha (0.12. The test-retest reliability was excellent for all scales with Spearman's Rho between 0.79 and 0.91. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SRSDA and the scales that consist it are both reliable and valid and are suitable for clinical and research use with satisfactory properties. Their properties are close to those reported in the international literature. However one should always have in mind the limitations inherent in the use of self-report scales.

  20. Detailed characterization and preliminary adsorption model for materials for an intermediate-scale reactive-transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment involving migration of fluid and tracers (Li, Br, Ni) through a 6-m-high x 3-m-dia caisson Wedron 510 sand, is being carried out for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Sand's surface chemistry of the sand was studied and a preliminary surface-complexation model of Ni adsorption formulated for transport calculations. XPS and leaching suggest that surface of the quartz sand is partially covered by thin layers of Fe-oxyhydroxide and Ca-Mg carbonate and by flakes of kaolinite. Ni adsorption by the sand is strongly pH-dependent, showing no adsorption at pH 5 and near-total adsorption at pH 7. Location of adsorption edge is independent of ionic strength and dissolved Ni concentration; it is shifted to slightly lower pH with higher pCO2 and to slightly higher pH by competition with Li. Diminished adsorption at alkiline pH with higher pCO2 implies formation of dissolved Ni-carbonato complexes. Ni adsorption edges for goethite and quartz, two components of the sand were also measured. Ni adsorption on pure quartz is only moderately pH-dependent and differs in shape and location from that of the sand, whereas Ni adsorption by goethite is strongly pH-dependent. A triple-layer surface-complexation model developed for goethite provides a good fit to the Ni-adsorption curve of the sand. Based on this model, the apparent surface area of the Fe-oxyhydroxide coating is estimated to be 560 m 2 /g, compatible with its occurrence as amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxide. Potentiometric titrations on sand also differ from pure quartz and suggest that effective surface area of sand may be much greater than that measured by N 2 -BET gas adsorption. Attempts to model the adsorption of bulk sand in terms of properties of pure end member components suggest that much of the sand surface is inert. Although the exact Ni adsorption mechanisms remain ambiguous, this preliminary adsorption model provides an initial set of parameters that can be used in transport calculations

  1. Development of Micro-Resolution PIV and Analysis of Microthrusters for Small-Scale Aircraft and Spacecraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meinhart, Carl

    2000-01-01

    This research program consisted of two primary research objectives that were aimed at advancing the current understanding of microfluidic processes related to the development of small-scale aircraft and spacecraft. (1...

  2. Multi-resolution and multi-scale simulation of the thermal hydraulics in fast neutron reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, P.-E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is devoted to a multi-scale numerical simulation of an assembly of fast neutron reactor. In spite of the rapid growth of the computer power, the fine complete CFD of a such system remains out of reach in a context of research and development. After the determination of the thermalhydraulic behaviour of the assembly at the macroscopic scale, we propose to carry out a local reconstruction of the fine scale information. The complete approach will require a much lower CPU time than the CFD of the entire structure. The macro-scale description is obtained using either the volume averaging formalism in porous media, or an alternative modeling historically developed for the study of fast neutron reactor assemblies. It provides some information used as constraint of a down-scaling problem, through a penalization technique of the local conservation equations. This problem lean on the periodic nature of the structure by integrating periodic boundary conditions for the required microscale fields or their spatial deviation. After validating the methodologies on some model applications, we undertake to perform them on 'industrial' configurations which demonstrate the viability of this multi-scale approach. (author) [fr

  3. Preliminary checkout on the reliability and validity of nuclear and radiation effect psychological effect rating scale (NRERS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhongwei; Xie Huaijiang; Yang Chengjun; Yin Xuhui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate the reliability and validity of the NRPES. Methods: NRPES, SDS and SAS were applied to assess the psychological sate of 352 soldiers, 80 soldiers were randomly selected to determine with NRPES again, which at last contribute to assess the reliability and validity of NRPES. Results: The satisfactory reliability and Cronbach a coefficient respectively were 0.756 and 0.698. The sixth and eighth factor of the principal component analysis are combined together to a new factor, the results indicate the constructive validity is adaptive to the primary design of the questionnaire. NRPES and its 7 factors have a greater significant relation and the correlation coefficient which is from 0.569 ∼ 0.878. There is a great significant correlation between the NRPES, factor x1, x2, x3 and SDS, SAS, the correlation coefficient of which are over 0.5. Conclusion: Though NRPES has some shortcomings,which need to be improved late, NRPES has a better reliability and validity through the preliminary checkout. (authors)

  4. Preliminary Study on a Reduced Scaled Model Regarding the Air Diffusion inside a Crew Quarter on Board of the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Mihnea; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin; Croitoru, CristianaVerona; Tacutu, Laurentiu

    2018-02-01

    The paper focus on the air quality inside the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station. Several issues to improve were recorded by NASA and ESA and most important of them are the following: noise level reduction, CO2 accumulation reduction and dust accumulation reduction. The study in this paper is centred on a reduced scaled model used to provide simulations related to the air diffusion inside the CQ. It is obvious that a new ventilation system is required to achieve the three issues mentioned above, and the solutions obtained by means of numerical simulation need to be validated by experimental approach. First of all we have built a reduced scaled physical model to simulate the flow pattern inside the CQ and the equipment inside the CQ has been reproduced using a geometrical scale ratio. The flow pattern was considered isothermal and incompressible. The similarity criteria used was the Reynolds number to characterize the flow pattern and the length scale was set at value 1/4. Water has been used inside the model to simulate air. Velocity magnitude vectors have been obtained using PIV measurement techniques.

  5. The Flexibility Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation of a Cognitive Flexibility Measure in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Anthony, Laura G.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Armour, Anna C.; Dudley, Katerina; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of executive function, and is related to everyday functioning and adult outcomes. However, existing informant reports do not densely sample cognitive aspects of flexibility; the Flexibility Scale (FS) was developed to address this gap. This study investigates the validity of the FS in 221 youth with ASD and 57…

  6. Preliminary validation study of the Spanish version of the satisfaction with life scale in persons with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Galan, Ingrid; Den Oudsten, Brenda L.; Power, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess Life Satisfaction, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and to analyze its psychometric properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Method: Persons with MS (n = 84) recruited at the MS Centre of Catalonia (Spain) completed a battery of subjective assessments including the

  7. Laryngeal manual therapy palpatory evaluation scale: A preliminary study to examine its usefulness in diagnosis of occupational dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Woźnicka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study has been to assess the larynx and soft tissue around the vocal tract in a group of people with healthy voice, and in a group of patients with occupational dysphonia using the new laryngeal manual therapy palpatory evaluation scale (LMTPE. Material and Methods: The examinations were performed in a study (dysphonic group of professional voice users who had developed voice disorders (N = 51 and in the control group of normophonic subjects (N = 50. All the participants underwent perceptual voice assessment and examination by means of the LMTPE scale. Additionally, phoniatric examination including VHI (Voice Handicap Index questionnaire, GRBAS (the Grade of hoarseness, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenic, Strained perceptual evaluation, maximum phonation time (MPT measurement and videostroboscopy was performed in the study group. Results: The comparison of the LMTPE total score showed that the results of the study group were significantly poorer than those of controls (p < 0.001. In the study group, correlations were found between the LMTPE results and the VHI scores (p < 0.05, perceptual evaluation by the GRBAS (p < 0.05 and the objective parameter MPT (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The study has proven that the LMTPE scale is characterized by the high score of Cronbach’s α ratio estimating the reliability of the test. The results have confirmed that the LMTPE scale seems to be a valuable tool, useful in diagnostics of occupational dysphonia, particularly of hyperfunction origin. Med Pr 2017;68(2:179–188

  8. Preliminary design and estimate of capital and operating costs for a production scale application of laser decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Ho-ming; Edelson, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The application of laser ablation technology to the decontamination of radioactive metals, particularly the surfaces of equipment, is discussed. Included is information related to the design, capital and operating costs, and effectiveness of laser ablation technology, based on commercial excimer and Nd:YAG lasers, for the decontamination of production scale equipment

  9. INTOR rescaling for non-intended plasma shape applying preliminary scalings for energy confinement and density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1986-11-01

    On the basis of a simplified rescaling procedure with INTOR, as of Phase IIA Part 1, serving as reference case, alternative design points are discussed that take into account more recent findings on β-limits, density limits and possible extrapolations with respect to plasma elongation. Two tentative scalings for the energy confinement time as derived from ASDEX results and by Goldston are applied to find minimum size INTOR alternatives, which, of course, could be quite different for the two scalings. Large plasma elongation is needed for getting close to the original outlay for INTOR. The density limit according to some possible scalings requires some adjustment of the plasma temperature to above 10 keV. The neutron wall load, being the important parameter with respect to the INTOR test programme, can be practically kept at the reference level. For ASDEX confinement scaling this requires that an ignition margin of about 2 be adhered to. A sensitivity study on the impact of individual modifications in input assumptions of the order of 10% shows that only a limited range of such alternatives remains acceptable. (orig.)

  10. Preliminary Study on a Reduced Scaled Model Regarding the Air Diffusion inside a Crew Quarter on Board of the ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Mihnea

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on the air quality inside the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station. Several issues to improve were recorded by NASA and ESA and most important of them are the following: noise level reduction, CO2 accumulation reduction and dust accumulation reduction. The study in this paper is centred on a reduced scaled model used to provide simulations related to the air diffusion inside the CQ. It is obvious that a new ventilation system is required to achieve the three issues mentioned above, and the solutions obtained by means of numerical simulation need to be validated by experimental approach. First of all we have built a reduced scaled physical model to simulate the flow pattern inside the CQ and the equipment inside the CQ has been reproduced using a geometrical scale ratio. The flow pattern was considered isothermal and incompressible. The similarity criteria used was the Reynolds number to characterize the flow pattern and the length scale was set at value 1/4. Water has been used inside the model to simulate air. Velocity magnitude vectors have been obtained using PIV measurement techniques.

  11. Payments for Environmental Services as source of development funding for small-scale farmers in northern Namibia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angombe, Simon; Bloemertz, Lena; Käch, Simon; Asino, Josefina; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Studies in Africa suggest that improving Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) on cropland soils increases yields, but also offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits. Further potential for earning carbon credits and generating Payments for Environmental Services (PES) lies in an integrated approach to landscape carbon management, including shrubland and pasture used for grazing and timber supply. These studies indicate that funds raised from PES could be used to foster the development of small-scale farming in northern Namibia. However, the limited information on soil quality and the rationale for particular soil management and land use practices applied by small-scale farmers in Namibia prohibits a conclusive assessment of the potential of Payment for PES as a source of income or funding opportunity for development initiatives in Northern Central Regions of Namibia. Therefore, the aim of this study is the identification of potential intervention mechanisms to improve the livelihood of small scale-farmers and reducing land degradation with the support of PES in the communal regions of northern Namibia. The work in Namibia aimed at identifying existing soil management and land use practices as well as soil quality, including carbon stocks, on land used by small-scale farmers in the densely populated northern central region. The main objective of the first part of the field work was to develop an overview of farming practices and soil quality as well as sampling and interviewing approaches. Four settlements were selected for the field work based on their distance to the urbanized road corridor between Oshakati and the Angolan border. Initial results confirm the potential to increase productivity on land used by small-scale farmers as well as the opportunity to develop landscape carbon stocks. However, limits to earning PES might be the lack of a market, and thus incentive for the farmers, to shift from subsistence to commercial farming.

  12. Development and preliminary testing of a scale to assess pain-related fear in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Pardos, Judit

    2011-08-01

    It is assumed that pain-related fear, a present response to an immediate danger or threat such as pain, plays a significant role in the experience of pediatric pain. However, there are no measures to adequately measure this construct in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a scale to assess pain-related fear to be used with Catalan-speaking children and adolescents between 7- and 16-years-old. We initially developed a list of items that reflected the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components of pain-related fear components. We also queried an international group of experts, and interviewed children and adolescents. After pilot testing the initial version with a sample of 10 children, we administered the questionnaire to a sample of schoolchildren (n = 273) and children from medical clinics (n = 164) through individual interviews. Additional information was also collected during the interview to study the psychometric properties of the scale. Ten days after the initial interview, participating schoolchildren were requested to answer the questionnaire again. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis with data from the school sample produced 2 meaningful factors (namely, Fearful thoughts and Fearful physical feelings and behaviors). Findings also showed that the Pediatric Pain Fear Scale (total scale and the 2 subscales) was both reliable and valid. This scale could help researchers to gain a better understanding about the role of pain-related fear in children and adolescents and support clinical decision-making. This article presents a new measure of fear associated with pain in children and adolescents. This measure could potentially help researchers to gain a better understanding about the role of pain-related fear in children and adolescents and support clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early detection of tuberculosis outbreaks among the San Francisco homeless: trade-offs between spatial resolution and temporal scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Higgs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: San Francisco has the highest rate of tuberculosis (TB in the U.S. with recurrent outbreaks among the homeless and marginally housed. It has been shown for syndromic data that when exact geographic coordinates of individual patients are used as the spatial base for outbreak detection, higher detection rates and accuracy are achieved compared to when data are aggregated into administrative regions such as zip codes and census tracts. We examine the effect of varying the spatial resolution in the TB data within the San Francisco homeless population on detection sensitivity, timeliness, and the amount of historical data needed to achieve better performance measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We apply a variation of space-time permutation scan statistic to the TB data in which a patient's location is either represented by its exact coordinates or by the centroid of its census tract. We show that the detection sensitivity and timeliness of the method generally improve when exact locations are used to identify real TB outbreaks. When outbreaks are simulated, while the detection timeliness is consistently improved when exact coordinates are used, the detection sensitivity varies depending on the size of the spatial scanning window and the number of tracts in which cases are simulated. Finally, we show that when exact locations are used, smaller amount of historical data is required for training the model. CONCLUSION: Systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal distribution of TB cases can widely benefit real time surveillance and guide public health investigations of TB outbreaks as to what level of spatial resolution results in improved detection sensitivity and timeliness. Trading higher spatial resolution for better performance is ultimately a tradeoff between maintaining patient confidentiality and improving public health when sharing data. Understanding such tradeoffs is critical to managing the complex interplay between public

  14. Personality factors in recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients: a preliminary investigation with the NEO-FFI scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Braz de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes some prevalent personality dimensions of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients. A sample of 33 female recently diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS was assessed with the NEO-FFI personality scale. Beck depression (BDI and anxiety (BAI scales were also used. No significant levels of anxiety or depression were identified in this group. As for personality factors, conscientiousness was the most common factor found, whereas openness to experience was the least observed. Literature on the relationship between personality and MS is scarce and there are no Brazilian studies on this subject. Some personality traits might complicate or facilitate the experience of living with a chronic, disabling and uncertain neurological condition such as MS.

  15. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  16. The use of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III with clinical populations: a preliminary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Susan; McDonald, Jenny; Comino, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    In response to concerns that the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSIDIII) underestimate delay in clinical populations, this study explores developmental quotient scores as an alternative to composite scores for these children. One hundred and twenty-two children aged ≤42 months, referred for diagnosis of developmental disability from January 2007 to May 2010, were assessed, and their composite and developmental quotient scores on each scale were compared. Composite scores identified only 22% (cognitive), 27% (motor), and 47.5% (language) of children as having a developmental disability. Developmental quotient scores were significantly lower than composite scores, giving rates of developmental disability of 56.6% (cognitive), 48.4% (motor), and 74.6% (language) and more closely matching both clinical impressions of delay and the proportions of those children who were also delayed on standardized tests of adaptive function.

  17. The dismantling of the one-third-scale Joule ceramic melter and preliminary investigation of electrode corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.; Walmsley, D.; Hollinrake, A.; Horsley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The Harwell one-third scale Joule ceramic melter was dismantled to discover the cause of a fall in electric resistance. The two inconel-690 electrodes were corroded over the lower 40mm sections and were examined by optical and electron microscopy. Sedimentation of Ru species on the floor of the melter may have led to corrosion of the electrodes. Glass withdrawn from the canisters was analyzed for evidence of a segregation mechanism. (UK)

  18. Seismic moment tensor resolution on a local scale: Simulated rockburst and mine-induced seismic events in the Kopanang gold mine, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sileny, J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available of regional events in the western Mediterranean are summarized by STICH et al. (2003). The moderate regional events around Japan are documented in the NIED catalogue by KUBO et al. (2002). Several case studies were performed to invert short- period records... and Metallurgy 101, 223? 234. Vol. 163, 2006 Seismic Moment Tensor Resolution on a Local Scale 1511 KRAVANJA, S., PANZA, G.F., and S? I? LENY? , J. (1999), Robust retrieval of a seismic point-source time function, Geophys. J. Int. 136, 385?394. KUBO, A., FUKUYAMA...

  19. Using object-based image analysis to conduct high-resolution conifer extraction at regional spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Roth, Cali L.; Chenaille, Michael P.; Ricca, Mark A.; Mauch, Kimberly; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis J.; Perry, William M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-08-10

    The distribution and abundance of pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma, J. occidentalis) trees (hereinafter, "pinyon-juniper") in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems of the Great Basin in the Western United States has increased substantially since the late 1800s. Distributional expansion and infill of pinyon-juniper into sagebrush ecosystems threatens the ecological function and economic viability of these ecosystems within the Great Basin, and is now a major contemporary challenge facing land and wildlife managers. Particularly, pinyon-juniper encroachment into intact sagebrush ecosystems has been identified as a primary threat facing populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse"), which is a sagebrush obligate species. Even seemingly innocuous scatterings of isolated pinyon-juniper in an otherwise intact sagebrush landscape can negatively affect survival and reproduction of sage-grouse. Therefore, accurate and high-resolution maps of pinyon-juniper distribution and abundance (indexed by canopy cover) across broad geographic extents would help guide land management decisions that better target areas for pinyon-juniper removal projects (for example, fuel reduction, habitat improvement for sage-grouse, and other sagebrush species) and facilitate science that further quantifies ecological effects of pinyon-juniper encroachment on sage-grouse populations and sagebrush ecosystem processes. Hence, we mapped pinyon-juniper (referred to as conifers for actual mapping) at a 1 × 1-meter (m) high resolution across the entire range of previously mapped sage-grouse habitat in Nevada and northeastern California.We used digital orthophoto quad tiles from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2010, 2013) as base imagery, and then classified conifers using automated feature extraction methodology with the program Feature Analyst™. This method relies on machine learning algorithms that extract features from

  20. High-resolution blood-pool-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in glioblastoma: tumor-associated neovascularization as a biomarker for patient survival. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Remollo, Sebastian; Hernandez, David; Pedraza, Salvador [Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta, Research Unit of Diagnostic Imaging Institute (IDI), Department of Radiology [Girona Biomedical Research Institute] IDIBGI, Girona (Spain); Daunis-i-Estadella, Josep; Mateu, Gloria [University of Girona, Department of Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Girona (Spain); Alberich-Bayarri, Angel [La Fe Polytechnics and University Hospital, Biomedical Imaging Research Group (GIBI230), La Fe Health Research Institute, Valencia (Spain); Essig, Marco [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg (Canada); Jain, Rajan [NYU School of Medicine, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Puigdemont, Montserrat [Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Hospital Cancer Registry, Girona (Spain); Sanchez-Gonzalez, Javier [Philips Healthcare Iberica, Madrid (Spain); Wintermark, Max [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The objective of the study was to determine whether tumor-associated neovascularization on high-resolution gadofosveset-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a useful biomarker for predicting survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas. Before treatment, 35 patients (25 men; mean age, 64 ± 14 years) with glioblastoma underwent MRI including first-pass dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion and post-contrast T1WI sequences with gadobutrol (0.1 mmol/kg) and, 48 h later, high-resolution MRA with gadofosveset (0.03 mmol/kg). Volumes of interest for contrast-enhancing lesion (CEL), non-CEL, and contralateral normal-appearing white matter were obtained, and DSC perfusion and DWI parameters were evaluated. Prognostic factors were assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards model. Eighteen (51.42 %) glioblastomas were hypervascular on high-resolution MRA. Hypervascular glioblastomas were associated with higher CEL volume and lower Karnofsky score. Median survival rates for patients with hypovascular and hypervascular glioblastomas treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were 15 and 9.75 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Tumor-associated neovascularization was the best predictor of survival at 5.25 months (AUC = 0.794, 81.2 % sensitivity, 77.8 % specificity, 76.5 % positive predictive value, 82.4 % negative predictive value) and yielded the highest hazard ratio (P < 0.001). Tumor-associated neovascularization detected on high-resolution blood-pool-contrast-enhanced MRA of newly diagnosed glioblastoma seems to be a useful biomarker that correlates with worse survival. (orig.)

  1. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography for assessement of hepatocellular carcinoma in the transgenic mice expressing hepatitis B virus X-protein; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Chang Guhn; Won, Jong Jin; Moon, Hyung Bae [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Dae Yeul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    To determine the value of high resolution ultrasonography (US) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in the HBx transgenic mice. Forty-two HBx transgenic mice aged 8-20 (mean, 14) months underwent high-resolution ultrasound using a 10-12 MHz linear transducer. US findings indication the presence or absence, number, size and echogenicity of each hepatic tumor were analyzed, and in addition, color or power Doppler US was used to analyse tumoral vascularity. In each animal, sacrificed less than five hours after US examination, sonographic and pathologic findings were correlated. On gross pathologic examination, 20 hepatocellular carcinomas measuring 1.5-15 (mean, 4.7) mm in diameter were found in 16 mice; US revealed that 17 of the tumors were homogeneous hypoechoic nodules. With regard to tumor detection, sensitivity was 85%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 0.944, negative predictive value 0.897, and overall accuracy 90%. Doppler US revealed that in three nodules, intratumoral vessels were present. In the other 26 mice, gross examination showed that no mass was present; microscopically, however, four nodules measuring 0.3-1.2 mm were found in four of these animals. Tumoral vascularity detected by color Doppler US corresponded to the intratumoral vessel within the nodules. One peritoneal nodule, confirmed as a metastatic tumor, was found at the greater omentum. In HBx transgenic mice, high-resolution US is valuable for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Physics and dynamics coupling across scales in the next generation CESM: Meeting the challenge of high resolution. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Vincent E.

    2015-02-21

    This is a final report for a SciDAC grant supported by BER. The project implemented a novel technique for coupling small-scale dynamics and microphysics into a community climate model. The technique uses subcolumns that are sampled in Monte Carlo fashion from a distribution of subgrid variability. The resulting global simulations show several improvements over the status quo.

  3. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.

  4. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  5. Micron-scale resolution radiography of laser-accelerated and laser-exploded foils using an yttrium x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Celliers, P.; Moreno, J.C.; Mrowka, S.; Perry, T.S.; Wan, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    The authors have imaged laser-accelerated foils and exploding foils on the few-micron scale using an yttrium x-ray laser (155 angstrom, 80 eV, ∼200 ps duration) and a multilayer mirror imaging system. At the maximum magnification of 30, resolution was of order one micron. The images were side-on radiographs of the foils. Accelerated foils showed significant filamentation on the rear-side (away from the driving laser) of the foil, although the laser beam was smoothed. In addition to the narrow rear-side filamentation, some shots revealed larger-scale plume-like structures on the front (driven) side of the Al foil. These plumes seem to be little-affected by beam smoothing and are likely a consequence of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The experiments were carried out at the Nova two-beam facility

  6. Preliminary validation study of the Spanish version of the satisfaction with life scale in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Galán, Ingrid; Den Oudsten, Brenda L; Power, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    To assess Life Satisfaction, using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and to analyze its psychometric properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Persons with MS (n = 84) recruited at the MS Centre of Catalonia (Spain) completed a battery of subjective assessments including the SWLS, the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument and disability module (WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS) and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Depression (HADS-D); sociodemographic and disability status data were also gathered. Psychometric properties of the SWLS were investigated using standard psychometric methods. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) was 0.84. A factor analysis using a principal components method showed a one factor structure accounting for 62.6% of the variance. Statistically significant correlations were confirmed between SWLS with WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-DIS and HADS-D. SWLS scores were significantly different between a priori defined groups: probable depressed versus nondepressed and participants perceiving a mild versus severe impact of disability on their lives. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the psychometrics properties of the SWLS in persons with MS. It might be a valuable tool to use in appraising persons with MS through the continuum of care. The Spanish version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is a reliable and valid instrument in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The SWLS is able to discriminate between participants with low or high scores on depressive symptoms or disability impact on life. SWLS might be useful through the continuum of care in persons with MS, including Rehabilitation Services.

  7. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system

  8. High-resolution phosphorus transfers at the catchment scale: the hidden importance of non-storm transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jordan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution measurements of total phosphorus (TP concentrations in a stream draining a 5 km2 agricultural catchment (a sub-catchment of Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland were made every 10 min by continuous flow instrumentation using new homogenisation, digestion and colorimetric phases. Concurrently, rainfall and stream discharge data were collected at 5 and 15 min intervals. Major P flushing episodes during storm events peaked on the rising limbs of storm hydrographs. A period of baseflow also indicated the importance of other sources that maintain the stream in a eutrophic state between storm events. These data provide insights into catchment processes that conform to definite patterns that, in a coarser sampling regime, might ordinarily be attributed to sampling and analytical 'noise'.

  9. Characterizing, measuring, and utilizing the resolution of CT imagery for improved quantification of fine-scale features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketcham, Richard A., E-mail: ketcham@jsg.utexas.edu; Hildebrandt, Jordan

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative results extracted from computed tomographic (CT) data sets should be the same across resolutions and between different instruments and laboratory groups. Despite the proliferation of scanners and data processing methods and tools, and scientific studies utilizing them, relatively little emphasis has been given to ensuring that these results are comparable or reproducible. This issue is particularly pertinent when the features being imaged and measured are of the same order size as data voxels, as is often the case with fracture apertures, pore throats, and cell walls. We have created a tool that facilitates quantification of the spatial resolution of CT data via its point-spread function (PSF), in which the user draws a traverse across a sharp interface between two materials and a Gaussian PSF is fitted to the blurring across that interface. Geometric corrections account for voxel shape and the angle of the traverse to the interface, which does not need to be orthogonal. We use the tool to investigate a series of grid phantoms scanned at varying conditions and observe how the PSF varies within and between slices. The PSF increases with increasing radial distance within slices, and can increase tangentially with increasing radial distance in CT data sets acquired with relatively few projections. The PSF between CT slices is similar to that within slices when a 2-D detector is used, but is much sharper when the data are acquired one slice at a time with a collimated linear detector array. The capability described here can be used not only to calibrate processing algorithms that use deconvolution operations, but it can also help evaluate scans on a routine basis within and between CT research groups, and with respect to the features within the imagery that are being measured.

  10. Preliminary study of wing interference patterns (WIPs in some species of soft scale (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Simon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fore wings of scale insect males possess reduced venation compared with other insects and the homologies of remaining veins are controversial. The hind wings are reduced to hamulohalterae. When adult males are prepared using the standard methods adopted to females and nymphs, i.e. using KOH to clear the specimens, the wings become damaged or deformed, an so these structures are not usually described or illustrated in publications. The present study used dry males belonging to seven species of the family Coccidae to check the presence of stable, structural colour patterns of the wings. The visibility of the wing interference patterns (WIP, discovered in Hymenoptera and Diptera species, is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. This frequently occurring taxonomically specific pattern is caused by uneven membrane thickness and hair placement, and also is stabilized and reinforced by microstructures of the wing, such as membrane corrugations and the shape of cells. The semitransparent scale insect’s fore wings possess WIPs and they are taxonomically specific. It is very possible that WIPs will be an additional and helpful trait for the identification of species, which in case of males specimens is quite difficult, because recent coccidology is based almost entirely on the morphology of adult females.

  11. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  12. Spatial scale and sampling resolution affect measures of gap disturbance in a lowland tropical forest: implications for understanding forest regeneration and carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Elena; Dalling, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Treefall gaps play an important role in tropical forest dynamics and in determining above-ground biomass (AGB). However, our understanding of gap disturbance regimes is largely based either on surveys of forest plots that are small relative to spatial variation in gap disturbance, or on satellite imagery, which cannot accurately detect small gaps. We used high-resolution light detection and ranging data from a 1500 ha forest in Panama to: (i) determine how gap disturbance parameters are influenced by study area size, and the criteria used to define gaps; and (ii) to evaluate how accurately previous ground-based canopy height sampling can determine the size and location of gaps. We found that plot-scale disturbance parameters frequently differed significantly from those measured at the landscape-level, and that canopy height thresholds used to define gaps strongly influenced the gap-size distribution, an important metric influencing AGB. Furthermore, simulated ground surveys of canopy height frequently misrepresented the true location of gaps, which may affect conclusions about how relatively small canopy gaps affect successional processes and contribute to the maintenance of diversity. Across site comparisons need to consider how gap definition, scale and spatial resolution affect characterizations of gap disturbance, and its inferred importance for carbon storage and community composition. PMID:24452032

  13. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  14. A refined TALDICE-1a age scale from 55 to 112 ka before present for the Talos Dome ice core based on high-resolution methane measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schüpbach

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A precise synchronization of different climate records is indispensable for a correct dynamical interpretation of paleoclimatic data. A chronology for the TALDICE ice core from the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica has recently been presented based on methane synchronization with Greenland and the EDC ice cores and δ18Oice synchronization with EDC in the bottom part (TALDICE-1. Using new high-resolution methane data obtained with a continuous flow analysis technique, we present a refined age scale for the age interval from 55–112 thousand years (ka before present, where TALDICE is synchronized with EDC. New and more precise tie points reduce the uncertainties of the age scale from up to 1900 yr in TALDICE-1 to below 1100 yr over most of the refined interval and shift the Talos Dome dating to significantly younger ages during the onset of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Thus, discussions of climate dynamics at sub-millennial time scales are now possible back to 110 ka, in particular during the inception of the last ice age. Calcium data of EDC and TALDICE are compared to show the impact of the refinement to the synchronization of the two ice cores not only for the gas but also for the ice age scale.

  15. Raft cultivation area extraction from high resolution remote sensing imagery by fusing multi-scale region-line primitive association features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Cui, Qi; Wang, Jie; Ming, Dongping; Lv, Guonian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose several novel concepts for object-based image analysis, which include line-based shape regularity, line density, and scale-based best feature value (SBV), based on the region-line primitive association framework (RLPAF). We then propose a raft cultivation area (RCA) extraction method for high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery based on multi-scale feature fusion and spatial rule induction. The proposed method includes the following steps: (1) Multi-scale region primitives (segments) are obtained by image segmentation method HBC-SEG, and line primitives (straight lines) are obtained by phase-based line detection method. (2) Association relationships between regions and lines are built based on RLPAF, and then multi-scale RLPAF features are extracted and SBVs are selected. (3) Several spatial rules are designed to extract RCAs within sea waters after land and water separation. Experiments show that the proposed method can successfully extract different-shaped RCAs from HR images with good performance.

  16. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  17. Usefulness of medial temporal lobe atrophy visual rating scale in detecting Alzheimer′s disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Heo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Korean version of Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE and the Korean version of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (K-ACE have been validated as quick neuropsychological tests for screening dementia in various clinical settings. Medial temporal atrophy (MTA is an early pathological characteristic of Alzheimer′s disease (AD. We aimed to assess the diagnostic validity of the fusion of the neuropsychological test and visual rating scale (VRS of MTA in AD. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty subjects (25 AD, 25 controls were included. The neuropsychological tests used were the K-MMSE and the K-ACE. T1 axial imaging visual rating scale (VRS was applied for assessing the grade of MTA. We calculated the fusion score with the difference of neuropsychological test and VRS of MTA. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was used to determine optimal cut-off score, sensitivity and specificity of the fusion scores in screening AD. Results: No significant differences in age, gender and education were found between AD and control group. The values of K-MMSE, K-ACE, CDR, VRS and cognitive function test minus VRS were significantly lower in the AD group than control group. The AUC (Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity for K-MMSE minus VRS were 0.857, 84% and 80% and for K-ACE minus VRS were 0.884, 80% and 88%, respectively. Those for K-MMSE only were 0.842, 76% and 72% and for K-ACE only were 0.868, 80% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: The fusion of the neuropsychological test and VRS suggested clinical usefulness in their easy and superiority over neuropsychological test only. However, this study failed to find any difference. This may be because of small numbers in the study or because there is no true difference.

  18. High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Enables Large Scale Molecular Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is arguably one of the most complex exometabolomes on earth, and is comprised of thousands of compounds, that together contribute more than 600 × 1015 g carbon. This reservoir is primarily the product of interactions between the upper ocean's microbial food web, yet abiotic processes that occur over millennia have also modified many of its molecules. The compounds within this reservoir play important roles in determining the rate and extent of element exchange between inorganic reservoirs and the marine biosphere, while also mediating microbe-microbe interactions. As such, there has been a widespread effort to characterize DOM using high-resolution analytical methods including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS. To date, molecular information in DOM has been primarily obtained through calculated molecular formulas from exact mass. This approach has the advantage of being non-targeted, accessing the inherent complexity of DOM. Molecular structures are however still elusive and the most commonly used instruments are costly. More recently, tandem mass spectrometry has been employed to more precisely identify DOM components through comparison to library mass spectra. Here we describe a data acquisition and analysis workflow that expands the repertoire of high-resolution analytical approaches available to access the complexity of DOM molecules that are amenable to electrospray ionization (ESI MS. We couple liquid chromatographic separation with tandem MS (LC-MS/MS and a data analysis pipeline, that integrates peak extraction from extracted ion chromatograms (XIC, molecular formula calculation and molecular networking. This provides more precise structural characterization. Although only around 1% of detectable DOM compounds can be annotated through publicly available spectral libraries, community-wide participation in populating and annotating DOM datasets could rapidly increase the

  19. Large-scale propagation of ultrasound in a 3-D breast model based on high-resolution MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahura, Gheorghe; Tillett, Jason C; Metlay, Leon A; Waag, Robert C

    2010-06-01

    A 40 x 35 x 25-mm(3) specimen of human breast consisting mostly of fat and connective tissue was imaged using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. The resolutions in the image plane and in the orthogonal direction were 130 microm and 150 microm, respectively. Initial processing to prepare the data for segmentation consisted of contrast inversion, interpolation, and noise reduction. Noise reduction used a multilevel bidirectional median filter to preserve edges. The volume of data was segmented into regions of fat and connective tissue by using a combination of local and global thresholding. Local thresholding was performed to preserve fine detail, while global thresholding was performed to minimize the interclass variance between voxels classified as background and voxels classified as object. After smoothing the data to avoid aliasing artifacts, the segmented data volume was visualized using isosurfaces. The isosurfaces were enhanced using transparency, lighting, shading, reflectance, and animation. Computations of pulse propagation through the model illustrate its utility for the study of ultrasound aberration. The results show the feasibility of using the described combination of methods to demonstrate tissue morphology in a form that provides insight about the way ultrasound beams are aberrated in three dimensions by tissue.

  20. Creation and preliminary validation of the screening for self-medication safety post-stroke scale (S-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizer, Franceen; Kim, Angela; Van, My Tram; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol

    2010-03-01

    Patients with stroke should be screened for safety prior to starting a self-medication regime. An extensive literature review revealed no standardized self-medication tool tailored to the multi-faceted needs of the stroke population. The aim of this study was to create and validate a condition-specific tool to be used in screening for self-medication safety in individuals with stroke. Items were generated using expert consultation and review of the existing tools. The draft tool was pilot-tested on expert stroke clinicians to receive feedback on content, clarity, optimal cueing and domain omissions. The final version was piloted on patients with stroke using a structured interviewer-administered interview. The tool was progressively refined and validated according to feedback from the 11 expert reviewers. The subsequent version was piloted on patients with stroke. The final version includes 16 questions designed to elicit information on 5 domains: cognition, communication, motor, visual-perception and, judgement/executive function/self-efficacy. The Screening for Safe Self-medication post-Stroke Scale (S-5) has been created and validated for use by health professionals to screen self-medication safety readiness of patients after stroke. Its use should also help to guide clinicians' recommendations and interventions aimed at enhancing self-medication post-stroke.

  1. A Statistical Model and Computer program for Preliminary Calculations Related to the Scaling of Sensor Arrays; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max Morris

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology and engineering have made it possible to assemble many related sensors in a common array, often of small physical size. Sensor arrays may report an entire vector of measured values in each data collection cycle, typically one value per sensor per sampling time. The larger quantities of data provided by larger arrays certainly contain more information, however in some cases experience suggests that dramatic increases in array size do not always lead to corresponding improvements in the practical value of the data. The work leading to this report was motivated by the need to develop computational planning tools to approximate the relative effectiveness of arrays of different size (or scale) in a wide variety of contexts. The basis of the work is a statistical model of a generic sensor array. It includes features representing measurement error, both common to all sensors and independent from sensor to sensor, and the stochastic relationships between the quantities to be measured by the sensors. The model can be used to assess the effectiveness of hypothetical arrays in classifying objects or events from two classes. A computer program is presented for evaluating the misclassification rates which can be expected when arrays are calibrated using a given number of training samples, or the number of training samples required to attain a given level of classification accuracy. The program is also available via email from the first author for a limited time

  2. High Resolution Definition of Subsurface Heterogeneity for Understanding the Biodynamics of Natural Field Systems: Advancing the Ability for Scaling to Field Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, Ernest L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    1999-01-01

    This research is an integrated project which uses physical (geophysical and hydrologic) and innovative geophysical imaging and microbial characterization methods to identify key scales of physical heterogeneities that affect bioremediation. In the this effort data from controlled laboratory and in situ experiments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) site were used to determine the dominant physical characteristics (lithologic, structural, and hydrologic) that can be imaged in situ and correlated with flow and transport properties. Emphasis was placed on identifying fundamental scales of variation of physical parameters that control transport behavior relative to subsurface microbial dynamics that could be used to develop a predictive model. A key hypothesis of the work was that nutrient flux and transport properties are key factors in controlling microbial dynamics, and that geophysical techniques could be used to identify the critical physical properties and scales controlling transport. This hypothesis was essentially validated. The goal was not only to develop and apply methods to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of the bioremediation in fractured sites such as TAN, but also to develop methods applicable to a wider range of DOE sites. The outcome has been an improved understanding of the relationship between physical, chemical and microbial processes in heterogeneous environments, thus applicable to the design and monitoring of bioremediation strategies for a variety of environments. In this EMSP work we demonstrated that high resolution geophysical methods have considerable resolving power, especially when linked with modern advanced processing and interpretation. In terms of basic science, in addition to providing innovative methods for monitoring bioremediation, the work also provided a strong motivation for developing and extending high resolution geophysical methods

  3. Regional-Scale High Spatial Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP from Field Survey and Landsat Data: A Case Study for the Country of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Tebbs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach for high spatial resolution vegetation productivity mapping at a regional scale, using a combination of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery and widely distributed ground-based Above-ground Net Primary Production (ANPP estimates. Our method searches through all available single-date NDVI imagery to identify the images which give the best NDVI–ANPP relationship. The derived relationships are then used to predict ANPP values outside of field survey plots. This approach enables the use of the high spatial resolution (30 m Landsat 8 sensor, despite its low revisit frequency that is further reduced by cloud cover. This is one of few studies to investigate the NDVI–ANPP relationship across a wide range of temperate habitats and strong relationships were observed (R2 = 0.706, which increased when only grasslands were considered (R2 = 0.833. The strongest NDVI–ANPP relationships occurred during the spring “green-up” period. A reserved subset of 20% of ground-based ANPP estimates was used for validation and results showed that our method was able to estimate ANPP with a RMSE of 15–21%. This work is important because we demonstrate a general methodological framework for mapping of ANPP from local to regional scales, with the potential to be applied to any temperate ecosystems with a pronounced green up period. Our approach allows spatial extrapolation outside of field survey plots to produce a continuous surface product, useful for capturing spatial patterns and representing small-scale heterogeneity, and well-suited for modelling applications. The data requirements for implementing this approach are also discussed.

  4. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  5. Internal Morphologies of Cycled Li-Metal Electrodes Investigated by Nano-Scale Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Sarah; Liu, Danny X; Kumar, Arjun; Whitacre, Jay F; Love, Corey T; Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Litster, Shawn

    2017-06-07

    While some commercially available primary batteries have lithium metal anodes, there has yet to be a commercially viable secondary battery with this type of electrode. Research prototypes of these cells typically exhibit a limited cycle life before dendrites form and cause internal cell shorting, an occurrence that is more pronounced during high-rate cycling. To better understand the effects of high-rate cycling that can lead to cell failure, we use ex situ nanoscale-resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) with the aid of Zernike phase contrast to image the internal morphologies of lithium metal electrodes on copper wire current collectors that have been cycled at low and high current densities. The Li that is deposited on a Cu wire and then stripped and deposited at low current density appears uniform in morphology. Those cycled at high current density undergo short voltage transients to >3 V during Li-stripping from the electrode, during which electrolyte oxidation and Cu dissolution from the current collector may occur. The effect of temperature is also explored with separate cycling experiments performed at 5 and 33 °C. The resulting morphologies are nonuniform films filled with voids that are semispherical in shape with diameters ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers, where the void size distributions are temperature-dependent. Low-temperature cycling elicits a high proportion of submicrometer voids, while the higher-temperature sample morphology is dominated by voids larger than 2 μm. In evaluating these morphologies, we consider the importance of nonidealities during extreme charging, such as electrolyte decomposition. We conclude that nano-CT is an effective tool for resolving features and aggressive cycling-induced anomalies in Li films in the range of 100 nm to 100 μm.

  6. Preliminary results of lab-scale investigations of products of incomplete combustion during incineration of primary and mixed digested sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Bagnuolo, G; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Pastore, C; Mascolo, G

    2016-03-01

    Separation between primary and secondary sludge treatment could be a valuable solution for sludge management. According to this approach, secondary sludge can be conveniently used in agriculture while primary sludge could be easily dried and incinerated. It follows that some concern may arise from incinerating primary sludge with respect to the current practice to incinerate mixed digested sludge. Incineration of primary and mixed digested municipal sludge was investigated with a lab-scale equipment in terms of emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during incineration failure modes. PICs can be grouped in three sub-categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), compounds with a single aromatic ring, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After-burning temperature was the most important parameter to be controlled in order to minimize emissions of alkanes and alkenes. As for mono-aromatic compounds, benzene and toluene are the most thermally resistant compounds, and in some cases, an after-burning temperature of 1100 °C was not enough to get the complete destruction of benzene leading to a residual emission of 18 mg/kgsludge. PAHs showed an opposite trend with respect to aliphatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons being the thermal failure mode the main responsible of PIC emissions. A proper oxygen concentration is more important than elevated temperature thus reflecting the high thermal stability of PAHs. Overall, obtained results, even though obtained under flameless conditions that are different from those of the industrial plants, demonstrated that separation of primary and secondary sludge does not pose any drawbacks or concern regarding primary sludge being disposed of by incineration even though it is more contaminated than mixed digested sludge in terms of organic pollutants.

  7. Preliminary analysis of positive and negative syndrome scale in ketamine-associated psychosis in comparison with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Krystal, John H; Ning, Yuping; Chen, Da Chun; He, Hongbo; Wang, Daping; Ke, Xiaoyin; Zhang, Xifan; Ding, Yi; Liu, Yuping; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wang, Zuoheng; Limoncelli, Diana; Pietrzak, Robert H; Petrakis, Ismene L; Zhang, Xiangyang; Fan, Ni

    2015-02-01

    Studies of the effects of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, ketamine, have suggested similarities to the symptoms of schizophrenia. Our primary goal was to evaluate the dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in ketamine users (acute and chronic) compared to schizophrenia patients (early and chronic stages). We conducted exploratory factor analysis for the PANSS from four groups: 135 healthy subject administrated ketamine or saline, 187 inpatients of ketamine abuse; 154 inpatients of early course schizophrenia and 522 inpatients of chronic schizophrenia. Principal component factor analyses were conducted to identify the factor structure of the PANSS. Factor analysis yielded five factors for each group: positive, negative, cognitive, depressed, excitement or dissociation symptoms. The symptom dimensions in two schizophrenia groups were consistent with the established five-factor model (Wallwork et al., 2012). The factor structures across four groups were similar, with 19 of 30 symptoms loading on the same factor in at least 3 of 4 groups. The factors in the chronic ketamine group were more similar to the factors in the two schizophrenia groups rather than to the factors in the acute ketamine group. Symptom severities were significantly different across the groups (Kruskal-Wallis χ(2)(4) = 540.6, p Symptoms in the two ketamine groups were milder than in the two schizophrenia groups (Cohen's d = 0.7). Our results provide the evidence of similarity in symptom dimensions between ketamine psychosis and schizophrenia psychosis. The interpretations should be cautious because of potential confounding factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying small-scale spatio-temporal variability of snow stratigraphy in forests based on high-resolution snow penetrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bebi, P.; Jenkins, M. J.; Giunta, A. D.; Schneebeli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Snow stratigraphy, the characteristic layering within a seasonal snowpack, has important implications for snow remote sensing, hydrology and avalanches. Forests modify snowpack properties through interception, wind speed reduction, and changes to the energy balance. The lack of snowpack observations in forests limits our ability to understand the evolution of snow stratigraphy and its spatio-temporal variability as a function of forest structure and to observe snowpack response to changes in forest cover. We examined the snowpack under canopies of a spruce forest in the central Rocky Mountains, USA, using the SnowMicroPen (SMP), a high resolution digital penetrometer. Weekly-repeated penetration force measurements were recorded along 10 m transects every 0.3 m in winter 2015 and bi-weekly along 20 m transects every 0.5 m in 2016 in three study plots beneath canopies of undisturbed, bark beetle-disturbed and harvested forest stands, and an open meadow. To disentangle information about layer hardness and depth variabilities, and to quantitatively compare the different SMP profiles, we applied a matching algorithm to our dataset, which combines several profiles by automatically adjusting their layer thicknesses. We linked spatial and temporal variabilities of penetration force and depth, and thus snow stratigraphy to forest and meteorological conditions. Throughout the season, snow stratigraphy was more heterogeneous in undisturbed but also beneath bark beetle-disturbed forests. In contrast, and despite remaining small diameter trees and woody debris, snow stratigraphy was rather homogenous at the harvested plot. As expected, layering at the non-forested plot varied only slightly over the small spatial extent sampled. At the open and harvested plots, persistent crusts and ice lenses were clearly present in the snowpack, while such hard layers barely occurred beneath undisturbed and disturbed canopies. Due to settling, hardness significantly increased with depth at

  9. High Resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at the laboratory scale to model porosity and permeability in the Miami Limestone in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, G. J.; Comas, X.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface water flow within the Biscayne aquifer is controlled by the heterogeneous distribution of porosity and permeability in the karst Miami Limestone and the presence of numerous dissolution and mega-porous features. The dissolution features and other high porosity areas can create preferential flow paths and direct recharge to the aquifer, which may not be accurately conceptualized in groundwater flow models. As hydrologic conditions are undergoing restoration in the Everglades, understanding the distribution of these high porosity areas within the subsurface would create a better understanding of subsurface flow. This research utilizes ground penetrating radar to estimate the spatial variability of porosity and dielectric permittivity of the Miami Limestone at centimeter scale resolution at the laboratory scale. High frequency GPR antennas were used to measure changes in electromagnetic wave velocity through limestone samples under varying volumetric water contents. The Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM) was then applied in order to estimate porosity and dielectric permittivity of the solid phase of the limestone. Porosity estimates ranged from 45.2-66.0% from the CRIM model and correspond well with estimates of porosity from analytical and digital image techniques. Dielectric permittivity values of the limestone solid phase ranged from 7.0 and 13.0, which are similar to values in the literature. This research demonstrates the ability of GPR to identify the cm scale spatial variability of aquifer properties that influence subsurface water flow which could have implications for groundwater flow models in the Biscayne and potentially other shallow karst aquifers.

  10. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization of intermetallics formed in Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers during thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.L.; Peng, T.X.; Cao, B.S.; Lei, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Intermetallics formation in the Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers magnetron-sputtering deposited on Si(100) substrate during thermal annealing at 623-873 K was investigated by using small and wide angle X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers were constructed with bilayer thickness of 16.2 nm and the sublayer thickness ratio of 1:1. At the annealing temperature of 623 K, intermetallics FeTi were formed by nucleation at the triple joins of α-Fe(Ti)/α-Ti interface and α-Ti grain boundary with an orientational correlation of FeTi(110)//α-Ti(100) and FeTi[001]//α-Ti[001] to adjacent α-Ti grains. The lateral growth of intermetallics FeTi which is dependent on the diffusion path of Ti led to a coalescence into an intermetallic layer. With an increase in the annealing temperature, intermetallics Fe 2 Ti were formed between the intermetallics FeTi and the excess Fe due to the limitation of Fe and Ti atomic concentrations, resulting in the coexistence of intermetallics FeTi and Fe 2 Ti. It was found that the low energy interface as well as the dominant diffusion path constrained the nucleation and growth of intermetallics during interfacial reaction in the nanometer-scale metallic multilayers.

  11. New Resolution Strategy for Multi-scale Reaction Waves using Time Operator Splitting and Space Adaptive Multiresolution: Application to Human Ischemic Stroke*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louvet Violaine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion equations modeling multi-scale reaction waves. This type of problems induces peculiar difficulties and potentially large stiffness which stem from the broad spectrum of temporal scales in the nonlinear chemical source term as well as from the presence of large spatial gradients in the reactive fronts, spatially very localized. A new resolution strategy was recently introduced ? that combines a performing time operator splitting with high oder dedicated time integration methods and space adaptive multiresolution. Based on recent theoretical studies of numerical analysis, such a strategy leads to a splitting time step which is not restricted neither by the fastest scales in the source term nor by stability limits related to the diffusion problem, but only by the physics of the phenomenon. In this paper, the efficiency of the method is evaluated through 2D and 3D numerical simulations of a human ischemic stroke model, conducted on a simplified brain geometry, for which a simple parallelization strategy for shared memory architectures was implemented, in order to reduce computing costs related to “detailed chemistry” features of the model.

  12. A new front-face optical cell for measuring weak fluorescent emissions with time resolution in the picosecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Z; Bucci, E

    1993-11-01

    Recent developments of ultrafast fluorimeters allow measuring time-resolved fluorescence on the picosecond time scale. This implies one is able to monitor lifetimes and anisotropy decays of highly quenched systems and of systems that contain fluorophores having lifetimes in the subnanosecond range; both systems that emit weak signals. The combination of weak signals and very short lifetimes makes the measurements prone to distortions which are negligible in standard fluorescence experiments. To cope with these difficulties, we have designed a new optical cell for front-face optics which offers to the excitation beam a horizontal free liquid surface in the absence of interactions with optical windows. The new cell has been tested with probes of known lifetimes and anisotropies. It proved very useful in detecting tryptophan fluorescence in hemoglobin. If only diluted samples are available, which cannot be used in front-face optics, regular square geometry can still be utilized by inserting light absorbers into a cuvette of 1 cm path length.

  13. Construction of an in vivo human spinal cord atlas based on high-resolution MR images at cervical and thoracic levels: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taso, Manuel; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sdika, Michaël; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Guye, Maxime; Bernard, Monique; Callot, Virginie

    2014-06-01

    Our goal was to build a probabilistic atlas and anatomical template of the human cervical and thoracic spinal cord (SC) that could be used for segmentation algorithm improvement, parametric group studies, and enrichment of biomechanical modelling. High-resolution axial T2*-weighted images were acquired at 3T on 15 healthy volunteers using a multi-echo-gradient-echo sequence (1 slice per vertebral level from C1 to L2). After manual segmentation, linear and affine co-registrations were performed providing either inter-individual morphometric variability maps, or substructure probabilistic maps [CSF, white and grey matter (WM/GM)] and anatomical SC template. The larger inter-individual morphometric variations were observed at the thoraco-lumbar levels and in the posterior GM. Mean SC diameters were in agreement with the literature and higher than post-mortem measurements. A representative SC MR template was generated and values up to 90 and 100% were observed on GM and WM-probability maps. This work provides a probabilistic SC atlas and a template that could offer great potentialities for parametrical MRI analysis (DTI/MTR/fMRI) and group studies, similar to what has already been performed using a brain atlas. It also offers great perspective for biomechanical models usually based on post-mortem or generic data. Further work will consider integration into an automated SC segmentation pipeline.

  14. Preliminary work of mangrove ecosystem carbon stock mapping in small island using remote sensing: above and below ground carbon stock mapping on medium resolution satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Pramaditya; Danoedoro, Projo; Hartono, Hartono; Nehren, Udo; Ribbe, Lars

    2011-11-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem located in coastal area that provides various important ecological and economical services. One of the services provided by mangrove forest is the ability to act as carbon sink by sequestering CO2 from atmosphere through photosynthesis and carbon burial on the sediment. The carbon buried on mangrove sediment may persist for millennia before return to the atmosphere, and thus act as an effective long-term carbon sink. Therefore, it is important to understand the distribution of carbon stored within mangrove forest in a spatial and temporal context. In this paper, an effort to map carbon stocks in mangrove forest is presented using remote sensing technology to overcome the handicap encountered by field survey. In mangrove carbon stock mapping, the use of medium spatial resolution Landsat 7 ETM+ is emphasized. Landsat 7 ETM+ images are relatively cheap, widely available and have large area coverage, and thus provide a cost and time effective way of mapping mangrove carbon stocks. Using field data, two image processing techniques namely Vegetation Index and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) were evaluated to find the best method to explain the variation in mangrove carbon stocks using remote sensing data. In addition, we also tried to estimate mangrove carbon sequestration rate via multitemporal analysis. Finally, the technique which produces significantly better result was used to produce a map of mangrove forest carbon stocks, which is spatially extensive and temporally repetitive.

  15. A single-layer flat-coil-oscillator (SFCO)-based super-broadband position sensor for nano-scale-resolution seismometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgyan, Samvel [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)], E-mail: gevs_sam@web.am; Gevorgyan, Vardan [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia); International Scientific-Educational Center, National Academy of Sciences, 24-D Marshal Baghramyan av., Yerevan 0019 (Armenia); Karapetyan, Gagik [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)

    2008-05-15

    A new class super-broadband, nano-scale-resolution position sensor is tested. It is used as an additional sensor in seismograph. It enables to extend the band and enhance the sensitivity of the available technique by at least an order of magnitude. It allows transferring of mechanical vibrations of constructions and buildings, with amplitudes over 1 nm, into detectable signal in a frequency range starting practically from quasi-static movements. It is based on detection of position changes of a vibrating normal-metallic plate placed near the flat coil-being used as a pick-up in a stable tunnel diode oscillator. Frequency of the oscillator is used as a detecting parameter, and the measuring effect is determined by a distortion of the MHz-range testing field configuration near a coil by a vibrating plate, leading to magnetic inductance changes of the coil, with a resolution {approx}10 pH. This results in changes of oscillator frequency. We discuss test data of such a position sensor, installed in a Russian SM-3 seismometer, as an additional pick-up component, showing its advantages compared to traditional techniques. We also discuss the future of such a novel sensor involving substitution of a metallic coil by a superconductive one and replacement of a tunnel diode by an S/I/S hetero-structure-as much less-powered active element in the oscillator, compared to tunnel diode. These may strongly improve the stability of oscillators, and therefore enhance the resolution of seismic techniques.

  16. Neuroanatomy from Mesoscopic to Nanoscopic Scales: An Improved Method for the Observation of Semithin Sections by High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; Turégano-López, Marta; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2018-01-01

    Semithin sections are commonly used to examine large areas of tissue with an optical microscope, in order to locate and trim the regions that will later be studied with the electron microscope. Ideally, the observation of semithin sections would be from mesoscopic to nanoscopic scales directly, instead of using light microscopy and then electron microscopy (EM). Here we propose a method that makes it possible to obtain high-resolution scanning EM images of large areas of the brain in the millimeter to nanometer range. Since our method is compatible with light microscopy, it is also feasible to generate hybrid light and electron microscopic maps. Additionally, the same tissue blocks that have been used to obtain semithin sections can later be used, if necessary, for transmission EM, or for focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM).

  17. Discovery, genotyping and characterization of structural variation and novel sequence at single nucleotide resolution from de novo genome assemblies on a population scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Siyang; Huang, Shujia; Rao, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    present a novel approach implemented in a single software package, AsmVar, to discover, genotype and characterize different forms of structural variation and novel sequence from population-scale de novo genome assemblies up to nucleotide resolution. Application of AsmVar to several human de novo genome......) as well as large deletions. However, these approaches consistently display a substantial bias against the recovery of complex structural variants and novel sequence in individual genomes and do not provide interpretation information such as the annotation of ancestral state and formation mechanism. We...... assemblies captures a wide spectrum of structural variants and novel sequences present in the human population in high sensitivity and specificity. Our method provides a direct solution for investigating structural variants and novel sequences from de novo genome assemblies, facilitating the construction...

  18. 18/20 T high magnetic field scanning tunneling microscope with fully low voltage operability, high current resolution, and large scale searching ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanfeng; Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-04-01

    We present a home-built 18/20 T high magnetic field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) featuring fully low voltage (lower than ±15 V) operability in low temperatures, large scale searching ability, and 20 fA high current resolution (measured by using a 100 GOhm dummy resistor to replace the tip-sample junction) with a bandwidth of 3.03 kHz. To accomplish low voltage operation which is important in achieving high precision, low noise, and low interference with the strong magnetic field, the coarse approach is implemented with an inertial slider driven by the lateral bending of a piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) whose inner electrode is axially split into two for enhanced bending per volt. The PST can also drive the same sliding piece to inertial slide in the other bending direction (along the sample surface) of the PST, which realizes the large area searching ability. The STM head is housed in a three segment tubular chamber, which is detachable near the STM head for the convenience of sample and tip changes. Atomic resolution images of a graphite sample taken under 17.6 T and 18.0001 T are presented to show its performance. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  19. Built-Up Area Detection from High-Resolution Satellite Images Using Multi-Scale Wavelet Transform and Local Spatial Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Gao, J.; Yuan, Y.; Lv, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, built-up area detection from high-resolution satellite images (HRSI) has attracted increasing attention because HRSI can provide more detailed object information. In this paper, multi-resolution wavelet transform and local spatial autocorrelation statistic are introduced to model the spatial patterns of built-up areas. First, the input image is decomposed into high- and low-frequency subbands by wavelet transform at three levels. Then the high-frequency detail information in three directions (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) are extracted followed by a maximization operation to integrate the information in all directions. Afterward, a cross-scale operation is implemented to fuse different levels of information. Finally, local spatial autocorrelation statistic is introduced to enhance the saliency of built-up features and an adaptive threshold algorithm is used to achieve the detection of built-up areas. Experiments are conducted on ZY-3 and Quickbird panchromatic satellite images, and the results show that the proposed method is very effective for built-up area detection.

  20. An overview of CFD modelling of small-scale fixed-bed biomass pellet boilers with preliminary results from a simplified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, Joel; Liu Hao; Li Jinxing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overview of the overall approach of modelling fixed-bed biomass boilers in CFD. ► Bed sub-models of moisture evaporation, devolatisation and char combustion reviewed. ► A method of embedding a combustion model in discrete fuel zones within the CFD is suggested. ► Includes sample of preliminary results for a 50 kW pellet boiler. ► Clear physical trends predicted. - Abstract: The increasing global energy demand and mounting pressures for CO 2 mitigation call for increased efficient utilization of biomass, particularly for heating domestic and commercial buildings. The authors of the present paper are investigating the optimization of the combustion performance and NO x emissions of a 50 kW biomass pellet boiler fabricated by a UK manufacturer. The boiler has a number of adjustable parameters including the ratio of air flow split between the primary and secondary supplies, the orientation, height, direction and number of the secondary inlets. The optimization of these parameters provides opportunities to improve both the combustion efficiency and NO x emissions. When used carefully in conjunction with experiments, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is a useful tool for rapidly and at minimum cost examining the combustion performance and emissions from a boiler with multiple variable parameters. However, modelling combustion and emissions of a small-scale biomass pellet boiler is not trivial and appropriate fixed-bed models that can be coupled with the CFD code are required. This paper reviews previous approaches specifically relevant to simulating fixed-bed biomass boilers. In the first part it considers approaches to modelling the heterogeneous solid phase and coupling this with the gas phase. The essential components of the sub-models are then overviewed. Importantly, for the optimization process a model is required that has a good balance between accuracy in predicting physical trends, with low computational run time. Finally, a

  1. Multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a small-scale emerging magnetic flux event and the chromospheric and coronal response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Kosovichev, Alexander; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl, E-mail: svargas@bbso.njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, NJIT, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314-9672 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    State-of-the-art solar instrumentation is now revealing magnetic activity of the Sun with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions. Observations with the 1.6 m aperture New Solar Telescope (NST) of the Big Bear Solar Observatory are making next steps in our understanding of the solar surface structure. Granular-scale magnetic flux emergence and the response of the solar atmosphere are among the key research topics of high-resolution solar physics. As part of a joint observing program with NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission on 2013 August 7, the NST observed active region NOAA 11,810 in the photospheric TiO 7057 Å band with a resolution of pixel size of 0.''034 and chromospheric He I 10830 Å and Hα 6563 Å wavelengths. Complementary data are provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Hinode space-based telescopes. The region displayed a group of solar pores, in the vicinity of which we detect a small-scale buoyant horizontal magnetic flux tube causing granular alignments and interacting with the preexisting ambient field in the upper atmospheric layers. Following the expansion of distorted granules at the emergence site, we observed a sudden appearance of an extended surge in the He I 10830 Å data (bandpass of 0.05 Å). The IRIS transition region imaging caught ejection of a hot plasma jet associated with the He I surge. The SDO/HMI data used to study the evolution of the magnetic and Doppler velocity fields reveal emerging magnetic loop-like structures. Hinode/Ca II H and IRIS filtergrams detail the connectivities of the newly emerged magnetic field in the lower solar chromosphere. From these data, we find that the orientation of the emerging magnetic field lines from a twisted flux tube formed an angle of ∼45° with the overlying ambient field. Nevertheless, the interaction of emerging magnetic field lines with the pre-existing overlying field generates high-temperature emission regions and boosts the

  2. High-resolution inversion of OMI formaldehyde columns to quantify isoprene emission on ecosystem-relevant scales: application to the southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Jacob, Daniel J.; Zhu, Lei; Travis, Katherine R.; Fisher, Jenny A.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xuesong; Fried, Alan; Crounse, John D.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene emissions from vegetation have a large effect on atmospheric chemistry and air quality. Bottom-up isoprene emission inventories used in atmospheric models are based on limited vegetation information and uncertain land cover data, leading to potentially large errors. Satellite observations of atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield isoprene oxidation product, provide top-down information to evaluate isoprene emission inventories through inverse analyses. Past inverse analyses have however been hampered by uncertainty in the HCHO satellite data, uncertainty in the time- and NOx-dependent yield of HCHO from isoprene oxidation, and coarse resolution of the atmospheric models used for the inversion. Here we demonstrate the ability to use HCHO satellite data from OMI in a high-resolution inversion to constrain isoprene emissions on ecosystem-relevant scales. The inversion uses the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution to interpret observations over the southeast US in August-September 2013. It takes advantage of concurrent NASA SEAC4RS aircraft observations of isoprene and its oxidation products including HCHO to validate the OMI HCHO data over the region, test the GEOS-Chem isoprene oxidation mechanism and NOx environment, and independently evaluate the inversion. This evaluation shows in particular that local model errors in NOx concentrations propagate to biases in inferring isoprene emissions from HCHO data. It is thus essential to correct model NOx biases, which was done here using SEAC4RS observations but can be done more generally using satellite NO2 data concurrently with HCHO. We find in our inversion that isoprene emissions from the widely used MEGAN v2.1 inventory are biased high over the southeast US by 40 % on average, although the broad-scale distributions are correct including maximum emissions in Arkansas/Louisiana and high base emission factors in the oak-covered Ozarks of southeast

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing of Cropland Characteristics in 30m Resolution: The First North American Continental-Scale Classification on High Performance Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard

    Cropland characteristics and accurate maps of their spatial distribution are required to develop strategies for global food security by continental-scale assessments and agricultural land use policies. North America is the major producer and exporter of coarse grains, wheat, and other crops. While cropland characteristics such as crop types are available at country-scales in North America, however, at continental-scale cropland products are lacking at fine sufficient resolution such as 30m. Additionally, applications of automated, open, and rapid methods to map cropland characteristics over large areas without the need of ground samples are needed on efficient high performance computing platforms for timely and long-term cropland monitoring. In this study, I developed novel, automated, and open methods to map cropland extent, crop intensity, and crop types in the North American continent using large remote sensing datasets on high-performance computing platforms. First, a novel method was developed in this study to fuse pixel-based classification of continental-scale Landsat data using Random Forest algorithm available on Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform with an object-based classification approach, recursive hierarchical segmentation (RHSeg) to map cropland extent at continental scale. Using the fusion method, a continental-scale cropland extent map for North America at 30m spatial resolution for the nominal year 2010 was produced. In this map, the total cropland area for North America was estimated at 275.2 million hectares (Mha). This map was assessed for accuracy using randomly distributed samples derived from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) cropland data layer (CDL), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) annual crop inventory (ACI), Servicio de Informacion Agroalimentaria y Pesquera (SIAP), Mexico's agricultural boundaries, and photo-interpretation of high-resolution imagery. The overall accuracies of the map are 93.4% with a

  4. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.C.E.; Williams, J.J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: • Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization • Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency • X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution

  5. High-resolution monitoring across the soil-groundwater interface - Revealing small-scale hydrochemical patterns with a novel multi-level well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Griebler, Christian; Stumpp, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical turnover processes in the subsurface are highly variable both in time and space. In order to capture this variability, high resolution monitoring systems are required. Particular in riparian zones the understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes is of interest, as they are regarded as important buffer zones for nutrients and contaminants with high turnover rates. To date, riparian research has focused on influences of groundwater-surface water interactions on element cycling, but little is known about processes occurring at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated zone during dynamic flow conditions. Therefore, we developed a new type of high resolution multi-level well (HR-MLW) that has been installed in the riparian zone of the Selke river. This HR-MLW for the first time enables to derive water samples both from the unsaturated and the saturated zone across one vertical profile with a spatial vertical resolution of 0.05 to 0.5 m to a depth of 4 m b.l.s. Water samples from the unsaturated zone are extracted via suction cup sampling. Samples from the saturated zone are withdrawn through glass filters and steel capillaries. Both, ceramic cups and glass filters, are installed along a 1" HDPE piezometer tube. First high resolution hydrochemical profiles revealed a distinct depth-zonation in the riparian alluvial aquifer. A shallow zone beneath the water table carried a signature isotopically and hydrochemically similar to the nearby river, while layers below 1.5 m were influenced by regional groundwater. This zonation showed temporal dynamics related to groundwater table fluctuations and microbial turnover processes. The HR-MLW delivered new insight into mixing and turnover processes between riverwater and groundwater in riparian zones, both in a temporal and spatial dimension. With these new insights, we are able to improve our understanding of dynamic turnover processes at the soil - groundwater interface and of surface

  6. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  7. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart-Ayala, H., E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Courant, F.; Severe, S.; Antignac, J.-P. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Morio, F.; Abadie, J. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), Cancers Animaux, Modèles pour la Recherche en Oncologie Comparée (AMaROC), Site de la Chantrerie–CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Le Bizec, B. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-09-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Lipidomics, high resolution mass spectrometry, polarity switching, serum, canine mammary cancer. -- Abstract: Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS or LC–MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and “all ion fragmentation” (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale.

  8. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallart-Ayala, H.; Courant, F.; Severe, S.; Antignac, J.-P.; Morio, F.; Abadie, J.; Le Bizec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Lipidomics, high resolution mass spectrometry, polarity switching, serum, canine mammary cancer. -- Abstract: Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS or LC–MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and “all ion fragmentation” (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale

  9. Kinota: An Open-Source NoSQL implementation of OGC SensorThings for large-scale high-resolution real-time environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Chepudira, K.; LaBar, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) SensorThings API (STA) specification, ratified in 2016, is a next-generation open standard for enabling real-time communication of sensor data. Building on over a decade of OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) Standards, STA offers a rich data model that can represent a range of sensor and phenomena types (e.g. fixed sensors sensing fixed phenomena, fixed sensors sensing moving phenomena, mobile sensors sensing fixed phenomena, and mobile sensors sensing moving phenomena) and is data agnostic. Additionally, and in contrast to previous SWE standards, STA is developer-friendly, as is evident from its convenient JSON serialization, and expressive OData-based query language (with support for geospatial queries); with its Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT), STA is also well-suited to efficient real-time data publishing and discovery. All these attributes make STA potentially useful for use in environmental monitoring sensor networks. Here we present Kinota(TM), an Open-Source NoSQL implementation of OGC SensorThings for large-scale high-resolution real-time environmental monitoring. Kinota, which roughly stands for Knowledge from Internet of Things Analyses, relies on Cassandra its underlying data store, which is a horizontally scalable, fault-tolerant open-source database that is often used to store time-series data for Big Data applications (though integration with other NoSQL or rational databases is possible). With this foundation, Kinota can scale to store data from an arbitrary number of sensors collecting data every 500 milliseconds. Additionally, Kinota architecture is very modular allowing for customization by adopters who can choose to replace parts of the existing implementation when desirable. The architecture is also highly portable providing the flexibility to choose between cloud providers like azure, amazon, google etc. The scalable, flexible and cloud friendly architecture of Kinota makes it ideal for use in next

  10. High-Resolution Wellbore Temperature Logging Combined with a Borehole-Scale Heat Budget: Conceptual and Analytical Approaches to Characterize Hydraulically Active Fractures and Groundwater Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Meyzonnat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide an overview of the thermal processes that shape wellbore temperature profiles under static and dynamic conditions. Understanding of the respective influences of advection and conduction heat fluxes is improved through the use of a new heat budget at the borehole scale. Keeping in mind the thermal processes involved, a qualitative interpretation of the temperature profiles allows the occurrence, the position, and the origin of groundwater flowing into wellbores from hydraulically active fractures to be constrained. With the use of a heat budget developed at the borehole scale, temperature logging efficiency has been quantitatively enhanced and allows inflow temperatures to be calculated through the simultaneous use of a flowmeter. Under certain hydraulic or pumping conditions, both inflow intensities and associated temperatures can also be directly modelled from temperature data and the use of the heat budget. Theoretical and applied examples of the heat budget application are provided. Applied examples are shown using high-resolution temperature logging, spinner flow metering, and televiewing for three wells installed in fractured bedrock aquifers in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada. Through relatively rapid manipulations, thermal measurements in such cases can be used to detect the intervals or discrete positions of hydraulically active fractures in wellbores, as well as the existence of ambient flows with a high degree of sensitivity, even at very low flows. Heat budget calculations at the borehole scale during pumping indicate that heat advection fluxes rapidly dominate over heat conduction fluxes with the borehole wall. The full characterization of inflow intensities provides information about the distribution of hydraulic properties with depth. The full knowledge of inflow temperatures indicates horizons that are drained from within the aquifer, providing advantageous information on the depth from which

  11. Devising an endoluminal bimodal probe which combines autofluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy with high resolution MRI for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis: technique, feasibility and preliminary in-vivo (rabbit) results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgolam, A.; Sablong, R.; Bou-Saïd, B.; Bouvard, S.; Saint-Jalmes, H.; Beuf, O.

    2011-07-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy (WLE) is the most widespread technique used today for colorectal cancer diagnosis and is considered as the gold standard when coupled to biopsy and histology. However for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis, which is very often characterised by flat adenomas, the use of WLE is quite difficult due to subtle or quasiinvisible morphological changes of the colonic lining. Figures worldwide point out that diagnosing colorectal cancer in its early stages would significantly reduce the death toll all while increasing the 5-year survival rate. Several techniques are currently being investigated in the scope of providing new tools that would allow such a diagnostic or assist actual techniques in so doing. We hereby present a novel technique where High spatial Resolution MRI (HR-MRI) is coupled to optical spectroscopy (autofluorescence and reflectance) in a bimodal endoluminal probe to extract morphological data and biochemical information respectively. The design and conception of the endoluminal probe along with the preliminary results obtained with an organic phantom and in-vivo (rabbit) are presented and discussed.

  12. High-frequency and meso-scale winter sea-ice variability in the Southern Ocean in a high-resolution global ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stössel, Achim; von Storch, Jin-Song; Notz, Dirk; Haak, Helmuth; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2018-03-01

    This study is on high-frequency temporal variability (HFV) and meso-scale spatial variability (MSV) of winter sea-ice drift in the Southern Ocean simulated with a global high-resolution (0.1°) sea ice-ocean model. Hourly model output is used to distinguish MSV characteristics via patterns of mean kinetic energy (MKE) and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of ice drift, surface currents, and wind stress, and HFV characteristics via time series of raw variables and correlations. We find that (1) along the ice edge, the MSV of ice drift coincides with that of surface currents, in particular such due to ocean eddies; (2) along the coast, the MKE of ice drift is substantially larger than its TKE and coincides with the MKE of wind stress; (3) in the interior of the ice pack, the TKE of ice drift is larger than its MKE, mostly following the TKE pattern of wind stress; (4) the HFV of ice drift is dominated by weather events, and, in the absence of tidal currents, locally and to a much smaller degree by inertial oscillations; (5) along the ice edge, the curl of the ice drift is highly correlated with that of surface currents, mostly reflecting the impact of ocean eddies. Where ocean eddies occur and the ice is relatively thin, ice velocity is characterized by enhanced relative vorticity, largely matching that of surface currents. Along the ice edge, ocean eddies produce distinct ice filaments, the realism of which is largely confirmed by high-resolution satellite passive-microwave data.

  13. Estimating Sediment Delivery to The Rio Maranon, Peru Prior to Large-Scale Hydropower Developments Using High Resolution Imagery from Google Earth and a DJI Phantom 3 Drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, J. R.; Candelaria, T.; Kramer, N. R.; Hill, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    As global energy demands increase, generating hydroelectric power by constructing dams and reservoirs on large river systems is increasingly seen as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, especially in emerging economies. Many large-scale hydropower projects are located in steep mountainous terrain, where environmental factors have the potential to conspire against the sustainability and success of such projects. As reservoir storage capacity decreases when sediment builds up behind dams, high sediment yields can limit project life expectancy and overall hydropower viability. In addition, episodically delivered sediment from landslides can make quantifying sediment loads difficult. These factors, combined with remote access, limit the critical data needed to effectively evaluate development decisions. In the summer of 2015, we conducted a basic survey to characterize the geomorphology, hydrology and ecology of 620 km of the Rio Maranon, Peru - a major tributary to the Amazon River, which flows north from the semi-arid Peruvian Andes - prior to its dissection by several large hydropower dams. Here we present one component of this larger study: a first order analysis of potential sediment inputs to the Rio Maranon, Peru. To evaluate sediment delivery and storage in this system, we used high resolution Google Earth imagery to delineate landslides, combined with high resolution imagery from a DJI Phantom 3 Drone, flown at alluvial fan inputs to the river in the field. Because hillslope-derived sediment inputs from headwater tributaries are important to overall ecosystem health in large river systems, our study has the potential to contribute to the understanding the impacts of large Andean dams on sediment connectivity to the Amazon basin.

  14. Simulations of Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal with a High-Resolution Model: Sensitivity to Large-Scale Boundary Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Done, James; Dudhia, Jimy; Niyogi, Dev

    2011-01-01

    The predictability of Cyclone Sidr in the Bay of Bengal was explored in terms of track and intensity using the Advanced Research Hurricane Weather Research Forecast (AHW) model. This constitutes the first application of the AHW over an area that lies outside the region of the North Atlantic for which this model was developed and tested. Several experiments were conducted to understand the possible contributing factors that affected Sidr s intensity and track simulation by varying the initial start time and domain size. Results show that Sidr s track was strongly controlled by the synoptic flow at the 500-hPa level, seen especially due to the strong mid-latitude westerly over north-central India. A 96-h forecast produced westerly winds over north-central India at the 500-hPa level that were notably weaker; this likely caused the modeled cyclone track to drift from the observed actual track. Reducing the model domain size reduced model error in the synoptic-scale winds at 500 hPa and produced an improved cyclone track. Specifically, the cyclone track appeared to be sensitive to the upstream synoptic flow, and was, therefore, sensitive to the location of the western boundary of the domain. However, cyclone intensity remained largely unaffected by this synoptic wind error at the 500-hPa level. Comparison of the high resolution, moving nested domain with a single coarser resolution domain showed little difference in tracks, but resulted in significantly different intensities. Experiments on the domain size with regard to the total precipitation simulated by the model showed that precipitation patterns and 10-m surface winds were also different. This was mainly due to the mid-latitude westerly flow across the west side of the model domain. The analysis also suggested that the total precipitation pattern and track was unchanged when the domain was extended toward the east, north, and south. Furthermore, this highlights our conclusion that Sidr was influenced from the west

  15. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  16. Improving National Water Modeling: An Intercomparison of two High-Resolution, Continental Scale Models, CONUS-ParFlow and the National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, D.; Gochis, D.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Development of integrated hydrology modeling systems that couple atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface flow is growing trend in hydrologic modeling. Using an integrated modeling framework, subsurface hydrologic processes, such as lateral flow and soil moisture redistribution, are represented in a single cohesive framework with surface processes like overland flow and evapotranspiration. There is a need for these more intricate models in comprehensive hydrologic forecasting and water management over large spatial areas, specifically the Continental US (CONUS). Currently, two high-resolution, coupled hydrologic modeling applications have been developed for this domain: CONUS-ParFlow built using the integrated hydrologic model ParFlow and the National Water Model that uses the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological extension package (WRF-Hydro). Both ParFlow and WRF-Hydro include land surface models, overland flow, and take advantage of parallelization and high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities; however, they have different approaches to overland subsurface flow and groundwater-surface water interactions. Accurately representing large domains remains a challenge considering the difficult task of representing complex hydrologic processes, computational expense, and extensive data needs; both models have accomplished this, but have differences in approach and continue to be difficult to validate. A further exploration of effective methodology to accurately represent large-scale hydrology with integrated models is needed to advance this growing field. Here we compare the outputs of CONUS-ParFlow and the National Water Model to each other and with observations to study the performance of hyper-resolution models over large domains. Models were compared over a range of scales for major watersheds within the CONUS with a specific focus on the Mississippi, Ohio, and Colorado River basins. We use a novel set of approaches and analysis for this comparison

  17. A high-resolution record of Holocene millennial-scale oscillations of surface water, foraminiferal paleoecology and sediment redox chemistry in the SE Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene millennial-scale oscillations and Bond Events (Bond et al. 1997) are well reported in the North Atlantic as consequence of fresh water input and weaking of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been hypothesized that the effect of weaking of AMOC would lead to warming in the South Atlantic due to "heat piracy", causing surface waters to warm and a reorganization of surface circulation. There are few reconstructions of AMOC strength in the South Atlantic, and none with a high resolution Holocene record of changes of productivity and the biological pump. We reconstruct past changes in the surface water mass hydrography, productivity, and sediment redox changes in high-resolution in the core KCF10-01B, located 128 mbsl water depth off Cabo Frio, Brazil, a location where upwelling is strongly linked to surface ocean hydrography. We use Benthic Foraminiferal Accumulation Rate (BFAR) to reconstruct productivity, which reveals a 1.3kyr cyclicity during the mid- and late-Holocene. The geochemistry of trace and rare earth elements on foraminiferal Fe-Mn oxide coatings show changes in redox-sensitive elements indicating that during periods of high productivity there were more reducing conditions in sediment porewaters, producing a Ce anomaly and reduction and re-precipitation of Mn oxides. Bond events 1-7 were identified by a productivity increase along with reducing sediment conditions which was likely caused by Brazil Current displacement offshore allowing upwelling of the nutritive bottom water South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) to the euphotic zone and a stronger local biological pump. In a global context, correlation with other records show that this occurred during weakened AMOC and southward displacement of the ITCZ. We conclude that Bond climatic events and millennial-scale variability of AMOC caused sea surface hydrographic changes off the Brazilian Margin leading to biological and geochemical changes recorded in coastal records

  18. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  19. High spatial resolution decade-time scale land cover change at multiple locations in the Beringian Arctic (1948–2000s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D H; Johnson, D R; Tweedie, C E; Andresen, C

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of time series imagery from satellite and aircraft platforms is useful for detecting land cover change at plot to regional scales. In this study, we created multi-temporal high spatial resolution land cover maps for seven locations in the Beringian Arctic and assessed the change in land cover over time. Land cover classifications were site specific and mostly aligned with a soil moisture gradient. Time series varied between 60 and 21 years. Four of the five landscapes studied in Alaska underwent an expansion of drier land cover classes while the two landscapes studies in Chukotka, Russia showed an expansion of wetter land cover types. While a range of land cover types was present across the landscapes studied, the extent of shrubs (in Chukotka) and open water (in Alaska) increased in all landscapes where these land cover types were present. The results support trends documented for regional change in NDVI (a measure of vegetation greenness and productivity) as well as a host of other long term, experimental and modeling studies. Using historic change trends for each land cover type at each landscape, we use a simple probabilistic vegetation model to establish hypotheses of future change trajectories for different land cover types at each of the landscapes investigated. This study is a contribution to the International Polar Year Back to the Future project (IPY-BTF). (letter)

  20. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Ayala, H; Courant, F; Severe, S; Antignac, J-P; Morio, F; Abadie, J; Le Bizec, B

    2013-09-24

    Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS or LC-MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and "all ion fragmentation" (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary High Spectral-Resolution PFNDAT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wetmore, Alan; Ligon, David; Kvavilashvili, Ramaz

    2004-01-01

    .... The interim version of HRPFNDAT consists of a series of phase functions and extinction and scattering coefficient data for the rural, urban, and maritime haze models, water fog models, and fog oil...

  2. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988--2001 and 2001--2011 periods was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. While useful on a regional scale, Landsat data can be inadequate for more detailed studies of land cover change. Based on an increasing availability of high resolution imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from manned and unmanned aerial platforms (techniques. The classification framework was tested for a scene with both natural and cultural features and was found to be more than 90 percent accurate, sufficient for detailed land cover change studies.

  3. GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using

  4. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiacker, K., E-mail: Kai@zweiacker.org; Liu, C.; Wiezorek, J. M. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); McKeown, J. T.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of the metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ∼1.3 m s{sup −1} to ∼2.5 m s{sup −1} during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s{sup −1} have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. Using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.

  5. Estimation and modeling of forest attributes across large spatial scales using BiomeBGC, high-resolution imagery, LiDAR data, and inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinkoff, Jordan Seth

    The accurate estimation of forest attributes at many different spatial scales is a critical problem. Forest landowners may be interested in estimating timber volume, forest biomass, and forest structure to determine their forest's condition and value. Counties and states may be interested to learn about their forests to develop sustainable management plans and policies related to forests, wildlife, and climate change. Countries and consortiums of countries need information about their forests to set global and national targets to deal with issues of climate change and deforestation as well as to set national targets and understand the state of their forest at a given point in time. This dissertation approaches these questions from two perspectives. The first perspective uses the process model Biome-BGC paired with inventory and remote sensing data to make inferences about a current forest state given known climate and site variables. Using a model of this type, future climate data can be used to make predictions about future forest states as well. An example of this work applied to a forest in northern California is presented. The second perspective of estimating forest attributes uses high resolution aerial imagery paired with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing data to develop statistical estimates of forest structure. Two approaches within this perspective are presented: a pixel based approach and an object based approach. Both approaches can serve as the platform on which models (either empirical growth and yield models or process models) can be run to generate inferences about future forest state and current forest biogeochemical cycling.

  6. Mapping Above-Ground Biomass of Winter Oilseed Rape Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Data at Parcel Scale under Waterlogging Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahui Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the three most important oil crops in China, and is regarded as a drought-tolerant oilseed crop. However, it is commonly sensitive to waterlogging, which usually refers to an adverse environment that limits crop development. Moreover, crop growth and soil irrigation can be monitored at a regional level using remote sensing data. High spatial resolution optical satellite sensors are very useful to capture and resist unfavorable field conditions at the sub-field scale. In this study, four different optical sensors, i.e., Pleiades-1A, Worldview-2, Worldview-3, and SPOT-6, were used to estimate the dry above-ground biomass (AGB of oilseed rape and track the seasonal growth dynamics. In addition, three different soil water content field experiments were carried out at different oilseed rape growth stages from November 2014 to May 2015 in Northern Zhejiang province, China. As a significant indicator of crop productivity, AGB was measured during the seasonal growth stages of the oilseed rape at the experimental plots. Several representative vegetation indices (VIs obtained from multiple satellite sensors were compared with the simultaneously-collected oilseed rape AGB. Results showed that the estimation model using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI with a power regression model performed best through the seasonal growth dynamics, with the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77, the smallest root mean square error (RMSE = 104.64 g/m2, and the relative RMSE (rRMSE = 21%. It is concluded that the use of selected VIs and high spatial multiple satellite data can significantly estimate AGB during the winter oilseed rape growth stages, and can be applied to map the variability of winter oilseed rape at the sub-field level under different waterlogging conditions, which is very promising in the application of agricultural irrigation and precision agriculture.

  7. Time scales of pattern evolution from cross-spectrum analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer and coastal zone color scanner imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    We have selected square subareas (110 km on a side) from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images for 1981 in the California Current region off northern California for which we could identify sequences of cloud-free data over periods of days to weeks. We applied a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation to images after median filtering, (x, y) plane removal, and cosine tapering. We formed autospectra and coherence spectra as functions of a scalar wavenumber. Coherence estimates between pairs of images were plotted against time separation between images for several wide wavenumber bands to provide a temporal lagged coherence function. The temporal rate of loss of correlation (decorrelation time scale) in surface patterns provides a measure of the rate of pattern change or evolution as a function of spatial dimension. We found that patterns evolved (or lost correlation) approximately twice as rapidly in upwelling jets as in the 'quieter' regions between jets. The rapid evolution of pigment patterns (lifetime of about 1 week or less for scales of 50-100 km) ought to hinder biomass transfer to zooplankton predators compared with phytoplankton patches that persist for longer times. We found no significant differences between the statistics of CZCS and AVHRR images (spectral shape or rate of decorrelation). In addition, in two of the three areas studied, the peak correlation between AVHRR and CZCS images from the same area occurred at zero lag, indicating that the patterns evolved simutaneously. In the third area, maximum coherence between thermal and pigment patterns occurred when pigment images lagged thermal images by 1-2 days, mirroring the expected lag of high pigment behind low temperatures (and high nutrients) in recently upwelled water. We conclude that in dynamic areas such as coastal upwelling systems, the phytoplankton cells (identified by pigment color patterns) behave largely as passive scalars at the

  8. A high-resolution regional emission inventory of atmospheric mercury and its comparison with multi-scale inventories: a case study of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the discrepancies in multi-scale inventories could give an insight into their approaches and limitations as well as provide indications for further improvements; international, national, and plant-by-plant data are primarily obtained to compile those inventories. In this study we develop a high-resolution inventory of Hg emissions at 0.05°  ×  0.05° for Jiangsu, China, using a bottom-up approach and then compare the results with available global/national inventories. With detailed information on individual sources and the updated emission factors from field measurements applied, the annual Hg emissions of anthropogenic origin in Jiangsu in 2010 are estimated at 39 105 kg, of which 51, 47, and 2 % were Hg0, Hg2+, and Hgp, respectively. This provincial inventory is thoroughly compared to three downscaled national inventories (NJU, THU, and BNU and two global ones (AMAP/UNEP and EDGARv4.tox2. Attributed to varied methods and data sources, clear information gaps exist in multi-scale inventories, leading to differences in the emission levels, speciation, and spatial distributions of atmospheric Hg. The total emissions in the provincial inventory are 28, 7, 19, 22, and 70 % larger than NJU, THU, BNU, AMAP/UNEP, and EDGARv4.tox2, respectively. For major sectors, including power generation, cement, iron and steel, and other coal combustion, the Hg contents (HgC in coals/raw materials, abatement rates of air pollution control devices (APCDs and activity levels are identified as the crucial parameters responsible for the differences in estimated emissions between inventories. Regarding speciated emissions, a larger fraction of Hg2+ is found in the provincial inventory than national and global inventories, resulting mainly from the results by the most recent domestic studies in which enhanced Hg2+ were measured for cement and iron and steel plants. Inconsistent information on large power and industrial plants is

  9. Using hydrological modelling for a preliminary assessment of under-catch of precipitation in some Alpine Catchments of Sierra Nevada (Spain). Sensitivity to different conceptual approaches and spatio-temporal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Pegalajar-Cuellar, Manuel; Collados-Lara, Antonio-Juan; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation (P) measurements show important biases due to under-catch, especially in windy conditions. Gauges modify the wind fields, producing important under-catch in solid P. In this work we intent to perform a global assessment of the under-catch phenomenon in some alpine catchments of Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (Spain) by using different conceptual hydrological models. They are based on the available information about daily natural streamflow and daily fields of P and temperature (T) in each catchment. We want to analyse long time periods (more than 20 years at daily scale) in order to obtain conclusions taking into account the stochastic behaviour of the natural streamflow and P and T variables. The natural streamflowin each basin has been obtained from the streamflow measurements in the gauges by making some simple mathematical operations to eliminate the anthropic influences. The daily climatic fieldswere estimated with spatial resolution of 1kmx1km by applying geostatistic techniques using data coming from 119climatic gauges existing in the area.We have considered to model options: Monthly and yearly variogram to characterize the spatial data correlation. The Elevation has been considered as secondary variable for the estimation. The analysis of the experimental data showed a linear relationhip between mean T and elevation. Therefore, we decided to apply a kriging with linear external drift to estimate the P and T fields. The mean daily P data show a quadratic relationship with the elevation. Different hypothesis have been considered to approach these P fields by applying kriging with linear drift, with quadratic drift, and regression kriging. A cross-validation analysis showed that the best approximation to the data is obtained with the kriging with linear drift. The P and T fields obtained with this technique were employed to feed different hydrological models in which different conceptual approaches of the hydrological processes related with the

  10. Flight Test Results From the Ultra High Resolution, Electro-Optical Framing Camera Containing a 9216 by 9216 Pixel, Wafer Scale, Focal Plane Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathews, Bruce; Zwicker, Theodore

    1999-01-01

    The details of the fabrication and results of laboratory testing of the Ultra High Resolution Framing Camera containing onchip forward image motion compensation were presented to the SPIE at Airborne...

  11. Accumulation chamber as monitoring system for biogas emission from solid waste land filling: preliminary experimental results and elaborations on italian provincial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioni, B.; Pirillo, L.; Didero, M.; Lucci, P.; Scartoni, P.; Tatano, F.

    2005-01-01

    On site CO 2 flux measurements with the static, not stationary accumulation chamber system were experimentally carried out in no. 5 MSW (active and closed) landfills located in the territory of the Province of Arezzo (Tuscany Region). Corresponding CO 2 emission flux maps were contoured and analysed, revealing a possible, preliminary geometrical classification of biogas dispersion: diffuse dispersion (internal), lateral/angular dispersion (internal), and external dispersion. Also specific (volume and surface) biogas emission parameters were calculated and graphically compared for the monitored inactive facilities [it

  12. Preliminary interpretation of pre-2014 landslide deposits in the vicinity of Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution topographic surveys allow fairly precise mapping of landslide deposits and their relative ages. Relative ages are determined by cross-cutting relations and the amount of smoothing—more smoothed slide deposits are older—of these deposits. The Tulalip Tribes, in partnership with the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium, acquired a high-resolution lidar (light detection and ranging) survey of the North Fork Stillaguamish River valley in 2013. This report presents a preliminary interpretation of the topography of this area using the lidar data at a scale of 1:24,000.

  13. Measuring the Cognitions, Emotions, and Motivation Associated With Avoidance Behaviors in the Context of Pain: Preliminary Development of the Negative Responsivity to Pain Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Ehde, Da