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Sample records for resistive g-mode scaling

  1. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-08-01

    Suppression of resistive g-mode turbulence by background shear flow generated from a small external flow source and amplified by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress is demonstrated and analyzed. The model leads to a paradigm for the low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transition. To demonstrate the L-H transition model, single-helicity nonlinear fluid simulations using the vorticity equation for the electrostatic potential, the pressure fluctuation equation and the background poloidal flow equation are used in the sheared slab configuration. The relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the poloidal flow damping parameter ν which is given by neoclassical theory. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow and its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. In contrast, for small ν, we show that the fluctuations drive a Reynolds stress that becomes large and suddenly, at some critical point in time, shear flow much larger than the external flow is generated and leads to an abrupt, order unity reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is also found that, even in the case of no external flow, the shear flow generation due to the Reynolds stress occurs through the nonlinear interaction of the resistive g-modes and reduces the transport. To supplement the numerical solutions we derive the Landau equation for the mode amplitude of the resistive g-mode taking into account the fluctuation-induced shear flow and analyze the opposite action of the Reynolds stress in the resistive g turbulence compared with the classical shear flow Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) driven turbulence

  2. Shear flow generation by Reynolds stress and suppression of resistive g modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have investigated suppression of the resistive g mode turbulence by background shear flow produced by the external source and by the fluctuation-induced Reynolds stress. For that purpose, the authors used the model consisting of the equations describing the electrostatic potential φ≡(φ 0 +φ) and the pressure fluctuation p of the resistive g mode, and the equation for the background poloidal flow. They have done the single-helicity nonlinear simulations using the model equations in the sheared slab configuration. They find that, in the nonlinear turbulent regime, significant suppression of the turbulent transport is realized only when the shear flow v' E exceeds that which makes the fastest-growing linear modes marginally stable. With the shear flow which decreases the fastest linear growth rates by about a half, the turbulent transport in the saturated state is about the same as in the case of no shear flow. As seen from the equation for the background flow v E , the relative efficiency of the external flow and the Reynolds stress for producing shear flow depends on the parameter ν. For large ν, the external flow is a dominant contribution to the total background poloidal shear flow although its strength predicted by the neoclassical theory is not enough to suppress the turbulence significantly. On the other hand, for small ν, they observe that, as the fluctuations grow, the Reynolds stress becomes large and suddenly at some critical point in time shear flow much larger than the external one is generated and leads to the significant reduction of the turbulent transport just like that of the L-H transition in tokamak experiments. It is remarkable that the Reynolds stress due to the resistive g mode fluctuations works not as a conventional viscosity term weakening the shear flow but as a negative viscosity term enhancing it

  3. Viscoresistive g-modes and ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.; Paris, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The resistive G-mode and its particular form, the resistive ballooning mode, are treated as limits of a single simple model. MHD theory including parallel and perpendicular viscosity, finite shear, and finite beta is employed to study their linear stability

  4. Observational Searches for Chromospheric g-Mode Oscillations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pallé (1991) had discussed in great detail the various methods to search for solar gravity modes. Many authors have claimed, in the past 22 years, to detect internal g-modes in the Sun, but so far, there is no observational evidence. The atmospheric g-modes of small scale may exist, but in the atmosphere the Brunt.

  5. Solar g-modes? Comparison of detected asymptotic g-mode frequencies with solar model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzannah Rebecca; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Mussack, Katie; Bradley, Paul A.

    2018-06-01

    After many years of searching for solar gravity modes, Fossat et al. (2017) reported detection of the nearly equally spaced high-order g-modes periods using a 15-year time series of GOLF data from the SOHO spacecraft. Here we report progress towards and challenges associated with calculating and comparing g-mode period predictions for several previously published standard solar models using various abundance mixtures and opacities, as well as the predictions for some non-standard models incorporating early mass loss, and compare with the periods reported by Fossat et al (2017). Additionally, we have a side-by-side comparison of results of different stellar pulsation codes for calculating g-mode predictions. These comparisons will allow for testing of nonstandard physics input that affect the core, including an early more massive Sun and dynamic electron screening.

  6. Resonant count diagram and solar g mode oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, D.B.; Demarque, P.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that, because of the particular frequency separations of the solar g modes, resonant three-wave interactions stimulate only a selected few g modes. A resonant count diagram was obtained by plotting the total number of possible resonant three-wave interactions or a given beat frequency against the inverse of the beat frequency (the beat period), within a given frequency tolerance. The 1 = 1, 2, 3, 4 g modes calculated by Christensen-Dalsgaard, Gough and Morgan (1979) for a standard model of the Sun were used. The diagram has a significant peak at 160 minutes as well as other peaks at longer periods. The g modes that Delache and Scherrer (1983) tentatively identified from the Crimea-Stanford data were also plotted. These modes were found to correspond with the other peaks in the diagram. This coincidence between the observed g modes and the peaks in the resonant count diagram suggest that the observed g modes do owe their observability to resonant three-wave interactions

  7. A new class of g-modes in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenegger, Andreas; Goldreich, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Because a neutron star is born hot, its internal composition is close to chemical equilibrium. In the fluid core, this implies that the ratio of the number densities of charged particles (protons and electrons) to neutrons is an increasing function of the mass density. This composition gradient stably stratifies the matter giving rise to a Brunt-Vaisala frequency N of about 500/s. Consequently, a neutron star core provides a cavity that supports gravity modes (g-modes). These g-modes are distinct from those previously identified with the thermal stratification of the surface layers and the chemical stratification of the crust. We compute the lowest-order, quadrupolar, g-modes for cold, Newtonian, neutron star models with M/solar M = 0.581 and M/solar M = 1.405, and show that the crustal and core g-modes have similar periods. We also discuss damping mechanisms and estimate damping rates for the core g-modes. Particular attention is paid to damping due to the emission of gravitational radiation.

  8. Modifications needed to operate PWR's plants in G-Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainman, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The production of electricity from PWR nuclear plants represents 44% of the total production of electricity in France for 1984, and 68% of the electricity produced by Thermal power plants (127 TWh over 187 TWh). These data show clearly that the French PWR plants do not work in ''base mode'' anymore but have to fit production with consumption, in other words to assume the frequency control. To participate permanently to the load follow and frequency control, it appeared that some improvements in the field of pressurizer level and pressure control were necessary as well as in the field of operator aids computer. It should be noted that these improvements are useful even without taking into account the constraints due to load follow and frequency control because of the mechanical stress in the CVCS piping, for instance. Some additional tests are planned to better identify this specific problem. The need of a more flexible operating mode than ones given by the initial system (black control rods), significantly reduced in 1973 due to the application of the ECCS criterion, led EDF and Framatome to develop a new operating mode (G. Mode) allowing a faster power escalation (5% PN/mn) whatever the fuel burn-up. This new operating mode improves significantly also the flexibility of operation when the frequency control is needed, and helps a lot the operators in such cases. All the 900 MWe Nuclear plants will be able to operate in ''G mode'' before the end of 1984

  9. Instability of g-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A white dwarf model with M = 6 solar masses, Te = 12,000 K, and L = 1.2 x 10 to the 31st erg/sec provided by Cox has been tested for linear stability of radial oscillations. The radial mode instability first reported for this model by Cox, et al. (1979) has been confirmed. The growth rates obtained are comparable to the rates found by Cox. A sequence of l = 2 g-modes has also been found to be unstable. The e-folding times range from around 10 to the 11th periods for a 137 second mode (1 radial node) to less than 100 periods for a 629 second mode (17 nodes). It is likely that the latter rate is too high because the eigenfunction has been forced to vanish at the non-zero inner radius of the model, at which the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is barely less than the mode frequency.

  10. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Liege (Belgium); Dupret, Marc-Antoine [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LESIA (France)], E-mail: Helanie.Godart@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: Arlette.Noels@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: ma.dupret@obspm.fr

    2008-10-15

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  11. Effect of mass loss on the driving of g-modes in B supergiant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godart, Melanie; Noels, Arlette; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2008-01-01

    MOST has detected p and g-modes in the B supergiant star HD163899. Saio et al. (2006) have explained the driving of g-modes in a post main sequence star by the presence of a convective shell which prevents some modes from entering the damping radiative core. We show that this scenario depends on the evolution of the star, with or without mass loss. If the mass loss rate is high enough, the convective shell disappears and all the g-modes are stable.

  12. Quantum interference effects on the intensity of the G modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huy Nam; Blancon, Jean-Christophe Robert; Arenal, Raul

    2017-01-01

    The effects of quantum interferences on the excitation dependence of the intensity of G modes have been investigated on single-walled carbon nanotubes [Duque et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 117404 (2012)]. In this work, by combining optical absorption spectroscopy and Raman scattering on individual index identified double-walled carbon nanotubes, we examine the experimental excitation dependence of the intensity of longitudinal optical and transverse optical G modes of the constituent inner and outer single-walled carbon nanotubes. The observed striking dependencies are understood in terms of quantum interference effects. Considering such effects, the excitation dependence of the different components of the G modes permit to unambiguously assign each of them as originating from the longitudinal or transverse G modes of inner and outer tubes.

  13. G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, An Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Zuo, Tingting [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Deptarment of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States); Zhang, Yong [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Deptarment of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)

    2016-05-09

    In this work, we develop a full information capture approach for Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM), referred to as generalized mode (G-Mode) MFM. G-Mode MFM acquires and stores the full data stream from the photodetector, captured at sampling rates approaching the intrinsic photodiode limit. The data can be subsequently compressed, denoised, and analyzed, without information loss. Here, G-Mode MFM is implemented and compared to the traditional heterodyne-based MFM on model systems, including domain structures in ferromagnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet and the electronically and magnetically inhomogeneous high entropy alloy, CoFeMnNiSn. We investigate the use of information theory to mine the G-Mode MFM data and demonstrate its usefulness for extracting information which may be hidden in traditional MFM modes, including signatures of nonlinearities and mode-coupling phenomena. Finally, we demonstrate detection and separation of magnetic and electrostatic tip-sample interactions from a single G-Mode image, by analyzing the entire frequency response of the cantilever. G-Mode MFM is immediately implementable on any atomic force microscopy platform and as such is expected to be a useful technique for probing spatiotemporal cantilever dynamics and mapping material properties, as well as their mutual interactions.

  14. Using BiSON to detect solar internal g-modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuszlewicz J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unambiguous detection of individual solar internal g modes continues to elude us. With the aid of new additions to calibration procedures, as well as updated methods to combine multi-site time series more effectively, the noise and signal detection threshold levels in the low-frequency domain (where the g modes are expected to be found have been greatly improved. In the BiSON 23-year dataset these levels now rival those of GOLF, and with much greater frequency resolution available, due to the long time series, there is an opportunity to place more constraints on the upper limits of individual g mode amplitudes. Here we detail recent work dedicated to the challenges of observing low-frequency oscillations using a ground-based network, including the role of the window function as well as the effect of calibration on the low frequency domain.

  15. Distinguishing Newly Born Strange Stars from Neutron Stars with g-Mode Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weijie; Wei Haiqing; Liu Yuxin

    2008-01-01

    The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost 1 order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are nonrelativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors

  16. A study of dynamic resistance during small scale resistance spot welding of thin Ni sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, W; Zhou, Y; Kerr, H W; Lawson, S

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic resistance has been investigated during small scale resistance spot welding (SSRSW) of Ni sheets. Electrical measurements have been correlated with scanning electron microscope images of joint development. The results show that the dynamic resistance curve can be divided into the following stages based on physical change in the workpieces: asperity heating, surface breakdown, asperity softening, partial surface melting, nugget growth and expulsion. These results are also compared and contrasted with dynamic resistance behaviour in large scale RSW

  17. Angular momentum transport by heat-driven g-modes in slowly pulsating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Goldstein, J.; Zweibel, E. G.

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by recent interest in the phenomenon of waves transport in massive stars, we examine whether the heat-driven gravity (g) modes excited in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars can significantly modify the stars' internal rotation. We develop a formalism for the differential torque exerted by g modes, and implement this formalism using the GYRE oscillation code and the MESASTAR stellar evolution code. Focusing first on a 4.21M⊙ model, we simulate 1 000 yr of stellar evolution under the combined effects of the torque due to a single unstable prograde g mode (with an amplitude chosen on the basis of observational constraints), and diffusive angular momentum transport due to convection, overshooting, and rotational instabilities. We find that the g mode rapidly extracts angular momentum from the surface layers, depositing it deeper in the stellar interior. The angular momentum transport is so efficient that by the end of the simulation, the initially non-rotating surface layers are spun in the retrograde direction to ≈ 30 per cent of the critical rate. However, the additional inclusion of magnetic stresses in our simulations almost completely inhibits this spin-up. Expanding our simulations to cover the whole instability strip, we show that the same general behaviour is seen in all SPB stars. After providing some caveats to contextualize our results, we hypothesize that the observed slower surface rotation of SPB stars (as compared to other B-type stars) may be the direct consequence of the angular momentum transport that our simulations demonstrate.

  18. Multifrequency spectrum analysis using fully digital G Mode-Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Somnath, Suhas; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception over two decades ago, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has become the standard technique for characterizing electrostatic, electrochemical and electronic properties at the nanoscale. In this work, we present a purely digital, software-based approach to KPFM utilizing big data acquisition and analysis methods. General mode (G-Mode) KPFM works by capturing the entire photodetector data stream, typically at the sampling rate limit, followed by subsequent de-noising, analysis and compression of the cantilever response. We demonstrate that the G-Mode approach allows simultaneous multi-harmonic detection, combined with on-the-fly transfer function correction—required for quantitative CPD mapping. The KPFM approach outlined in this work significantly simplifies the technique by avoiding cumbersome instrumentation optimization steps (i.e. lock in parameters, feedback gains etc), while also retaining the flexibility to be implemented on any atomic force microscopy platform. We demonstrate the added advantages of G-Mode KPFM by allowing simultaneous mapping of CPD and capacitance gradient (C′) channels as well as increased flexibility in data exploration across frequency, time, space, and noise domains. G-Mode KPFM is particularly suitable for characterizing voltage sensitive materials or for operation in conductive electrolytes, and will be useful for probing electrodynamics in photovoltaics, liquids and ionic conductors. (paper)

  19. Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disorderd one-dimensional conductor is derived explicitly. It is shown that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder single parameter scaling consistent with existing theoretical treatments is recovered. (author). 33 refs., 4 figs

  20. Scaling theory of quantum resistance distributions in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayannavar, A.M.

    1990-05-01

    We have derived explicitly, the large scale distribution of quantum Ohmic resistance of a disordered one-dimensional conductor. We show that in the thermodynamic limit this distribution is characterized by two independent parameters for strong disorder, leading to a two-parameter scaling theory of localization. Only in the limit of weak disorder we recover single parameter scaling, consistent with existing theoretical treatments. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs

  1. Solar g-mode oscillations: Comparison of SMM-ACRIM and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Philip H.

    1989-01-01

    Progress was made in access to data and in developing programs for its analysis. The difficulties in completing the work in the planned time can be traced to several factors. The correction of the Stanford oscillation using gridded intensity data was not successful. It was concluded that due to poor continuity of the 1985 and 1986 data due to clouds, that a joint analysis with the ACRIM data (best solar oscillation data to date) on the summer 1987 observations should be performed. The 1988 Stanford oscillation data are being examined and the cross comparison of the ACRIM spectrum with the Standford spectrum for 1987 in the g-mode regime will shortly begin.

  2. Grüneisen parameter of the G mode of strained monolayer graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2011-03-28

    We present a detailed analysis of the effects of uniaxial and biaxial strain on the frequencies of the G mode of monolayer graphene, using first principles calculations. Our results allow us to explain discrepancies in the experimentally determined values of the Grüneisen parameter. The direction and strength of the applied strain, Poisson\\'s ratio of the substrate, and the intrinsic strain in different experimental setups turn out to be important. A reliable determination of the Grüneisen parameter is a prerequisite of strain engineering.

  3. Grüneisen parameter of the G mode of strained monolayer graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Huang, Gaoshan; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the effects of uniaxial and biaxial strain on the frequencies of the G mode of monolayer graphene, using first principles calculations. Our results allow us to explain discrepancies in the experimentally determined values of the Grüneisen parameter. The direction and strength of the applied strain, Poisson's ratio of the substrate, and the intrinsic strain in different experimental setups turn out to be important. A reliable determination of the Grüneisen parameter is a prerequisite of strain engineering.

  4. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. KIC 3240411 - the hottest known SPB star with the asymptotic g-mode period spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczuk, Wojciech; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of the hottest hybrid B-type pulsator, KIC 3240411, that exhibits the period spacing in the low-frequency range. This pattern is associated with asymptotic properties of high-order gravity (g-) modes. Our seismic modelling made simultaneously with the mode identification shows that dipole axisymmetric modes best fit the observations. Evolutionary models are computed with MESA code and pulsational models with the linear non-adiabatic code employing the traditional approximation to include the effects of rotation. The problem of mode excitation is discussed. We confirm that significant modification is indispensable to explain an instability of both pressure and gravity modes in the observed frequency ranges of KIC 3240411.

  6. Small-scale electrical resistivity tomography of wet fractured rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Sharpe, Roger; Wood, Thomas; Heath, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments that tested the ability of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to locate correctly wet and dry fractures in a meso-scale model. The goal was to develop a method of monitoring the flow of water through a fractured rock matrix. The model was a four by six array of limestone blocks equipped with 28 stainless steel electrodes. Dry fractures were created by placing pieces of vinyl between one or more blocks. Wet fractures were created by injecting tap water into a joint between blocks. In electrical terms, the dry fractures are resistive and the wet fractures are conductive. The quantities measured by the ERT system are current and voltage around the outside edge of the model. The raw ERT data were translated to resistivity values inside the model using a three-dimensional Occam's inversion routine. This routine was one of the key components of ERT being tested. The model presented several challenges. First, the resistivity of both the blocks and the joints was highly variable. Second, the resistive targets introduced extreme changes the software could not precisely quantify. Third, the abrupt changes inherent in a fracture system were contrary to the smoothly varying changes expected by the Occam's inversion routine. Fourth, the response of the conductive fractures was small compared to the background variability. In general, ERT was able to locate correctly resistive fractures. Problems occurred, however, when the resistive fracture was near the edges of the model or when multiple fractures were close together. In particular, ERT tended to position the fracture closer to the model center than its true location. Conductive fractures yielded much smaller responses than the resistive case. A difference-inversion method was able to correctly locate these targets.

  7. Remotely Sensed, catchment scale, estimations of flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; Dugdale, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Despite a decade of progress in the field of fluvial remote sensing, there are few published works using this new technology to advance and explore fundamental ideas and theories in fluvial geomorphology. This paper will apply remote sensing methods in order to re-visit a classic concept in fluvial geomorphology: flow resistance. Classic flow resistance equations such as those of Strickler and Keulegan typically use channel slope, channel depth or hydraulic radius and some measure channel roughness usually equated to the 50th or 84th percentile of the bed material size distribution. In this classic literature, empirical equations such as power laws are usually calibrated and validated with a maximum of a few hundred data points. In contrast, fluvial remote sensing methods are now capable of delivering millions of high resolution data points in continuous, catchment scale, surveys. On the river Tromie in Scotland, a full dataset or river characteristics is now available. Based on low altitude imagery and NextMap topographic data, this dataset has a continuous sampling of channel width at a resolution of 3cm, of depth and median grain size at a resolution of 1m, and of slope at a resolution of 5m. This entire data set is systematic and continuous for the entire 20km length of the river. When combined with discharge at the time of data acquisition, this new dataset offers the opportunity to re-examine flow resistance equations with a 2-4 orders of magnitude increase in calibration data. This paper will therefore re-examine the classic approaches of Strickler and Keulagan along with other more recent flow resistance equations. Ultimately, accurate predictions of flow resistance from remotely sensed parameters could lead to acceptable predictions of velocity. Such a usage of classic equations to predict velocity could allow lotic habitat models to account for microhabitat velocity at catchment scales without the recourse to advanced and computationally intensive

  8. Scaling law of resistance fluctuations in stationary random resistor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta; Trefan; Reggiani

    2000-12-11

    In a random resistor network we consider the simultaneous evolution of two competing random processes consisting in breaking and recovering the elementary resistors with probabilities W(D) and W(R). The condition W(R)>W(D)/(1+W(D)) leads to a stationary state, while in the opposite case, the broken resistor fraction reaches the percolation threshold p(c). We study the resistance noise of this system under stationary conditions by Monte Carlo simulations. The variance of resistance fluctuations is found to follow a scaling law |p-p(c)|(-kappa(0)) with kappa(0) = 5.5. The proposed model relates quantitatively the defectiveness of a disordered media with its electrical and excess-noise characteristics.

  9. An astrophysical interpretation of the remarkable g-mode frequency groups of the rapidly rotating γ Dor star, KIC 5608334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saio, Hideyuki; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Murphy, Simon J.; Antoci, Victoria; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Li, Gang; Takata, Masao

    2018-06-01

    The Fourier spectrum of the γ-Dor variable KIC 5608334 shows remarkable frequency groups at ˜3, ˜6, ˜9, and 11-12 d-1. We explain the four frequency groups as prograde sectoral g modes in a rapidly rotating star. Frequencies of intermediate-to-high radial order prograde sectoral g modes in a rapidly rotating star are proportional to |m| (i.e. ν ∝ |m|) in the corotating frame as well as in the inertial frame. This property is consistent with the frequency groups of KIC 5608334 as well as the period versus period-spacing relation present within each frequency group, if we assume a rotation frequency of 2.2 d-1, and that each frequency group consists of prograde sectoral g modes of |m| = 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In addition, these modes naturally satisfy near-resonance conditions νi ≈ νj + νk with mi = mj + mk. We even find exact resonance frequency conditions (within the precise measurement uncertainties) in many cases, which correspond to combination frequencies.

  10. Effects of a Deep Mixed Shell on Solar g-Modes, p-Modes, and Neutrino Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    2009-08-01

    A mixed-shell model that reflects g-modes away from the Sun's center is developed further by calibrating its parameters and evaluating a mixing mechanism: buoyancy. The shell roughly doubles g-mode oscillation periods and would explain why there is no definitive detection of their periods. But the shell has only minor effects on most p-modes. The model provides a mechanism for causing short-term fluctuations in neutrino flux and makes plausible the correlations between this flux and solar activity levels. Relations are derived for a shell heated asymmetrically by transient increases in nuclear burning in small "hot spots." The size of these spots and the timing of a heating event are governed by sets(ell) of standing asymptotic g-modes, coupled by a maximal principle that greatly enhances their excitation and concentrates power toward the equator, assisting the detection of higher-ell sets. Signals from all sets, except one, in the range 2 energy to mix the corresponding shell in a standard solar model in Lt107 yr.

  11. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...

  12. Resistance switching at the nanometre scale in amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Abu; Rossel, Christophe; Pozidis, Haralampos; Eleftheriou, Evangelos; Pauza, Andrew; Shelby, Robert M; RodrIguez, Arantxa Fraile

    2011-01-01

    The electrical transport and resistance switching mechanism in amorphous carbon (a-C) is investigated at the nanoscale. The electrical conduction in a-C thin films is shown to be captured well by a Poole-Frenkel transport model that involves nonisolated traps. Moreover, at high electric fields a field-induced threshold switching phenomenon is observed. The following resistance change is attributed to Joule heating and subsequent localized thermal annealing. We demonstrate that the mechanism is mostly due to clustering of the existing sp 2 sites within the sp 3 matrix. The electrical conduction behaviour, field-induced switching and Joule-heating-induced rearrangement of atomic order resulting in a resistance change are all reminiscent of conventional phase-change memory materials. This suggests the potential of a-C as a similar nonvolatile memory candidate material.

  13. Resistance scaling function for two-dimensional superconductors and Monte Carlo vortex-fluctuation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnhagen, P.; Weber, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the Ginsburg-Landau Coulomb-gas model for vortex fluctuations is described and compared to the measured resistance scaling function for two-dimensional superconductors. This constitutes a new, more direct way of confirming the vortex-fluctuation explanation for the resistive tail of high-sheet-resistance superconducting films. The Monte Carlo data obtained indicate a striking accordance between theory and experiments

  14. Fractal scale-free networks resistant to disease spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng; Zou, Tao; Chen, Guisheng

    2008-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that scale-free networks are prone to epidemic propagation; in the paper we demonstrate that, on the contrary, disease spreading is inhibited in fractal scale-free networks. We first propose a novel network model and show that it simultaneously has the following rich topological properties: scale-free degree distribution, tunable clustering coefficient, 'large-world' behavior, and fractal scaling. Existing network models do not display these characteristics. Then, we investigate the susceptible–infected–removed (SIR) model of the propagation of diseases in our fractal scale-free networks by mapping it to the bond percolation process. We establish the existence of non-zero tunable epidemic thresholds by making use of the renormalization group technique, which implies that power law degree distribution does not suffice to characterize the epidemic dynamics on top of scale-free networks. We argue that the epidemic dynamics are determined by the topological properties, especially the fractality and its accompanying 'large-world' behavior

  15. Identification and characterization of two novel bla(KLUC resistance genes through large-scale resistance plasmids sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    Full Text Available Plasmids are important antibiotic resistance determinant carriers that can disseminate various drug resistance genes among species or genera. By using a high throughput sequencing approach, two groups of plasmids of Escherichia coli (named E1 and E2, each consisting of 160 clinical E. coli strains isolated from different periods of time were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 20 million reads were obtained and mapped onto the known resistance gene sequences. As a result, a total of 9 classes, including 36 types of antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. Among these genes, 25 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs appeared, of which 9 and 12 SNPs are nonsynonymous substitutions in the E1 and E2 samples. It is interesting to find that a novel genotype of bla(KLUC, whose close relatives, bla(KLUC-1 and bla(KLUC-2, have been previously reported as carried on the Kluyvera cryocrescens chromosome and Enterobacter cloacae plasmid, was identified. It shares 99% and 98% amino acid identities with Kluc-1 and Kluc-2, respectively. Further PCR screening of 608 Enterobacteriaceae family isolates yielded a second variant (named bla(KLUC-4. It was interesting to find that Kluc-3 showed resistance to several cephalosporins including cefotaxime, whereas bla(KLUC-4 did not show any resistance to the antibiotics tested. This may be due to a positively charged residue, Arg, replaced by a neutral residue, Leu, at position 167, which is located within an omega-loop. This work represents large-scale studies on resistance gene distribution, diversification and genetic variation in pooled multi-drug resistance plasmids, and provides insight into the use of high throughput sequencing technology for microbial resistance gene detection.

  16. Evidence for the frequency-shift of the OA A_1g mode in Hg-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Sang; Lee, Hye-Gyong

    1996-03-01

    The Hg-based superconductors, HgBa_2Ca_n-1Cu_nO_2n+2+δ (n=1,2,3) have two strong Raman peaks at ~ 570 and 590 cm-1 in the high-frequency region. From the results of Raman measurements of Tl-doped Hg-1223 system, it is concluded that the peak at ~ 570 cm-1 does not arise from the vibration of the interstitial oxygen O_δ in the Hg/Tl-O plane, but from the frequency-shift of the A_1g-type vibration of the apical oxygen O_A. The peak at 570 cm-1 is from the O_As surrounded by the O_δs in the nearest neighbor, while the 590 cm-1 mode is from the O_As without the O_δs in the immediate neighbor. The intensity of the 570 cm-1 mode increases with the O_δ content, but the Raman frequencies of both modes do not change significantly. This suggests that the increase of the frequency of the OA A_1g mode under high pressure (I.-S. Yang et al., Phys. Rev. B 51, 644 (1995)) is independent from the O_δ content, in the Hg-based superconductors.

  17. Scale effect in fatigue resistance under complex stressed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovskij, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    On the basis the of the fatigue failure statistic theory obtained is the formula for calculated estimation of probabillity of failure under complex stressed state according to partial probabilities of failure under linear stressed state with provision for the scale effect. Also the formula for calculation of equivalent stress is obtained. The verification of both formulae using literary experimental data for plane stressed state torsion has shown that the error of estimations does not exceed 10% for materials with the ultimate strength changing from 61 to 124 kg/mm 2

  18. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  19. Resistance to Internal Damage and Scaling of Concrete Air Entrained By Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendowska, Agnieszka; Wawrzenczyk, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    This paper report the test results of high strength concrete produced with slag cement and air entrained with polymer microspheres in three diameters. The study focused on determining the effects of the microsphere size and quantity on the air void structure and resistance to internal cracking and scaling of the concrete. The resistance to internal cracking was determined in compliance with the requirements of the modified ASTM C666 A method on beam specimens. The scaling resistance in a 3% NaCl solution was determined using the slab test in accordance with PKN-CEN/TS 12390-9:2007. The air void structure parameters were determined to PN-EN 480-11:1998. The study results indicate that the use of microspheres is an effective air entrainment method providing very good air void structure parameters. The results show high freeze-thaw durability of polymer microsphere-based concrete in exposure class XF3. The scaling resistance test confirms that it is substantially more difficult to protect concrete against scaling in the presence of the 3% NaCl solution (exposure class XF4). Concrete scaling is a complex phenomenon controlled by a number of independent factors.

  20. First Kepler results on compact pulsators – VIII. Mode identifications via period spacings in g-mode pulsating subdwarf B stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, M.D.; Baran, A.; Quint, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of nearly equally spaced periods in 13 hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars observed with the Kepler spacecraft and one observed with CoRoT. Asymptotic limits for gravity (g-)mode pulsations provide relationships between equal-period spacings of modes with differing degrees ℓ...

  1. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  2. Atomic Scale Modulation of Self-Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Yu, Kaihao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bosman, Michel; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Litao; Pey, Kinleong

    2018-01-01

    Higher memory density and faster computational performance of resistive switching cells require reliable array‐accessible architecture. However, selecting a designated cell within a crossbar array without interference from sneak path currents through neighboring cells is a general problem. Here, a highly doped n++ Si as the bottom electrode with Ni‐electrode/HfOx/SiO2 asymmetric self‐rectifying resistive switching device is fabricated. The interfacial defects in the HfOx/SiO2 junction and n++ Si substrate result in the reproducible rectifying behavior. In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to quantitatively study the properties of the morphology, chemistry, and dynamic nucleation–dissolution evolution of the chains of defects at the atomic scale. The spatial and temporal correlation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ni‐rich conductive filament modifies the resistive switching effect. This study has important implications at the array‐level performance of high density resistive switching memories.

  3. Atomic Scale Modulation of Self-Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2018-04-14

    Higher memory density and faster computational performance of resistive switching cells require reliable array‐accessible architecture. However, selecting a designated cell within a crossbar array without interference from sneak path currents through neighboring cells is a general problem. Here, a highly doped n++ Si as the bottom electrode with Ni‐electrode/HfOx/SiO2 asymmetric self‐rectifying resistive switching device is fabricated. The interfacial defects in the HfOx/SiO2 junction and n++ Si substrate result in the reproducible rectifying behavior. In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to quantitatively study the properties of the morphology, chemistry, and dynamic nucleation–dissolution evolution of the chains of defects at the atomic scale. The spatial and temporal correlation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ni‐rich conductive filament modifies the resistive switching effect. This study has important implications at the array‐level performance of high density resistive switching memories.

  4. Microbial Indicators, Pathogens, and Antibiotic Resistance in Groundwater Impacted by Animal Farming: Field Scale to Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Li, X.; Atwill, E. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    Several surveys of microbial indicators and pathogens were conducted to determine the impact of confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) on shallow, local, and regional groundwater quality in the Central Valley aquifer system, California. The aquifer system consists of highly heterogeneous, alluvial, unconsolidated coarse- to fine-grained sediments and is among the largest aquifers in the U.S.. Overlying landuse includes 3 million ha of irrigated agriculture and 1.7 million mature dairy cows in nearly 1,500 CAFOs. A multi-scale survey of water-borne indicator pathogens (Enterococcus spp. and generic E. coli) and of three water-borne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) was conducted at five different spatial scales, increasing with distance from animal sources of these enteric microbial organisms: moist surfaces within individual CAFO sub-systems (calf-hutches, heifer corrals, mature cow stalls, hospital barn etc.), first encountered (shallow) groundwater immediately below these sub-systems, production aquifer below CAFOs, production aquifer near CAFOs, and production aquifer away from CAFOs. Where found, indicator pathogens were tested for antibiotic resistance. Hundreds of samples were collected at each scale: continuously during irrigation events and seasonally over a multi-year period at the three smaller site-scales; and in a one-time survey at the two larger, regional scales. All three pathogens were frequently detected in moist surface samples across CAFO sub-systems, albeit at concentrations several orders of magnitude lower than enteric indicators. Two of the three pathogens (but not Campylobacter) were also detected in first encountered groundwater, at 3-9 m below ground surface, in 1% of samples. No pathogens were found at the production aquifer scales. Generic E. coli was detected in ¼ of first encountered groundwater samples, and in 4% of production aquifer samples, while Enterococcus spp. was ubiquitously present across the

  5. Small scale monitoring of a bioremediation barrier using miniature electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Philippe; Hogson, Tom; Keenan, Helen; Kulessa, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, in the laboratory, the efficiency of a barrier of oxygen release compound (ORC) to block and divert a diesel plume migration in a scaled aquifer model using miniature electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as the monitoring system. Two plumes of contaminant (diesel) were injected in a soil model made of local sand and clay. The diesel plumes migration was imaged and monitored using a miniature resistivity array system that has proved to be accurate in soil resistivity variations in small-scaled models of soil. ERT results reflected the lateral spreading and diversion of the diesel plumes in the unsaturated zone. One of the contaminant plumes was partially blocked by the ORC barrier and a diversion and reorganisation of the diesel in the soil matrix was observed. The technique of time-lapse ERT imaging showed that a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant like diesel can be monitored through a bioremediation barrier and the technique is well suited to monitor the efficiency of the barrier. Therefore, miniature ERT as a small-scale modelling tool could complement conventional techniques, which require more expensive and intrusive site investigation prior to remediation.

  6. Development and validity of a scale of perception of velocity in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Iker J; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Chirosa, Luis J; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM]) were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale) was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81) was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96). This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power. Key PointsMeasurement of perception of velocity can complement other scales of perception such as the 15 category Borg scale or the OMNI-RES.The results obtained in this study show that there was a positive correlation between the perceived velocity measured by the scale and actual velocityRegular use of the new scale of perceived velocity in external resistance training provides athletes with continuous feedback of execution velocity in each repetition and set, especially with high power loads.

  7. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness

  8. An instability due to the nonlinear coupling of p-modes to g-modes: Implications for coalescing neutron star binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Burkart, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear fluid wave propagating within a star can be unstable to three-wave interactions. The resonant parametric instability is a well-known form of three-wave interaction in which a primary wave of frequency ω a excites a pair of secondary waves of frequency ω b + ω c ≅ ω a . Here we consider a nonresonant form of three-wave interaction in which a low-frequency primary wave excites a high-frequency p-mode and a low-frequency g-mode such that ω b + ω c >> ω a . We show that a p-mode can couple so strongly to a g-mode of similar radial wavelength that this type of nonresonant interaction is unstable even if the primary wave amplitude is small. As an application, we analyze the stability of the tide in coalescing neutron star binaries to p-g mode coupling. We find that the equilibrium tide and dynamical tide are both p-g unstable at gravitational wave frequencies f gw ≳ 20 Hz and drive short wavelength p-g mode pairs to significant energies on very short timescales (much less than the orbital decay time due to gravitational radiation). Resonant parametric coupling to the tide is, by contrast, either stable or drives modes at a much smaller rate. We do not solve for the saturation of the p-g instability and therefore we cannot say precisely how it influences the evolution of neutron star binaries. However, we show that if even a single daughter mode saturates near its wave breaking amplitude, the p-g instability of the equilibrium tide will (1) induce significant orbital phase errors (Δφ ≳ 1 radian) that accumulate primarily at low frequencies (f gw ≲ 50 Hz) and (2) heat the neutron star core to a temperature of T ∼ 10 10 K. Since there are at least ∼100 unstable p-g daughter pairs, Δφ and T are potentially much larger than these values. Tides might therefore significantly influence the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission from coalescing neutron star binaries at much larger orbital separations than previously

  9. Using an Autonomous Scale Ship Model for Resistance and Parametric Roll Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ PEŇA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the developing of a self-propelled scale ship model aimed to perform resistance and parametric roll tests in towing tanks. The main characteristic of the proposed system is that it doesn’t have any material link to a towing device to carry out the tests. This ship model has been fully instrumented in order to acquire all the significant raw data, process them onboard and communicate with an inshore station. This works presents a description of the proposed model as well as some results obtained by its use during a towing tank testing campaign.

  10. A multi-scale approach for high cycle anisotropic fatigue resistance: Application to forged components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milesi, M.; Chastel, Y.; Hachem, E.; Bernacki, M.; Loge, R.E.; Bouchard, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Forged components exhibit good mechanical strength, particularly in terms of high cycle fatigue properties. This is due to the specific microstructure resulting from large plastic deformation as in a forging process. The goal of this study is to account for critical phenomena such as the anisotropy of the fatigue resistance in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on industrial forged components. Standard high cycle fatigue criteria usually give good results for isotropic behaviors but are not suitable for components with anisotropic features. The aim is to represent explicitly this anisotropy at a lower scale compared to the process scale and determined local coefficients needed to simulate a real case. We developed a multi-scale approach by considering the statistical morphology and mechanical characteristics of the microstructure to represent explicitly each element. From stochastic experimental data, realistic microstructures were reconstructed in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on it with different orientations. The meshing was improved by a local refinement of each interface and simulations were performed on each representative elementary volume. The local mechanical anisotropy is taken into account through the distribution of particles. Fatigue parameters identified at the microscale can then be used at the macroscale on the forged component. The linkage of these data and the process scale is the fiber vector and the deformation state, used to calculate global mechanical anisotropy. Numerical results reveal an expected behavior compared to experimental tendencies. We proved numerically the dependence of the anisotropy direction and the deformation state on the endurance limit evolution.

  11. Reliability and Validity of the Resistiveness to Care Scale Among Cognitively Impaired Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Elizabeth; Resnick, Barbara; Vigne, Erin; Holmes, Sarah Dee; Nalls, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Resistiveness to care is behavior that prevents or interferes with caregivers' performing or assisting with activities of daily living and puts residents at risk for inappropriate use of antipsychotic drugs, other restraining interventions, social isolation, and physical abuse. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of a previously developed Resistiveness to Care measure. This was a descriptive study using baseline data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial testing a Function and Behavior Focused Care (FBFC) intervention. Residents were eligible to participate if they were 55 years of age or older, had a Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score of 15 or less, and were not enrolled in hospice or admitted for subacute care. Descriptive information included age, race, gender, cognitive status, and marital status. In addition to the Resistance to Care Scale, the Barthel Index, the Physical Activity Survey in Long Term Care (PAS-LTC), and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) were completed. Psychometric testing was done using Rasch analysis and the Winsteps statistical program. The participants were moderate to severely cognitively impaired (MMSE of 7.23), functionally dependent (Barthel Index 47.31, SD 27.59), and engaged in only 134.17 (SD = 207.32) minutes of physical activity daily. Reliability was supported based on a Cronbach alpha of 0.84 and the DIF analysis, as there was no difference in function of the items between male and female participants. Validity was supported as all items fit the measurement model based on INFIT and OUTFIT statistics. The findings support the reliability and validity of the Resistiveness to Care Scale for use with older adults with dementia in nursing home settings. Future work with the measure may benefit from the addition of items that are easier to endorse with regard to resistiveness to care (shutting eyes or spitting out food may be useful additions). Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  12. Use of small scale electrical resistivity tomography to identify soil-root interactions during deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, D.; Cassiani, G.; Busato, L.; Boaga, J.; Barbagallo, S.; Binley, A.; Consoli, S.

    2018-01-01

    Plant roots activity affect the exchanges of mass and energy between the soil and atmosphere. However, it is challenging to monitor the activity of the root-zone because roots are not visible from the soil surface, and root systems undergo spatial and temporal variations in response to internal and external conditions. Therefore, measurements of the activity of root systems are interesting to ecohydrologists in general, and are especially important for specific applications, such as irrigation water management. This study demonstrates the use of small scale three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to monitor the root-zone of orange trees irrigated by two different regimes: (i) full rate, in which 100% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is provided; and (ii) partial root-zone drying (PRD), in which 50% of ETc is supplied to alternate sides of the tree. We performed time-lapse 3-D ERT measurements on these trees from 5 June to 24 September 2015, and compared the long-term and short-term changes before, during, and after irrigation events. Given the small changes in soil temperature and pore water electrical conductivity, we interpreted changes of soil electrical resistivity from 3-D ERT data as proxies for changes in soil water content. The ERT results are consistent with measurements of transpiration flux and soil temperature. The changes in electrical resistivity obtained from ERT measurements in this case study indicate that root water uptake (RWU) processes occur at the 0.1 m scale, and highlight the impact of different irrigation schemes.

  13. Termites Are Resistant to the Effects of Fire at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Avitabile

    Full Text Available Termites play an important ecological role in many ecosystems, particularly in nutrient-poor arid and semi-arid environments. We examined the distribution and occurrence of termites in the fire-prone, semi-arid mallee region of south-eastern Australia. In addition to periodic large wildfires, land managers use fire as a tool to achieve both asset protection and ecological outcomes in this region. Twelve taxa of termites were detected by using systematic searches and grids of cellulose baits at 560 sites, clustered in 28 landscapes selected to represent different fire mosaic patterns. There was no evidence of a significant relationship between the occurrence of termite species and time-since-fire at the site scale. Rather, the occurrence of species was related to habitat features such as the density of mallee trees and large logs (>10 cm diameter. Species richness was greater in chenopod mallee vegetation on heavier soils in swales, rather than Triodia mallee vegetation of the sandy dune slopes. At the landscape scale, there was little evidence that the frequency of occurrence of termite species was related to fire, and no evidence that habitat heterogeneity generated by fire influenced termite species richness. The most influential factor at the landscape scale was the environmental gradient represented by average annual rainfall. Although termites may be associated with flammable habitat components (e.g. dead wood, they appear to be buffered from the effects of fire by behavioural traits, including nesting underground, and the continued availability of dead wood after fire. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis that a fine-scale, diverse mosaic of post-fire age-classes will enhance the diversity of termites. Rather, termites appear to be resistant to the effects of fire at multiple spatial scales.

  14. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.

  15. Dynamics of epidemic spreading model with drug-resistant variation on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Zhang, Wu; Dong, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of the virus' drug-resistant variation, a novel SIVRS (susceptible-infected-variant-recovered-susceptible) epidemic spreading model with variation characteristic on scale-free networks is proposed in this paper. By using the mean-field theory, the spreading dynamics of the model is analyzed in detail. Then, the basic reproductive number R0 and equilibriums are derived. Studies show that the existence of disease-free equilibrium is determined by the basic reproductive number R0. The relationships between the basic reproductive number R0, the variation characteristic and the topology of the underlying networks are studied in detail. Furthermore, our studies prove the global stability of the disease-free equilibrium, the permanence of epidemic and the global attractivity of endemic equilibrium. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results.

  16. Non-Porod scattering and non-integer scaling of resistance in rough films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Verma, Rupesh; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    In many physical systems, films are rough due to the stochastic behavior of depositing particles. They are characterized by non-Porod power law decays in the structure factor S (k) . Theoretical studies predict anomalous diffusion in such morphologies, with important implications for diffusivity, conductivity, etc. We use the non-Porod decay to accurately determine the fractal properties of two prototypical nanoparticle films: (i) Palladium (Pd) and (ii) Cu2O. Using scaling arguments, we find that the resistance of rough films of lateral size L obeys a non-integer power law R ∼L-ζ , in contrast to integer power laws for compact structures. The exponent ζ is anisotropic. We confirm our predictions by re-analyzing experimental data from Cu2O nano-particle films. Our results are valuable for understanding recent experiments that report anisotropic electrical properties in (rough) thin films.

  17. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... occurring indicator bacteria around a manure slurry slit in the soil was followed. During a period of two months, sections of soils with different distance to the manure string were assayed to obtain information on survival and spread of bacteriophage, faecal indicators (Enterococci, Bacterioides, E. coli...

  18. Investigating the effects of ABC transporter-based acquired drug resistance mechanisms at the cellular and tissue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Krishnan, J; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we systematically investigate the effects of acquired drug resistance at the cellular and tissue scale, with a specific focus on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-based mechanisms and contrast this with other representative intracellular resistance mechanisms. This is done by developing in silico models wherein the drug resistance mechanism is overlaid on a coarse-grained description of apoptosis; these cellular models are coupled with interstitial drug transport, allowing for a transparent examination of the effect of acquired drug resistances at the tissue level. While ABC transporter-mediated resistance mechanisms counteract drug effect at the cellular level, its tissue-level effect is more complicated, revealing unexpected trends in tissue response as drug stimuli are systematically varied. Qualitatively different behaviour is observed in other drug resistance mechanisms. Overall the paper (i) provides insight into the tissue level functioning of a particular resistance mechanism, (ii) shows that this is very different from other resistance mechanisms of an apparently similar type, and (iii) demonstrates a concrete instance of how the functioning of a negative feedback based cellular adaptive mechanism can have unexpected higher scale effects.

  19. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Hieu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement

  20. Large-scale survey for novel genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance gene pfcrt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Plasmodium falciparum, resistance to chloroquine (CQ is conferred by a K to T mutation at amino acid position 76 (K76T in the P. falciparum CQ transporter (PfCRT. To date, at least 15 pfcrt genotypes, which are represented by combinations of five amino acids at positions 72-76, have been described in field isolates from various endemic regions. To identify novel mutant pfcrt genotypes and to reveal the genetic relatedness of pfcrt genotypes, a large-scale survey over a wide geographic area was performed. Methods Sequences for exon 2 in pfcrt, including known polymorphic sites at amino acid positions 72, 74, 75 and 76, were obtained from 256 P. falciparum isolates collected from eight endemic countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., the Philippines and Thailand, Melanesia (Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu and Africa (Ghana. A haplotype network was constructed based on six microsatellite markers located -29 kb to 24 kb from pfcrt in order to examine the genetic relatedness among mutant pfcrt genotypes. Results In addition to wild type (CVMNK at positions 72-76, four mutant pfcrt were identified; CVIET, CVIDT, SVMNT and CVMNT (mutated amino acids underlined. Haplotype network revealed that there were only three mutant pfcrt lineages, originating in Indochina, Philippines and Melanesia. Importantly, the Indochina lineage contained two mutant pfcrt genotypes, CVIET (n = 95 and CVIDT (n = 14, indicating that CVIDT shares a common origin with CVIET. Similarly, one major haplotype in the Melanesian lineage contained two pfcrt genotypes; SVMNT (n = 71 and CVMNT (n = 3. In Africa, all mutant pfcrt genotypes were the CVIET of the Indochina lineage, probably resulting from the intercontinental migration of CQ resistance from Southeast Asia. Conclusions The number of CQ-mutant lineages observed in this study was identical to that found in previous studies. This supports the hypothesis that the emergence of novel CQ resistance

  1. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  2. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  3. A Study of Remitted and Treatment-Resistant Depression Using MMPI and Including Pessimism and Optimism Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466

  4. The Stigma Resistance Scale: A multi-sample validation of a new instrument to assess mental illness stigma resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; McGrew, John H; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Salyers, Michelle P

    2017-12-01

    Although associated with key recovery outcomes, stigma resistance remains under-studied largely due to limitations of existing measures. This study developed and validated a new measure of stigma resistance. Preliminary items, derived from qualitative interviews of people with lived experience, were pilot tested online with people self-reporting a mental illness diagnosis (n = 489). Best performing items were selected, and the refined measure was administered to an independent sample of people with mental illness at two state mental health consumer recovery conferences (n = 202). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) guided by theory were used to test item fit, correlations between the refined stigma resistance measure and theoretically relevant measures were examined for validity, and test-retest correlations of a subsample were examined for stability. CFA demonstrated strong fit for a 5-factor model. The final 20-item measure demonstrated good internal consistency for each of the 5 subscales, adequate test-retest reliability at 3 weeks, and strong construct validity (i.e., positive associations with quality of life, recovery, and self-efficacy, and negative associations with overall symptoms, defeatist beliefs, and self-stigma). The new measure offers a more reliable and nuanced assessment of stigma resistance. It may afford greater personalization of interventions targeting stigma resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elementary student self efficacy scale development and validation focused on student learning, peer relations, and resisting drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertman, Carl I; Primack, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a child self efficacy scale for learning, peer interactions, and resisting pressure to use drugs, to use in an elementary school drug prevention education program based on social cognitive theory. A diverse cohort of 392 4th and 5th grade students completed the 20-item self efficacy scale and social support and social skills instruments. The results provide evidence for a valid and reliable 3-factor self efficacy scale. Subscale internal consistency reliability was good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.75, 0.83, 0.91). Construct validity was supported by correlations between each subscale and social skills, social support, and demographic data. The scale has potential as a tool to measure self efficacy in children related to learning, peer interactions, and resisting peer pressure to use drugs and to help shape drug education programs.

  6. ON THE SOLAR ORIGIN OF THE SIGNAL AT 220.7 μHz: A POSSIBLE COMPONENT OF A g-MODE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, A.; Garcia, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity modes in the Sun have been the object of a long and difficult search in recent decades. Thanks to the data accumulated with the last generation of instruments (BiSON, GONG, and three helioseismic instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)), scientists have been able to find signatures of their presence. However, the individual detection of such modes remains evasive. In this article, we study the signal at 220.7 μHz which is a peak that is present in most of the helioseismic data of the last 10 years. This signal has already been identified as being a component of a g-mode candidate detected in the GOLF Doppler velocity signal. The nature of this peak is studied in particular using the VIRGO/SPM instrument aboard SOHO. First we analyze all the available instrumental data of VIRGO and SOHO (housekeeping) to reject any possible instrumental origin. No relation was found, implying that the signal has a solar origin. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find, with more than 99% confidence level, that the signal found in VIRGO/SPM is very unlikely to be due to pure noise.

  7. Anomalous behavior of B1g mode in highly transparent anatase nano-crystalline Nb-doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh K. Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO2 lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb+5 in the TiO2 lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm−1 for the Eg(1 mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B1g mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm−1 with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO2 crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb5+ doping induced reduction of Ti4+ ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.

  8. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Siqueira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil penetration resistance (PR is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV, skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  9. Multifractal analysis of vertical profiles of soil penetration resistance at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Vidal Vázquez, E.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2013-07-01

    Soil penetration resistance (PR) is widely used as an indirect indicator of soil strength. Soil PR is linked to basic soil properties and correlated to root growth and plant production, and as such it is extensively used as a practical tool for assessing soil compaction and to evaluate the effects of soil management. This study investigates how results from multifractal analysis can quantify key elements of depth-dependent soil PR profiles and how this information can be used at the field scale. We analysed multifractality of 50 PR vertical profiles, measured from 0 to 60 cm depth and randomly located on a 6.5 ha sugar cane field in northeastern Brazil. The scaling property of each profile was typified by singularity, and Rényi spectra estimated by the method of moments. The Hurst exponent was used to parameterize the autocorrelation of the vertical PR data sets. The singularity and Rènyi spectra showed that the vertical PR data sets exhibited a well-defined multifractal structure. Hurst exponent values were close to 1, ranging from 0.944 to 0.988, indicating strong persistence in PR variation with soil depth. Also, the Hurst exponent was negatively and significantly correlated to coefficient of variation (CV), skewness and maximum values of the depth-dependent PR. Multifractal analysis added valuable information to describe the spatial arrangement of depth-dependent penetrometer data sets, which was not taken into account by classical statistical indices. Multifractal parameters were mapped over the experimental field and compared with mean and maximum values of PR. Combination of spatial variability survey and multifractal analysis appear to be useful to manage soil compaction.

  10. Effect of yttrium on the oxide scale adherence of pre-oxidized silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jingbo; Gao Yimin; Shen Yudi; Yang Fang; Yi Dawei; Ye Zhaozhong; Liang Long; Du Yingqian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → AE experiment shows yttrium has a beneficial effect on the pre-oxidized HP40 alloy. → Yttrium facilitates the formation of internal oxide after 10 h of oxidation. → Internal oxide changes the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale. → Twins form in the internal oxide and improve the binding strength of the scale. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the rare earth element yttrium on the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale on the silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy during cooling. After 10 h of oxidation, yttrium is found to facilitate the formation of internal oxides (silica) at the scale-matrix interface. Due to the twinning observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in silica, the critical strain value for the scale failure can be dramatically improved, and the formation of cracks at the scale-matrix interface is inhibited.

  11. Deicer scaling resistance of concrete mixtures containing slag cement. Phase 2 : evaluation of different laboratory scaling test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    With the use of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in concrete mixtures, salt scaling tests such as ASTM C672 have been found to be overly aggressive and do correlate well with field scaling performance. The reasons for this are thought to be b...

  12. Development of a Teacher Scale to Measure Presence and Frequency of Students' Resistance Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mediha

    2018-01-01

    Student resistance, which can briefly be defined as the tendency to resist teaching activities, is student's reacting to the teaching-learning activities, teachers, or administrators knowingly and wilfully, many times intentionally in various ways. Resistance behaviours, which could be considered as the outpouring of the anger created by the…

  13. Computational approach on PEB process in EUV resist: multi-scale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Muyoung; Moon, Junghwan; Choi, Joonmyung; Lee, Byunghoon; Jeong, Changyoung; Kim, Heebom; Cho, Maenghyo

    2017-03-01

    For decades, downsizing has been a key issue for high performance and low cost of semiconductor, and extreme ultraviolet lithography is one of the promising candidates to achieve the goal. As a predominant process in extreme ultraviolet lithography on determining resolution and sensitivity, post exposure bake has been mainly studied by experimental groups, but development of its photoresist is at the breaking point because of the lack of unveiled mechanism during the process. Herein, we provide theoretical approach to investigate underlying mechanism on the post exposure bake process in chemically amplified resist, and it covers three important reactions during the process: acid generation by photo-acid generator dissociation, acid diffusion, and deprotection. Density functional theory calculation (quantum mechanical simulation) was conducted to quantitatively predict activation energy and probability of the chemical reactions, and they were applied to molecular dynamics simulation for constructing reliable computational model. Then, overall chemical reactions were simulated in the molecular dynamics unit cell, and final configuration of the photoresist was used to predict the line edge roughness. The presented multiscale model unifies the phenomena of both quantum and atomic scales during the post exposure bake process, and it will be helpful to understand critical factors affecting the performance of the resulting photoresist and design the next-generation material.

  14. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  15. A micro-scale model for predicting contact resistance between bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.; Lin, G.; Shih, A.J.; Hu, S.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Contact resistance between the bipolar plate (BPP) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell constitutes a significant portion of the overall fuel cell electrical resistance under the normal operation conditions. Most current methods for contact resistance estimation are experimental and there is a lack of well developed theoretical methods. A micro-scale numerical model is developed to predict the electrical contact resistance between BPP and GDL by simulating the BPP surface topology and GDL structure and numerically determining the status for each contact spot. The total resistance and pressure are obtained by considering all contact spots as resistances in parallel and summing the results together. This model shows good agreements with experimental results. Influences of BPP surface roughness parameters on contact resistance are also studied. This model is beneficial in understanding the contact behavior between BPP and GDL and can be integrated with other fuel cell simulations to predict the overall performance of PEM fuel cells. (author)

  16. Quantifying invertebrate resistance to floods: a global-scale meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Laura E; Lytle, David A

    2012-12-01

    Floods are a key component of the ecology and management of riverine ecosystems around the globe, but it is not clear whether floods have predictable effects on organisms that can allow us to generalize across regions and continents. To address this, we conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to investigate effects of natural and managed floods on invertebrate resistance, the ability of invertebrates to survive flood events. We considered 994 studies for inclusion in the analysis, and after evaluation based on a priori criteria, narrowed our analysis to 41 studies spanning six of the seven continents. We used the natural-log-ratio of invertebrate abundance before and within 10 days after flood events because this measure of effect size can be directly converted to estimates of percent survival. We conducted categorical and continuous analyses that examined the contribution of environmental and study design variables to effect size heterogeneity, and examined differences in effect size among taxonomic groups. We found that invertebrate abundance was lowered by at least one-half after flood events. While natural vs. managed floods were similar in their effect, effect size differed among habitat and substrate types, with pools, sand, and boulders experiencing the strongest effect. Although sample sizes were not sufficient to examine all taxonomic groups, floods had a significant, negative effect on densities of Coleoptera, Eumalacostraca, Annelida, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Results from this study provide guidance for river flow regime prescriptions that will be applicable across continents and climate types, as well as baseline expectations for future empirical studies of freshwater disturbance.

  17. Pilot-Scale Field Validation Of The Long Electrode Electrical Resistivity Tomography Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, D.R.; Rucker, D.F.; Crook, N.; Loke, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  18. PILOT-SCALE FIELD VALIDATION OF THE LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLASER DR; RUCKER DF; CROOK N; LOKE MH

    2011-07-14

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  19. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set...... and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...

  20. Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Correlations with Microbial Community and Metal Resistance Genes in Full-Scale Biogas Reactors As Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Li, Bing; Li, Li-Guan

    2017-01-01

    resistance genes (MRGs). The total abundance of ARGs in all the samples varied from 7 × 10-3 to 1.08 × 10-1 copy of ARG/copy of 16S-rRNA gene, and the samples obtained from thermophilic biogas reactors had a lower total abundance of ARGs, indicating the superiority of thermophilic anaerobic digestion......Digested residues from biogas plants are often used as biofertilizers for agricultural crops cultivation. The antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in digested residues pose a high risk to public health due to their potential spread to the disease-causing microorganisms and thus reduce...... the susceptibility of disease-causing microorganisms to antibiotics in medical treatment. A high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based metagenomic approach was used in the present study to investigate the variations of ARGs in full-scale biogas reactors and the correlations of ARGs with microbial communities and metal...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Animal and Environmental Samples Associated with Small-Scale Poultry Farming in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braykov, Nikolay P; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Grossman, Marissa; Zhang, Lixin; Vasco, Karla; Cevallos, William; Muñoz, Diana; Acevedo, Andrés; Moser, Kara A; Marrs, Carl F; Foxman, Betsy; Trostle, James; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of animal agriculture on the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) are cross-cutting and thus require a multidisciplinary perspective. Here we use ecological, epidemiological, and ethnographic methods to examine populations of Escherichia coli circulating in the production poultry farming environment versus the domestic environment in rural Ecuador, where small-scale poultry production employing nontherapeutic antibiotics is increasingly common. We sampled 262 "production birds" (commercially raised broiler chickens and laying hens) and 455 "household birds" (raised for domestic use) and household and coop environmental samples from 17 villages between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed data on zones of inhibition from Kirby-Bauer tests, rather than established clinical breakpoints for AR, to distinguish between populations of organisms. We saw significantly higher levels of AR in bacteria from production versus household birds; resistance to either amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalothin, cefotaxime, and gentamicin was found in 52.8% of production bird isolates and 16% of household ones. A strain jointly resistant to the 4 drugs was exclusive to a subset of isolates from production birds (7.6%) and coop surfaces (6.5%) and was associated with a particular purchase site. The prevalence of AR in production birds declined with bird age (P resistance (AR) in E. coli isolates from small-scale poultry production environments versus domestic environments in rural Ecuador, where such backyard poultry operations have become established over the past decade. Our previous research in the region suggests that introduction of AR bacteria through travel and commerce may be an important source of AR in villages of this region. This report extends the prior analysis by examining small-scale production chicken farming as a potential source of resistant strains. Our results suggest that AR strains associated with poultry production likely originate from sources outside the study

  2. On the value of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring leachate injection in solid state anaerobic digestion plants at farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueurce, Axelle; Clément, Rémi; Moreau, Sylvain; Peu, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural waste is a valuable resource for solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) thanks to its high solid content (>15%). Batch mode SSAD with leachate recirculation is particularly appropriate for such substrates. However, for successful degradation, the leachate must be evenly distributed through the substrate to improve its moisture content. To study the distribution of leachate in agricultural waste, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed. First, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to check the reliability of this method to monitor infiltration of the leachate throughout the solid. Two representative mixtures of agricultural wastes were prepared: a "winter" mixture, with cattle manure, and a "summer" mixture, with cattle manure, wheat straw and hay. The influence of density and water content on electrical resistivity variations was assessed in the two mixtures. An increase in density was found to lead to a decrease in electrical resistivity: at the initial water content, resistivity decreased from 109.7 to 19.5Ω·m in the summer mixture and from 9.8 to 2.7Ω·m in the "winter" mixture with a respective increased in density of 0.134-0.269, and 0.311-0.577. Similarly, resistivity decreased with an increase in water content: for low densities, resistivity dropped from 109.7 to 7.1Ω·m and 9.8 to 4.0Ω·m with an increase in water content from 64 to 90w% and 74 to 93w% for "summer" and "winter" mixtures respectively. Second, a time-lapse ERT was performed in a farm-scale SSAD plant to monitor leachate infiltration. Results revealed very heterogeneous distribution of the leachate in the waste, with two particularly moist areas around the leachate injection holes. However, ERT was successfully applied in the SSAD plant, and produced a reliable 3D map of leachate infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduction of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterococcus by pilot-scale solar-driven Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaolia, Popi; Michael, Irene; García-Fernández, Irene; Agüera, Ana; Malato, Sixto; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

    2014-01-15

    The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50 mg L(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5 mg L(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity

  4. Beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Jun; Ban Yong; Ye Yanlin; Cai Jianxin; Qian Sijin; Wang Quanjin; Liu Hongtao

    2005-01-01

    The authors reported the muon beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The bakelite surface is treated using a special technology without oil to make it smooth enough. The full scale RE 1/2 RPC with honeycomb supporting frame is strong and thin enough to be fitted to the limited space of CMS design for the inner Forward RPC. The muon beam test was performed at CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The detection efficiency of this full scale RPC prototype is >95% even at very high irradiation background. The time resolution (less than 1.2 ns) and spatial resolution are satisfactory for the muon trigger device in future CMS experiments. The noise rate is also calculated and discussed

  5. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  6. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  7. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  8. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  9. Determination of formation heterogeneity at a range of scales using novel multi-electrode resistivity scanning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.; Jackson, P.D.; Ward, R.S.; Sen, M.A.; Meldrum, P.; Lovell, M.

    1991-01-01

    The traditional method of measuring ground resistivity involves passing a current through two outer electrodes, measuring the potential developed across two electrodes in between, and applying Ohm's Law. In the RESCAN system developed by the British Geological Survey, each electrode can be electronically selected and controlled by software to either pass current or measure potential. Thousands of electrodes can be attached to the system either in 2-D surface arrays or along special plastic covered probes driven vertically into the ground or emplaced in boreholes. Under computer control, the resistivity distribution within the emplaced array can be determined automatically with unprecedented detail and speed, and may be displayed as an image. So far, the RESCAN system has been applied at the meso-scale in monitoring the radial migration of an electrolyte introduced into a recharge well in an unconsolidated aquifer; and CORSCAN at the micro-scale on drill cores to evaluate spatial variability in physical properties. The RESCAN technique has considerable potential for determining formation heterogeneity at different scales and provides a basis for developing stochastic models of groundwater and solute flow in heterogeneous systems. 13 figs.; 1 tab.; 12 refs

  10. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker J. Bautista

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This aims of this study were twofold; 1 to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2 to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light loads [ 70% 1RM] were measured randomly during 5 days of testing. Perceived velocity (Velscale was measured immediately after each exercise set using the new scale. A positive linear correlation (r range = 0.69 to 0.81 was found in all three intensities, analyzed individually, between the Velreal and Velscale. Pearson correlations showed a greater frequency of scale use resulted higher correlation values (range r = 0.88 to 0.96. This study provides evidence of the concurrent validity of a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise in trained adult males. These results suggest the exercise intensity of the bench press can be quantified quickly and effective using this new scale of perceived velocity, particularly when training for maximum power.

  11. Development and Validity of a Scale of Perception of Velocity in Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Iker J.; Chirosa, Ignacio J.; Chirosa, Luis J.; Martín, Ignacio; González, Andrés; Robertson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This aims of this study were twofold; 1) to development a new scale of perceived velocity in the bench press exercise and 2) to examine the scales concurrent validity. Twenty one physically active males with mean ±SD age, height and weights of: 27.5 ± 4.7 years, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, and 79.8 ± 10.3 kg respectively, took part in the study. The criterion variable used to test the validity of the new scale was the mean execution velocity (Velreal) of the bench press exercise. Three intensities (light ...

  12. Scaling laws of resistive magnetohydrodynamic reconnection in the high-Lundquist-number, plasmoid-unstable regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yimin; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sweet-Parker layer in a system that exceeds a critical value of the Lundquist number (S) is unstable to the plasmoid instability. In this paper, a numerical scaling study has been done with an island coalescing system driven by a low level of random noise. In the early stage, a primary Sweet-Parker layer forms between the two coalescing islands. The primary Sweet-Parker layer breaks into multiple plasmoids and even thinner current sheets through multiple levels of cascading if the Lundquist number is greater than a critical value S c ≅4x10 4 . As a result of the plasmoid instability, the system realizes a fast nonlinear reconnection rate that is nearly independent of S, and is only weakly dependent on the level of noise. The number of plasmoids in the linear regime is found to scales as S 3/8 , as predicted by an earlier asymptotic analysis [N. F. Loureiro et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 100703 (2007)]. In the nonlinear regime, the number of plasmoids follows a steeper scaling, and is proportional to S. The thickness and length of current sheets are found to scale as S -1 , and the local current densities of current sheets scale as S -1 . Heuristic arguments are given in support of theses scaling relations.

  13. Laser Tailoring the Surface Chemistry and Morphology for Wear, Scale and Corrosion Resistant Superhydrophobic Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Domantovsky, Alexander G; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M

    2018-06-04

    A strategy, combining laser chemical modification with laser texturing, followed by chemisorption of the fluorinated hydrophobic agent was used to fabricate the series of superhydrophobic coatings on an aluminum alloy with varied chemical compositions and parameters of texture. It was shown that high content of aluminum oxynitride and aluminum oxide formed in the surface layer upon laser treatment allows solving the problem of enhancement of superhydrophobic coating resistance to abrasive loads. Besides, the multimodal structure of highly porous surface layer leads to self-healing ability of fabricated coatings. Long-term behavior of designed coatings in "hard" hot water with an essential content of calcium carbonate demonstrated high antiscaling resistance with self-cleaning potential against solid deposits onto the superhydrophobic surfaces. Study of corrosion protection properties and the behavior of coatings at long-term contact with 0.5 M NaCl solution indicated extremely high chemical stability and remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  14. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...

  15. Electrical resistivity monitoring of the drift scale test in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the several thermal, mechanical and hydrological measurements being used to monitor the rockmass response, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is being used to monitor the movement of liquid water with a special interest in the movement of condensate out of the system. Eight boreholes, containing a total of 140 ERT electrodes, were drilled above and below the Heated Drift (HD) to form vertical planes parallel to the drift. In addition, 4 boreholes, containing 60 electrodes, drilled from the Access Observation Drift (AOD) form vertical planes at right angles to the HD. Four ERT surveys, three before and one after heating began, were conducted during the first quarter of FY 98. Tomographic images of absolute electrical resistivity have been calculated using these data and are presented in this report. The report also presents the coordinates of the electrodes used for the ERT surveys. Future reports will include images of electrical resistivity change calculated using data collected before and during the heating episode. The changes to be recovered will then be used in combination with temperature maps of the region to calculate maps of saturation change around the HD

  16. Full scale model studies of nuclear power stations for earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Ambriashvili, Ju. K.; Kozlov, A.V.

    Behaviour of nuclear power plants and its equipments under seismic action is not well understood. In the absence of well established method for aseismic deisgn of nuclear power plants and its equipments, it is necessary to carry out experimental investigations on models, fragments and full scale structures. The present study includes experimental investigations of different scale models and on existing nuclear power stations under impulse and explosion effects simulating seismic loads. The experimental work was aimed to develop on model test procedure for nuclear power station and the evaluation of the possible range of dynamic stresses in structures and pipe lines. The results of full-scale investigations of the nuclear reactor show a good agreement of dynamic characteristics of the model and the prototype. The study confirms the feasibility of simulation of model for nuclear power plants. (auth.)

  17. Resistivity scaling due to electron surface scattering in thin metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of electron surface scattering on the thickness-dependent electrical resistivity ρ of thin metal layers is investigated using nonequilibrium Green's function density functional transport simulations. Cu(001) thin films with thickness d =1 -2 nm are used as a model system, employing a random one-monolayer-high surface roughness and frozen phonons to cause surface and bulk scattering, respectively. The zero-temperature resistivity increases from 9.7 ±1.0 μ Ω cm at d =1.99 nm to 18.7 ±2.6 μ Ω cm at d =0.9 0 nm, contradicting the asymptotic T =0 prediction from the classical Fuchs-Sondheimer model. At T =9 00 K, ρ =5.8 ±0.1 μ Ω cm for bulk Cu and ρ =13.4 ±1.1 and 22.5 ±2.4 μ Ω cm for layers with d =1.99 and 0.90 nm, respectively, indicating an approximately additive phonon contribution which, however, is smaller than for bulk Cu or atomically smooth layers. The overall data indicate that the resistivity contribution from surface scattering is temperature-independent and proportional to 1 /d , suggesting that it can be described using a surface-scattering mean-free path λs for 2D transport which is channel-independent and proportional to d . Data fitting indicates λs=4 ×d for the particular simulated Cu(001) surfaces with a one-monolayer-high surface roughness. The 1 /d dependence deviates considerably from previous 1 /d2 predictions from quantum models, indicating that the small-roughness approximation in these models is not applicable to very thin (<2 nm) layers, where the surface roughness is a considerable fraction of d .

  18. Can Energy Cost During Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise be Predicted by the OMNI-RES Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jefferson M.; Reis, Victor M.; Saavedra, Francisco; Damasceno, Vinicius; Silva, Sérgio G.; Goss, Fredric

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of the OMNI-RES scale to predict energy cost (EC) at low intensity in four resistance exercises (RE). 17 male recreational body builders (age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; height = 177.7 ± 0.1 cm; body weight = 79.0 ± 11.1 kg and percent body fat = 10.5 ± 4.6%) served as subjects. Initially tests to determine 1RM for four resistance exercises (bench press, half squat, lat pull down and triceps extension) were administered. Subjects also performed resistance exercise at 12, 16, 20, and 24% of 1RM at a rate of 40 bpm until volitional exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) using the OMNI-RES were obtained during and after all RE. EC was calculated using VO2 and the caloric values of VO2 for non-protein RER. Regression analyses were performed for every RE, using EC as the dependent and RPE as the predictor variable. The triceps extension, lat pull down and bench press, RPE correlated strongly with EC (R > 0.97) and predicted EC with a error of less than 0.2 kcal.min−1. In conclusion, RPE using the OMNI-RES scale can be considered as an accurate indicator of EC in the bench press, lat pull down and triceps extension performed by recreational bodybuilders, provided lower intensities are used (up to 24% of 1-RM) and provided each set of exercise is performed for the maximal sustainable duration. It would be interesting in future studies to consider having the subjects exercise at low intensities for longer durations than those in the present study. PMID:23486188

  19. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kayla G; Weedall, Gareth D; Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba; Hemingway, Janet; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  20. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla G Barnes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  1. Identification of Heat Transfer Resistance of Scale Deposit on theEvaporator of Radioactive Waste Management Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus-Salimin

    2000-01-01

    Identification of heat transfer resistance of scale deposit from fixedhardness of liquid waste in the form of CaSO 4 and MgSO 4 ratio 2:1 has beendone on the evaporation system of Serpong Nuclear Facilities fordetermination of the quality of heat transfer obstruction from heating sourceto solution. Evaporation simulation of solution containing hardness withconcentration 0.5; 1; 2; and 2.5% mass were done on the stainless steelcontainer of 1 / volume with electrical heater in which a stainless-steeltube is put down on the base container. After 24, 168, 336, 504 and 672 hoursevaporation process it is obtained the thickness of scale deposit on thesurface of tube for determining the fouling factor. Heat transfer resistanceof scale deposit from 672 hours evaporation of solution 2.5% concentrationhampered heat transfer, the value of fouling factor be superior to limitsvalue of 0.000515 hours.m 2 . o C/kcal.The fouling factor from the evaporationof solution of 0.5; 1; and 2% concentration during 672 hours be inferior tolimits value. (author)

  2. Plasmonic nanoparticle lithography: Fast resist-free laser technique for large-scale sub-50 nm hole array fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenying; Yu, Ye Feng; Valuckas, Vytautas; Yap, Sherry L. K.; Vienne, Guillaume G.; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.

    2018-05-01

    Cheap large-scale fabrication of ordered nanostructures is important for multiple applications in photonics and biomedicine including optical filters, solar cells, plasmonic biosensors, and DNA sequencing. Existing methods are either expensive or have strict limitations on the feature size and fabrication complexity. Here, we present a laser-based technique, plasmonic nanoparticle lithography, which is capable of rapid fabrication of large-scale arrays of sub-50 nm holes on various substrates. It is based on near-field enhancement and melting induced under ordered arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles, which are brought into contact or in close proximity to a desired material and acting as optical near-field lenses. The nanoparticles are arranged in ordered patterns on a flexible substrate and can be attached and removed from the patterned sample surface. At optimized laser fluence, the nanohole patterning process does not create any observable changes to the nanoparticles and they have been applied multiple times as reusable near-field masks. This resist-free nanolithography technique provides a simple and cheap solution for large-scale nanofabrication.

  3. Scale Resistant Heat Exchanger for Low Temperature Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Energent Corporation, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Phase 1 of the investigation of improvements to low temperature geothermal power systems was completed. The improvements considered were reduction of scaling in heat exchangers and a hermetic turbine generator (eliminating seals, seal system, gearbox, and lube oil system). A scaling test system with several experiments was designed and operated at Coso geothermal resource with brine having a high scaling potential. Several methods were investigated at the brine temperature of 235 ºF. One method, circulation of abradable balls through the brine passages, was found to substantially reduce scale deposits. The test heat exchanger was operated with brine outlet temperatures as low as 125 ºF, which enables increased heat input available to power conversion systems. For advanced low temperature cycles, such as the Variable Phase Cycle (VPC) or Kalina Cycle, the lower brine temperature will result in a 20-30% increase in power production from low temperature resources. A preliminary design of an abradable ball system (ABS) was done for the heat exchanger of the 1 megawatt VPC system at Coso resource. The ABS will be installed and demonstrated in Phase 2 of this project, increasing the power production above that possible with the present 175 ºF brine outlet limit. A hermetic turbine generator (TGH) was designed and manufacturing drawings produced. This unit will use the working fluid (R134a) to lubricate the bearings and cool the generator. The 200 kW turbine directly drives the generator, eliminating a gearbox and lube oil system. Elimination of external seals eliminates the potential of leakage of the refrigerant or hydrocarbon working fluids, resulting in environmental improvement. A similar design has been demonstrated by Energent in an ORC waste heat recovery system. The existing VPC power plant at Coso was modified to enable the “piggyback” demonstration of the TGH. The existing heat exchanger, pumps, and condenser will be operated to provide the required

  4. TA [B] Predicting Microstructure-Creep Resistance Correlation in High Temperature Alloys over Multiple Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-06

    DoE-NETL partnered with Purdue University to predict the creep and associated microstructure evolution of tungsten-based refractory alloys. Researchers use grain boundary (GB) diagrams, a new concept, to establish time-dependent creep resistance and associated microstructure evolution of grain boundaries/intergranular films GB/IGF controlled creep as a function of load, environment, and temperature. The goal was to conduct a systematic study that includes the development of a theoretical framework, multiscale modeling, and experimental validation using W-based body-centered-cubic alloys, doped/alloyed with one or two of the following elements: nickel, palladium, cobalt, iron, and copper—typical refractory alloys. Prior work has already established and validated a basic theory for W-based binary and ternary alloys; the study conducted under this project extended this proven work. Based on interface diagrams phase field models were developed to predict long term microstructural evolution. In order to validate the models nanoindentation creep data was used to elucidate the role played by the interface properties in predicting long term creep strength and microstructure evolution.

  5. Energy Scaling Advantages of Resistive Memory Crossbar Based Computation and its Application to Sparse Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapan eAgarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in data over the last decade presents a significant challenge to analytics efforts that seek to process and interpret such data for various applications. Neural-inspired computing approaches are being developed in order to leverage the computational advantages of the analog, low-power data processing observed in biological systems. Analog resistive memory crossbars can perform a parallel read or a vector-matrix multiplication as well as a parallel write or a rank-1 update with high computational efficiency. For an NxN crossbar, these two kernels are at a minimum O(N more energy efficient than a digital memory-based architecture. If the read operation is noise limited, the energy to read a column can be independent of the crossbar size (O(1. These two kernels form the basis of many neuromorphic algorithms such as image, text, and speech recognition. For instance, these kernels can be applied to a neural sparse coding algorithm to give an O(N reduction in energy for the entire algorithm. Sparse coding is a rich problem with a host of applications including computer vision, object tracking, and more generally unsupervised learning.

  6. Grey relational and neural network approach for multi-objective optimization in small scale resistance spot welding of titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanxun; Zhao, Dawei [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The prediction and optimization of weld quality characteristics in small scale resistance spot welding of TC2 titanium alloy were investigated. Grey relational analysis, neural network and genetic algorithm were applied separately. Quality characteristics were selected as nugget diameter, failure load, failure displacement and failure energy. Welding parameters to be optimized were set as electrode force, welding current and welding time. Grey relational analysis was conducted for a rough estimation of the optimum welding parameters. Results showed that welding current played a key role in weld quality improvement. Different back propagation neural network architectures were then arranged to predict multiple quality characteristics. Interaction effects of welding parameters were analyzed with the proposed neural network. Failure load was found more sensitive to the change of welding parameters than nugget diameter. Optimum welding parameters were determined by genetic algorithm. The predicted responses showed good agreement with confirmation experiments.

  7. Multi-scale model of drug induced adaptive resistance of Gram-negative bacteria to polymyxin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Krzyzanski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to apply multi-scale modeling using the theory of physiologically structured populations (PSP to develop a mathematical model for antimicrobial resistance based on a heterogeneous distribution of receptors and affinities among bacterial cells. The theory has been tested on data obtained from an in vitro static time-kill infection model analyzing the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B against Gram-negative bacteria. The drug binding parameter KD (dissociation equilibrium constant is assumed to vary between the bacterial cells. The PSP model describes the time course of the density distribution of KD upon exposure to cytotoxic drug concentrations. The drug increases the hazard of cell death as a function of receptor occupancy. The initial distribution of KD is described by the Weibull function. Time-kill data were used for model qualification. In vitro static time-kill experiments to evaluate the rate and extent of killing due to polymyxin B against two Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates with differing susceptibilities to polymyxin B were performed over 48 h. The time-kill kinetics data of bacterial load cfu (colony forming units/mL was used for model qualification. The resistant bacterial population is determined by the balance between growth rate and hazard of cell death controlled by polymyxin B concentrations. There exists a critical KD value below which cells continue to grow. Estimates of shape parameters for distributions of KD yielded unimodal distributions with the modes at 0 nM and the right tails containing approximately 25% of the bacteria. Our findings support a hypothesis that resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae to polymyxin B can be at least partially attributed to a drug-induced selection of a subpopulation due to heterogeneity of polymyxin B receptor binding in the bacterial population.

  8. Non-exponential resistive switching in Ag2S memristors: a key to nanometer-scale non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubicza, Agnes; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András; Mihály, György

    2015-03-14

    The dynamics of resistive switchings in nanometer-scale metallic junctions formed between an inert metallic tip and an Ag film covered by a thin Ag2S layer are investigated. Our thorough experimental analysis and numerical simulations revealed that the resistance change upon a switching bias voltage pulse exhibits a strongly non-exponential behaviour yielding markedly different response times at different bias levels. Our results demonstrate the merits of Ag2S nanojunctions as nanometer-scale non-volatile memory cells with stable switching ratios, high endurance as well as fast response to write/erase, and an outstanding stability against read operations at technologically optimal bias and current levels.

  9. ON THE POSSIBLE EXISTENCE OF SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE INSTABILITIES POWERED BY NUCLEAR-BURNING SHELLS IN POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH H-DEFICIENT (PG1159-TYPE) STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Gonzalez Perez, J. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    We present a pulsational stability analysis of hot post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) H-deficient pre-white dwarf stars with active He-burning shells. The stellar models employed are state-of-the-art equilibrium structures representative of PG1159 stars derived from the complete evolution of the progenitor stars, through the thermally pulsing AGB phase and born-again episode. On the basis of fully nonadiabatic pulsation computations, we confirmed theoretical evidence for the existence of a separate PG1159 instability strip in the log T eff -log g diagram characterized by short-period g-modes excited by the ε-mechanism. This instability strip partially overlaps the already known GW Vir instability strip of intermediate/long-period g-modes destabilized by the classical κ-mechanism acting on the partial ionization of C and/or O in the envelope of PG1159 stars. We found that PG1159 stars characterized by thick He-rich envelopes and located inside this overlapping region could exhibit both short and intermediate/long periods simultaneously. As a natural application of our results, we study the particular case of VV 47, a pulsating planetary nebula nucleus (PG1159 type) that is particularly interesting because it has been reported to exhibit a rich and complex pulsation spectrum including a series of unusually short pulsation periods. We found that the long periods exhibited by VV 47 can be readily explained by the classical κ-mechanism, while the observed short-period branch below ∼300 s could correspond to modes triggered by the He-burning shell through the ε-mechanism, although more observational work is needed to confirm the reality of these short-period modes. Were the existence of short-period g-modes in this star convincingly confirmed by future observations, VV 47 could be the first known pulsating star in which both the κ-mechanism and the ε-mechanism of mode driving are simultaneously operating.

  10. Scaling-up the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in India: An economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaparde, Sunil; Raizada, Neeraj; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Denkinger, Claudia; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan; Salhotra, Virender Singh; Vassall, Anna; van 't Hoog, Anja

    2017-01-01

    India is considering the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. We conducted an economic analysis to estimate the costs of different strategies of Xpert implementation in India. Using a decision analytical model, we compared four diagnostic

  11. Applications of electrical resistivity imaging for characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions from local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Befus, K. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Ong, J.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Cook, P. L.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.; Santos, I. R.; Siringan, F. P.

    2012-12-01

    Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) interact across multiple spatial and temporal scales and their interaction is important for ecological and biogeochemical functions. The mixing of GW and SW has been challenging to simultaneously map with sufficient detail and coverage. Fortunately, ambient differences in salinity of waters occupying geologic formations and sediment are an ideal target for electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). We present examples of the application of ERI for mapping GW discharge and for understanding GW-SW interactions at: (1) a large regulated river, (2) neighboring lakes with differing salinity, (3) fringing coral reefs and lagoons, (4) beaches, and (5) estuaries. In all these cases, the ER tomograms were critical for improving conceptual understanding of GW-SW interactions. At the Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas (USA), time-lapse ERI was conducted across a 12-hour dam-release cycle when the river stage varied by 0.7 m. Using temporal variability in electrical resistivity (ER) signatures, we identified a shallow well-flushed hyporheic zone, a transition zone where SW and GW mix, and a stable deep zone hosting only GW. In alkaline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills (Nebraska, USA), ER surveys using boat-towed cables allowed for mapping the 3D electrical structure underneath the lake. The tomograms were used to distinguish flow-through lakes, which have decreasing subsurface ER from GW inflow to outflow area, from pure GW discharge lakes, which have uniformly stratified increasing-with-depth ER profiles. Moreover, GW plumes in both discharge and recharge zones were clearly outlined underneath the lake. More than 30 km of ER profiles collected via boat-towed surveys over a fringing coral reef in the Philippines identified areas of high ER within the reef that coincide with resistive zones in the seawater. Analysis of 222Rn of bottom waters and vertical conductivity-temperature-depth measurements show the persistence of fresh GW input into

  12. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilu; Mao, Daqing; Mu, Quanhua; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 10 3 to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 10 6 copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 10 7 to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 10 10 copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7–308 times higher than

  13. Fate and proliferation of typical antibiotic resistance genes in five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilu [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Mao, Daqing, E-mail: mao@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mu, Quanhua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Luo, Yi, E-mail: luoy@nankai.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 10 subtypes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) for sulfonamide, tetracycline, β-lactam and macrolide resistance and the class 1 integrase gene (intI1). In total, these genes were monitored in 24 samples across each stage of five full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) using qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The levels of typical ARG subtypes in the final effluents ranged from (2.08 ± 0.16) × 10{sup 3} to (3.68 ± 0.27) × 10{sup 6} copies/mL. The absolute abundance of ARGs in effluents accounted for only 0.6%–59.8% of influents of the five PWWTPs, while the majority of the ARGs were transported to the dewatered sludge with concentrations from (9.38 ± 0.73) × 10{sup 7} to (4.30 ± 0.81) × 10{sup 10} copies/g dry weight (dw). The total loads of ARGs discharged through dewatered sludge was 7–308 folds higher than that in the raw influents and 16–638 folds higher than that in the final effluents. The proliferation of ARGs mainly occurs in the biological treatment processes, such as conventional activated sludge, cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and membrane bio-reactor (MBR), implying that significant replication of certain subtypes of ARGs may be attributable to microbial growth. High concentrations of antibiotic residues (ranging from 0.14 to 92.2 mg/L) were detected in the influents of selected wastewater treatment systems and they still remain high residues in the effluents. Partial correlation analysis showed significant correlations between the antibiotic concentrations and the associated relative abundance of ARG subtypes in the effluent. Although correlation does not prove causation, this study demonstrates that in addition to bacterial growth, the high antibiotic residues within the pharmaceutical WWTPs may influence the proliferation and fate of the associated ARG subtypes. - Highlights: • The ARGs in final discharges were 7

  14. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography to quantify in situ liquid content in a full-scale dry anaerobic digestion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Lamy, E; Lutz, P; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2016-02-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method is a non-intrusive method widely used in landfills to detect and locate liquid content. An experimental set-up was performed on a dry batch anaerobic digestion reactor to investigate liquid repartition in process and to map spatial distribution of inoculum. Two array electrodes were used: pole-dipole and gradient arrays. A technical adaptation of ERT method was necessary. Measured resistivity data were inverted and modeled by RES2DINV software to get resistivity sections. Continuous calibration along resistivity section was necessary to understand data involving sampling and physicochemical analysis. Samples were analyzed performing both biochemical methane potential and fiber quantification. Correlations were established between the protocol of reactor preparation, resistivity values, liquid content, methane potential and fiber content representing liquid repartition, high methane potential zones and degradations zones. ERT method showed a strong relevance to monitor and to optimize the dry batch anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in urban sewage: Role of full-scale wastewater treatment plants on environmental spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla, A; Cattaneo, M; Marazzi, F; Mezzanotte, V; Antonelli, M

    2018-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in wastewater was investigated and the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in promoting or limiting antibiotic resistance was assessed. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline was monitored in three WWTPs located in Milan urban area (Italy), differing among them for the operating parameters of biological process, for the disinfection processes (based on sodium hypochlorite, UV radiation, peracetic acid) and for the discharge limits to be met. Wastewater was collected from three sampling points along the treatment sequence (WWTP influent, effluent from sand filtration, WWTP effluent). Antibiotic resistance to ampicillin was observed both for E. coli and for THB. Ampicillin resistant bacteria in the WWTP influents were 20-47% of E. coli and 16-25% of THB counts. A limited resistance to chloramphenicol was observed only for E. coli, while neither for E. coli nor for THB tetracycline resistance was observed. The biological treatment and sand filtration led to a decrease in the maximum percentage of ampicillin-resistant bacteria (20-29% for E. coli, 11-21% for THB). However, the conventionally adopted parameters did not seem adequate to support an interpretation of WWTP role in ARB spread. Peracetic acid was effective in selectively acting on antibiotic resistant THB, unlike UV radiation and sodium hypochlorite. The low counts of E. coli in WWTP final effluents in case of agricultural reuse did not allow to compare the effect of the different disinfection processes on antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts a dose-remission relationship of T-PEMF in treatment-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lunde, Marianne; Lauritzen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    . The remaining 31 patients received active T-PEMF twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks in both groups. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Melancholia Scale (MES) were used to measure remission. We also focused on the Diagnostic Apathia Scale, which is based on a mixture...

  18. Mapping geological structures in bedrock via large-scale direct current resistivity and time-domain induced polarization tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Matteo; Olsson, Per-Ivar; Johansson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    -current resistivity distribution of the subsoil and the phase of the complex conductivity using a constant-phase angle model. The joint interpretation of electrical resistivity and induced-polarization models leads to a better understanding of complex three-dimensional subsoil geometries. The results have been......An investigation of geological conditions is always a key point for planning infrastructure constructions. Bedrock surface and rock quality must be estimated carefully in the designing process of infrastructures. A large direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization survey has......, there are northwest-trending Permian dolerite dykes that are less deformed. Four 2D direct-current resistivity and time-domain induced-polarization profiles of about 1-km length have been carefully pre-processed to retrieve time-domain induced polarization responses and inverted to obtain the direct...

  19. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of 90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colmenares Vilata

    2014-05-01

    centre and the container with the periphery is still valid, because the necessary density of the first and the extensive occupation of the second mean that it is impossible to invert the terms. However, both represent the strictly pragmatic development of the principles of the “free plan” as a generic operating system, giving rise to large constructions that test the resistance to the scale of the type itself. Taking the characteristic neutrality of the “single plan” as a reference, the text analyses the behaviour with regard to the change of size of its two complementary configurations: the large hypostile hall and the clear-span pavillion.

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Shell Eggs from Small-Scale Poultry Farms and Farmers' Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Nahashon, S N; Godwin, S; Liu, S; Long, D

    2016-12-01

    Public health concerns over the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria have increased recently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs purchased from small poultry farms and farmers' markets. A total of 504 eggs were pooled to make 252 composite samples, consisting of 2 eggs per composite. The microbial quality of shell eggs was determined by standard quantitative, biochemical, and PCR techniques. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, and results were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute values. Shell eggs and egg contents were positive for Escherichia coli (11.9 and 5.2%, respectively), Enterobacter (9.1 and 7.9%), and Serratia (11.5 and 4.8%). Salmonella was isolated from 3.6% of egg shells but not from egg contents. Mean (±SD) Enterobacteriaceae levels (4.4 ± 2.0 log CFU per eggshell) on shell eggs from poultry farms was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that on shell eggs from farmers' markets (2.1 ± 1.3 log CFU per eggshell). Of the 134 isolates recovered, resistance among isolates from farm and market shell eggs to erythromycin was most common (48.5 and 32.8%, respectively) followed by ampicillin (44.8 and 17.2%), and tetracycline (29.9 and 17.2%). The multiple antibiotic resistance index value for E. coli and Pantoea was 0.62, and that for Salmonella and Klebsiella terrigena was 0.08, indicating that Enterobacteriaceae in shell eggs can be resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. These data reveal that shell eggs from small poultry farms and farmers' markets can harbor antimicrobial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Thus, failure to properly handle shell eggs poses a potential health hazard to consumers.

  2. Psychometric analysis of the Melancholia Scale in trials with non-pharmacological augmentation of patients with therapy-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    . Patients resistant to anti-depressant medication (therapy-resistant depression) have participated in our trials with non-pharmacological augmentation. On the basis of these trials, we have evaluated to what extent the neuropsychiatric subscale of the MES (concentration difficulties, fatigability, emotional...... of transferability, we have tested item ranks across the rating weeks. RESULTS: In the Mokken analysis, the coefficient of homogeneity was above 0.40 for both the HAM-D subscale and the apathia subscale at week 4. The numerical transferability across the weeks was statistically significant (p

  3. Abundance and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale anaerobic-aerobic system alternately treating ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Dou, Xiaomin; Wang, Chunyan; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has been intensively investigated for wastewater treatment systems treating single class of antibiotic in recent years. However, the impacts of alternately occurring antibiotics in antibiotic production wastewater on the behavior of ARGs in biological treatment systems were not well understood yet. Herein, techniques including high-capacity quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to investigate the behavior of ARGs in an anaerobic-aerobic full-scale system. The system alternately treated three kinds of antibiotic production wastewater including ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin, which referred to stages 1, 2 and 3. The aminoglycoside ARGs (52.1-79.3%) determined using high-capacity quantitative PCR were the most abundant species in all sludge samples of the three stages. The total relative abundances of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes and aminoglycoside resistance genes measured using qPCR were significantly higher (P  0.05) in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge samples. In aerobic sludge, one acetyltransferase gene (aacA4) and the other three nucleotidyltransferase genes (aadB, aadA and aadE) exhibited positive correlations with intI1 (r 2  = 0.83-0.94; P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. These results and facts will be helpful to understand the abundance and distribution of ARGs from antibiotic production wastewater treatment systems.

  4. A process for the production of a scale-proof and corrosion-resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for the production of a corrosion resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies is described. The carbon or graphite body is coated or impregnated with titanium silicide under the addition of a metal containing wetting agent in a nitrogen free atmosphere, so that a tight coating is formed.

  5. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Hayden; Matteo Garbelotto; Richard Dodd; Jessica W. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most...

  6. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III profile in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease: performance in subtests sensitive to and resistant to normal decline with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Saito, Masahiko; Kato, Mayumi; Azami, Hiroki; Shido, Emi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the significance of age-related subtest scores from the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The subjects of this study included 58 elderly Japanese persons classified into two groups: AD group (n = 29) and control group (n = 29). These groups did not differ in age, years of education, gender ratio, Hasegawa's Dementia Scale-Revised score, or Full-Scale IQ score. No subject scored below the cut-off point on Hasegawa's Dementia Scale-Revised, a frequently used dementia screen test in Japan. At the index score level, General Ability Index scores were the only scores that differed significantly between the groups, with the AD group scoring significantly lower than the control group (P Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III profile of very early AD may be characterized by weak performance on subtests normally resistant to decline with ageing. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. Antimicrobials in small-scale urban pig farming in a lower middle-income country - arbitrary use and high resistance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, G; Boqvist, S; Albihn, A; Fernström, L-L; Andersson Djurfeldt, A; Sokerya, S; Sothyra, T; Magnusson, U

    2018-01-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm ( n  = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth microdilution. Univariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate potential associations between farm characteristics, management factors and resistance to different types of antimicrobials. We found a widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials, often based on the farmer's own judgment. Around 66% of the farmers reported frequently self-adjusting treatment duration and dosage, and 45% had not heard about the term 'antimicrobial resistance'. The antimicrobials most commonly mentioned or kept by the farmers were amoxicillin, tylosin, gentamicin and colistin. Around 37% used a feed concentrate that contained antimicrobials, while antimicrobials for humans were used as a last-line treatment by 10% of the farmers. Commensal E. coli exhibited high prevalence of resistance to several antimicrobials considered to be of critical importance for human medicine, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and colistin, and multidrug-resistance was found in 79% of the samples. Higher prevalence of resistance was observed on farms that administered prophylactic antimicrobials and on farms that treated the entire group or herd in the event of disease. The widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials in pig farming in Cambodia is highly worrisome

  8. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  9. Investigation on impact resistance of steel plate reinforced concrete barriers against aircraft impact. Pt.3: Analyses of full-scale aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Mizuno; Norihide Koshika; Eiichi Tanaka; Atsushi Suzuki; Yoshinori Mihara; Isao Nishimura

    2005-01-01

    Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) walls and slabs are structural members in which the rebars of reinforced concrete are replaced by steel plates. Steel plate reinforced concrete structures are more attractive structural design alternatives to reinforced concrete structures, especially with thick, heavily reinforced walls and slabs such as nuclear structures, because they enable a much shorter construction period, greater earthquake resistant and more cost effectiveness. Experimental and analytical studies performed by the authors have also shown that SC structures are much more effective in mitigating damage against scaled aircraft models , as described in Parts 1 and 2 of this study. The objective of Part 3 was to determine the protective capability of SC walls and roofs against a full-scale aircraft impact by conducting numerical experiments to investigate the fracture behaviors and limit thicknesses of SC panels and to examine the effectiveness of SC panels in detail under design conditions. Furthermore, a simplified method is proposed for evaluating the localized damage induced by a full-scale engine impact. (authors)

  10. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique.

  11. Electrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masy, Thibaut; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier; Lavigne, Benoît; Thonart, Philippe; Hiligsmann, Serge; Nguyen, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600ppm) in 3months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of small-scale saline tracer heterogeneity on electrical resistivity monitoring in fully and partially saturated porous media: Insights from geoelectrical milli-fluidic experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougnot, Damien; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Legendre, Raphaël; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Méheust, Yves; Linde, Niklas

    2018-03-01

    Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a geophysical method widely used to remotely monitor the migration of electrically-conductive tracers and contaminant plumes in the subsurface. Interpretations of time-lapse ERT inversion results are generally based on the assumption of a homogeneous solute concentration below the resolution limits of the tomogram depicting inferred electrical conductivity variations. We suggest that ignoring small-scale solute concentration variability (i.e., at the sub-resolution scale) is a major reason for the often-observed apparent loss of solute mass in ERT tracer studies. To demonstrate this, we developed a geoelectrical milli-fluidic setup where the bulk electric conductivity of a 2D analogous porous medium, consisting of cylindrical grains positioned randomly inside a Hele-Shaw cell, is monitored continuously in time while saline tracer tests are performed through the medium under fully and partially saturated conditions. High resolution images of the porous medium are recorded with a camera at regular time intervals, and provide both the spatial distribution of the fluid phases (aqueous solution and air), and the saline solute concentration field (where the solute consists of a mixture of salt and fluorescein, the latter being used as a proxy for the salt concentration). Effective bulk electrical conductivities computed numerically from the measured solute concentration field and the spatial distributions of fluid phases agree well with the measured bulk conductivities. We find that the effective bulk electrical conductivity is highly influenced by the connectivity of high electrical conductivity regions. The spatial distribution of air, saline tracer fingering, and mixing phenomena drive temporal changes in the effective bulk electrical conductivity by creating preferential paths or barriers for electrical current at the pore-scale. The resulting heterogeneities in the solute concentrations lead to strong anisotropy

  13. Resistance and resilience of small-scale recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with or without algae to pH perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, Christos; Md Yusoff, Fatimah; Verreth, Johan; Verdegem, Marc

    2018-01-01

    The experimental set-up of this study mimicked recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) where water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and turbidity were controlled and wastes produced by fish and feeding were converted to inorganic forms. A key process in the RAS was the conversion of ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate through nitrification. It was hypothesized that algae inclusion in RAS would improve the ammonia removal from the water; thereby improving RAS water quality and stability. To test this hypothesis, the stability of the microbiota community composition in a freshwater RAS with (RAS+A) or without algae (RAS-A) was challenged by introducing an acute pH drop (from pH 7 to 4 during three hours) to the system. Stigeoclonium nanum, a periphytic freshwater microalga was used in this study. No significant effect of the algae presence was found on the resistance to the acute pH drop on ammonia conversion to nitrite and nitrite conversion to nitrate. Also the resilience of the ammonia conversion to the pH drop disruption was not affected by the addition of algae. This could be due to the low biomass of algae achieved in the RAS. However, with regard to the conversion step of nitrite to nitrate, RAS+A was significantly more resilient than RAS-A. In terms of overall bacterial communities, the composition and predictive function of the bacterial communities was significantly different between RAS+A and RAS-A. PMID:29659617

  14. Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  15. Quantitative studies on impact resistance of reinforced concrete panels with steel liners under impact loading. Part 1: Scaled model impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubota, H.; Kasai, Y.; Koshika, N.; Morikawa, H.; Uchida, T.; Ohno, T.; Kogure, K.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, extensive analytical and experimental studies have been carried out to establish a rational structural design method for nuclear power plants against local damage caused by various external missiles. Through these studies, several techniques for improving die impact resistance of reinforced concrete slabs have been proposed. Of these techniques, attaching a thin steel liner onto the impacted and/or rear face of the slab is considered to be one of the most effective methods. Muto et. al. carried out full-scale impact tests using actual aircraft engines and reported that a thin corrugated steel liner attached to the rear face of a concrete panel has a significant effect in preventing scattering of scabbed concrete debris from the rear face of the target. Based on many experimental and analytical studies, UKAEA reported that a steel liner attached to a reinforced concrete slab improves its perforation and scabbing resistance, and Walter et. al. proposed a formula for predicting the equivalent thickness of a slab with a steel liner attached. The object of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the effect of a steel liner attached to a reinforced concrete slab in preventing local damage caused by rigid missiles. To achieve the object, extensive impact tests were carried out. This paper summarizes the results of these tests

  16. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  18. The effects of a nickel oxide precoat on the gas bubble structures and fish-scaling resistance in vitreous enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.; Jha, A.; Brydson, R.; Cochrane, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a NiO precoat on the interfacial microchemistry and the structure of gas bubbles at the steel-enamel interface were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and image analysis techniques. The experimental evidence demonstrates that nickel oxide applied to the steel substrate as a precoat accelerates the diffusion of Fe from the steel into the enamel and promotes decarburisation of the steel substrate, this latter reaction generating CO and/or CO 2 as gases. The resulting increase in FeO concentration reduces the viscosity of enamel. The apparent decrease in the viscosity of liquid enamel, along with formation of substantial quantities of CO and/or CO 2 gases control the distribution of gas bubbles in the enamel layer. The investigation also explains the reason for the association of large gas bubbles with Fe-Ni metal-rich particles with a dendritic appearance (termed 'dendrites in the following text) at the enamel-steel interface. The role of these Fe-Ni metal-rich 'dendrites' in reducing the tendency for hydrogen flaking or cracking of the enamel layer, generally referred to as fish-scaling, is also elucidated

  19. Solar photo-Fenton process on the abatement of antibiotics at a pilot scale: Degradation kinetics, ecotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessment and removal of antibiotic resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Varela, A R; Kyriakou, S; Manaia, C M; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2012-11-01

    This work investigated the application of a solar driven advanced oxidation process (solar photo-Fenton), for the degradation of antibiotics at low concentration level (μg L(-1)) in secondary treated domestic effluents at a pilot-scale. The examined antibiotics were ofloxacin (OFX) and trimethoprim (TMP). A compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant was used for the photocatalytic experiments. The process was mainly evaluated by a fast and reliable analytical method based on a UPLC-MS/MS system. Solar photo-Fenton process using low iron and hydrogen peroxide doses ([Fe(2+)](0) = 5 mg L(-1); [H(2)O(2)](0) = 75 mg L(-1)) was proved to be an efficient method for the elimination of these compounds with relatively high degradation rates. The photocatalytic degradation of OFX and TMP with the solar photo-Fenton process followed apparent first-order kinetics. A modification of the first-order kinetic expression was proposed and has been successfully used to explain the degradation kinetics of the compounds during the solar photo-Fenton treatment. The results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial wastewater toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba) and the water flea Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of the treated samples, expressed as root growth inhibition, was higher compared to that observed on the inhibition of seed germination. Enterococci, including those resistant to OFX and TMP, were completely eliminated at the end of the treatment. The total cost of the full scale unit for the treatment of 150 m(3) day(-1) of secondary wastewater effluent was found to be 0.85 € m(-3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale performance studies of the Resistive Plate Chamber fast tracker for the ATLAS 1st-level muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Cattani, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In the ATLAS experiment, Resistive Plate Chambers provide the first-level muon trigger and bunch crossing identification over large area of the barrel region, as well as being used as a very fast 2D tracker. To achieve these goals a system of about ~4000 gas gaps operating in avalanche mode was built (resulting in a total readout surface of about 16000 m2 segmented into 350000 strips) and is now fully operational in the ATLAS pit, where its functionality has been widely tested up to now using cosmic rays. Such a large scale system allows to study the performance of RPCs (both from the point of view of gas gaps and readout electronics) with unprecedented sensitivity to rare effects, as well as providing the means to correlate (in a statistically significant way) characteristics at production sites with performance during operation. Calibrating such a system means fine tuning thousands of parameters (involving both front-end electronics and gap voltage), as well as constantly monitoring performance and environm...

  1. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G T Walker

    2017-02-01

    estimates of resistance. Forty-four percent of these pregnancies (23% of all pregnancies were not receiving any IPTp-SP despite making ≥3 ANC visits, representing 160,000 (94,000-236,000 95% crI preventable low birthweight (LBW deliveries. Only 4% (1.4 million of pregnancies occurred in settings with >10% prevalence of the sextuple haplotype associated with compromised SP effectiveness. Forty-two percent of all pregnancies occurred in settings where the quintuple dhfr/dhps haplotype had become established but where in vivo efficacy data suggest SP maintains the majority of its effectiveness in clearing infections. Not accounting for protection from the use of ITNs during pregnancy, expanding IPTp-SP to all women with ≥3 ANC visits in Africa could prevent an additional 215,000 (128,000-318,000 95% crI LBW deliveries. In 26 countries with sufficient recent data to estimate ITN impact (population-based ITN usage data that can be stratified by gravidity, we estimate that, due primarily to low ITN use by primigravidae, only 16.5% of the potential LBW births prevented by scaling up IPTp-SP would in fact have already have been prevented through ITN use. Our analysis also highlights the difficulties associated with estimating the relationship between the effectiveness of interventions against parasitological endpoints such as placental infection at delivery and health outcomes including birthweight, which is also determined by a wide range of unrelated factors. We also did not capture other aspects of malaria burden such as clinical malaria, maternal and neonatal anaemia, and miscarriage, all of which increase the overall importance of effective preventative strategies but have their own relationship with transmission intensity, parity, and SP resistance.Despite recent declines in malaria transmission in Africa, the burden of MiP in the absence of adequate prevention remains substantial. Even accounting for SP resistance, extending IPTp-SP to all women attending ANC, as well as

  2. A new highly productive Propionibacterium acidipropionici FL-48 strain with increased resistance to propionic acid and the scaling up of its production for industrial bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kartashov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid bacteria, including Propionibacterium acidipropionici, are widely used in the chemical industry to produce propionic acid and also for food and feed preservation. However, the efficiency of the industrial production of these bacteria is limited by their sensitivity to high concentrations of propionic acid excreted into the cultivation medium. Therefore, the development of new biotechnological processes and strains able to overcome this limitation and to improve the profitability of the microbiological production remains  a relevant problem. A new P. acidipropionici FL-48 strain characterized by an increased resistance to 10 g/L of propionic acid (the number of viable cells after 24-h cultivation reached 1.05 × 106 was developed by a two-step induced mutagenesis using UV and diethyl sulphate from the P. acidipropionici VKPM B-5723 strain. The mutant strain exceeded the parental strain in the biomass accumulation rate and the amount of produced propionic and acetic acids by 35%, 20%, and 16%, respectively. The stability of such important characteristics as the biomass accumulation rate and the viability on media containing heightened concentrations of propionic acid was confirmed by three sequential monoclonal subculturings on a medium supplemented with 10 g/L of propionic acid. The optimization of the cultivation technology made it possible to determine the optimum seed inoculum dose (10% of the fermentation medium volume and the best pH level for the active growth stage (6.1 ± 0.1. The scaling up of the fermentation to a 100-L bioreactor under observance of optimum cultivation conditions demonstrated a high biomass growth rate with a sufficient reproducability; after 20 h of fermentation, the number of viable cells in the culture broth exceeded 1 × 1010 CFU/mL. The new strain could be interesting as the component of silage and haylage biopreservatives and also could be used as an efficient producer of propionic acid.

  3. A remote-control datalogger for large-scale resistivity surveys and robust processing of its signals using a software lock-in approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Frank; Günther, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    We present a new versatile datalogger that can be used for a wide range of possible applications in geosciences. It is adjustable in signal strength and sampling frequency, battery saving and can remotely be controlled over a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) connection so that it saves running costs, particularly in monitoring experiments. The internet connection allows for checking functionality, controlling schedules and optimizing pre-amplification. We mainly use it for large-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), where it independently registers voltage time series on three channels, while a square-wave current is injected. For the analysis of this time series we present a new approach that is based on the lock-in (LI) method, mainly known from electronic circuits. The method searches the working point (phase) using three different functions based on a mask signal, and determines the amplitude using a direct current (DC) correlation function. We use synthetic data with different types of noise to compare the new method with existing approaches, i.e. selective stacking and a modified fast Fourier transformation (FFT)-based approach that assumes a 1/f noise characteristics. All methods give comparable results, but the LI is better than the well-established stacking method. The FFT approach can be even better but only if the noise strictly follows the assumed characteristics. If overshoots are present in the data, which is typical in the field, FFT performs worse even with good data, which is why we conclude that the new LI approach is the most robust solution. This is also proved by a field data set from a long 2-D ERT profile.

  4. Robust chemical and chemical-resistant material detection using hyper-spectral imager and a new bend interpolation and local scaling HSI sharpening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Michael; Brickhouse, Mark

    2015-05-01

    We present new results from our ongoing research activity for chemical threat detection using hyper-spectral imager (HSI) detection techniques by detecting nontraditional threat spectral signatures of agent usage, such as protective equipment, coatings, paints, spills, and stains that are worn by human or on trucks or other objects. We have applied several current state-of-the-art HSI target detection methods such as Matched Filter (MF), Adaptive Coherence Estimator (ACE), Constrained Energy Minimization (CEM), and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). We are interested in detecting several chemical related materials: (a) Tyvek clothing is chemical resistance and Tyvek coveralls are one-piece garments for protecting human body from harmful chemicals, and (b) ammonium salts from background could be representative of spills from scrubbers or related to other chemical activities. The HSI dataset that we used for detection covers a chemical test field with more than 50 different kinds of chemicals, protective materials, coatings, and paints. Among them, there are four different kinds of Tyvek material, three types of ammonium salts, and one yellow jugs. The imagery cube data were collected by a HSI sensor with a spectral range of 400-2,500nm. Preliminary testing results are promising, and very high probability of detection (Pd) and low probability of false detection are achieved with the usage of full spectral range (400- 2,500nm). In the second part of this paper, we present our newly developed HSI sharpening technique. A new Band Interpolation and Local Scaling (BILS) method has been developed to improve HSI spatial resolution by 4-16 times with a low-cost high-resolution pen-chromatic camera and a RGB camera. Preliminary results indicate that this new technique is promising.

  5. Transition from resistive-g to eta-i driven turbulence in stellarator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B.-G.; Horton, W.; Hamaguchi, S.; Wakantani, M.; Yagi, M.; Sugama, H.

    1990-02-01

    By an electromagnetic incompressible two fluid model describing both ion temperature gradient drift modes (η i modes) and resistive interchange modes (g modes), a new type of η i mode is studied in cylindrical geometry including magnetic shear and an averaged curvature of Heliotron/Torsatron. This η i mode is destabilized by the coupling to the unstable g mode. Finite plasma pressure beta increases the growth rate of this mode and the radial mode width also increases with plasma pressure beta indicating large anomalous transport in the Heliotron/Torsatron configuration. The transport from η i mode exceeds that from resistive g when the mean-free-path exceeds the machine circumference. For plasma beta above two to three times the Suydam limit the m = 1/n = 1 growth rate increases from the η i mode value to the MHD value. 13 refs., 5 figs

  6. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  7. Resistance and Spray Characteristics of a 1/13-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane, TED No. NACA DE 338

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKann, Robert E.; Coffee, Claude W.; Arabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    A model of a Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 sea-plane:was tested in Langley tank no= 2. Resistance data, 'spray photographs, and underwater photographs,are given in this report without discussion.

  8. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-01

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  9. Investigation of resistance switching in SiO x RRAM cells using a 3D multi-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Toufik; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Kenyon, Anthony; Asenov, Asen

    2018-02-28

    We employ an advanced three-dimensional (3D) electro-thermal simulator to explore the physics and potential of oxide-based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) cells. The physical simulation model has been developed recently, and couples a kinetic Monte Carlo study of electron and ionic transport to the self-heating phenomenon while accounting carefully for the physics of vacancy generation and recombination, and trapping mechanisms. The simulation framework successfully captures resistance switching, including the electroforming, set and reset processes, by modeling the dynamics of conductive filaments in the 3D space. This work focuses on the promising yet less studied RRAM structures based on silicon-rich silica (SiO x ) RRAMs. We explain the intrinsic nature of resistance switching of the SiO x layer, analyze the effect of self-heating on device performance, highlight the role of the initial vacancy distributions acting as precursors for switching, and also stress the importance of using 3D physics-based models to capture accurately the switching processes. The simulation work is backed by experimental studies. The simulator is useful for improving our understanding of the little-known physics of SiO x resistive memory devices, as well as other oxide-based RRAM systems (e.g. transition metal oxide RRAMs), offering design and optimization capabilities with regard to the reliability and variability of memory cells.

  10. Removal of micropollutants, facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria in a full-scale retention soil filter receiving combined sewer overflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Heß, Stefanie; Lüddeke, Frauke; Sacher, Frank; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Combined sewer systems collect surface runoff as well as wastewater of industrial and domestic origin. During periods of heavy rainfall the capacity of the sewer system is exceeded and the overflow is discharged into receiving waters without any treatment. Consequently, combined sewer overflow (CSO) is considered as a major source of water pollution. This study investigates the effectiveness of a retention soil filter (RSF) for the removal of micropollutants as well as facultative pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria from CSO. The removal of organic group parameters like total organic carbon was excellent and the removal efficiency for micropollutants of the RSF and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats wastewater of the same origin during dry and normal weather conditions, was comparable. Compounds of high environmental concern like estrogens or certain pharmaceuticals, e.g. diclofenac, were completely eliminated or removed to a high degree during RSF passage. RSF treatment also reduced the number of E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci by 2.7, 2.2 and 2.4 log-units (median values), respectively. Obviously, some Staphylococcus species can better adapt to the conditions of the RSF than others as a shift of the abundance of the different species was observed when comparing the diversity of staphylococci obtained from the RSF influent and effluent. RSF treatment also decreased the absolute number of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci isolates also decreased during passage of the RSF, whereas the percentage of resistant enterococci did not change. For E. coli ampicillin and for enterococci and staphylococci erythromycin determined the antibiotic resistance level. The results demonstrate that RSFs can be considered as an adequate treatment option for CSO. The performance for the removal of micropollutants is comparable with a medium sized WWTP with conventional activated sludge

  11. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grezes, C.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Wang, K. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebrahimi, F.; Khalili Amiri, P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Inston, Inc., Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Katine, J. A. [HGST, Inc., San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Langer, J.; Ocker, B. [Singulus Technologies AG, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memory and logic integrated circuits.

  12. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  13. Validity limits in J-resistance curve determination: A computational approach to ductile crack growth under large-scale yielding conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.F.; Xia, L.; Hutchinson, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, Volume 2, Mode I crack initiation and growth under plane strain conditions in tough metals are computed using an elastic/plastic continuum model which accounts for void growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip. The material parameters include the stress-strain properties, along with the parameters characterizing the spacing and volume fraction of voids in material elements lying in the plane of the crack. For a given set of these parameters and a specific specimen, or component, subject to a specific loading, relationships among load, load-line displacement and crack advance can be computed with no restrictions on the extent of plastic deformation. Similarly, there is no limit on crack advance, except that it must take place on the symmetry plane ahead of the initial crack. Suitably defined measures of crack tip loading intensity, such as those based on the J-integral, can also be computed, thereby directly generating crack growth resistance curves. In this report, the model is applied to five specimen geometries which are known to give rise to significantly different crack tip constraints and crack growth resistance behaviors. Computed results are compared with sets of experimental data for two tough steels for four of the specimen types. Details of the load, displacement and crack growth histories are accurately reproduced, even when extensive crack growth takes place under conditions of fully plastic yielding. A description of material resistance to crack initiation and subsequent growth is essential for assessing structural integrity such as nuclear pressure vessels and piping

  14. Nonlinear resistivity in a d-wave superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} of sub-micron scale grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguchi, H; Shoho, T; Kato, Y; Ashida, T; Mito, M; Takagi, S [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Hagiwara, M [Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Koyama, K, E-mail: deguchi@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.jp [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, The University of Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)

    2011-07-20

    The d-wave ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} superconductor composed of sub-micron size grains is considered as random Josephson-coupled network of 0 and {pi} junctions and shows successive phase transitions. The upper transition occurs inside each grain at T{sub c1} = 82 K and the lower transition occurs among the grains at T{sub c2} = 66 K. We measured the temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of the ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} and derived the linear and nonlinear resistivity. The nonlinear resistivity {rho}{sub 2} and {rho}{sub 4} have finite values between T{sub c1} and T{sub c2} and have the peak at the same temperature T{sub p} = 70 K above T{sub c2}. The result agrees with the theoretical one obtained by Li and DomInguez. They interpreted T{sub p} as the crossover temperature from the normal state phase to a chiral paramagnetic one.

  15. Large-scale depositional characteristics of the Ulleung Basin and its impact on electrical resistivity and Archie-parameters for gas hydrate saturation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Michael; Collett, Timothy S.; Kim, H.-S.; Bahk, J.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Ryu, B.-J.; Kim, G.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate saturation estimates were obtained from an Archie-analysis of the Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) electrical resistivity logs under consideration of the regional geological framework of sediment deposition in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, of Korea. Porosity was determined from the LWD bulk density log and core-derived values of grain density. In situ measurements of pore-fluid salinity as well as formation temperature define a background trend for pore-fluid resistivity at each drill site. The LWD data were used to define sets of empirical Archie-constants for different depth-intervals of the logged borehole at all sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2). A clustering of data with distinctly different trend-lines is evident in the cross-plot of porosity and formation factor for all sites drilled during UBGH2. The reason for the clustering is related to the difference between hemipelagic sediments (mostly covering the top ∼100 mbsf) and mass-transport deposits (MTD) and/or the occurrence of biogenic opal. For sites located in the north-eastern portion of the Ulleung Basin a set of individual Archie-parameters for a shallow depth interval (hemipelagic) and a deeper MTD zone was achieved. The deeper zone shows typically higher resistivities for the same range of porosities seen in the upper zone, reflecting a shift in sediment properties. The presence of large amounts of biogenic opal (up to and often over 50% as defined by XRD data) was especially observed at Sites UBGH2-2_1 and UBGH2-2_2 (as well as UBGH1-9 from a previous drilling expedition in 2007). The boundary between these two zones can also easily be identified in gamma-ray logs, which also show unusually low readings in the opal-rich interval. Only by incorporating different Archie-parameters for the different zones a reasonable estimate of gas hydrate saturation was achieved that also matches results from other techniques such as pore-fluid freshening

  16. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  17. Management of neonatal sepsis at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam: diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein and newborn scale of sepsis and antimicrobial resistance pattern of etiological bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkony, Martha Franklin; Mizinduko, Mucho Michael; Massawe, Augustine; Matee, Mecky

    2014-12-05

    We determined the accuracy of Rubarth's newborn scale of sepsis and C- reactive protein in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and assessed antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of etiological bacteria. This cross sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between July 2012 and March 2013. Neonates suspected to have sepsis underwent physical examination using Rubarth's newborn scale of sepsis (RNSOS). Blood was taken for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing, full blood picture and C - reactive protein (CRP) performed 12 hours apart. The efficacy of RNSOS and serial CRP was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as well as likelihood ratios (LHR) with blood culture result used as a gold standard. Out of 208 blood samples, 19.2% had a positive blood culture. Single CRP had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 70.9% respectively, while RNSOS had sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 79.7%. Serial CRP had sensitivity of 69.0% and specificity of 92.9%. Combination of CRP and RNSOS increased sensitivity to 95.6% and specificity of 56.4%. Combination of two CRP and RNSOS decreased sensitivity to 89.1% but increased specificity to 74%. ROC for CRP was 0.86; and for RNSOS was 0.81. For CRP the LHR for positive test was 3 while for negative test was 0.18, while for RNSOS the corresponding values were 3.24 and for negative test was 0.43. Isolated bacteria were Klebsiella spp 14 (35%), Escherichia coli 12 (22.5%), Coagulase negative staphlococci 9 (30%), Staphylococcus aureus 4 (10%), and Pseudomonas spp 1 (2.5%). The overall resistance to the WHO recommended first line antibiotics was 100%, 92% and 42% for cloxacillin, ampicillin and gentamicin, respectively. For the second line drugs resistance was 45%, 40%, and 7% for ceftriaxone, vancomycin and amikacin respectively. Single CRP in combination with RNSOS can be used for rapid

  18. Investigation on impact resistance of steel plate reinforced concrete barriers against aircraft impact. Pt.2: Simulation analysis of scale model impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun Mizuno; Norihide Koshika; Hiroshi Morikawa; Kentaro Wakimoto; Ryusuke Fukuda

    2005-01-01

    Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure is one in which the rebars of conventional reinforced concrete (RC) structures are replaced with external steel plates attached to inner concrete with headed studs. SC structures are considered to be more effective than RC structures against aircraft impact, so their application to outer walls and roofs of risk-sensitive structures such as nuclear-related structures is expected to mitigate damage to critical components. The objective of this study was to investigate the fracture behavior and perforation thickness of SC panels against aircraft impact through impact tests and simulation analyses. Objectives of this paper are to analytically investigate the protection performance of SC panels against aircraft model impact through simulation analyses of 1/7.5 scale aircraft model impact tests presented in Part 1 of this study using a discrete element method (DEM), and to examine the applicability and validity of the DEM. Simulation analyses by a finite element method (FEM) were also performed to evaluate its applicability. The fracture process and damage to the SC test panels as well as the aircraft models are closely simulated by the discrete element analyses. The various impact responses and failure mechanisms, such as deceleration curves of projectile, velocity of debris from rear face and deformation mode of SC panels, are also simulated closely by the DEM analyses. The results of analyses confirm the shock-proof performance of SC panels against aircraft impact, and the applicability and validity of DEM for evaluating the complex phenomena of an aircraft impact against an SC panel. The finite element analysis closely simulates the deformation of the SC test panel and strains of rear steel plate where the global bending deformation mode is dominant. (authors)

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can prevent and manage antimicrobial resistance. It is collaborating with partners to strengthen the evidence base and ... on the global action plan. WHO has been leading multiple initiatives to address antimicrobial resistance: World Antibiotic ...

  1. Antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Frieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is a challenge that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance patterns in Gram-positive and -negative bacteria are difficult to treat and may even be untreatable with conventional antibiotics. There is currently a shortage of effective therapies, lack of successful prevention measures, and only a few new antibiotics, which require development of novel treatment options and alternative antimicrobial therapies. Biofilms are involved in multidrug resistance and can present challenges for infection control. Virulence, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile infection, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and control in the Emergency Department are also discussed. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Biofilms, Infections, Public health, Emergency Department

  2. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  3. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    . Glucuronides were found at equal levels in both parental and resistant colon cancer cell lines for epirubicin and to a lesser extent for SN-38 and mitoxantrone. Low levels of glucuronidation could also be detected in the resistant breast cancer cells. These results were confirmed by analysis of the UGT1A...

  4. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...... of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I...... to rationally design drug combinations that limit the evolution of antibiotic resistance due to counteracting evolutionary trajectories. My results highlight that an in-depth knowledge about the genetic responses to the individual antimicrobial compounds enables the prediction of responses to drug combinations...

  6. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past two decades due to the increase in immunocompromised and elderly patients, increasing use of invasive indwelling ... aureus developing resistance to vancomycin, a very powerful antibiotic prescribed for the most intractable bacterial infections. In ...

  8. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug-resistance testing is also recommended for all pregnant women with HIV before starting HIV medicines and also in some pregnant women already taking HIV medicines. Pregnant women will work with their health ...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  10. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Huang, Qi-Fang; Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-06-15

    The publication of the first non-randomised proof-of-concept trial of renal denervation as a treatment modality in treatment-resistant hypertension set the stage for a search for novel devices with the expectation that technology would reduce the burden of hypertension by reducing or eliminating the costly and lifelong use of blood pressure lowering medications. As we demonstrate in this review, this idea so attractive to manufacturers and invasive cardiologists and radiologists overlooked decades of careful pathophysiological research in a disease, which still remains enigmatic but remains the major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide. To make our point, we first reviewed the prevalence and risks associated with treatment-resistant hypertension. Next, we highlighted the key points required for the diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension, including the recording of the ambulatory blood pressure and the assessment of adherence to medication. Finally, we summarised new insights in the management of treatment-resistant hypertension by medication and devices and in the future research. Throughout our review, we focused on new evidence became available since 2013. Our conclusion is that optimising medical treatment based on simple algorithms remains the state of the art in treatment-resistant hypertension.

  11. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  12. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  13. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  14. Scale Pretesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matt C.

    2018-01-01

    Scale pretests analyze the suitability of individual scale items for further analysis, whether through judging their face validity, wording concerns, and/or other aspects. The current article reviews scale pretests, separated by qualitative and quantitative methods, in order to identify the differences, similarities, and even existence of the…

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  16. Normal mode analysis for linear resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, W.; Lerbinger, K.; Gruber, R.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1984-10-01

    The compressible, resistive MHD equations are linearized around an equilibrium with cylindrical symmetry and solved numerically as a complex eigenvalue problem. This normal mode code allows to solve for very small resistivity eta proportional 10 -10 . The scaling of growthrates and layer width agrees very well with analytical theory. Especially, both the influence of current and pressure on the instabilities is studied in detail; the effect of resistivity on the ideally unstable internal kink is analyzed. (orig.)

  17. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant; Chad S. Boyd; Steven B. Campbell; Shawn Espinosa; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth E. Mayer; Amarina Wuenschel

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2...

  18. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Steve Campbell; John Carlson; Thomas J. Christiansen; Karen J. Clause; Jonathan B. Dinkins; Kevin E. Doherty; Kathleen A. Griffin; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth F. Henke; Jacob D. Hennig; Laurie L. Kurth; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mary Manning; Kenneth E. Mayer; Brian A. Mealor; Clinton McCarthy; Marco A. Perea; David A. Pyke

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  20. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  1. Causes and preventive management of scale formation in oilfield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... removal of at least one scaling component from the system, pH reduction, choosing a surface that resists scale adhesion, application of physical fields example magnetic or electrostatic, the use of scale inhibitors and proactive application of scale prediction models or soft wares. Keywords: Scale formation, oilfield systems ...

  2. Maslowian Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  3. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...... to weld by traditional spot welding operations. Such joining processes are, however, not simple to develop due to the large number of parameters involved. Development has traditionally been carried out by large experimental investigations, but the development of a numerical programme system has changed...... this enabling prediction of the welding performance in details. The paper describes the programme in short and gives examples on industrial applications. Finally investigations of causes for failure in a complex industrial joint of two dissimilar metals are carried out combining numerical modelling...

  4. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    hygiene, and possibly vaccination and exercise, may be effective. Also, a large range of complementary and alternative medicines (e.g. zinc, vitamin C and probiotics) are proposed for preventing and treating ARIs, but evidence for efficacy is scarce. General practitioners' (GPs) attitudes towards...... wrong. Shared decision making might be a solution, as it enables clinician and patient to participate jointly in making a health decision, having discussed the options together with the evidence for their harms as well as benefits. Furthermore, GPs' diagnostic uncertainty - often leading...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....

  5. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of what has been referred to as the European refugee crisis. It further reflects upon what it means to be a Danish citizen facing the dilemma of law-abiding conduct versus human decency, in line with what Foucault (1983) referred to as ‘ethical self-formation’. This is illustrated through a case study...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...

  6. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    standardized mean differences (SMD) or mean differences (MD) or risk ratios or Peto odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where two or more studies provided data for an outcome, we carried out a meta-analysis. The literature search yielded 1865 citations with five studies meeting the selection criteria. One of the studies that had three arms contributed data for two comparisons. In the included studies, there were 219 women participants with fibromyalgia, 95 of whom were assigned to resistance training programs. Three randomized trials compared 16 to 21 weeks of moderate- to high-intensity resistance training versus a control group. Two studies compared eight weeks of progressive resistance training (intensity as tolerated) using free weights or body weight resistance exercise versus aerobic training (ie, progressive treadmill walking, indoor and outdoor walking), and one study compared 12 weeks of low-intensity resistance training using hand weights (1 to 3 lbs (0.45 to 1.36 kg)) and elastic tubing versus flexibility exercise (static stretches to major muscle groups).Statistically significant differences (MD; 95% CI) favoring the resistance training interventions over control group(s) were found in multidimensional function (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total decreased 16.75 units on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -23.31 to -10.19), self reported physical function (-6.29 units on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -10.45 to -2.13), pain (-3.3 cm on a 10-cm scale; 95% CI -6.35 to -0.26), tenderness (-1.84 out of 18 tender points; 95% CI -2.6 to -1.08), and muscle strength (27.32 kg force on bilateral concentric leg extension; 95% CI 18.28 to 36.36).Differences between the resistance training group(s) and the aerobic training groups were not statistically significant for multidimensional function (5.48 on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -0.92 to 11.88), self reported physical function (-1.48 units on a 100-point scale; 95% CI -6.69 to 3.74) or tenderness (SMD -0.13; 95% CI -0

  7. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, N.; Termeer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  8. Development of a Midscale Test for Flame Resistant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin, which provides both radiant and convective heat...TEST METHODS FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS TORCHES SIMULATION TEST EQUIPMENT FLAME RESISTANT CLOTHING PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING... fabric during a fire , and even after the fire has been extinguished. The best known full scale transmitted heat flux test is the "ASTM F1930

  9. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales

  10. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  11. Add-on treatment with intermediate-acting insulin versus sliding-scale insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance during cyclic glucocorticoid-containing antineoplastic chemotherapy: a randomized crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, M. C.; de Maar, J. S.; Steenbruggen, T. G.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Vriesendorp, T. M.; Gerdes, V. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of intermediate-acting insulin (IMI) titrated on body weight and glucocorticoid dose with that of short-acting sliding-scale insulin (SSI) in patients on recurrent high-dose glucocorticoid-containing chemotherapy. We enrolled 26

  12. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  13. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  14. Small-scale field evaluation of push-pull system against early- and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes in an area of high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold S. Mmbando

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite high coverage of indoor interventions like insecticide-treated nets, mosquito-borne infections persist, partly because of outdoor-biting, early-biting and insecticide-resistant vectors. Push-pull systems, where mosquitoes are repelled from humans and attracted to nearby lethal targets, may constitute effective complementary interventions. Methods: A partially randomized cross-over design was used to test efficacy of push-pull in four experimental huts and four local houses, in an area with high pyrethroid resistance in Tanzania. The push-pull system consisted of 1.1% or 2.2% w/v transfluthrin repellent dispensers and an outdoor lure-and-kill device (odour-baited mosquito landing box. Matching controls were set up without push-pull. Adult male volunteers collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them outdoors, but collections were also done indoors using exit traps in experimental huts and by volunteers in the local houses. The collections were done hourly (1830hrs-0730hrs and mosquito catches compared between push-pull and controls. An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus s.l. were assessed by PCR to identify sibling species, and ELISA to detect Plasmodium falciparum and blood meal sources. Results: Push-pull in experimental huts reduced outdoor-biting for An. arabiensis and Mansonia species by 30% and 41.5% respectively. However, the reductions were marginal and insignificant for An. funestus (12.2%; p>0.05 and Culex (5%; p>0.05. Highest protection against all species occurred before 2200hrs. There was no significant difference in number of mosquitoes inside exit traps in huts with or without push-pull. In local households, push-pull significantly reduced indoor and outdoor-biting of An. arabiensis by 48% and 25% respectively, but had no effect on other species. Conclusion: This push-pull system offered modest protection against outdoor-biting An. arabiensis, without increasing indoor mosquito densities. Additional experimentation

  15. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 2. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of rock aggregates ... It was seen that correlation coefficients were increased for the rock classes. In addition ...

  16. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  18. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacteria Phasing Out Certain Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: ...

  19. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Flemming, Hans Curt

    2013-01-01

    resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  1. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  3. Organic ice resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Electron-beam lithography (EBL) is the backbone technology for patterning nanostructures and manufacturing nanodevices. It involves processing and handling synthetic resins in several steps, each requiring optimization and dedicated instrumentation in cleanroom environments. Here, we show...... that simple organic molecules, e.g. alcohols, condensed to form thin-films at low temperature demonstrate resist-like capabilities for EBL applications and beyond. The entire lithographic process takes place in a single instrument, and avoids exposing chemicals to the user and the need of cleanrooms. Unlike...... EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...

  4. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  5. KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.; )

    2001-01-01

    A correct version of the KNO scaling of multiplicity distributions is discussed in detail. Some assertions on KNO-scaling violation based on the misinterpretation of experimental data behavior are analyzed. An accurate comparison with experiment is presented for the distributions of negative particles in e + e - annihilation at √S = 3 - 161 GeV, in inelastic pp interactions at √S = 2.4 - 62 GeV and in nucleus-nucleus interactions at p lab = 4.5 - 520 GeV/c per nucleon. The p-bar p data at √S 546 GeV are considered [ru

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  9. Current scaling of plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiuma, C.; Herold, H.; Kaeppeler, H.J.; Shakhatre, M.; Auluck, S.K.H.

    1990-03-01

    In continuation of the work by G. Decker et al. on current and neutron yield scaling of plasma focus devices an analytical solution for the circuit equation (with resistance R = 0) in the compression phase was derived. Together with the solution for the rundown phase from G. Decker et al, which was extended for finite resistance (R ≠ 0), there follows an analytical scaling theory for maximum and pinch currents. At the same time there exists the possibility to discuss the influence of finite resistance on current variation and scaling parameters. The model solutions were checked out by numerical integrations of the current equation. While at the beginning of the rundown phase the ohmic resistance cannot be neglected (the magnitude R/L plays an important role), its influence at the end of the rundown phase and in the compression phase is negligible. The theoretically determined values are compared with the results of numerous probe measurements. (orig.)

  10. Scaling satan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  11. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  12. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  13. Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Jardin, S.C.; Lowe, L.L.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Although high-temperature plasmas in laboratory magnetic fusion confinements are sufficiently collisionless that formal fluid closures are difficult to attain, the resistive MHD model has proven, by comparison with experimental data, to be useful for describing the large scale dynamics of magnetized plasmas. Resistive MHD model consists of Faraday's law for the evolution of the magnetic field and Navier-Stokes equation for the plasma flow. These equations are closed by the Ohm's law and an equation of state for the plasma

  14. Resistive instabilities in general toroidal plasma configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Greene, J.M.; Johnson, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Previous work by Johnson and Greene on resistive instabilities is extended to finite-pressure configurations. The Mercier criterion for the stability of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode is rederived, the generalization of the earlier stability criterion for the resistive interchange mode is obtained, and a relation between the two is noted. Conditions for tearing mode instability are recovered with the growth rate scaling with the resistivity in a more complicated manner than eta 3 / 5 . Nyquist techniques are used to show that favorable average curvature can convert the tearing mode into an overstable mode and can often stabilize it

  15. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  16. Tuning resistance states by thickness control in an electroforming-free nanometallic complementary resistance random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Lee, Jongho; Chen, I.-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tuning low resistance state is crucial for resistance random access memory (RRAM) that aims to achieve optimal read margin and design flexibility. By back-to-back stacking two nanometallic bipolar RRAMs with different thickness into a complementary structure, we have found that its low resistance can be reliably tuned over several orders of magnitude. Such high tunability originates from the exponential thickness dependence of the high resistance state of nanometallic RRAM, in which electron wave localization in a random network gives rise to the unique scaling behavior. The complementary nanometallic RRAM provides electroforming-free, multi-resistance-state, sub-100 ns switching capability with advantageous characteristics for memory arrays.

  17. Tuning resistance states by thickness control in an electroforming-free nanometallic complementary resistance random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Lee, Jongho; Chen, I-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tuning low resistance state is crucial for resistance random access memory (RRAM) that aims to achieve optimal read margin and design flexibility. By back-to-back stacking two nanometallic bipolar RRAMs with different thickness into a complementary structure, we have found that its low resistance can be reliably tuned over several orders of magnitude. Such high tunability originates from the exponential thickness dependence of the high resistance state of nanometallic RRAM, in which electron wave localization in a random network gives rise to the unique scaling behavior. The complementary nanometallic RRAM provides electroforming-free, multi-resistance-state, sub-100 ns switching capability with advantageous characteristics for memory arrays

  18. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  19. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  1. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  2. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Insulin Resistance & Prediabetes Insulin resistance and prediabetes occur when your body ... will stay in the healthy range. What is prediabetes? Prediabetes means your blood glucose levels are higher ...

  3. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Go to Information for Researchers ► Credit: ... and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, ...

  4. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... development of new agents with potential clinical utility for treating resistant ... data on the emergence of resistance among Thai women given zidovudine ... had achieved full virological suppression (viral load. < 50 copies/ml).

  5. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...... site, but probably efflux might also play a role. The resistance is still rare in surveillance studies, but outbreaks of resistant clones from hospitals have been observed. So far the main mechanisms of resistance are occurrence of mutations in ribosomal genes or obtaining plasmids with a gene coding...... for a methyltransferase providing resistance. The most obvious way to avoid resistance may be development of derivatives of linezolid overcoming the known resistance mechanisms....

  6. Resisting Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an...

  7. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  8. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  9. Resisting Mind Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  10. Effect of anomalous resistivity on the dynamics of plasma switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsep, A [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Munier, A [Centre d` Etudes Limeil-Vaneton, Villeneuve St. Georges (France)

    1997-12-31

    Some of the conditions for electron MHD are recollected, and it is shown how this leads to anomalous resistivity which may play an important role in the dynamics of POS. It has been shown that not only the order of value of the resistance of the plasma-filled diode but rather basic scalings have to be changed in the regime of essential anomalous resistivity. (author). 11 refs.

  11. Experimental Studies on the Changes in Resistivity and Its Anisotropy Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three measuring lines were arranged on one of free planes of magnetite cuboid samples. Apparent resistivity data were acquired by MIR-2007 resistivity meter when samples were under uniaxial compression of servocontrol YAW-5000F loadingmachine in laboratory. Then we constructed the residual resistivity images using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and plotted the diagrams of apparent resistivity anisotropy coefficient (ARAC λ∗ and the included angle α between the major axis of apparent resistivity anisotropy ellipse and the axis of load with pressure and effective depth. Our results show that with increasing pressure, resistivity and the decreased (D region and increased (I region resistivity regions have complex behaviors, but when pressure is higher than a certain value, the average resistivity decrease and the area of D region expand gradually in all time with the increase of pressure, which may be significant to the monitoring and prediction of earthquake, volcanic activities, and large-scale geologic motions. The effects of pressure on λ∗ and α are not very outstanding for dry magnetite samples.

  12. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars for resistance to colletotrichum falcatum went

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, F.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Screening for resistance against Colletotrichum falcatum was performed In 96 test lines of sugarcane by artificially inoculation method under field conditions for two consecutive years (1998-99). Out of these 96 cultivars, 43 were graded intermediately resistant and 53 intermediately susceptible on the basis of 0-9 scale. (author)

  13. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin for Treating Treatment-Resistant Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen M

    2014-01-01

    improves mood and memory in treatment-resistant depression. Forty treatment-resistant depressed unipolar patients with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) score ≥ 17 were randomized to eight weekly EPO (Eprex; 40,000 IU) or saline infusions in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel...

  14. The resistive tearing instability for generalized resistivity models: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, G.T.; Otto, A.

    1991-01-01

    The dispersion relation for the resistive tearing mode is investigated with a general form of the resistivity that allows for evaluating the dependence of the mode on the anomalous dissipation caused by the lower-hybrid-drift turbulence and the ion-acoustic turbulence. The coupling of the plasma dynamic and radiative processes due to a temperature-dependent Spitzer resistivity are also discussed. The dispersion relation is solved numerically for two-dimensional equilibrium configurations with applications to the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar corona. In the case of the parameter regimes of the magnetopause and the solar corona, growth rates that result in realistic time scales for the respective dynamic processes as flux transfer events and solar flares were found. Moreover, the influence of a nonvanishing component of the magnetic field normal to the current sheet on the dispersion relation is examined. The normal field component leads to overstable modes and the growth rate of the pure tearing mode is not altered, whereas the radiative tearing mode is damped effectively

  15. Induced resistance to rust disease in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Amitava; Singh, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable yield reduction in lentil is due to rust caused by Uromyces fabae. So far the sources of resistance to rust are available in the small seeded background. There is a need to develop rust resistant/tolerant bold seeded cultivars. Mutations were induced by gamma rays (10 and 15 kR) for incorporating resistance to rust in K-75(Mallika), a high yielding bold seeded, but rust susceptible cultivar at Pantnagar which is the hot spot for this disease. Dry seeds (300) were irradiated for each treatment. In M 1 generation, individual plants from each treatment were selfed and harvested separately which constituted the M 2 generation. In M 2 individual plant progenies were scored following a rating scale of 1 (Free) to 9(highly susceptible). At 15 kR dose, 8 plants were resistant (score 3.0) and 14 plants were tolerant (score 5.0) to rust, while in control and 10 kR populations, all plants were susceptible or highly susceptible having score of 7 or 9, respectively. The M 2 plants segregated in ratio of 1 resistant: 3 susceptible. The progenies of resistant/tolerant M 2 plants were bred true in the M 3 generation suggesting that the resistance to rust is controlled by one recessive gene. (author)

  16. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  17. Studies on stem and leaf rust resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Stem and leaf rust resistance was successfully transferred from Agropyron to wheat by radiation-induced translocations. Mutation induction subsequently proved to be useful in separating an undesired gene for yellow pigment from the resistance. The homoeologous pairing mutant obtained by Sears was also used successfully in obtaining transfers through crossing-over between wheat and Agropyron chromosomes. Another experimental series succeeded in accumulating minor genes for rust resistance, after eliminating major genes for specific resistance. The resistance is polygenic and widely effective although not general. It is recessively inherited, and hoped to be more durable than major gene resistance used so far in the Canadian prairies. An attempt to induce mutations for leaf rust resistance in a small-scale experiment with leading Canadian wheat varieties Manitou and Neepawa using gamma rays and EMS has not been successful. (author)

  18. The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Denholm, Ian; Williamson, Martin S; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    The first neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, was launched in 1991. Today this class of insecticides comprises at least seven major compounds with a market share of more than 25% of total global insecticide sales. Neonicotinoid insecticides are highly selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and provide farmers with invaluable, highly effective tools against some of the world's most destructive crop pests. These include sucking pests such as aphids, whiteflies, and planthoppers, and also some coleopteran, dipteran and lepidopteran species. Although many insect species are still successfully controlled by neonicotinoids, their popularity has imposed a mounting selection pressure for resistance, and in several species resistance has now reached levels that compromise the efficacy of these insecticides. Research to understand the molecular basis of neonicotinoid resistance has revealed both target-site and metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance. For target-site resistance, field-evolved mutations have only been characterized in two aphid species. Metabolic resistance appears much more common, with the enhanced expression of one or more cytochrome P450s frequently reported in resistant strains. Despite the current scale of resistance, neonicotinoids remain a major component of many pest control programmes, and resistance management strategies, based on mode of action rotation, are of crucial importance in preventing resistance becoming more widespread. In this review we summarize the current status of neonicotinoid resistance, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved, and the implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Earthquake resistance test of full-scale glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Ohtani, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kozeki, M.; Ide, T.; Sakuno, K.

    1989-01-01

    A glove box used at nuclear facilities must confine radioactive materials. High airtightness and negative internal pressure are used to prevent leaks. The allowable leakage rate of air is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is kept at - 30 mm H 2 O in normal operation. The glove box structural strength and its confinement reliability during an earthquake are major concerns. The verification of aseismic analysis methods and assumptions for a glove box are thus of great importance. Data on the dynamic behavior of giant glove boxes was recently obtained in large shaker experiments. This paper describes these experimental results and the appropriateness of aseismic analysis methods used in current design

  20. Compiling a national resistivity atlas of Denmark based on airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Adrian; Møller, Ingelise; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2016-01-01

    in the large-scale resistivity-lithology relations, reflecting geological details such as available source material for tills. The resistivity maps also reveal a clear ambiguity in the resistivity values for different lithologies. The Resistivity Atlas is highly useful when geophysical data are to be used...

  1. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  2. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  3. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B 2 /2μ 0 , which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed

  4. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature....... The contributors deal with strategies for handling dissent by individuals or groups, specifically dissent through resistance. Resistance can be a location of intense personal, interpersonal and cultural negotiation, and that is the primary reason for interest in this phenomenon. Ordinary life events contain...

  5. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed......-cluster. Among all patients with isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistance, 77.0% had clustered strains. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, although drug resistance among untreated Danes was close to the rate estimated in good national programmes, close monitoring is needed in future years, as active transmission...

  6. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  7. Observations of neoclassical and anomalous resistivity in toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzweiler, J.F.; Brouchous, D.A.

    1980-03-01

    Plasma resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field have been made on the .Wisconsin supported octupole and the Wisconsin levitated octupole. Plasmas ranged in density from 10 8 cm -3 to 10 12 cm -3 and varied from highly collisionless to highly collisional. The measured resistivity was found to agree with neoclassical resistivity theory in the collisional and transition regimes. Highly collisionless plasmas were found to have anomalously high resistivity which obeyed the T/sub e//sup 1/2//n/sub e/ scaling of the transition regime

  8. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast ( 5 counts/mm 2 . A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (≥10 10 Ω·cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm 2 , leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases

  9. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search ... & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  11. Resistance and conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a temporary

  12. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  15. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings ... Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  17. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  18. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  19. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  20. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  1. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  2. Metrology at the nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.; Cumpson, P.; Bailey, M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in nano technology relies on ever more accurate measurements of quantities such as distance, force and current industry has long depended on accurate measurement. In the 19th century, for example, the performance of steam engines was seriously limited by inaccurately made components, a situation that was transformed by Henry Maudsley's screw micrometer calliper. And early in the 20th century, the development of telegraphy relied on improved standards of electrical resistance. Before this, each country had its own standards and cross border communication was difficult. The same is true today of nano technology if it is to be fully exploited by industry. Principles of measurement that work well at the macroscopic level often become completely unworkable at the nano metre scale - about 100 nm and below. Imaging, for example, is not possible on this scale using optical microscopes, and it is virtually impossible to weigh a nano metre-scale object with any accuracy. In addition to needing more accurate measurements, nano technology also often requires a greater variety of measurements than conventional technology. For example, standard techniques used to make microchips generally need accurate length measurements, but the manufacture of electronics at the molecular scale requires magnetic, electrical, mechanical and chemical measurements as well. (U.K.)

  3. The Phenomenology of Small-Scale Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Antonia, R. A.

    I have sometimes thought that what makes a man's work classic is often just this multiplicity [of interpretations], which invites and at the same time resists our craving for a clear understanding. Wright (1982, p. 34), on Wittgenstein's philosophy Small-scale turbulence has been an area of especially active research in the recent past, and several useful research directions have been pursued. Here, we selectively review this work. The emphasis is on scaling phenomenology and kinematics of small-scale structure. After providing a brief introduction to the classical notions of universality due to Kolmogorov and others, we survey the existing work on intermittency, refined similarity hypotheses, anomalous scaling exponents, derivative statistics, intermittency models, and the structure and kinematics of small-scale structure - the latter aspect coming largely from the direct numerical simulation of homogeneous turbulence in a periodic box.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance and the Biology of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2016-12-01

    Beginning in the 1940s, mass production of antibiotics involved the industrial-scale growth of microorganisms to harvest their metabolic products. Unfortunately, the use of antibiotics selects for resistance at answering scale. The turn to the study of antibiotic resistance in microbiology and medicine is examined, focusing on the realization that individual therapies targeted at single pathogens in individual bodies are environmental events affecting bacterial evolution far beyond bodies. In turning to biological manifestations of antibiotic use, sciences fathom material outcomes of their own previous concepts. Archival work with stored soil and clinical samples produces a record described here as 'the biology of history': the physical registration of human history in bacterial life. This account thus foregrounds the importance of understanding both the materiality of history and the historicity of matter in theories and concepts of life today.

  5. Underpinning sustainable vector control through informed insecticide resistance management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K Thomsen

    Full Text Available There has been rapid scale-up of malaria vector control in the last ten years. Both of the primary control strategies, long-lasting pyrethroid treated nets and indoor residual spraying, rely on the use of a limited number of insecticides. Insecticide resistance, as measured by bioassay, has rapidly increased in prevalence and has come to the forefront as an issue that needs to be addressed to maintain the sustainability of malaria control and the drive to elimination. Zambia's programme reported high levels of resistance to the insecticides it used in 2010, and, as a result, increased its investment in resistance monitoring to support informed resistance management decisions.A country-wide survey on insecticide resistance in Zambian malaria vectors was performed using WHO bioassays to detect resistant phenotypes. Molecular techniques were used to detect target-site mutations and microarray to detect metabolic resistance mechanisms. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was resistant to pyrethroids, DDT and carbamates, with potential organophosphate resistance in one population. The resistant phenotypes were conferred by both target-site and metabolic mechanisms. Anopheles funestus s.s. was largely resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates, with potential resistance to DDT in two locations. The resistant phenotypes were conferred by elevated levels of cytochrome p450s.Currently, the Zambia National Malaria Control Centre is using these results to inform their vector control strategy. The methods employed here can serve as a template to all malaria-endemic countries striving to create a sustainable insecticide resistance management plan.

  6. Bi-stability resistant to fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2017-12-01

    We study a simple micro-mechanical device that does not lose its snap-through behavior in an environment dominated by fluctuations. The main idea is to have several degrees of freedom that can cooperatively resist the de-synchronizing effect of random perturbations. As an inspiration we use the power stroke machinery of skeletal muscles, which ensures at sub-micron scales and finite temperatures a swift recovery of an abruptly applied slack. In addition to hypersensitive response at finite temperatures, our prototypical Brownian snap spring also exhibits criticality at special values of parameters which is another potentially interesting property for micro-scale engineering applications.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Clopidogrel resistance Clopidogrel resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug clopidogrel ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin resistance Warfarin resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have ...

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  10. Resistive theory of bunch lengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Messerschmid, E.

    1977-01-01

    A new theory of bunch lengthening in electron storage rings is proposed. The equilibrium bunch length is that length which stabilizes the bunch against the onset of ''fast'' resistive instability, caused by the combination of many high frequency resonators such as vacuum flanges. The heat dissipated in these impedance sources follows immediately from the bunch length. It is found that the anomalous bunch length is determined by a scaling parameter g = (hVcos phi/sub s/)/I. Data taken in SPEAR I and II, data in which g extends in value by more than three orders of magnitude, can be fit with an appropriate choice of high frequency, large width coupling impedance. The impedance functions for SPEAR I and II are taken to be the same, a reflection of the fact that the high frequency sources are chamber discontinuities rather than structures connected with the rf systems. A parameter search leads to an impedance characterized by a central frequency approximately 5 GHz, a width (FWHM) approximately 1.8 GHz and a peak impedance approximately 0.2 M OMEGA. The expected and observed higher mode resistance (i.e., heat dissipated) for SPEAR are compared and found to be in agreement. Predictions are given for PEP and PETRA

  11. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Schut, Marc; Muilerman, Sander; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production involves the scaling of agricultural innovations such as disease-resistant and drought-tolerant maize varieties, zero-tillage techniques, permaculture cultivation practices based on perennial crops and automated milking systems. Scaling agricultural innovations should take

  12. Scaling Up ITO-free solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galagan, Yulia; Coenen, Erica W. C.; Zimmermann, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm...... resistances. The performance of ITO-free organic solar cells with different dimensions and different electrode resistances are evaluated for different light intensities. The current generation and electric potential distribution are found to not be uniformly distributed in large-area devices at simulated 1...

  13. FRC collisionless resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.

    1990-01-01

    Ions in the field reversed configuration (FRC) exhibit stochastic orbits due to the field null and the curvature of poloidal field lines. Velocity correlations of these particles decay in a power law fashion t -m where 1 ≤ m ≤ 2. This decay of the single particle correlation function is characteristic of the long tail correlations of strongly chaotic or nonlinear systems found in other problems of statistical physics. This decay of correlations gives rise to a collisionless resistivity that can far exceed the collisional resistivity in an FRC plasma. The finite correlation τ c of a single particle limits the acceleration in the electric field producing the finite resistivity. Maxwellian test particle distributions are integrated to find the measure of the set of stochastic ions that contribute to the collisionless resistivity. The computed conductivity is proportional to the square root of the characteristic ion gyroradius in both simulation and theory

  14. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 6, 2018 HIV Vaccine Elicits Antibodies in Animals that Neutralize Dozens of HIV Strains , June 4, 2018 ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter share ...

  15. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chromosomes and plasmids. Transposons often carry genes specifying antimicrobial resistance. Virus An extremely small infective agent, visible only with an electron microscope. Viruses can cause disease in humans, animals and plants. Viruses consist of a protein coat ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  18. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomize...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  1. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  2. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Gonorrhea Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Low Resolution ...

  3. Cotrimoxazole Resistant Chancroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlender Singh

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Four male young adults, after contact with prostitutes, developed clinically typical chancroid which was resistant to cotrimoxazole alone and also in combination with tetracycline. With chloramphenicol, the response was quick and complete with no untoward side effects.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  6. MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    health, with the focus of DOTS programmes on cure of infectious TB patients and prevention of drug resistance. ... Despite highly effective drugs and disease control strategies, morbidity and mortality .... notification and registration system.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One of the major obstacles to understanding the issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888- ...

  8. Adiabatic and isothermal resistivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The force-balance method is used to calculate the isothermal resistivity to first order in the electric field. To lowest order in the impurity potential, the isothermal resistivity disagrees with the adiabatic results of the Kubo formula and the Boltzmann equation. However, an expansion of the isothermal resistivity in powers of the impurity potential is divergent, with two sets of divergent terms. The first set arises from the density matrix of the relative electron-phonon system. The second set arises from the explicit dependence of the density matrix on the electric field, which was ignored by force-balance calculations. These divergent contributions are calculated inductively, by applying a recursion relation for the Green's functions. Using the λ 2 t→∞ limit of van Hove, I show that the resummation of these divergent terms yields the same result for the resistivity as the adiabatic calculations, in direct analogy with the work of Argyres and Sigel, and Huberman and Chester

  9. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all that ails you. Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. ... Information for Consumers and Health Professionals Information by drug class Antimicrobial Resistance Animal and Veterinary Related Resources Further information ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate ... and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular ...

  12. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  13. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  14. On the negative resistance of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that large amplitudes oscillations can occur in the current flowing through a plasma diode, typically when a constant potential is applied across the device. Burger (1965) suggested via a computer simulation that the oscillation characteristics was a function of the quantities T sub (e) and T sub (i), namely the respective time for an electron and an ion to cross the electric field region inside the diode. On the rapid time scale T sub (e) the self consistent equilibrium configuration, was unstable. Norris (1964) had previously arrived at the same conclusion using analytical arguments. In that work, it was concluded that the instability occurred since the diode acted as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. A positive feedback effect forced the system away from equilibrium. Silevitch (1981) used the Burger mechanism to suggest an explanation for the flickering aurora phenomenon. He extended the Norris argument and showed by a variational method that a plausible analytic model for a double layer (DL) behaved as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. In this present work we re-examine the negative resistance calculation by taking a more detailed account of the constraints which are imposed on the electron distributions that exist in the DL region. Specifically, we shall focus at the high potential side of the DL. (Authors)

  15. Analytical solutions for peak and residual uplift resistance of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Oswell, J.M. [Naviq Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Frost heave can occur on cold pipelines that traverse unfrozen, non permafrost terrain. The stresses experienced by the pipeline are partly a function of the strength of the soil on the non heaving side of the frozen-unfrozen interface. This paper proposed three analytical solutions to estimate the soil uplift resistance by considering the pipeline and soil to act similar to a strip footing, a punching shear failure, and by considering the formation of horizontal crack emanating from the spring line of the pipe. Peak uplift resistance and residual uplift resistance were discussed. Results for full scale pipe and for laboratory scale model pipes were presented, with particular reference to cover depth, temperature and crack width; and limits to residual uplift resistance. It was concluded that the peak uplift resistance and the residual uplift resistance are generally independent and controlled by different factors. The peak resistance is related directly to pipe diameter, and less strongly dependent on springline depth. It is also strongly dependent on soil temperature. However, the residual uplift resistance is strongly dependent on burial depth, weakly dependent on pipe displacement rate and also on soil temperature. 15 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  17. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Water content estimated from point scale to plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Binley, A. M.; Demir, G.; Abgarmi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture controls the portioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff. Here we investigate measurements of soil moisture using a range of techniques spanning different spatial scales. In order to understand soil water content in a test basin, 512 km2 in area, in the south of Turkey, a Cosmic Ray CRS200B soil moisture probe was installed at elevation of 1459 m and an ML3 ThetaProbe (CS 616) soil moisture sensor was established at 5cm depth used to get continuous soil moisture. Neutron count measurements were corrected for the changes in atmospheric pressure, atmospheric water vapour and intensity of incoming neutron flux. The calibration of the volumetric soil moisture was performed, from the laboratory analysis, the bulk density varies between 1.719 (g/cm3) -1.390 (g/cm3), and the dominant soil texture is silty clay loam and silt loamThe water content reflectometer was calibrated for soil-specific conditions and soil moisture estimates were also corrected with respect to soil temperature. In order to characterize the subsurface, soil electrical resistivity tomography was used. Wenner and Schlumberger array geometries were used with electrode spacing varied from 1m- 5 m along 40 m and 200 m profiles. From the inversions of ERT data it is apparent that within 50 m distance from the CRS200B, the soil is moderately resistive to a depth of 2m and more conductive at greater depths. At greater distances from the CRS200B, the ERT results indicate more resistive soils. In addition to the ERT surveys, ground penetrating radar surveys using a common mid-point configuration was used with 200MHz antennas. The volumetric soil moisture obtained from GPR appears to overestimate those based on TDR observations. The values obtained from CS616 (at a point scale) and CRS200B (at a mesoscale) are compared with the values obtained at a plot scale. For the field study dates (20-22.06.2017) the volumetric moisture content obtained from CS616 were 25.14%, 25.22% and 25

  19. Scaling of Metabolic Scaling within Physical Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Glazier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Both the slope and elevation of scaling relationships between log metabolic rate and log body size vary taxonomically and in relation to physiological or developmental state, ecological lifestyle and environmental conditions. Here I discuss how the recently proposed metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis (MLBH provides a useful conceptual framework for explaining and predicting much, but not all of this variation. This hypothesis is based on three major assumptions: (1 various processes related to body volume and surface area exert state-dependent effects on the scaling slope for metabolic rate in relation to body mass; (2 the elevation and slope of metabolic scaling relationships are linked; and (3 both intrinsic (anatomical, biochemical and physiological and extrinsic (ecological factors can affect metabolic scaling. According to the MLBH, the diversity of metabolic scaling relationships occurs within physical boundary limits related to body volume and surface area. Within these limits, specific metabolic scaling slopes can be predicted from the metabolic level (or scaling elevation of a species or group of species. In essence, metabolic scaling itself scales with metabolic level, which is in turn contingent on various intrinsic and extrinsic conditions operating in physiological or evolutionary time. The MLBH represents a “meta-mechanism” or collection of multiple, specific mechanisms that have contingent, state-dependent effects. As such, the MLBH is Darwinian in approach (the theory of natural selection is also meta-mechanistic, in contrast to currently influential metabolic scaling theory that is Newtonian in approach (i.e., based on unitary deterministic laws. Furthermore, the MLBH can be viewed as part of a more general theory that includes other mechanisms that may also affect metabolic scaling.

  20. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  1. To scale or not to scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    Conventionally, dynamic energy budget (DEB) models operate with animals that have maintenance rates scaling with their body volume, and assimilation rates scaling with body surface area. However, when applying such criteria for the individual in a population level model, the emergent behaviour...

  2. Resistive mode in rotating plasma columns including the hall current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.

    1983-01-01

    A new resistive mode is shown to exist in rotating plasma columns. The mode is localized in the neighbourhood of the radius where the angular velocity of the bulk plasma is equal to minus half the local angular velocity of the ions. This singular point is caused by the Hall term in the generalized Ohm law. The growth rate of the mode scales with eta sup(1/2), where eta is the plasma resistivity. (Author) [pt

  3. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  4. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  5. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isensee, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP) [de

  6. Halo current and resistive wall simulations of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Zheng Linjin; Kotschenreuther, M.; Park, W.; Jardin, S.; Breslau, J.; Pletzer, A.; Paccagnella, R.; Sugiyama, L.; Chu, M.; Chance, M.; Turnbull, A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of ITER relevant problems in resistive MHD concern the effects of a resistive wall: vertical displacement events (VDE), halo currents caused by disruptions, and resistive wall modes. Simulations of these events have been carried out using the M3D code. We have verified the growth rate scaling of VDEs, which is proportional to the wall resistivity. Simulations have been done of disruptions caused by large inversion radius internal kink modes, as well as by nonlinear growth of resistive wall modes. Halo current flowing during the disruption has asymmetries with toroidal peaking factor up to about 3. VDEs have larger growth rates during disruption simulations, which may account for the loss of vertical feedback control during disruptions in experiments. Further simulations have been made of disruptions caused by resistive wall modes in ITER equilibria. For these modes the toroidal peaking factor is close to 1. Resistive wall modes in ITER and reactors have also been investigated utilizing the newly developed AEGIS (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution) linear full MHD code, for realistically shaped, fully toroidal equilibria. The AEGIS code uses an adaptive mesh in the radial direction which allows thin inertial layers to be accurately resolved, such as those responsible for the stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWM) by plasma rotation. Stabilization of resistive wall modes by rotation and wall thickness effects are examined. (author)

  7. Evaluation of proliferation resistance using the INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Park, Joo Hwan; Ko, Won Il; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Kun Mo; Kim, Jin Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA launched the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and developed the INPRO Methodology to provide guidelines and to assess the characteristics of a future innovative nuclear energy system in areas such as safety, economics, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The proliferation resistance area of the INPRO Methodology is reviewed here, and modifications for further improvements are proposed. The evaluation metrics including the evaluation parameters, evaluation scales and acceptance limits are developed for a practical application of the methodology to assess the proliferation resistance. The proliferation resistant characteristics of the DUPIC fuel cycle are assessed by applying the modified INPRO Methodology based on the developed evaluation metrics and acceptance criteria. The evaluation procedure and the metrics can be utilized as a reference for an evaluation of the proliferation resistance of a future innovative nuclear energy system

  8. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K J; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Kim, J K; Lee, S J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  9. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  10. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  11. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  12. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  13. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  14. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  15. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Asia: results from the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance-Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Oyomopito, Rebecca; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Sirisanthana, Thira; Li, Patrick C K; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher K C; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Messerschmidt, Liesl; Law, Matthew G; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2011-04-15

    Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia.

  16. [Resistance risk, cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu-lian; Liu, Jin; Li, Xu-ke; Chi, Jia-jia; Liu, Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the resistance development law and biochemical resistance mechanism of Laodelphax striatellus to buprofezin, spraying rice seedlings was used to continuously screen resistant strains of L. striatellus and dipping rice seedlings was applied to determine the toxicity and cross-resistance of L. striatellus to insecticides. After 32-generation screening with buprofezin, L. striatellus developed 168.49 folds resistance and its reality heritability (h2) was 0.11. If the killing rate was 80%-90%, L. striatellus was expected to develop 10-fold resistance to buprofezin only after 5 to 6 generations breeding. Because the actual reality heritability of field populations was usually lower than that of the resistant strains, the production of field populations increasing with 10-fold resistance would need much longer time. The results of cross-resistance showed that resistant strain had high level cross-resistance with thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, low level cross-resistance with acetamiprid, and no cross-resistance with pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos. The activity of detoxification enzymes of different strains and the syergism of synergist were measured. The results showed that cytochrome P450 monooxygenase played a major role in the resistance of L. striatellus to buprofezin, the esterase played a minor role and the GSH-S-transferase had no effect. Therefore, L. striatellus would have high risk to develop resistance to buprofezin when used in the field and might be delayed by using pymetrozine and chlorpyrifos.

  17. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP Z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reasses properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e., the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable, at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp-up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities of these processes may lead to the compression oscillations around an evolving rather stable equilibrium. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. (orig.)

  18. Shatter resistance in sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langham, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)

  19. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  20. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...

  1. The resistance brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm; Uldam, Julie

    “The Trump-resistance will be commercialized” (Hess, 2017). Paraphrasing political activist and artist Gil Scott-Heron’s famous title seems increasingly apt as one corporation after the other voices sympathy with social protesters and/or dismay at the politics of the White House incumbent. But how...

  2. Corrosion resistant composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanin, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Foundations for corrosion-resistant composite materials design are considered with account of components compatibility. Fibrous and lamellar composites with metal matrix, dispersion-hardened steels and alloys, refractory metal carbides-, borides-, nitrides-, silicides-based composites are described. Cermet compositions and fields of their application, such as protective coatings for operation in agressive media at high temperatures, are presented

  3. Resistive effects in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1985-10-01

    Theoretical studies of the resistive equilibrium and stability of an EXTRAP z-pinch are reported. Extending the previous analysis we reassess properties of the resistive equilibrium in EXTRAP with the emphasis on the time dependence of the latter. We also qualitatively consider the role of resistive instabilities in EXTRAP, showing that the typical timescale of the filamentation of the discharge (i.e. the non-linear development of the tearing instability) is comparable at present, to the discharge duration. On the other hand, we emphasize that this phenomenon may still be consistent with the experimental observation of the Bennet's equilibrium. The processes of the current start-up and ramp up are also analysed for EXTRAP and it is shown that the peculiarities if these processes in EXTRAP may lead to the compression oscillations around and evolving rather stable equilibrium. The frequency of these oscillations is given. Finally, some consequences of the average minimum-B concept for EXTRAP are discussed and it is shown that this issue virtually reduces to the appearance of the negative curvature of the magnetic field at the periphery. The maximum attainable value of β at the periphery of the pinch is obtained, as required by the ballooning stability criterion. The influence of the finite resistivity on the ballooning mode is also estimated. With 4 figures and 21 refs. (Author)

  4. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ...

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  8. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  9. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  10. Atlantic Salmon Scale Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scales are collected annually from smolt trapping operations in Maine as wellas other sampling opportunities (e.g. marine surveys, fishery sampling etc.). Scale...

  11. STRUCTURAL GLITCHES NEAR THE CORES OF RED GIANTS REVEALED BY OSCILLATIONS IN G-MODE PERIOD SPACINGS FROM STELLAR MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P. [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Townsend, R. H. D., E-mail: mcunha@astro.up.pt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    With recent advances in asteroseismology it is now possible to peer into the cores of red giants, potentially providing a way to study processes such as nuclear burning and mixing through their imprint as sharp structural variations—glitches—in the stellar cores. Here we show how such core glitches can affect the oscillations we observe in red giants. We derive an analytical expression describing the expected frequency pattern in the presence of a glitch. This formulation also accounts for the coupling between acoustic and gravity waves. From an extensive set of canonical stellar models we find glitch-induced variation in the period spacing and inertia of non-radial modes during several phases of red giant evolution. Significant changes are seen in the appearance of mode amplitude and frequency patterns in asteroseismic diagrams such as the power spectrum and the échelle diagram. Interestingly, along the red giant branch glitch-induced variation occurs only at the luminosity bump, potentially providing a direct seismic indicator of stars in that particular evolution stage. Similarly, we find the variation at only certain post-helium-ignition evolution stages, namely, in the early phases of helium core burning and at the beginning of helium shell burning, signifying the asymptotic giant branch bump. Based on our results, we note that assuming stars to be glitch-free, while they are not, can result in an incorrect estimate of the period spacing. We further note that including diffusion and mixing beyond classical Schwarzschild could affect the characteristics of the glitches, potentially providing a way to study these physical processes.

  12. The A1g mode in the Hg-1201 phonon spectrum as an indicator of N→S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgij, Ya.

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the structure of and the temperature changes in HgBa 2 CuO 4+y phonon spectra, the electron-phonon coupling constant g has been determined for the first time. It is shown that this compound is a superconductor with strong coupling. A frequency interval around 60.4 MeV in the HgBa 2 CuO 4+y phonon spectrum, which may be classed as a 'soft mode', is revealed. The dominant partial contribution to the density of phonon states in that spectral range is found to be given by O(2) atomic vibrations.

  13. Concepts of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padt, F.J.G.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides some clarity to the scale debate. It bridges a variety of approaches, definitions and jargons used in various disciplines in order to provide common ground for a concept of scale as a basis for scale-sensitive governance of the environment. The chapter introduces the concept of

  14. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side of the transfo......Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side...

  15. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    to Southern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a concurrent decline in virological failure and testing, drug resistance was commonly detected. This suggests a selective approach to resistance testing. The regional differences identified indicate that policy aiming to minimize the emergence of resistance......OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...

  16. Resistance of Bacteria to Biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2018-04-01

    Biocides and formulated biocides are used worldwide for an increasing number of applications despite tightening regulations in Europe and in the United States. One concern is that such intense usage of biocides could lead to increased bacterial resistance to a product and cross-resistance to unrelated antimicrobials including chemotherapeutic antibiotics. Evidence to justify such a concern comes mostly from the use of health care-relevant bacterial isolates, although the number of studies of the resistance characteristics of veterinary isolates to biocides have increased the past few years. One problem remains the definition of "resistance" and how to measure resistance to a biocide. This has yet to be addressed globally, although the measurement of resistance is becoming more pressing, with regulators both in Europe and in the United States demanding that manufacturers provide evidence that their biocidal products will not impact on bacterial resistance. Alongside in vitro evidence of potential antimicrobial cross-resistance following biocide exposure, our understanding of the mechanisms of bacterial resistance and, more recently, our understanding of the effect of biocides to induce a mechanism(s) of resistance in bacteria has improved. This article aims to provide an understanding of the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria following a biocide exposure. The sections provide evidence of the occurrence of bacterial resistance and its mechanisms of action and debate how to measure bacterial resistance to biocides. Examples pertinent to the veterinary field are used where appropriate.

  17. A Complementary Resistive Switch-based Crossbar Array Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Siemon, A.; Menzel, S.; Waser, R.; Linn, E.

    2014-01-01

    Redox-based resistive switching devices (ReRAM) are an emerging class of non-volatile storage elements suited for nanoscale memory applications. In terms of logic operations, ReRAM devices were suggested to be used as programmable interconnects, large-scale look-up tables or for sequential logic operations. However, without additional selector devices these approaches are not suited for use in large scale nanocrossbar memory arrays, which is the preferred architecture for ReRAM devices due to...

  18. Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lipsitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to the next influenza pandemic will likely include extensive use of antiviral drugs (mainly oseltamivir, combined with other transmission-reducing measures. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that some strains of influenza may become resistant to oseltamivir while maintaining infectiousness (fitness. Use of antiviral agents on the scale anticipated for the control of pandemic influenza will create an unprecedented selective pressure for the emergence and spread of these strains. Nonetheless, antiviral resistance has received little attention when evaluating these plans.We designed and analyzed a deterministic compartmental model of the transmission of oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant influenza infections during a pandemic. The model predicts that even if antiviral treatment or prophylaxis leads to the emergence of a transmissible resistant strain in as few as 1 in 50,000 treated persons and 1 in 500,000 prophylaxed persons, widespread use of antivirals may strongly promote the spread of resistant strains at the population level, leading to a prevalence of tens of percent by the end of a pandemic. On the other hand, even in circumstances in which a resistant strain spreads widely, the use of antivirals may significantly delay and/or reduce the total size of the pandemic. If resistant strains carry some fitness cost, then, despite widespread emergence of resistance, antivirals could slow pandemic spread by months or more, and buy time for vaccine development; this delay would be prolonged by nondrug control measures (e.g., social distancing that reduce transmission, or use of a stockpiled suboptimal vaccine. Surprisingly, the model suggests that such nondrug control measures would increase the proportion of the epidemic caused by resistant strains.The benefits of antiviral drug use to control an influenza pandemic may be reduced, although not completely offset, by drug resistance in the virus. Therefore, the risk of resistance

  19. Optimal renormalization scales and commensurate scale relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lu, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations relate observables to observables and thus are independent of theoretical conventions, such as the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme. The physical quantities are related at commensurate scales which satisfy a transitivity rule which ensures that predictions are independent of the choice of an intermediate renormalization scheme. QCD can thus be tested in a new and precise way by checking that the observables track both in their relative normalization and in their commensurate scale dependence. For example, the radiative corrections to the Bjorken sum rule at a given momentum transfer Q can be predicted from measurements of the e+e - annihilation cross section at a corresponding commensurate energy scale √s ∝ Q, thus generalizing Crewther's relation to non-conformal QCD. The coefficients that appear in this perturbative expansion take the form of a simple geometric series and thus have no renormalon divergent behavior. The authors also discuss scale-fixed relations between the threshold corrections to the heavy quark production cross section in e+e - annihilation and the heavy quark coupling α V which is measurable in lattice gauge theory

  20. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple drug resistance isolates causing UTI has seri- ous implications for the empiric therapy against patho- genic isolates and for the possible co-selection of antimicrobial resistant mediated by multi drug resistant plasmids21,22. E. coli from clinical isolates are known to harbour plasmids of different molecular sizes23.

  1. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  2. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  3. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  4. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  5. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  6. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  7. Small scale models equal large scale savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Segroves, R.

    1994-01-01

    A physical scale model of a reactor is a tool which can be used to reduce the time spent by workers in the containment during an outage and thus to reduce the radiation dose and save money. The model can be used for worker orientation, and for planning maintenance, modifications, manpower deployment and outage activities. Examples of the use of models are presented. These were for the La Salle 2 and Dresden 1 and 2 BWRs. In each case cost-effectiveness and exposure reduction due to the use of a scale model is demonstrated. (UK)

  8. Insulin Resistance of Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zeitler, Philip S

    2016-07-01

    Puberty is a time of considerable metabolic and hormonal change. Notably, puberty is associated with a marked decrease in insulin sensitivity, on par with that seen during pregnancy. In otherwise healthy youth, there is a nadir in insulin sensitivity in mid-puberty, and then it recovers at puberty completion. However, there is evidence that insulin resistance (IR) does not resolve in youth who are obese going into puberty and may result in increased cardiometabolic risk. Little is known about the underlying pathophysiology of IR in puberty, and how it might contribute to increased disease risk (e.g., type 2 diabetes). In this review, we have outlined what is known about the IR in puberty in terms of pattern, potential underlying mechanisms and other mediating factors. We also outline other potentially related metabolic changes that occur during puberty, and effects of underlying insulin resistant states (e.g., obesity) on pubertal changes in insulin sensitivity.

  9. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  10. Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaoui, E

    2017-11-01

    The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  12. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  13. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  14. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  16. Resistance and sheet resistance measurements using electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, A.; Pluska, M.; Ratajczak, J.; Szerling, A.; KaPtcki, J.

    2006-01-01

    A method for measurement of spatially uniform or nonuniform resistance in layers and strips, based on electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique, is described. High electron beam currents are used so that the overall resistance of the measurement circuit affects the EBIC signal. During the evaluation, the electron beam is scanned along the measured object, whose load resistance varies with the distance. The variation is compensated by an adjustable resistance within an external circuit. The method has been experimentally deployed for sheet resistance determination of buried regions of lateral confinements in semiconductor laser heterostructures manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy

  17. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  18. Mechanisms of ouabain resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.T. III.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the mechanism of ouabain resistance in two distinct types of transfected cells derived from ouabain-sensitive CV-1 cell parents. The first type of transfectant is the recipient of a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the rodent renal Na,K-ATPase (R-alphal gene); the second type of transfectant is the recipient of the mouse ouabain resistance gene. Measurements of 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K=ATPase activity in R-alphal gene transfectant cells and CV-1 parent cells indicate that the ouabain-resistant phenotype of the transfectants is due to expression of a relatively ouabain-insensitive Na,K=ATPase. CV-1 parent cells express one component of ouabain sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and one component of ouabain-sensitive Na, K-ATPase activity. R-alpha 1 gene transfectants express the parental forms of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity, but in addition express new,relatively ouabain-insensitive forms of 86 Rb + uptake activity and Na,K-ATPase activity

  19. Radiation resistant lining material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Koki; Okagawa, Seigo; Tamaki, Hidehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Rigidity, viscoelasticity, flexibility, radiation resistance, leaching resistance, rust-proofness, endurance, etc. are required for the lining materials to wall surfaces and floor surfaces of facilities used under the effect of radiation rays and for the inner surface protection of vessels for radioactive wastes. The present invention provides radiation resistant lining material capable of satisfying such various requirements in a well-balanced manner. That is, the material contains (A) 100 parts by weight of rapidly curing cement, (B) 50 to 300 % by weight of aggregate, and (C) 80 to 120 parts by weight of polymer emulsion. As the specific example, the ingredient (A) is commercially available under the trade name of Jet Cement. The aggregate of the ingredient (B) has preferably from about 0.6 to 0.2 mm of size and is made of material, preferably, silicon or iron grains. As the ingredient (C), acrylic resin emulsion is preferred. As a result of example, these ingredient constitutions can satisfy each of the required performance described above. (I.S.)

  20. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  1. Study on film resistivity of Energy Conversion Components for MEMS Initiating Explosive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yulong; Chu, Enyi; Yin, Ming; Li, Hui; Wang, Kexuan

    2018-03-01

    Resistivity of Plane-film Energy Conversion Components is a key parameter to influence its resistance and explosive performance, and also it has important relations with the preparation of thin film technology, scale, structure and etc. In order to improve the design of Energy Conversion Components for MEMS Initiating Explosive Device, and reduce the design deviation of Energy Conversion Components in microscale, guarantee the design resistance and ignition performance of MEMS Initiating Explosive Device, this paper theoretically analyzed the influence factors of film resistivity in microscale, through the preparation of Al film and Ni-Cr film at different thickness with micro/nano, then obtain the film resistivity parameter of the typical metal under different thickness, and reveals the effect rule of the scale to the resistivity in microscale, at the same time we obtain the corresponding inflection point data.

  2. Heat resistant protective hand covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A heat-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber is described. The outer surface of the shell is coated with a fire-resistant elastomer and liner. Generally conforming and secured to the shell and disposed inwardly of the shell, the liner is made of a felt fabric of temperature-resistant aromatic polymide fiber.

  3. Flow resistance in rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsun, A.S.; Sokolova, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The general form of relation between the resistance force and the velocity vector, resistance tensor structure and possible types of anisotropy in the flow thorough such structures as rod or tube assemblies are under discussion. Some questions of experimental determination of volumetric resistance force tensor are also under consideration. (author)

  4. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  5. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  6. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  7. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, A.; Cihal, V. Jr.; Vanek, V.; Herzan, J.; Protiva, K.; Cihal, V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  8. Magnetic reconnection mediated by hyper-resistive plasmoid instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A. [Center for Integrated Computation and Analysis of Reconnection and Turbulence, Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Max Planck-Princeton Center for Plasma Physics and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Forbes, Terry G. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Magnetic reconnection mediated by the hyper-resistive plasmoid instability is studied with both linear analysis and nonlinear simulations. The linear growth rate is found to scale as S{sub H}{sup 1/6} with respect to the hyper-resistive Lundquist number S{sub H}≡L{sup 3}V{sub A}/η{sub H}, where L is the system size, V{sub A} is the Alfvén velocity, and η{sub H} is the hyper-resistivity. In the nonlinear regime, reconnection rate becomes nearly independent of S{sub H}, the number of plasmoids scales as S{sub H}{sup 1/2}, and the secondary current sheet length and width both scale as S{sub H}{sup −1/2}. These scalings are consistent with a heuristic argument assuming secondary current sheets are close to marginal stability. The distribution of plasmoids as a function of the enclosed flux ψ is found to obey a ψ{sup −1} power law over an extended range, followed by a rapid fall off for large plasmoids. These results are compared with those from resistive magnetohydrodynamic studies.

  9. Resistive plate chambers performances at cosmic rays fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper detailed curves showing the behaviour of resistive plate chambers efficiency and time resolution as a function of temperature and operating voltage are presented. The results show that the operating voltage scales well according to the rule: operating voltage/gas density=constant. (orig.)

  10. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  11. Plasma Components as Traits for Resistance to Coccidiosis in Chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    For successful genetic dissection of disease resistance it is of great importance to accurately identify the respective phenotypes. In case of coccidiosis some of the conventional phenotypes don’t fully reflect the animal health status. The objective of this study was large-scale evaluation of pl...

  12. Correlation between agronomic and stem borer resistant traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-06-30

    Jun 30, 2015 ... Resistant traits had negative correlations with most agronomic traits including grain yield. (GY). .... on a scale of 1-9 with 1 = clean plant without leaf defoliation and 9 .... Negative signs indicate direction of relationship. Table 3 ...

  13. CASTOR: Normal-mode analysis of resistive MHD plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, W.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Huysmans, G. T. A.; Poedts, S.; Schwarz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The CASTOR (complex Alfven spectrum of toroidal plasmas) code computes the entire spectrum of normal-modes in resistive MHD for general tokamak configurations. The applied Galerkin method, in conjunction with a Fourier finite-element discretisation, leads to a large scale eigenvalue problem A (x)

  14. Biointerface dynamics--Multi scale modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2015-08-01

    Irreversible nature of matrix structural changes around the immobilized cell aggregates caused by cell expansion is considered within the Ca-alginate microbeads. It is related to various effects: (1) cell-bulk surface effects (cell-polymer mechanical interactions) and cell surface-polymer surface effects (cell-polymer electrostatic interactions) at the bio-interface, (2) polymer-bulk volume effects (polymer-polymer mechanical and electrostatic interactions) within the perturbed boundary layers around the cell aggregates, (3) cumulative surface and volume effects within the parts of the microbead, and (4) macroscopic effects within the microbead as a whole based on multi scale modeling approaches. All modeling levels are discussed at two time scales i.e. long time scale (cell growth time) and short time scale (cell rearrangement time). Matrix structural changes results in the resistance stress generation which have the feedback impact on: (1) single and collective cell migrations, (2) cell deformation and orientation, (3) decrease of cell-to-cell separation distances, and (4) cell growth. Herein, an attempt is made to discuss and connect various multi scale modeling approaches on a range of time and space scales which have been proposed in the literature in order to shed further light to this complex course-consequence phenomenon which induces the anomalous nature of energy dissipation during the structural changes of cell aggregates and matrix quantified by the damping coefficients (the orders of the fractional derivatives). Deeper insight into the matrix partial disintegration within the boundary layers is useful for understanding and minimizing the polymer matrix resistance stress generation within the interface and on that base optimizing cell growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Scale of Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Semerci, Nuriye

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.

  16. Functional nanometer-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tsz On Mario

    Nanometer-scale structures have properties that are fundamentally different from their bulk counterparts. Much research effort has been devoted in the past decades to explore new fabrication techniques, model the physical properties of these structures, and construct functional devices. The ability to manipulate and control the structure of matter at the nanoscale has made many new classes of materials available for the study of fundamental physical processes and potential applications. The interplay between fabrication techniques and physical understanding of the nanostructures and processes has revolutionized the physical and material sciences, providing far superior properties in materials for novel applications that benefit society. This thesis consists of two major aspects of my graduate research in nano-scale materials. In the first part (Chapters 3--6), a comprehensive study on the nanostructures based on electrospinning and thermal treatment is presented. Electrospinning is a well-established method for producing high-aspect-ratio fibrous structures, with fiber diameter ranging from 1 nm--1 microm. A polymeric solution is typically used as a precursor in electrospinning. In our study, the functionality of the nanostructure relies on both the nanostructure and material constituents. Metallic ions containing precursors were added to the polymeric precursor following a sol-gel process to prepare the solution suitable for electrospinning. A typical electrospinning process produces as-spun fibers containing both polymer and metallic salt precursors. Subsequent thermal treatments of the as-spun fibers were carried out in various conditions to produce desired structures. In most cases, polymer in the solution and the as-spun fibers acted as a backbone for the structure formation during the subsequent heat treatment, and were thermally removed in the final stage. Polymers were also designed to react with the metallic ion precursors during heat treatment in some

  17. Bias dependent specic contact resistance of phase change material to metal contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; in 't Zandt, Micha; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of contact resistance of phase change materials (PCM) to metal electrodes is important for scaling, device modeling and optimization of phase change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this article, we report the systematic determination of the speci_c contact resistance (_c) with

  18. Neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the recent breakthroughs in hardware implementation of neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices. The authors describe how two-terminal solid-state resistive memories can emulate synaptic weights in a neural network. Readers will benefit from state-of-the-art summaries of resistive synaptic devices, from the individual cell characteristics to the large-scale array integration. This book also discusses peripheral neuron circuits design challenges and design strategies. Finally, the authors describe the impact of device non-ideal properties (e.g. noise, variation, yield) and their impact on the learning performance at the system-level, using a device-algorithm co-design methodology. • Provides single-source reference to recent breakthroughs in resistive synaptic devices, not only at individual cell-level, but also at integrated array-level; • Includes detailed discussion of the peripheral circuits and array architecture design of the neuro-crossbar system; • Focuses on...

  19. Resistance switch employing a simple metal nanogap junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Yasuhisa; Horikawa, Masayo; Abe, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, several researchers have reported the occurrence of reversible resistance switching effects in simple metal nanogap junctions. A large negative resistance is observed in the I-V characteristics of such a junction when high-bias voltages are applied. This phenomenon is characteristic behaviour on the nanometre scale; it only occurs for gap widths slightly under 13 nm. Furthermore, such a junction exhibits a non-volatile resistance hysteresis when the bias voltage is reduced very rapidly from a high level to around 0 V, and when the bias voltage is reduced slowly. This non-volatile resistance change occurs as a result of changes in the gap width between the metal electrodes, brought about by the applied bias voltage

  20. Resistive transition for two-dimensional superconductors: Comparison between experiments and Coulomb-gas-model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnhagen, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Coulomb-gas model of vortex fluctuations leads to scaling relations for the resistive transition which can be directly tested by experiments. By analyzing published resistance data, it is shown that there is experimental evidence for the Coulomb-gas scaling relation in the absence of a perpendicular magnetic field. It is also shown that there exists some suggestive support for the Coulomb-gas predictions in the presence of a magnetic field

  1. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  3. The role of biofilms as environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis eBalcazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become a significant and growing threat to public and environmental health. To face this problem both at local and global scales, a better understanding of the sources and mechanisms that contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is required. Recent studies demonstrate that aquatic ecosystems are reservoirs of resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes as well as potential conduits for their transmission to human pathogens. Despite the wealth of information about antibiotic pollution and its effect on the aquatic microbial resistome, the contribution of environmental biofilms to the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance has not been fully explored in aquatic systems. Biofilms are structured multicellular communities embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix that acts as a barrier to antibiotic diffusion. High population densities and proximity of cells in biofilms also increases the chances for genetic exchange among bacterial species converting biofilms in hot spots of antibiotic resistance. This review focuses on the potential effect of antibiotic pollution on biofilm microbial communities, with special emphasis on ecological and evolutionary processes underlying acquired resistance to these compounds.

  4. [Corrosion resistant properties of different anodized microtopographies on titanium surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangjun, Huo; Li, Xie; Xingye, Tong; Yueting, Wang; Weihua, Guo; Weidong, Tian

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the corrosion resistant properties of titanium samples prepared by anodic oxidation with different surface morphologies. Pure titanium substrates were treated by anodic oxidation to obtain porous titanium films in micron, submicron, and micron-submicron scales. The surface morphologies, coating cross-sectional morphologies, crystalline structures, and surface roughness of these samples were characterized. Electrochemical technique was used to measure the corrosion potential (Ecorr), current density of corrosion (Icorr), and polarization resistance (Rp) of these samples in a simulated body fluid. Pure titanium could be modified to exhibit different surface morphologies by the anodic oxidation technique. The Tafel curve results showed that the technique can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance varied with different surface morphologies. The submicron porous surface sample demonstrated the best corrosion resistance, with maximal Ecorr and Rp and minimal Icorr. Anodic oxidation technology can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium in a simulated body fluid. The submicron porous surface sample exhibited the best corrosion resistance because of its small surface area and thick barrier layer.

  5. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  6. Controlling antibiotic resistance in the ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derde, L.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) are frequently colonized with (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria, which may lead to healthcare associated infections. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB), such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

  7. Proliferation resistance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans, J.; Mladineo, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division; BNL; Univ. of California at Berkely; PNNL

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments. A working group on Nonproliferation Assessment Methodology (NPAM) assembled a toolbox of methods for various applications in the nonproliferation arena. One application of this methodology is to the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. This paper first summarizes the key results of the NPAM program and then provides results obtained thus far in the ongoing application, which is co-sponsored by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. In NPAM, a top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed from a hierarchy of metrics. The problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and evaluates the outcomes. In addition to proliferation resistance (PR) evaluation, the application also addresses physical protection (PP) evaluation against sabotage and theft. The Generation IV goal for future nuclear energy systems is to assure that they are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against terrorism. An Expert Group, addressing this application, has identified six high-level measures for the PR goals (six measures have also been identified for the PP goals). Combined together, the complete set of measures provides information for program policy makers and system designers to compare specific system design features and integral system characteristics and to make choices among alternative options. The Group has developed a framework for a phased evaluation approach to analyzing PR and PP of system characteristics and to quantifying metrics and measures. This approach allows evaluations to become more detailed and representative

  8. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J. T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  9. Tunable resistance coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  10. Multidrug resistant Fusarium keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antequera, P; Garcia-Conca, V; Martín-González, C; Ortiz-de-la-Tabla, V

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of keratitis in a female contact lens wearer, who developed a deep corneal abscess. The culture of a corneal biopsy scraping was positive for multiresistant Fusarium solani. The patient has a complicated clinical course and failed to respond to local and systemic antifungal treatment, requiring eye enucleation. Fusarium keratitis may progress to severe endophthalmitis. Clinical suspicion is paramount in order to start antifungal therapy without delay. Therapy is complex due to the high resistance of this organism to usual antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  12. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  13. Scales of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  14. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  15. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  16. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  17. Scales and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  18. Resistive instabilities of current sheets in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolny, M [CNR, Laboratorio per il Plasma nello Spazio, Frascati, Italy; Trussoni, E [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy

    1979-03-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are investigated numerically for non-antisymmetric magnetic field profiles similar to those indicated in spacecraft data on solar wind discontinuities. The eigenvalue problem derived for the growth rate of possible instabilities from dimensionless equations for velocity and magnetic field perturbations is solved starting from the outer regions where the plasma is frozen to the magnetic field. For an antisymmetric magnetic profile, calculations show only tearing modes to be present, with instabilities occurring only at long wavelengths, while for a non-antisymmetric magnetic profile resembling the observed solar wind, calculations indicate the presence of rippling modes driven by resistivity gradients, in addition to the tearing modes. Calculations of the scale lengths of variation of the reversing component based on a scaling law relating the maximum growth rate to the magnetic Reynolds number are found to agree with observed solar current sheet scale lengths.

  19. Laboratory-scale thyristor controlled series capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, J.; Ikeda, K.; Abe, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-20

    This paper describes the results of an experimental study on the characteristics of a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). At present, there are two major thyristor controlled series compensation projects in the U.S.: the Kayenta ASC and the Slatt TCSC. However, there has been little operating experience and thus further understanding of the characteristics of TCSC is still to be sought. Therefore, a laboratory-scale TCSC was produced and installed in a laboratory power system. The impedance characteristics, waveshapes of voltages and currents in the TCSC circuit, and harmonics, for various thyristor firing angles, and insertion responses were measured and analyzed. In particular, effects of the size of the circuit components, i.e., parasitic resistance, additional damping resistance and series reactor, on the overall TCSC performances were investigated. The results were compared with EMTP simulations. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  1. Outwitting the series resistance in scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A.; Cao, R.; Eyben, P.; Hantschel, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of nanoelectronics devices critically depends on the distribution of active dopants inside these structures. For this reason, dopant profiling has been defined as one of the major metrology challenges by the international technology roadmap of semiconductors. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) has evolved as one of the most viable approaches over the last decade due to its excellent spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy. However, in case of advanced device architectures like fins and nanowires a proper measurement of the spreading resistance is often hampered by the increasing impact of parasitic series resistances (e.g. bulk series resistance) arising from the confined nature of the aforementioned structures. In order to overcome this limitation we report in this paper the development and implementation of a novel SSRM mode (fast Fourier transform-SSRM: FFT-SSRM) which essentially decouples the spreading resistance from parasitic series resistance components. We show that this can be achieved by a force modulation (leading to a modulated spreading resistance signal) in combination with a lock-in deconvolution concept. In this paper we first introduce the principle of operation of the technique. We discuss in detail the underlying physical mechanisms as well as the technical implementation on a state-of-the-art atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate the performance of FFT-SSRM and its ability to remove substantial series resistance components in practice. Eventually, the possibility of decoupling the spreading resistance from the intrinsic probe resistance will be demonstrated and discussed. - Highlights: • A novel electrical AFM mode for carrier profiling in confined volumes is presented. • Thereby the force and hence the contact area between AFM probe and sample is modulated. • Information on the spreading resistance is derived using a lock-in approach. • Bulk series resistance components are

  2. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  3. A resistência olha a resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponciano Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resistência é um processo humano que acontece quando a pessoa se encontra sob algum tipo de ameaça. Não é essencialmente um acontecimento psicoterapêutico. Ocorre na terapia não como uma oposição a si mesmo ou ao terapeuta, mas como uma forma de se ajustar a uma nova situação. A resistência, é por natureza, a atualização do instinto de auto-preservação. E o organismo inteligentemente segue a lei da preferência. Resistência é uma forma de contato que não pode ser destruída, mas administrada, porque ela surge como uma defesa da totalidade vivenciada pela pessoa. A Resistência é, às vezes, resistência e awareness mais que ao contato. Ela revela mais o caminho seguido do que oculta a caminhada feita. A resistência é um processo natural, porque o corpo que não resiste, morre, mas falamos em processos de auto-regulação organísmica. Valorizamos mais o que mantêm a resistência funcionando do que à própria resistência. O terapeuta também resiste, ou seja, ele se auto-regula na sua relação com o cliente. Não questionamos a resistência, mas o processo que a mantêm. Trabalhamos com nove mecanismos de defesa, também tradicionalmente, chamados de resistência.

  4. Corrosion resistant cemented carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof

  5. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  6. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-02-04

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Resistive Memory Devices for Radiation Resistant Non-Volatile Memory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiation in space can damage electronic equipment, corrupting data and even disabling computers. Radiation resistant (rad hard) strategies must be employed...

  8. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, Mark D.; Williams, Mark L.; Bowman, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  9. Resistance and resistance fluctuations in random resistor networks under biased percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennetta, Cecilia; Reggiani, L; Trefán, Gy; Alfinito, E

    2002-06-01

    We consider a two-dimensional random resistor network (RRN) in the presence of two competing biased processes consisting of the breaking and recovering of elementary resistors. These two processes are driven by the joint effects of an electrical bias and of the heat exchange with a thermal bath. The electrical bias is set up by applying a constant voltage or, alternatively, a constant current. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to analyze the network evolution in the full range of bias values. Depending on the bias strength, electrical failure or steady state are achieved. Here we investigate the steady state of the RRN focusing on the properties of the non-Ohmic regime. In constant-voltage conditions, a scaling relation is found between /(0) and V/V(0), where is the average network resistance, (0) the linear regime resistance, and V0 the threshold value for the onset of nonlinearity. A similar relation is found in constant-current conditions. The relative variance of resistance fluctuations also exhibits a strong nonlinearity whose properties are investigated. The power spectral density of resistance fluctuations presents a Lorentzian spectrum and the amplitude of fluctuations shows a significant non-Gaussian behavior in the prebreakdown region. These results compare well with electrical breakdown measurements in thin films of composites and of other conducting materials.

  10. Clusters of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Enriched Together Stay Together in Swine Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy A; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R; Hashsham, Syed A; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tiedje, James M

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundance of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk. Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of resistance genes if

  11. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  12. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Microsecond atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations of polyimides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulin, S.V.; Gurtovenko, A.A.; Larin, S.V.; Nazarychev, V.M.; Lyulin, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    We employ microsecond atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations to get insight into the structural and thermal properties of heat-resistant bulk polyimides. As electrostatic interactions are essential for the polyimides considered, we propose a two-step equilibration protocol that includes long

  14. Strength scaling of adhesive joints in polymer–matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied by testing double cantilever beam test specimens loaded by uneven bending moments. A large-scale fracture process zone, consisting of a crack tip and a fibre bridging zone, developed. The mixed mode fracture resistance...

  15. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  16. Scale-relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottale, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the

  17. Characterization of pig-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Nansong; Ke, Yuebin; Feßler, Andrea T; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan; Wu, Congming

    2017-03-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been reported in various countries worldwide. However, although China is one of the biggest pig and pork producers, large-scale studies on pig-associated LA-MRSA from China are scarce. The aims of this study were to analyze 2420 non-duplicate samples collected from pigs at swine farms and slaughterhouses in different regions in China during 2014 for the prevalence of pig-associated MRSA and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of the respective isolates. MRSA isolates were identified in 270 (11.2%) samples. The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and screening for resistance genes. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 9 and spa type t899, but showed variable PFGE patterns. All isolates were non-susceptible to oxacillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, ciprofloxacin, and valnemulin. High rates of resistance were also observed for tetracycline (99.6%), erythromycin (97.0%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (97.0%), and gentamicin (80.4%). Three linezolid-non-susceptible isolates containing the multi-resistance gene cfr and nine rifampicin-non-susceptible isolates with mutations in rpoB were detected. Resistance to β-lactams was exclusively associated with mecA, while phenicol resistance was mainly attributable to fexA, except in the three cfr-positive isolates. The pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance gene lsa(E) was identified in all MRSA isolates, and no other pleuromutilin resistance genes, except cfr in three isolates, were detected. Pigs are the most important hosts of LA-MRSA in China. Screening for pig-associated MRSA is necessary to monitor changes in epidemiology and characteristics of these important pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resist materials for proton beam writing: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Malar, P. [Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Wang, Y.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Physics Department, 2 Science Drive 3, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PBW can now achieve 19 nm details in HSQ and 65 nm in PMMA. • A complete table of resist materials for PBW has been presented, including minimum feature size, achievable aspect ratio, suitability for electroplating and where available contrast of the resist. • PBW fabricated molds can now be used for single DNA molecule detection, single DNA manipulation and large scale Genome mapping. - Abstract: Proton beam writing (PBW) is a lithographic technique that has been developed since the mid 1990s, initially in Singapore followed by several groups around the world. MeV protons while penetrating materials will maintain a practically straight path. During the continued slowing down of a proton in material it will mainly interact with substrate electrons and transfer a small amount of energy to each electron, the induced secondary electrons will modify the molecular structure of resist within a few nanometers around the proton track. The recent demonstration of high aspect ratio sub 20 nm lithography in HSQ shows the potential of PBW. To explore the full capabilities of PBW, the understanding of the interaction of fast protons with different resist materials is important. Here we give an update of the growing number of resist materials that have been evaluated for PBW. In particular we evaluate the exposure and development strategies for the most promising resist materials like PMMA, HSQ, SU-8 and AR-P and compare their characteristics with respect to properties such as contrast and sensitivity. Besides an updated literature survey we also present new findings on AR-P and PMGI resists. Since PBW is a direct write technology it is important to look for fast ways to replicate micro and nanostructures. In this respect we will discuss the suitability and performance of several resists for Ni electroplating for mold fabrication in nano imprint technologies. We will summarize with an overview of proton resist characteristics like sensitivity, contrast

  19. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  20. Resist materials for proton beam writing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Malar, P.; Wang, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PBW can now achieve 19 nm details in HSQ and 65 nm in PMMA. • A complete table of resist materials for PBW has been presented, including minimum feature size, achievable aspect ratio, suitability for electroplating and where available contrast of the resist. • PBW fabricated molds can now be used for single DNA molecule detection, single DNA manipulation and large scale Genome mapping. - Abstract: Proton beam writing (PBW) is a lithographic technique that has been developed since the mid 1990s, initially in Singapore followed by several groups around the world. MeV protons while penetrating materials will maintain a practically straight path. During the continued slowing down of a proton in material it will mainly interact with substrate electrons and transfer a small amount of energy to each electron, the induced secondary electrons will modify the molecular structure of resist within a few nanometers around the proton track. The recent demonstration of high aspect ratio sub 20 nm lithography in HSQ shows the potential of PBW. To explore the full capabilities of PBW, the understanding of the interaction of fast protons with different resist materials is important. Here we give an update of the growing number of resist materials that have been evaluated for PBW. In particular we evaluate the exposure and development strategies for the most promising resist materials like PMMA, HSQ, SU-8 and AR-P and compare their characteristics with respect to properties such as contrast and sensitivity. Besides an updated literature survey we also present new findings on AR-P and PMGI resists. Since PBW is a direct write technology it is important to look for fast ways to replicate micro and nanostructures. In this respect we will discuss the suitability and performance of several resists for Ni electroplating for mold fabrication in nano imprint technologies. We will summarize with an overview of proton resist characteristics like sensitivity, contrast

  1. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  2. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  3. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  4. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  5. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarification of the regulatory processes about hepatic insulin resistance by adipokines in rodents and human would seem essential in order to understand the mechanism of type 2 diabetes and for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat it. PMID:23762871

  6. Antibiotics and the resistant microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Morten; Dantas, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    . Less appreciated are the concomitant changes in the human microbiome in response to these assaults and their contribution to clinical resistance problems. Studies have shown that pervasive changes to the human microbiota result from antibiotic treatment and that resistant strains can persist for years....... Additionally, culture-independent functional characterization of the resistance genes from the microbiome has demonstrated a close evolutionary relationship between resistance genes in the microbiome and in pathogens. Application of these techniques and novel cultivation methods are expected to significantly...... expand our understanding of the interplay between antibiotics and the microbiome....

  7. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  8. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  9. Powdery Mildew Disease Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Shauna C.

    2010-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to characterize the PMR5 protein, a member of the DUF231/TBR family, and to determine its role in plant cell wall biogenesis. Since the pmr5 mutants are also resistant to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen, we wished to determine what specific cell wall changes are associated with disease resistance and why. The graduate student working on this project made mutations in the putative active site of PMR5, assuming it is a member of the SGNH/GDSL esterase superfamily (Anantharaman and Aravind, 2010, Biology Direct 5, 1). These mutants were inactive in planta suggesting that PMR5 is a functional enzyme and not a binding protein or chaperone. In addition, she determined that cell wall preparations from the pmr5 mutant exhibited a modest reduction (13%) in total acetyl groups. To pursue characterization further, the graduate student expressed the PMR5 protein in a heterologous E. coli system. She could purify PMR5 using a two step protocol based on tags added to the N and C terminus of the protein. She was able to show the PMR5 protein bound to pectins, including homogalacturonan, but not to other cell wall components (e.g., xyloglucans, arabinans). Based on these observations, a postdoctoral fellow is currently developing an enzyme assay for PMR5 based on the idea that it may be acetylating the homogalacturonic acid pectin fraction. Our initial experiments to localize PMR5 subcellularly suggested that it occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since the various pectins are believed to be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, we felt it necessary to repeat our results using a native promoter expression system. Within the past year, we have demonstrated conclusively that PMR5 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a location that sets it apart from most cell wall biogenesis and modification enzymes. The graduate student contributed to the characterization of two suppressor mutants, which were selected as restoring powdery

  10. Beyond KNO scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, S.

    1998-01-01

    A generalization of the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling law of the multiplicity distributions P(n) is presented. It consists of a change in the normalization point of P(n) compensated by a suitable change in the renormalized parameters and a rescaling. The iterative repetition of the transformation yields the sequence of higher-order moment distributions of P(n). Each member of this sequence may exhibit data collapsing behavior in case of violation of the original KNO scaling hypothesis. It is shown that the iterative procedure can be viewed as varying the collision energy, i.e. the moment distributions of P(n) can represent the pattern of pre-asymptotic KNO scaling violation. The fixed points of the iteration will be determined and a consistency test based on Feynman scaling is to be given. (author)

  11. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  12. Overstatement in happiness reporting with ordinal, bounded scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yamada, Katsunori; Kitada, Ryo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sugawara, Sho K; Ohtake, Fumio; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-02-18

    There are various methods by which people can express subjective evaluations quantitatively. For example, happiness can be measured on a scale from 1 to 10, and has been suggested as a measure of economic policy. However, there is resistance to these types of measurement from economists, who often regard welfare to be a cardinal, unbounded quantity. It is unclear whether there are differences between subjective evaluation reported on ordinal, bounded scales and on cardinal, unbounded scales. To answer this question, we developed functional magnetic resonance imaging experimental tasks for reporting happiness from monetary gain and the perception of visual stimulus. Subjects tended to report higher values when they used ordinal scales instead of cardinal scales. There were differences in neural activation between ordinal and cardinal reporting scales. The posterior parietal area showed greater activation when subjects used an ordinal scale instead of a cardinal scale. Importantly, the striatum exhibited greater activation when asked to report happiness on an ordinal scale than when asked to report on a cardinal scale. The finding that ordinal (bounded) scales are associated with higher reported happiness and greater activation in the reward system shows that overstatement bias in happiness data must be considered.

  13. Scale-Dependent Grasp

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Makoto; Shirai, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the scale-dependent grasp.Suppose that a human approaches an object initially placed on atable and finally achieves an enveloping grasp. Under such initialand final conditions, he (or she) unconsciously changes the graspstrategy according to the size of objects, even though they havesimilar geometry. We call the grasp planning the scale-dependentgrasp. We find that grasp patterns are also changed according tothe surface friction and the geometry of cross section in additi...

  14. plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    PLASMID MEDIATED RESISTANCE IN MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA. ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED SEPTICAEMIA IN ZARIA,. NIGERIA. AbdulAziz, Z. A.,1* Ehinmidu, J. O.,1 Adeshina, G. O.,1 Pala, Y. Y2., Yusuf, S. S2. and. Bugaje, M. A.3. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical ...

  15. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    increasing expansion of highway and other construction works and decreasing natural aggregate resources in the world, the demand for crushed stone aggregates has in- creased from day-to-day. One of the important properties of rock aggregates is abrasion resistance. The abrasion resistance of aggregates is generally ...

  16. Statistical analysis of anomalous transport in resistive interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    A new anomalous transport model for resistive interchange turbulence is derived from statistical analysis applying two-scale direct-interaction approximation to resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations with a gravity term. Our model is similar to the K-ε model for eddy viscosity of turbulent shear flows in that anomalous transport coefficients are expressed in terms of by the turbulent kinetic energy K and its dissipation rate ε while K and ε are determined by transport equations. This anomalous transport model can describe some nonlocal effects such as those from boundary conditions which cannot be treated by conventional models based on the transport coefficients represented by locally determined plasma parameters. (author)

  17. Individual domain wall resistance in submicron ferromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneau, R; Warin, P; Attané, J P; Petej, I; Beigné, C; Fermon, C; Klein, O; Marty, A; Ott, F; Samson, Y; Viret, M

    2002-04-15

    The resistance generated by individual domain walls is measured in a FePd nanostructure. Combining transport and magnetic imaging measurements, the intrinsic domain wall resistance is quantified. It is found positive and of a magnitude consistent with that predicted by models based on spin scattering effects within the walls. This magnetoresistance at a nanometer scale allows a direct counting of the number of walls inside the nanostructure. The effect is then used to measure changes in the magnetic configuration of submicron stripes under application of a magnetic field.

  18. Is disorganized schizophrenia a predictor of treatment resistance? Evidence from an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bertolucci Ortiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether inpatients with disorganized schizophrenia are more resistant to treatment. Method: Eighty-five inpatients were assessed at admission and at discharge for schizophrenia subtype, symptom severity, and treatment resistance criteria. Results: Disorganized patients were significantly more treatment-resistant than paranoid patients (60%, p = 0.001, and presented worse scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF (p < 0.001. Although the difference was not significant, 80% of treatment-resistant patients with disorganized schizophrenia responded to clozapine. Conclusion: Patients with the disorganized subtype of schizophrenia should benefit from clozapine as a second-line agent.

  19. Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus


    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Will A.; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) (MIC = 4-8 µg/mL), were discovered in the 1990s. The molecular basis of resistance in VISA is polygenic and involves stepwise mutations in genes encoding molecules predominantly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis. S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)—they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid. Although treatment of VRSA infections is challenging, the total number of human VRSA infections to date is limited (14 in the U.S.). By comparison, the burden of VISA is relatively high and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are less well-defined. VISA are associated with persistent infections, vancomycin treatment failure, and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we review in brief progress made toward understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms underlying vancomycin resistance. PMID:28656013

  20. Reconceptualizing resistance: sociology and the affective dimension of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Maria

    2013-12-01

    This paper re-examines the sociological study of resistance in light of growing interest in the concept of affect. Recent claims that we are witness to an 'affective turn' and calls for a 'new sociological empiricism' sensitive to affect indicate an emerging paradigm shift in sociology. Yet, mainstream sociological study of resistance tends to have been largely unaffected by this shift. To this end, this paper presents a case for the significance of affect as a lens by which to approach the study of resistance. My claim is not simply that the forms of actions we would normally recognize as resistance have an affective dimension. Rather, it is that the theory of affect broadens 'resistance' beyond the purview of the two dominant modes of analysis in sociology; namely, the study of macropolitical forms, on the one hand, and the micropolitics of everyday resistance on the other. This broadened perspective challenges the persistent assumption that ideological forms of power and resistance are the most pertinent to the contemporary world, suggesting that much power and resistance today is of a more affective nature. In making this argument, it is a Deleuzian reading of affect that is pursued, which opens up to a level of analysis beyond the common understanding of affect as emotion. I argue that an affective approach to resistance would pay attention to those barely perceptible transitions in power and mobilizations of bodily potential that operate below the conscious perceptions and subjective emotions of social actors. These affective transitions constitute a new site at which both power and resistance operate. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  1. Linking Scales in Plastic Deformation and Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Paneda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; S. Deshpande, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    We investigate crack growth initiation and subsequent resistance in metallic materials by means of an implicit multi-scale approach. Strain gradient plasticity is employed to model the mechanical response of the solid so as to incorporate the role of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs......) and accurately capture plasticity at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation. The response ahead of the crack is described by means of a traction-separation law, which is characterized by the cohesive strength and the fracture energy. Results reveal that large gradients of plastic strain accumulatein...... the vicinity of the crack, elevating the dislocation density and the local stress. This stress elevation enhances crack propagation and significantly lowers the steady state fracture toughness with respect to conventional plasticity. Important insight is gained into fracture phenomena that cannot be explained...

  2. Towards a global antibiotic resistance surveillance system : a primer for a roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo

    The need for global data about the scale of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in a geographical explicit and timely manner has been identified by many stakeholders, including the World Health Organization. This primer should help defining the objectives, scale, scope, and structure of possible future

  3. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) Resistivity Technologies for Assessing Permafrost Geomorphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    resistivity, have been used to interrogate the subsur- face in permafrost terrains at the meters to kilometers scales. Airborne measurement techniques have...burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense... interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains at the meters to kilometers scales. Airborne measurement techniques have broad applicability at the

  4. SoK: Making Sense of Censorship Resistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattak Sheharbano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries implement Internet censorship at different scales and for a variety of reasons. Several censorship resistance systems (CRSs have emerged to help bypass such blocks. The diversity of the censor’s attack landscape has led to an arms race, leading to a dramatic speed of evolution of CRSs. The inherent complexity of CRSs and the breadth of work in this area makes it hard to contextualize the censor’s capabilities and censorship resistance strategies. To address these challenges, we conducted a comprehensive survey of CRSs-deployed tools as well as those discussed in academic literature-to systematize censorship resistance systems by their threat model and corresponding defenses. To this end, we first sketch a comprehensive attack model to set out the censor’s capabilities, coupled with discussion on the scope of censorship, and the dynamics that influence the censor’s decision. Next, we present an evaluation framework to systematize censorship resistance systems by their security, privacy, performance and deployability properties, and show how these systems map to the attack model. We do this for each of the functional phases that we identify for censorship resistance systems: communication establishment, which involves distribution and retrieval of information necessary for a client to join the censorship resistance system; and conversation, where actual exchange of information takes place. Our evaluation leads us to identify gaps in the literature, question the assumptions at play, and explore possible mitigations.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.

    2017-10-23

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  6. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Xiao, Jiang; Wang, Xuhui; Xia, Ke

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  7. METHICILLIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCAL ISOLATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  8. Resistance, Reinhabitation, and Regime Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, David

    2006-01-01

    How do individuals know when, and what, to resist? Alan Schoenfeld, in the March 2006 issue of "Educational Researcher," tells a story of resistance that all math educators, and all curriculum specialists, need to consider. Schoenfeld titled his story, "What Doesn't Work: The Challenge and Failure of the What Works Clearinghouse to Conduct…

  9. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 mars 2015 ... strategy to prevent the spread of this resistance. Keywords: Staphylococci; Staphylococcus aureus; Oxacillin; Antibiotic resistance; Disc diffusion. Author Correspondence, e-mail: mn.boukhatem@yahoo.fr. ICID: 1142924. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at.

  10. Wear resistance of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  11. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...

  12. Dealing with Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest roadblocks to addressing instructional rigor in schools is the resistance to change that is displayed by teachers, students, parents, and other building and district leaders. Every person deals differently with change. Some are more accepting, others more resistant. No change is successful if the people being asked to change…

  13. Multidrug resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Hendrik

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) was initially recongnized as the major cause of the failure of the drug-based treatment of human cancers. It has become increasingly clear that MDR occurs in mammalian cells but also in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The appearance of multiple antibiotic resistant

  14. The effect of inlet conditions on the air side hydraulic resistance and flow maldistribution in industrial air heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann-Vocke, Jonas, E-mail: jh63@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Energy Research Group, School of Science and Engineering, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Neale, James, E-mail: jamesn@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Energy Research Group, School of Science and Engineering, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Walmsley, Michael, E-mail: walmsley@waikato.ac.nz [University of Waikato, Department of Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Measured the effects of air heater inlet header geometry on hydraulic performance. > Measured the effects of inlet header flow maldistribution on hydraulic performance. > Inlet header flow maldistribution increases air heater system hydraulic resistance. - Abstract: Experimental system hydraulic resistance measurements on a scale air heater unit have highlighted the excessive hydraulic resistance of typical industry configurations. Both poor header inlet conditions and large header expansion angles are shown to contribute to system hydraulic resistance magnitudes 20-100% higher than suitable benchmark cases. Typical centrifugal fan system efficiencies well under 80% multiply the system resistance effects resulting in larger fan power penalties. Velocity profile measurements taken upstream and downstream of the test heat exchanger under flow maldistribution conditions provide insight into the flow maldistribution spreading caused by the heat exchanger resistance. The anisotropic resistance of the plate fin-and-tube heat exchanger is shown to result in resistance induced flow dispersion being concentrated in the axis parallel to the plate fins.

  15. Adriamycin resistance and radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, J.A.; Harris, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Mammalian cells (V79) in culture developed resistance to Adriamycin during continuous exposure to low levels of drug. This resistance was accompanied by change in x-ray survival properties which, in turn, depended upon the isolation of subpopulations from resistant sub lines. These changes in x-ray survival properties were characterized by reduced D/sub Q/ values and a decrease in the D/sub O/. However, these changes were not observed together in the same cell sub line. Adriamycin-resistant cells did not appear to be radiation damage repair deficient. Other phenotypic changes (cell morphology, DNA content and chromosome number) suggested mutational events coincident with the development of Adriamycin resistance

  16. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  17. Functional markers based molecular characterization and cloning of resistance gene analogs encoding NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins in finger millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Preety; Jha, Anand Kumar; Pandey, P K; Gupta, Arun K; Kumar, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Magnaporthe grisea, the blast fungus is one of the main pathological threats to finger millet crop worldwide. A systematic search for the blast resistance gene analogs was carried out, using functional molecular markers. Three-fourths of the recognition-dependent disease resistance genes (R-genes) identified in plants encodes nucleotide binding site (NBS) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. NBS-LRR homologs have only been isolated on a limited scale from Eleusine coracana. Genomic DNA sequences sharing homology with NBS region of resistance gene analogs were isolated and characterized from resistant genotypes of finger millet using PCR based approach with primers designed from conserved regions of NBS domain. Attempts were made to identify molecular markers linked to the resistance gene and to differentiate the resistant bulk from the susceptible bulk. A total of 9 NBS-LRR and 11 EST-SSR markers generated 75.6 and 73.5% polymorphism respectively amongst 73 finger millet genotypes. NBS-5, NBS-9, NBS-3 and EST-SSR-04 markers showed a clear polymorphism which differentiated resistant genotypes from susceptible genotypes. By comparing the banding pattern of different resistant and susceptible genotypes, five DNA amplifications of NBS and EST-SSR primers (NBS-05(504,) NBS-09(711), NBS-07(688), NBS-03(509) and EST-SSR-04(241)) were identified as markers for the blast resistance in resistant genotypes. Principal coordinate plot and UPGMA analysis formed similar groups of the genotypes and placed most of the resistant genotypes together showing a high level of genetic relatedness and the susceptible genotypes were placed in different groups on the basis of differential disease score. Our results provided a clue for the cloning of finger millet blast resistance gene analogs which not only facilitate the process of plant breeding but also molecular characterization of blast resistance gene analogs from Eleusine coracana.

  18. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  19. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  20. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  1. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  2. Resistive instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed

  3. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Radiation resistance of elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourquebie, P.; Bigarre, J.; Forveille, J.L.; Raby, J.; Lazare, L.

    2002-01-01

    The COMOR group is a network of laboratories from both the CEA and the CNRS. This network is particularly involved in fundamental and applied studies on the ageing of polymers under irradiation. COMOR has studied the ageing of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer) because this elastomer is often used in nuclear environment (in cable coating for instance). In this study, we have prepared materials with different formulations and we have characterised their use-condition properties (dielectric and mechanical) before and after γ irradiation. The dielectric measurements are well adapted to study the oxidation and the crosslinking phenomena which appear during the irradiation ageing. We have shown that after a short time, the oxidation is limited by the diffusion of oxygen. A phenolic antioxidant is not able to protect the polymer against the oxidation. However, we used a concentration typical of a purely thermal stabilisation case (0,1%). On the other hand, a diamine type additive with a concentration of 1% showed efficient stabilisation. The mechanical properties of the regular EPDM are strongly affected by the irradiation but there is little difference with regard to radiation resistance between both types of raw materials. Nevertheless, the NORDEL IP 3725 stabilised with the amine has better initial mechanical properties whereas the NORDEL 2722 offers higher strength above 300 kGy. Our results emphasize the stake of a proper stabilisation of polymers with respect to ionising radiation. (authors)

  5. [Unconscious resistance to contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, P A

    1978-12-01

    The Swiss penal code of 1942 requires the presence of a psychiatrist in all decisions about termination of pregnancy and of sterilization. The so called sexual revolution of the last 20 years has brought about a dissociation of the traditional psychosexual behavior, where eroticism, affection, and desire of a child do not integrate as harmoniously as before. Narcissistic libido, inherent in all of us, can make an individual want a baby for reasons other than normal, but as a reflection of a parent, as a toy for an infantile mother, as a termination to free, sexual life, felt as sin, for a young couple, as a hope for the future, as the rival of one of the parents, as a remedy for something lost. These are just some of the reasons why contraception, completely accepted on a conscious level, can be rejected on an unconscious one, leading to unwanted pregnancies. Family planning, through a better and deeper psychological preparation of its personnel, should better identify patients more at risk of contraceptive failure, and the unconscious resistances of individuals and couples. This very important task can be started in schools with sex education, and in family planning centers with sexual therapy for the couple. This new approach would imply an increased interest for psychology on the part of doctors assisting young couples.

  6. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  7. The INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) which has been created to classify nuclear and radiological events in terms of severity. This scale comprises eight levels from 0 to 7, from a slight but noticeable shift with respect to nominal operation to a major accident. Criteria used for incident and accident classification are indicated; they are based on consequences outside the site, consequences within the site, degradation of in-depth defence. The benefit and weaknesses of this scale are briefly indicated. The major concerned actors are the IAEA, the NEA and the ASN. Some key figures are given (number of declared events and incidents), and a ranking of the main nuclear events is proposed with a brief description of the event: Chernobyl, Fukushima, Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Sellafield, Tokaimura, Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux. Countries which have adopted INES are indicated, as well as the number of incidents reports in France to the ASN

  8. Wavelets, vibrations and scalings

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Yves

    1997-01-01

    Physicists and mathematicians are intensely studying fractal sets of fractal curves. Mandelbrot advocated modeling of real-life signals by fractal or multifractal functions. One example is fractional Brownian motion, where large-scale behavior is related to a corresponding infrared divergence. Self-similarities and scaling laws play a key role in this new area. There is a widely accepted belief that wavelet analysis should provide the best available tool to unveil such scaling laws. And orthonormal wavelet bases are the only existing bases which are structurally invariant through dyadic dilations. This book discusses the relevance of wavelet analysis to problems in which self-similarities are important. Among the conclusions drawn are the following: 1) A weak form of self-similarity can be given a simple characterization through size estimates on wavelet coefficients, and 2) Wavelet bases can be tuned in order to provide a sharper characterization of this self-similarity. A pioneer of the wavelet "saga", Meye...

  9. No-Scale Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on $R + R^2$ gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: $n_s \\sim 0.96$, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio $r < 0.1$, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  10. No-scale inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  11. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  12. Finite size scaling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fischer's finite-size scaling describes the cross over from the singular behaviour of thermodynamic quantities at the critical point to the analytic behaviour of the finite system. Recent extensions of the method--transfer matrix technique, and the Hamiltonian formalism--are discussed in this paper. The method is presented, with equations deriving scaling function, critical temperature, and exponent v. As an application of the method, a 3-states Hamiltonian with Z 3 global symmetry is studied. Diagonalization of the Hamiltonian for finite chains allows one to estimate the critical exponents, and also to discover new phase transitions at lower temperatures. The critical points lambda, and indices v estimated for finite-scaling are given

  13. Spatial ecology across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  14. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    is influenced by inductive noise caused by the high welding current. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage at primary side and current at secondary side. This increases the accuracy of measurement because of higher signal-noise ratio, and allows to apply to in-process......The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision...

  15. X and Y scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Although much of the intuition for interpreting the high energy data as scattering from structureless constituents came from nuclear physics (and to a lesser extent atomic physics) virtually no data existed for nuclear targets in the non-relativistic regime until relatively recently. It is therefore not so surprising that,in site of the fact that the basic nuclear physics has been well understood for a very long time, the corresponding non-relativistic scaling law was not written down until after the relativistic one,relevant to particle physics, had been explored. Of course, to the extent that these scaling laws simply reflect quasi-elastic scattering of the probe from the constituents, they contain little new physics once the nature of the constitutents is known and understood. On the other hand, deviations from scaling represent corrections to the impulse approximation and can reflect important dynamical and coherent features of the system. Furthermore, as will be discussed in detail here, the scaling curve itself represents the single particle momentum distribution of constituents inside the target. It is therefore prudent to plot the data in terms of a suitable scaling variable since this immediately focuses attention on the dominant physics. Extraneous physics, such as Rutherford scattering in the case of electrons, or magnetic scattering in the case of thermal neutrons is factored out and the use of a scaling variable (such as y) automatically takes into account the fact that the target is a bound state of well-defined constituents. In this talk I shall concentrate almost entirely on non-relativistic systems. Although the formalism applies equally well to both electron scattering from nuclei and thermal neutron scattering from liquids, I shall, because of my background, usually be thinking of the former. On the other hand I shall completely ignore spin considerations so, ironically, the results actually apply more to the latter case!

  16. Elders Health Empowerment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Empowerment refers to patient skills that allow them to become primary decision-makers in control of daily self-management of health problems. As important the concept as it is, particularly for elders with chronic diseases, few available instruments have been validated for use with Spanish speaking people. Objective: Translate and adapt the Health Empowerment Scale (HES) for a Spanish-speaking older adults sample and perform its psychometric validation. Methods: The HES was adapted based on the Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form. Where "diabetes" was mentioned in the original tool, it was replaced with "health" terms to cover all kinds of conditions that could affect health empowerment. Statistical and Psychometric Analyses were conducted on 648 urban-dwelling seniors. Results: The HES had an acceptable internal consistency with a Cronbach's α of 0.89. The convergent validity was supported by significant Pearson's Coefficient correlations between the HES total and item scores and the General Self Efficacy Scale (r= 0.77), Swedish Rheumatic Disease Empowerment Scale (r= 0.69) and Making Decisions Empowerment Scale (r= 0.70). Construct validity was evaluated using item analysis, half-split test and corrected item to total correlation coefficients; with good internal consistency (α> 0.8). The content validity was supported by Scale and Item Content Validity Index of 0.98 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions: HES had acceptable face validity and reliability coefficients; which added to its ease administration and users' unbiased comprehension, could set it as a suitable tool in evaluating elder's outpatient empowerment-based medical education programs. PMID:25767307

  17. Allelic Variation of Cytochrome P450s Drives Resistance to Bednet Insecticides in a Major Malaria Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Riveron, Jacob M; Bibby, Jaclyn; Irving, Helen; Yunta, Cristina; Paine, Mark J I; Wondji, Charles S

    2015-10-01

    Scale up of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) has massively contributed to reduce malaria mortality across Africa. However, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vectors threatens its continued effectiveness. Deciphering the detailed molecular basis of such resistance and designing diagnostic tools is critical to implement suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we demonstrated that allelic variation in two cytochrome P450 genes is the most important driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus and detected key mutations controlling this resistance. An Africa-wide polymorphism analysis of the duplicated genes CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b revealed that both genes are directionally selected with alleles segregating according to resistance phenotypes. Modelling and docking simulations predicted that resistant alleles were better metabolizers of pyrethroids than susceptible alleles. Metabolism assays performed with recombinant enzymes of various alleles confirmed that alleles from resistant mosquitoes had significantly higher activities toward pyrethroids. Additionally, transgenic expression in Drosophila showed that flies expressing resistant alleles of both genes were significantly more resistant to pyrethroids compared with those expressing the susceptible alleles, indicating that allelic variation is the key resistance mechanism. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis and functional analyses demonstrated that three amino acid changes (Val109Ile, Asp335Glu and Asn384Ser) from the resistant allele of CYP6P9b were key pyrethroid resistance mutations inducing high metabolic efficiency. The detection of these first DNA markers of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids allows the design of DNA-based diagnostic tools to detect and track resistance associated with bednets scale up, which will improve the design of evidence-based resistance management strategies.

  18. Resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The high degree of drug resistance observed, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is alarming. We recommend the adoption of more restrictive policies to control non-prescription sale of fluoroquinolones, its rational use by physicians, and training doctors in both private and public–private mix sectors to prevent further increase in fluoroquinolones resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  19. Scaling law systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Duechs, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A number of statistical implications of empirical scaling laws in form of power products obtained by linear regression are analysed. The sensitivity of the error against a change of exponents is described by a sensitivity factor and the uncertainty of predictions by a ''range of predictions factor''. Inner relations in the statistical material is discussed, as well as the consequences of discarding variables.A recipe is given for the computations to be done. The whole is exemplified by considering scaling laws for the electron energy confinement time of ohmically heated tokamak plasmas. (author)

  20. Tokamak confinement scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.

    1998-01-01

    The scaling of energy confinement with engineering parameters, such as plasma current and major radius, is important for establishing the size of an ignited fusion device. Tokamaks exhibit a variety of modes of operation with different confinement properties. At present there is no adequate first principles theory to predict tokamak energy confinement and the empirical scaling method is the preferred approach to designing next step tokamaks. This paper reviews a number of robust theoretical concepts, such as dimensional analysis and stability boundaries, which provide a framework for characterising and understanding tokamak confinement and, therefore, generate more confidence in using empirical laws for extrapolation to future devices. (author)

  1. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  2. Scaling up Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jannie Kristine Bang; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Gustafsson, Jeppe

    through negotiating, mobilizing coalitions, and legitimacy building. To illustrate and further develop this conceptualization, we build on insights from a longitudinal case study (2008-2014) and provide a rich empirical account of how a Danish telemedicine pilot was transformed into a large......-scale telemedicine project through simultaneous translation and theorization efforts in a cross-sectorial, politicized social context. Although we focus on upscaling as a bottom up process (from pilot to large scale), we argue that translation and theorization, and associated political behavior occurs in a broader...

  3. Resistance Welding of Advanced Materials and Micro Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard

    With the use of the Finite Element Method it has become possible to analyse and better understand complex physical processes such as the resistance welding by numerical simulation. However, simulation of resistance welding is a very complex matter due to the strong interaction between mechanical......, thermal, electrical and metallurgical effects all signifcantly in uencing the process. Modelling is further complicated when down-scaling the process for welding micro components or when welding new advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry. The current project deals with three main themes...... aimed at improving the understanding of resistance welding for increasing the accuracy of numerical simulation of the process. Firstly methods for measuring and modelling mechanical and electrical properties at a wide range of temperatures is investigated, and especially the electrical contact...

  4. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Subsurface Imaging. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) noninvasively maps the 3-D resistivity field in the subsurface. It can be used on a scale from feet to kilometers. The 3-D resistivity field can be used to infer subsurface hydrogeological features and provides good resolution mapping of confining layers of various types. ERT imaging has been used for real-time monitoring and process control of remediation processes such as soil heating, pump and treat, steam injection, electrokinetics, Dynamic Underground Stripping (TechID 7), Hydrous Pyrolysis/Oxidation (TechID 1519) and more. ERT can be deployed via rapid and inexpensive installation of electrodes using a Cone Penetrometer (TechID 243). Additional applications are described under TechID 140 (Tanks) and TechID 2120 (Injected Subsurface Barriers); see also the related technology TechID 2121 (EIT)

  5. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouchous, D.A.

    1980-11-01

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/

  6. Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Robert Douglas; Gaines, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance. PMID:25180399

  7. Cephalosporin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Bala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea, a disease of public health importance, not only leads to high incidence of acute infections and complications but also plays a major role in facilitating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV acquisition and transmission. One of the major public health needs for gonorrhea control is appropriate, effective treatment. However, treatment options for gonorrhea are diminishing as Neisseria gonorrhoeae have developed resistance to several antimicrobial drugs such as sulfonamides, penicillin, tetracyclines and quinolones. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae helps establish and maintain the efficacy of standard treatment regimens. AMR surveillance should be continuous to reveal the emergence of new resistant strains, monitor the changing patterns of resistance, and be able to update treatment recommendations so as to assist in disease control. Current treatment guidelines recommend the use of single dose injectable or oral cephalosporins. The emergence and spread of cephalosporin resistant and multi drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, represents a worrying trend that requires monitoring and investigation. Routine clinical laboratories need to be vigilant for the detection of such strains such that strategies for control and prevention could be reviewed and revised from time to time. It will be important to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for decreased susceptibility and future resistance. There is also an urgent need for research of safe, alternative anti-gonococcal compounds that can be administered orally and have effective potency, allowing high therapeutic efficacy (greater than 95.0% cure rate.

  8. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2016-09-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Keith

    2005-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to plague antimicrobial chemotherapy of infectious disease. And while true biocide resistance is as yet unrealized, in vitro and in vivo episodes of reduced biocide susceptibility are common and the history of antibiotic resistance should not be ignored in the development and use of biocidal agents. Efflux mechanisms of resistance, both drug specific and multidrug, are important determinants of intrinsic and/or acquired resistance to these antimicrobials, with some accommodating both antibiotics and biocides. This latter raises the spectre (as yet generally unrealized) of biocide selection of multiple antibiotic-resistant organisms. Multidrug efflux mechanisms are broadly conserved in bacteria, are almost invariably chromosome-encoded and their expression in many instances results from mutations in regulatory genes. In contrast, drug-specific efflux mechanisms are generally encoded by plasmids and/or other mobile genetic elements (transposons, integrons) that carry additional resistance genes, and so their ready acquisition is compounded by their association with multidrug resistance. While there is some support for the latter efflux systems arising from efflux determinants of self-protection in antibiotic-producing Streptomyces spp. and, thus, intended as drug exporters, increasingly, chromosomal multidrug efflux determinants, at least in Gram-negative bacteria, appear not to be intended as drug exporters but as exporters with, perhaps, a variety of other roles in bacterial cells. Still, given the clinical significance of multidrug (and drug-specific) exporters, efflux must be considered in formulating strategies/approaches to treating drug-resistant infections, both in the development of new agents, for example, less impacted by efflux and in targeting efflux directly with efflux inhibitors.

  10. Determining the Resistivity of Resistive Sheets Using Transmission Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyde, IV, Milo W

    2006-01-01

    In September 2005, radar cross section (RCS) measurements were made of resistive sheets, or R-cards, wrapped around a polystyrene foam cylinder to compare with a newly developed theoretical RCS prediction technique...

  11. Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The modern, ... World Health Organization is based on a four-drug regimen ... Better management and control of tuberculosis specially drug resistant TB by experienced and qualified .... a comprehensive approach including the major DOTS.

  12. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  13. Scaling violation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanski, W.

    1981-08-01

    The effects of scaling violation in QCD are discussed in the perturbative scheme, based on the factorization of mass singularities in the light-like gauge. Some recent applications including the next-to-leading corrections are presented (large psub(T) scattering, numerical analysis of the leptoproduction data). A proposal is made for extending the method on the higher twist sector. (author)

  14. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  15. Civic Engagement Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Doolittle

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development and validation of the Civic Engagement Scale (CES. This scale is developed to be easily administered and useful to educators who are seeking to measure the attitudes and behaviors that have been affected by a service-learning experience. This instrument was administered as a validation study in a purposive sample of social work and education majors at three universities (N = 513 with a return of 354 (69%. After the reliability and validity analysis was completed, the Attitude subscale was left with eight items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .91. The Behavior subscale was left with six items and a Cronbach’s alpha level of .85. Principal component analysis indicated a two-dimensional scale with high loadings on both factors (mean factor loading for the attitude factor = .79, and mean factor loading for the behavior factor = .77. These results indicate that the CES is strong enough to recommend its use in educational settings. Preliminary use has demonstrated that this scale will be useful to researchers seeking to better understand the relationship of attitudes and behaviors with civic engagement in the service-learning setting. The primary limitations of this research are that the sample was limited to social work and education majors who were primarily White (n = 312, 88.1% and female (n = 294, 83.1%. Therefore, further research would be needed to generalize this research to other populations.

  16. Difficulty scaling through incongruity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.

  17. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  18. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300.......To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  19. The Psychic Life of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    to power. This article is a first step to remedy that oversight. Inspired by Butler’s reading of Foucault’s notion of power at work in subjection and resistance, the article uses Goffman to substantiate such an account. Based on a 20-month ethnographic study of a traditional immigrant suburb north...... of Stockholm, Sweden, which is being redeveloped into a high-tech region, it offers empirical insight into the psychic life of resistance. Further, a particular resistance strategy is identified: symbolic dislocations through adherence to a boundary other than the one subjecting the self in the first place....

  20. Azole-Resistant Invasive Aspergillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2012-01-01

    with point mutation (s) in CYP51A (TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A). In the third a single target enzyme alteration (G432S) is found. These resistant “environmental” strains have been detected in many West-European countries as well as in the Asia- Pacifics. Noticeably, these two continents account...... and classes available is impressive compared to the armamentarium in human medicine, azoles will remain the most important group in agriculture due to superior field performance and significant resistance in fungal pathogens to other compounds. Hence, further spread of environmental resistant Aspergillus...