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Sample records for resistant wheat varieties

  1. Breeding of new variety Yangfumai 4 with high resistance to wheat yellow mosaic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease,new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  2. Maternal effects of the English grain aphids feeding on the wheat varieties with different resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Yi; Song, Yue; Wu, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2018-05-09

    The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, r m , net reproductive rate, and fitness index. The conditioning and transition wheat varieties had significant interaction effects on the aphid offspring's DT, mean relative growth rate, and fecundity. Our results showed that there was obvious maternal effects on offspring when S. avenae transferred bwteen wheat varieties with different resistance level, and the resistance traits of wheat varieties could induce an interaction between the conditioning and transition wheat varieties to influence the growth, development, reproduction, and even population dynamics of S. avenae. The conditioning varieties affected life-history traits related to individual growth and development to a greater extent, whereas transition varieties affected fecundity and population parameters more.

  3. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  4. Genetics of leaf rust-resistant mutant WH 147-LM-1 in hexaploid wheat variety WH 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.; Viswanathan, P.

    1999-01-01

    By applying gamma rays, EMS and their combination in hexaploid wheat variety WH 147, a total of 20 mutants (0.0226%) exhibiting complete leaf rust resistance were isolated from segregating M2 rows.When one of the rust-resistant mutants, WH 147-LM-1 was crossed with the universally susceptible, suggesting that the mutant character is controlled by one dominant gene and one recessive gene.The F2 plants derived by crossing the mutant WH 147-LM with seven near-isogenic wheat lines showed segregation for susceptibility, indicating that the mutant character was indeed generated through induced mutations

  5. A perspective of leaf rust race fhprn and its impact on leaf rust resistance in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust infected leaves of a widely growing variety Seher-06 were collected in wheat season of 2011-12. The leaf rust isolates were assessed on Thatcher derived Lr isogenic lines and a race FHPRN was identified. Seventy six wheat varieties/lines besides Lr isogenic lines were screened against this race for seedling in glass house and for adult plant resistance at Bahawalpur and Faisalabad during 2012-13. Lr1, Lr2a, Lr9, Lr19, Lr24, Lr10+27+31 (Gatcher) and Lr28 were found completely resistant at both stages against FHPRN. Molecular screening of the wheat varieties/lines indicated the presence of leaf rust resistance genes Lr9 (0%), Lr13 (43%), Lr19 (1%), Lr20 (0%), Lr24 (4%), Lr26 (23%), Lr28 (0%), Lr34 (38%), Lr37 (1%) and Lr47 (1%) in them. Field data suggested that As-02 (Lr10+26+34), Bhakar-02 (Lr13) and Shafaq-06 (Lr10+13+27) were resistant; Pasban-90 (Lr10+13+26+27), Chenab-2000 (Lr10+13+26+27+31+34), Fbd-08 (Lr10), Millat-11 (unknown) and Punjab-11 (unknown) were found moderately resistant; Blue silver (Lr13+14a), Pak-81 (Lr10+23+26+31), Bahawalpur-97 (Lr13+26) and Lasani-08 (Lr13+27+31) were susceptible while Sh-88 (unknown), Auqab-2000 (Lr10+23+26+27+31), Iqbal-2000 (Lr3+10+13+26+27+31), Bahawalpur-2000 (Lr34) and Seher-06 (Lr10+27+31) were found highly susceptible against FHPRN. Present and previous studies revealed the presence of Lr3, 10, 13, 14a, 23, 26, 27, 31 and 34 in the Pakistani wheat varieties yet lacking Lr9, 19, 24 and 28. Therefore, the latter genes and their effective combinations should be incorporated in Pakistani varieties to combat leaf rust effectively. (author)

  6. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  7. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  8. Characterization of wheat varieties by seed storageprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 6, No 5 (2007) > ... Wheat grains of thirteen varieties were collected from different ecological regions of Pakistan. ... the dendrogram for high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) gluten subunit bands.

  9. Reaction of Rust on Some Bread Wheat Varieties in Çukurova Region

    OpenAIRE

    AY, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 126 varieties of wheat between 2009-2010 years in Adana. There has not been artificially inoculated yellow, leaf and stem rusts. Races of rust in natural were evaluated in both years. Between 2009-2010 this study was conducted in Adana, with 126 varieties of bread wheat. In both years, only the natural environment leaf rust races inoculated for assessments reactions of bread wheat. According to results, 49 bread wheat varieties were found resistant, 6 bread wheat...

  10. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  11. Drought tolerant wheat varieties developed through mutation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In search for higher yielding drought tolerant wheat varieties, one of the Kenyan high yielding variety 'Pasa' was irradiated with gamma rays (at 150, 200, and 250gy) in 1997 so as to induce variability and select for drought tolerance. Six mutants ((KM10, KM14, KM15, KM18, KM20 and KM21) were selected at M4 for their ...

  12. Opportunities in Tajikistan to breed wheat varieties resistant to seed-borne diseases and improved baking quality

    OpenAIRE

    Husenov, Bahromiddin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat seed-borne diseases and options for improving baking quality of wheat, as well as the role of genotypes for breeding to achieve high yield and quality are the key issues discussed in this introductory paper. The importance of wheat for Tajikistan and how to achieve food security goals in the country is also elucidated. Wheat seed-borne diseases are caused mostly by fungi. Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici), Common Bunt (Tilletia laevis and T.caries), Karnal Bunt (T.indica), Dwarf Bunt (T....

  13. A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that elevated amylose content in products from rice, corn, and barley induce lower postprandial glycaemic responses and higher levels of resistant starch (RS. Consumption of slowly digestible carbohydrates and RS has been associated with health benefits such as decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.To evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in vivo to bread products based on a novel wheat genotype with elevated amylose content (38%.Bread was baked from a unique wheat genotype with elevated amylose content, using baking conditions known to promote amylose retrogradation. Included test products were bread based on whole grain wheat with elevated amylose content (EAW, EAW with added lactic acid (EAW-la, and ordinary whole grain wheat bread (WGW. All test breads were baked at pumpernickel conditions (20 hours, 120°C. A conventionally baked white wheat bread (REF was used as reference. Resistant starch (RS content was measured in vitro and postprandial glucose and insulin responses were tested in 14 healthy subjects.The results showed a significantly higher RS content (on total starch basis in breads based on EAW than in WGW (p<0.001. Lactic acid further increased RS (p<0.001 compared with both WGW and EAW. Breads baked with EAW induced lower postprandial glucose response than REF during the first 120 min (p<0.05, but there were no significant differences in insulin responses. Increased RS content per test portion was correlated to a reduced glycaemic index (GI (r= − 0.571, p<0.001.This study indicates that wheat with elevated amylose content may be preferable to other wheat genotypes considering RS formation. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that bread with elevated amylose content can improve postprandial glycaemic response.

  14. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.; Malinga, J.N.; Wanyama, J.; Karanja, L.; Njau, P.; Leo, T.; Alomba, E.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  15. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is ... A high degree of genetic polymorphism was observed among the wheat varieties with average ... cold, heat, soil salinization and water logging and (ii) ... and to find genetically most diverse genotypes of wheat.

  16. Induced multiple disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.; Worland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The existence of genes suppressing resistance to leaf rust, stem rust and yellow rust in hexaploid wheat has been suggested. If such genes are deleted or inactivated, a more resistant variety may be obtained. In mutant lines of the wheat variety San Pastore, selected after treatment with 20,000 rad of gamma-rays, resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust, and to some extent to Erysiphe graminis was determined. The mutants responded to infection by producing necrotic flecks in the presence of high level of disease inoculum. Similar flecks develop under stress condition. It is likely that the mother variety San Pastore carries genes for resistance which are masked by suppressor genes. Irradiation inactivates suppressors so that resistance genes which were previously masked are expressed. The first results of monosomic analysis indicate that chromosomes of groups 4 and 5 or possibly 7 may be critical for expression of resistance in the mutant lines. (author)

  17. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

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    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  18. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  19. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved breeding strategy by anther culture ... more efficient in pure line selection rather than the hete- .... Regional and productivity tests showed that Huapei 8 had .... Large-scale production of wheat and triticale double.

  20. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H2 was the best selection generation for traits with high heredity ability, and H3 was the best selection for grain traits and yield test. Consequently, we bred and licensed six new wheat varieties derived from anther culture and significantly reduced breeding time to three to five years. Huapei 8 was the newest released wheat ...

  1. New spring wheat varieties ‘Panianka’ and ‘Diana’

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    О. А. Демидов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To create new competitive spring wheat varieties. Methods. Field study, laboratory test. Results. Based on the competitive variety trial, bread spring wheat line ‘Lutescens 07-26’ has been selected due to high values of such traits as resistance to fungal diseases, grain qua­lity(protein content accounted for 15.0%, 1000 kernel weight (44.6 g productivity (3.92 t/ha and lodging resistance (9 points. In 2011, it was submitted to the State variety testing as ‘Panianka’ variety. Durum spring wheat line ‘Leukurum 08-11’ was characterized by a number of positive traits: quite a high productivity (3.05 t/ha, short stem (79 cm, resistance to fungal diseases and lodging(9 points, and in 2011 it was submitted to the State variety testing as ‘Diana’ variety. According to the results of the State variety testing in 2012–2014, spring wheat varieties ‘Panianka’ and ‘Diana’ in 2015 were put on the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine. Conclusions. For farms in Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones of Ukraine, bread and durum spring wheat varieties were bred by V. M.Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine that demonstrated rather high potential of productivity and adaptability to stress conditions. This goes to prove that cultivation of domestic spring wheat varieties will promote formation of high and quality grain yields.

  2. Economical and Morpho-Biological Features of Whiner Wheat New Generation Varieties (Triticum durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. І. Улич

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes summary of the researches, characteristics of morphological and agro-biological characteristics and features, a note is made of a significant progress in the selection of productivity and adaptability of registered Durum Winter Wheat Varieties of new crops rotation. Significant developments of  plants architectonic are marked, especially in height, characteristics of economical value, and in terms of considerable achievements in breeding of this kind of wheat. A stress in made on the need to enhance Durum Winter Wheat breeding to develop more frostresistant and drought-overheat resistant varieties.

  3. Genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in shanxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daizhen; Wang Shuguang; Yang Wude; Cao Yaping; Yang Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to discover genetic variation of gliadin composition of wheat varieties in Shanxi, A-PAGE method was used to analyze difference of gliadin composition and genetic diversity of 214 varieties including local bred, introduced and landraces wheat in recent 40 years. The results were as follows: number of gliadin band increased by 2.1 and 1.5 in bred and introduced wheat varieties compared to Shanxi landraces. In total 70 bands,the frequency of 26 bands detected from bred and introduced cultivars was up, 23 down, 21 no regular pattern compared to Shanxi landraces. In 4 gliadin zones, variation of types and frequency of gliadin band in ω zone was largest, γ was the second, β and α was smallest. Two band block of 16.5 and 19.1, and three band block of 12.9, 15.7 and 17.8 were tested in ω zone, but they do not express in the same variety. Mean of genetic distance in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than those in other two type wheat cultivars. The cluster analysis found that cultivars of landraces, bred or introduced were divided into the same group, which showed genetic difference of loci encoded gliadin in Shanxi wheat landraces was larger than the other two type wheat cultivars, namely, the level of genetic variation of gliadin in bred or introduced cultivars was not high in the last 40 years. (authors)

  4. Selecting of a new soft wheat variety of Yangfumai 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng; Liu Xueyu

    2004-01-01

    A new variety Yangfumai 2 was developed by hybridization (Yangmai158 x mutation line 1-9012) and irradiation. The flour quality of new variety meets the national standard of soft wheat, and agronomic characteristics show stable high yield, high stress toloerance and high 1000-grain weight. (authors)

  5. The Development of “Eldo Ngano 1”: The World’s World’s First Ug99 Resistant Mutant Wheat Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    The wheat black stem rust disease is a virulent race of fungus, Puccinia graminis, which affects wheat plants and is caused by a strain of fungus known as Ug99. Named for its place and year of origin, Ug99 was first discovered on wheat in Uganda in 1999. The spores of this plant disease are airborne and can be easily spread by wind. If not prevented, the disease can destroy 70 to 100 per cent of the yield of wheat crops. Annually on average 8.3 million tonnes of wheat grain is lost to this disease, costing US $1.23 billion per year. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for this disease. In 2009, growing international concern regarding the horrific impact of Ug99 on wheat led to the establishment of IAEA project INT/5/150, Responding to the Transboundary Threat of Wheat Black Stem Rust (Ug99). This project has involved over 18 countries and 5 national and international institutions, and examined possible mutation induction treatments to deal with the challenges posed by Ug99. Meetings and workshops to facilitate the project efforts have been held in Kenya and Turkey. Ug99 continues to spread globally and has now reached the Islamic Republic of Iran. There are also reports of suspected disease occurrences in Europe. It is essential that work continues on developing mutant lines for further crop protection that can be utilized worldwide to safeguard the wheat crop from this devastating disease

  6. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated in terms of polymorphism in seven winter type bread wheat cvs. (Triticum aestivum ssp. Aestivum) Altay2000, zgi2001, Sönmez2001 (yellow rust resistant), Aytýn98, ES14, Harmankaya99 ...

  7. Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móré M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012. We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012 during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

  8. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    М. П. Чебаков

    2008-01-01

    Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  9. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L. and durum (Triticum durum Desf. wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. П. Чебаков

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L. and hard (Triticum durum Desf. are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  10. Comparison of Grain Yield and Some Characteristics of Hulled, Durum and Bread Wheat Genotypes Varieties

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    Bekir Atar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the low grain yield they produce, the hulled wheat have become even more important in recent years because of their resistance to negative environmental conditions and healthy nutritional content. The research was carry out in order to comparison the yield and yield characteristics of durum (Kiziltan-91 and C-1252, hulled (Einkorn and Emmer and bread wheat (Tir varieties in Isparta ecological conditions in 2013-14 and 2014-15 vegetation periods. In both years, the highest grain yield was obtained in Kiziltan-91 variety (3992 and 3758 kg ha-1 respectively. The grain yield of hulled wheats in the first year (Einkorn 1269 kg ha-1, Emmer 2125 kg ha-1 was around Turkey averages. However, grain yield decreased of commercial wheat varieties due to the negative effect of high amount of rainfall in June in the second year, but considerably increased in (Einkorn 2150 kg ha-1, Emmer 2533 kg ha-1. N uptake was found to be lower in the than durum wheats. In terms of grain protein content, the highest values were obtained in Emmer variety (16.4%-15.3%.

  11. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. II. Durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Nachit, M.M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum), provided by ICARDA, were tested in a greenhouse experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards two varieties, differing in salt tolerance, were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment to analyse their

  12. Leaf and stripe rust resistance among Ethiopian grown wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that 20 varieties and lines harbor resistance to the leaf rust and 26 to the stripe rust pathotypes showing infection types <2+. Twelve bread wheat varieties and lines (Et-13 A2, HAR 1407 [Tusie], HAR 1775 [Tura], HAR 1920, HAR 2192, HAR 2534, HAR 2536, HAR 2561, HAR 2563 and three durum lines ...

  13. Studies on stem and leaf rust resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Stem and leaf rust resistance was successfully transferred from Agropyron to wheat by radiation-induced translocations. Mutation induction subsequently proved to be useful in separating an undesired gene for yellow pigment from the resistance. The homoeologous pairing mutant obtained by Sears was also used successfully in obtaining transfers through crossing-over between wheat and Agropyron chromosomes. Another experimental series succeeded in accumulating minor genes for rust resistance, after eliminating major genes for specific resistance. The resistance is polygenic and widely effective although not general. It is recessively inherited, and hoped to be more durable than major gene resistance used so far in the Canadian prairies. An attempt to induce mutations for leaf rust resistance in a small-scale experiment with leading Canadian wheat varieties Manitou and Neepawa using gamma rays and EMS has not been successful. (author)

  14. Genetic resources as initial material for developing new soft winter wheat varieties

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    В. М. Кір’ян

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate genetic resources collection of soft winter wheat plants (new collection accessions of Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production and select initial material for breeding of adaptive, productive and qualitative soft winter wheat varieties. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The authors pre- sented results of study of over 1000 samples of gene pool of soft winter wheat from 25 countries during 2001–2005 in Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine for a complex of economic traits. More than 400 new sources with high adaptive properties were selected that combine traits of high productivity and high quality of grain, early ripening, resistance to biotic and abiotic fac- tors (the assessment of samples for 16 valuable traits is given. The selected material comes from various agro-cli- matic zones, including zones of unsustainable agriculture. Conclusions. Recommended sources of traits that have breeding value will allow to enrich high-quality assortment of wheat and considerably accelerate breeding process du- ring development of new soft winter wheat varieties.

  15. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  16. Tripartite interactions of Barley yellow dwarf virus, Sitobion avenae and wheat varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Liu

    Full Text Available The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L., the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1 aphid peak number (APN in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (2 The production of alatae (PA was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13G and Xiaoyan6. (3 The BYDV disease incidence (DIC on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID on Tam200(13G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4 Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing.

  17. Seed priming improves salinity tolerance of wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Y.; Shafi, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response of wheat varieties to seed priming and salinity, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The performance of 6 wheat varieties (Tatara-96, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhri Sarhad, Bakhtawar-92, Pirsabaq-2004 and Auqab-2000) at two seed conditions (primed with 30 mM NaCl and un primed) under four salinity levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM) was studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that salinity, seed priming and varieties had significantly (P= 0.05) affected shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/, shoot Na/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight), shoot K/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/Na/sup +/ ratio. Maximum shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (7.71 g), shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.68 g), shoot K/sup +/ contents (1.39 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ratio (1.45) were recorded from Bakhtawar-92 as compared with other varieties. Highest shoot Na/sup +/ contents (1.43 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) were recorded from Auqab-2000 when compared with other varieties. All parameters were enhanced with seed priming except shoot Na/sup +/ contents, which reduced significantly (p= 0.05) with seed priming. (author)

  18. Development of new iraqi wheat varieties induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Al-Janabi, K.K.; Al-Maaroof, E.M.; Al-Aubaidi, M.O.; Mahmoud, A.H.; Al-Janabi, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study agronomic traits of three wheat mutants induced by gamma rays and compared with their origin 'Saber Beg' during M 8 - M 11 generations. These mutants showed a moderate resistance to leaf rust and lodging, while the origin was susceptible. Also, these mutants surpassed their origin in seed weight of 100 spikes, weight of 1000 kernels and protein yield per unit area. Chemical and physical analyses of mutant flours indicated that it could be used for bread making successfully.2 fig.,4 tab

  19. Bread wheat varieties as influenced by different nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtidar; Khan, Muhammad Ayyaz; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different nitrogen levels on four bread wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. Inqilab-91, Daman-98, Dera-98 and Punjab-96 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP), Pakistan during 2000 approximatey 2001. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having four replications using a net plot size of 2 m x 5 m. Nitrogen doses used were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/ha. The results showed that different nitrogen levels had significant effects on plant height, total number of plants/m(2), number of grains/spike, number of spike/m(2), spike weight, biological yield, grain yield and grain protein content. Maximum plant height, total number of plants/m(2), number of spikes/m(2), spike weight, biological yield and grain protein content were observed at 200 kg N/ha. Among wheat varieties Daman-98 had maximum plant height, spike weight, grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. Inqilab-91 had heavier grains and the most grain protein content, while Dera-98 had the maximum plant population and spikes/m(2). Grain yield and biological yield were statistically similar at doses of 150 kg N/ha and 200 kg N/ha. However, dose of 200 kg N/ha, compared to dose of 150 Kg N/ha, significantly increased the protein content.

  20. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  2. Hezu 8, a new wheat variety developed with in vitro mutation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mingwei

    1992-01-01

    A new wheat variety named Hezu 8 was developed by in vitro mutation techniques combining the somatic tissue culture with the radiation-induced mutation. This is the first one in the world for breeding wheat variety in such a way, that the nuclear technology was successfully applied to biotechnology. Hezu 8 is featured by high yield potential, early maturity, disease resistance, tolerance to moisture as well as good grain quality. In vitro mutation technique has proved to be helpful in increment of the frequency of somaclonal variation, promotion of the variation stability, acceleration of breeding process, reduction of the population size for variant selection, and finally, improvement of the breeding efficiency. In vitro mutation technique can be also widely applied to other crops and will open up a brilliant prospect for crop improvement

  3. Sensory Profiles and Volatile Compounds of Wheat Species, Landraces and Modern Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard

    as cooked wheat grain, flour porridge and for eight of these varieties, baked bread. Descriptors for odours of cocoa, oat porridge and øllebrød1) and flavours of sweet, bitter, oat porridge and øllebrød1) were common to all three wheat products. Wheat porridge shared 6 odour and 10 flavour descriptors...... be connected. This Ph. D. project aims to study sensory attributes and volatile compounds of wheat and its products in order to investigate variations between wheat species, landraces and modern varieties and to reveal their impact on bread odours and flavours. Furthermore to examine whether bread could......) were used to analyse sensory and GC-MS data. Differences in odours and flavours were found in all wheat products. Variation also occurred between volatile peak-areas of wheat grain- and bread samples. Twenty four selected wheat species, landraces and varieties were evaluated by trained sensory panels...

  4. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  5. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  6. Induced mutations for resistance to leaf rust in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.

    1983-01-01

    Problems related to the induction of mutations for disease resistance were investigated under several aspects, using the wheat/leaf rust system. Previously selected mutant lines, tested in M 11 and M 13 , were found to differ with regard to infection type and disease severity from the original varieties. To verify the induced-mutation origin, these mutants were examined further using test crosses with carriers of known genes for leaf rust resistance and electrophoresis. A separate experiment to induce mutations for leaf rust resistance in the wheat varieties Sava, Aurora and Siete Cerros, using gamma rays, fast neutrons and EMS, yielded mutants with different disease reaction in the varieties Sava and Aurora at a frequency of about 1x10 - 3 per M 1 plant progenies. (author)

  7. Induced mutations for rust resistance in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of variety ''Lalbahadur'' were treated with 0.04% NMH. M 2 plants were inoculated with a mixture of pathotypes of each of the 3 Puccinia species (P. graminis, P. recondita, P. striiformis). Plants with simultaneous resistance to all 3 rusts were selected. Repeated testing in subsequent generations confirmed the resistance. The mutant lines are morphologically similar to the parent cultivar and therefore could be used as components of a multiline variety. Comparison of variety pattern against the Indian pathotypes of rusts suggests that the mutant genes are different from the ones known already in bread wheat. (author)

  8. Changes in the phenolic composition of pancake fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of two wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the changes in the levels of phenolic acids during pancake preparation from refined and whole-wheat flours of two wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenolic acids, namely ultrasonic-assisted extrac...

  9. Allelopathic appraisal effects of straw extract wheat varieties on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Ben HM, Ghorbal H, Kremer RJ, Oussama O (2001). Allelopathic effects of barley extracts on germination and seedlings growth of bread and durum wheats. Agronomie, 21: 65-71. Dias LS (1991). Allelopathic activity of decomposing straw of wheat and oat and associated soil on some crop species. Soil Till.

  10. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize. Genetic diversity evaluation of germplasm is the basis of improvement in wheat. In the present study genetic diversity of 10 ...

  11. Prehaustorial and posthaustorial resistance to wheat leaf rust in diploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    In modern wheat cultivars, resistance to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina , is either based on hypersensitivity resistance or on partial resistance. Hypersensitivity resistance in wheat is monogenic, often complete and posthaustorial: it is induced after the

  12. Promising semi-dwarf mutant in wheat variety K68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1977-04-01

    A semi-dwarf mutant (HUW-SDf 1) was induced from common wheat Var. K68 through the exposure of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 15 kR. This mutant along with other induced mutants and control was assessed for yield components, yield and grain quality (M/sub 4/ generation); internode length reduction pattern and the yielding ability at three levels of nitrogen (M/sub 5/ generation). The mutant was significantly shorter in height and almost equal in tillers per plant and grains per spike to K68. However, it showed marked reduction in spike length and spikelets per spike. On the other hand, it possessed significantly higher (50.04 g) 1000-grain weight against control (41.15 g). The mutant gave 56.0% higher yield than the control. Grain quality studies indicated that the mutant possessed significantly higher (14.15%) total protein than K68. It was equally as good as K68 in lysine content. Pelshenke value (62.5 min) of the mutant indicated medium hard nature of gluten as compared to hard nature (198.0) of the control. The mutant showed 24.0% reduction in total culm length compared to K68. Reduction occurred due to maximum and almost equal reduction in 5th and 4th internodes (ca 34.0%) followed by 3rd, 2nd and 1st. The mutant showed similar yield and yield response to increasing nitrogen levels (80 to 160 kg per ha.) as for current commercial semi-dwarf varieties.

  13. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Wheat disease in Egypt is reviewed and results of mutation breeding by γ irradiation for disease resistance in wheat and field beans are described. Wheat mutants of the variety Giza 155 resistant to leaf rust, Giza 156 resistant to both leaf and yellow rusts, and Tosson with a reasonable level of combined resistance to the three rusts in addition to mutants of the tetraploid variety Dakar 52 with a good level of stem and yellow rust resistance are required. Their seeds were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 krad. Of 3000-3700 M 2 plants from each variety and dosage, 22 plants from both Giza 155 and Giza 156, although susceptible, showed a lower level of disease development. In 1975, M 3 families of these selected plants and 6000 plants from bulked material were grown from each variety and dosage at two locations. Simultaneously, an additional population consisting of 3000 mutagen-treated seeds was grown to have a reasonable chance of detecting mutants; 2 heads from each plant were harvested. These will be grown next season (1976) to make a population of 25,000-30,000 M 2 plants and screened to composite cultures of specific rusts. Vicia faba seeds of field bean varieties Giza 1, Giza 2 and Rebaya 40, equally susceptible to rust and chocolate spot, were subjected to 3, 5 and 7 krad of 60 Co gamma radiation and 800 M 1 plants were grown in 1972 per variety and dose. Up to this later growing season (M 3 ) no resistance was detected in M 3 plank

  14. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 contamination in Pakistani wheat varieties by physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Lutfullah, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the study of effect of physical treatments, such as washing and heating, on the AFB1 contaminated wheat varieties, it was observed that the reduction of AFB1 was directly proportional to washing time in all the varieties. The concentration of AFB1 was reduced more by heating than washing. The level of AFB1 in dried wheat decreased to more than 50% and 90% by heating in oven at 150 and 200 degree C, respectively. However, the reduction of AFB1 in wet wheat in which water (10%) was intentionally added was higher on heating at 100 degree C for 30 min than that in the dried wheat. (author)

  15. Antibiosis resistance in national uniform wheat yield trials against rhopalosiphum padi (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Ashfaque, M.; Gillani, W.A.; Ata-ul-Mohsin; Tahfeen, A.; Begum, I.

    2010-01-01

    The germplasm of National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (Normal) (2003-04) were screened against Rhopalosiphum padi L., bird cherry oat aphid at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (NUWYT) , Normal and 12 (NUWYT) rain fed varieties/ lines were evaluated for seedling bulk test to know the resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible wheat varieties/ lines. These results revealed that varieties Diamond and Margalla-99 and lines V-99022, 99B2278 and 7-03 were partially resistant, two lines V-00125 and SD-66 were susceptible and three varieties and ten lines were moderately resistant in seedling bulk test. For antibiosis studies, 10 varieties/ lines out of 20 were selected to know the effect of host plants on the fecundity of R. padi. Two varieties Wafaq-2007 and Diamond were the least preferred for fecundity and one line VOO125 was highly preferred for fecundity. (author)

  16. Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Iraqi Wheat Varieties and their Relationship with Bread Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhl, J.; AL-A'ani, S.; AL-Noori, F.; Sajet, A.

    2005-01-01

    The results showed that the volume of the bread baked from wheat flour of Tammoze 3 was increased significantly compared to other wheat varieties. Maxiback flour gave the smallest bread volume; whereas Abugraib and Rabi'ah bread were not significantly different. Abugraib wheat was not significantly different from Rabi'ah bread. The taste panel results were compatible with baking results. Tammoze 3 was the highest in one thousand grain weight and total protein percentage. Rabi'ah wheat flour was superior in water absorption Among the tested wheat flour varieties, maxiback flour showed best fat content. Amylases and proteases activities were higher in wheat grains than in flour. Protease activity was the highest in Maxiback flour; whereas in Tammoze 3 it was the lowest. (Author's) 19 refs., 5 tabs

  17. New early-ripening wheat mutant lines from the varieties Norman and Avalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djelepov, K.

    1988-01-01

    The English wheat varieties Norman and Avalon are high-productive, resistant to lodging and to diseases but late-ripening in Bulgaria. They are 10-15 days later than the variety Sadovo 1 and therefore suffer often from dry and hot weather, causing premature ripening and shrivelled seed. Dry seeds from the two varieties were irradiated with 10 and 15 kR 60 Co gamma rays. In M 2 , several earlier ripening forms were selected and they were studied also in M 3 in 1987. In the Table, four early ripening mutant lines and the respective initial varieties are compared. They vary significantly in plant height and grain size. The mutant lines of Norman produce smaller grain but all mutants show a higher hectoliter weight. The mutant lines head and mature 4 to 10 days earlier than the respective initial varieties. Some of them are as productive as the standard and other cultivated varieties. We shall continue testing their productivity and possibilities for their use in the breeding

  18. Growth and yield response of wheat varieties to water stress at booting and anthesis stages of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakwani, A.A.; Abid, M.

    2012-01-01

    Plants of 6 bread wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were subjected to 2 treatments i.e., control treatment (100% field capacity) and stressed treatment (20 days water stress was given during booting stage and 20 days water stress after anthesis). The findings revealed highly significant differences among means of wheat varieties in all physiological and yield traits. Almost all varieties showed their best adaptation under stressed environment however Hashim-8 and Zam-04 behaved exclusively and indicated higher relative water content (RWC), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and stress tolerance index (STI) whereas stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance (TOL) was estimated at its lowest, as these traits are recognised beneficial drought tolerance indicators for selection of a stress tolerant variety. Similarly, total grain yield per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index was also higher in the same wheat varieties that put them as good candidates for selection criteria in wheat breeding program for drought resistant. (author)

  19. Determination of iron and copper contents in certain indigenous varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Abbas, N.; Shaheen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forty seven wheat varieties were tested for their iron and copper contents. The iron and copper contents were found to differ significantly (P 0.05) with respect to iron and copper contents. The variety named Dirk was found to possess the highest iron contents, while the variety Pasban-90 showed the highest copper contents. The varieties Dirk, Sariab, Tandojam-83, Punjab-88, Sarsabz, Punjab-81, Sandal and Sind-81 contained significantly higher iron contents as compared to other wheat varieties. The varieties, which contained the highest concentrations of copper, were Pasban-90, Chenab-79, Faisalabad-85, Lyp-73, Sind-81, Anmol-91, C-271, Rohtas-90 and Chakwal-86. However, the differences in copper contents among all these wheat varieties were non-significant (P>0.05). These varieties can therefore, be recommended to be included for future breeding and commercial exploitation. (author)

  20. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations...... and maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the influence...

  1. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Sasek, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation induction has been used over a period of 20 years to obtain mutants of wheat with improved disease resistance. 34 wheat cultivars have been treated with X-rays, gamma rays, thermal neutrons or EMS. A great number of mutants were selected. Their mutational origin was verified by electrophoretic analysis of gliadin spectra. Resistances have been confirmed over several generations. None of the mutants have been released yet for commercial cultivation because of shortcomings in yield or susceptibility to other diseases. The use of mutants in cross-breeding is considered. (author)

  2. Drought resistance in durum wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.

    1993-01-01

    Durum wheat is widely grown as a rainfed crop in the semi-arid tropics. Its production is low and variable from season to season due to frequent drought-stress. Characterization of target environment and employing both analytical and empirical breeding approaches would speed up progress in

  3. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  4. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubo Wang

    Full Text Available Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn, transpiration rate (E, and stomatal conductance (Gs, but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE. At the meantime, the nitrogen (N supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP, the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII, and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root-shoot ratio (R/S increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root-shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency.

  5. Fast neutron radiation induced Glu-B1 deficient lines of an elite bread wheat variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded by the B-genome were identified from a fast-neutron radiation-mutagenized population of Summit, an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The mutant lines differ from the wild-type progenit...

  6. Construction and analysis of a microsatellite-based database of european wheat varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röder, M.S.; Wendehake, K.; Korzun, V.; Bredemeijer, G.; Laborie, D.; Bertrand, L.; Isaac, P.; Vosman, B.

    2002-01-01

    A database of 502 recent European wheat varieties, mainly of winter type, was constructed using 19 wheat microsatellites and one secalin-specific marker. All datapoints were generated in at least two laboratories using different techniques for fragment analysis. An overall level of >99.5ccuracy

  7. based molecular characterization of popular wheat varieties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... (Talbert et al., 1994) and AFLP (Barrett and Kidwell,. 1998) have been used for the estimation of genetic diversity in wheat. The RAPD technique, regardless of its sensitivity to reaction conditions and problems with repeatability and amplifying of non-homologous sequen- ces (Devos and Gale, 1992), has ...

  8. Characterization and glutenin diversity in tetraploid wheat varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Important methods applied for the breeding of bread-quality wheat (Triticum durum L.) consist of small- scale bread-quality tests for the determination of the grain protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume, thousand weight kernel and ... marked as a x and y – type subunits, based on their electrophoretic ...

  9. Radio protective effect of gibberellic acid in wheat variety C306

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppal, S.; Maherchandani, N.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was planned to see the effect of GA 3 concentrations on the seedling height and chromosomal damage in a responsive wheat variety C 306, treated with gamma radiation. (author). 13 refs

  10. Vernalization requirement of winter bread wheat modern varieties (Tritikum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Булавка

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of vernalization requierement of winter bread wheat 87 modem varieties from Ukraine and Russia showed significant domination - 81.6% - of varieties with short vernalization requierement (30-40 days. Vernalization requierement differences among varieties from different climatic zones were revealed.

  11. Vernalization requirement of winter bread wheat modern varieties (Tritikum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Н. В. Булавка; Л. М. Голик

    2007-01-01

    The study of vernalization requierement of winter bread wheat 87 modem varieties from Ukraine and Russia showed significant domination - 81.6% - of varieties with short vernalization requierement (30-40 days). Vernalization requierement differences among varieties from different climatic zones were revealed.

  12. Induced mutations for resistance to powdery mildew in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueyu

    1990-01-01

    The most serious diseases of wheat in the Yangtze River Valley in China are powdery mildew and scab. Breeding for disease resistance either using conventional methods or through mutation breeding is the best way of controlling these diseases. Mutation breeding may be valuable in obtaining genotypes with resistance or tolerance, or for breaking undesirable linkages involving existing genes for disease resistance. The following commercial varieties were used: Yangmai 3, Ningmai 3 and Ningmai 6. They are high-yielding varieties, but susceptible to powdery mildew. Seeds of these cultivars were treated with gamma-rays. The material was screened in the seedling stage in M 2 in the greenhouse and under field conditions in M 3 -M 4 and later generations. The seedlings were inoculated with a spore suspension of the powdery mildew fungus. The most resistant mutant selected from variety Ningmai 3 was the line 34080 with resistance to races 4, 16 and 20. According to the number of progenies in M 2 , the mutation frequency was 1.2x10 -4 . The other two mutants (34157, 34158) were screened from variety Yangmai 3. Mutant 34157 showed a stable resistance to races 4, 16 and 20; mutant 34158 was resistant to races 4 and 20 but susceptible to race 16. Tracing them back to M 2 progeny, the mutation frequency was 1.0x10 -4 . From electrophoretic analysis of mildew resistant mutant lines of wheat we found that the zymogram of peroxidase in resistant lines 34080 and 34157 was different from their parents and that these lines do not have band 3A

  13. Estimation of adaptive of bread spring wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Власенко

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of adaptive of varieties it is offered to use the aggregate of estimations of stability and plasticity in the integrated index - rating of adaptive of varieties. The high rating of adaptive on the parameters of productivity have the varieties Elegia myronivska, Kolektyvna 3, Etud and Suita.

  14. Induced mutations for horizontal resistance. A model study using leaf rust resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, V.L.; Sawhney, R.N.; Kumar, R.

    1983-01-01

    A mutant with seemingly non-specific resistance to leaf rust was obtained some time ago from the wheat variety Kharchia Local treated with NMH. This mutant is being studied genetically and in its disease reaction by laboratories in Australia, Canada and India in co-operation. The mutant showed a dominant inheritance of resistance in F 1 , but different segregation in F 2 and F 3 . This peculiar genetic behaviour has so far not been explained. (author)

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of essential elements in different varieties of wheat grown in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Kazi, T.G.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Sahito, S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) has been used to characterize essential elements in wheat. The procedure has been validated by analyzing a certified sample obtained from the Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department. Several wheat samples of known origin, variety and crop year have been analysed to determine the content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric. Considerable amount of essential elements was to be found in each variety of wheat. The values of each element were compared with certified samples, which is at the 95 to 98 % confidence limit. The resulting compositions of the different samples have been used to assess species, origin and variety of the examined wheat. (author)

  16. Experimental mutation of disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisova, A.; Hanis, M.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    In 1968 to 1974, 19 cultivars and lines of wheat were treated with mutagens (i.e., with X rays, gamma radiation, neutrons, EMS). ALtogether 140 lines were obtained showing better resistance and/or tolerance to black stem rust, yellow rust, stem rust of wheat, powdery mildew of cereals, and root-rot of wheat. The frequency of the induced mutations was sufficiently high, i.e., 0.0012 to 0.078 mutants per 100 plants of M 2 . The major part of mutant lines showed a lower agronomical value due to negative pleiotropy of mutant genes and a changed genetic background of mutants. Some mutant lines can be used as the starting material in hybridization programmes. (author)

  17. Assessment of chapatti quality of wheat varieties based on physicochemical, rheological and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manju; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh; Gulia, Neelam

    2017-07-01

    Fifty wheat varieties were assessed for chapatti quality using grain characteristics, dough rheological properties and pasting characteristics. Results revealed that 88% of wheat varieties studied were medium-hard to hard based on kernel texture. Water absorption and damaged starch were found to be important parameters for chapatti quality as both parameters had significant positive effect on the pliability and puffing height of chapatti. Protein content and gluten strength parameters like SDS sedimentation volume, dough stability and gluten index were found to have a negative impact on chapatti quality. Based on chapatti quality assessment the wheat varieties were classified into four distinct clusters viz. good, acceptable, fair and poor for chapatti making. It was elucidated that 46% of the varieties studied were good to acceptable for chapatti making, while 54% resulted in fair or poor chapatti quality thereby clearly indicating the need to establish and substantiate the development of product-specific varieties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Development of RAPD based markers for wheat rust resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rust diseases are the major cause of low yield of wheat in Pakistan. Wheat breeders all over the world as well as in Pakistan are deriving rust resistance genes from alien species like Triticum ventricosum and introducing them in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). One such example is the introgression of rust resistance ...

  19. Exclusion of solar UV radiation improves photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2015-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the potential for alterations in photosynthetic performance and grain yield of four wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties of India- Vidisha, Purna, Swarna and Naveen Chandausi by ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV). The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (solar UV exclusion increased the leaf mass per area ratio, leaf weight ratio and chlorophylls per unit area of flag leaves in all the four varieties of wheat. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from the flag leaves of UV excluded wheat plants gave a higher fluorescence yield. Exclusion of solar UV significantly enhanced photosynthetic performance as a consequence of increased efficiency of PS II, performance index (PIABS) and rate of photosynthesis in the flag leaves of wheat varieties along with a remarkable increase in carbonic anhydrase, Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities. This additional fixation of carbon and nitrogen by exclusion of UV was channelized towards the improvement in grain yield of wheat varieties as there was a decrease in the UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble protein content in flag leaves of all the four varieties of wheat. The magnitude of response for UV exclusion for all the measured parameters was higher in two varieties of wheat Vidisha and Purna as compared to Swarna and Naveen Chandausi. Cumulative stress response index (CSRI) for each variety was developed from the cumulative sum of physiological and yield parameters such as leaf mass area ratio of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content, performance index at absorption basis, rate of photosynthesis and grain yield. All the varieties had a negative CSRI, demonstrating a negative impact of ambient UV radiation. Naveen Chandausi and Swarna are less sensitive to ambient UV radiation; Vidisha is more sensitive to both UV-A and UV-B and Purna is more sensitive to ambient UV-B radiation. Copyright

  20. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of hexaploid wheat and of one variety of tetraploid wheat were treated with gamma rays in order to obtain mutants with improved resistance to stem rust, leaf rust and stripe rust. Mutants with resistance to prevailing races of rusts were selected; however, the race spectrum shifted and made the mutants useless for the time being. Induction of mutations for resistance to chocolate spot and rusts was attempted in Vicia faba. No resistant mutant was found but some mutants with lower levels of infection were. (author)

  1. Genetic analysis for grain quality traits in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, N.M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Munir, M.

    2014-01-01

    A set of eight parental diallel involving seven commercial wheat cultivars and one breeding line was made to investigate the nature of gene action determining inheritance pattern of grain quality characters. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for 1000 grain weight, protein content, wet gluten and lysine content. Adequacy tests were employed to estimate the fitness of data sets to additive dominance model. Both the tests i.e. analysis of uniformity of Wr, Vr and joint regression analysis validated the data of these traits for genetic analysis. Gene actions for grain quality traits were ascertained following Hayman's analysis of variance. Results of the genetic analysis revealed that both additive and dominance genetic components were involved in the manifestation of characters under study. However, additive gene effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of these traits. Non significance of b1, b2 and b3 values revealed the absence of directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among the parental lines and absence of specific genes action respectively in all the traits. Maternal effects were also noted in 1000 grain weight, protein content and wet gluten percentage. It is concluded that additive effects are crucial in the expression of grain quality characters of wheat in germplasm under study and single plant selection may be recommended in segregating generations for effective improvement in these characters. (author)

  2. Rust resistance evaluation of advanced wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes using pcr-based dna markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.U.; Younis, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective and environmental friendly approach for the control of wheat rust disease is the use of resistant genotypes. The present study was conducted to explore rust resistance potential of 85 elite wheat genotypes (36 varieties and 49 advanced lines) using various types of DNA markers like STS, SCAR and SSR. DNA markers linked with different genes conferring resistance to rusts (Leaf rust=Lr, Yellow rust=Yr and Stem rust=Sr) were employed in this study. A total of 18 genes, consisting of eleven Lr (lr1, lr10, lr19, lr21, lr28, lr34, lr39, lr46, lr47, lr51 and lr52), four Yr (yr5, yr18, yr26 and yr29) and three Sr genes (sr2, sr29, and sr36) were studied through linked DNA markers. Maximum number of Lr genes was found in 17 advanced lines and 9 varieties, Yr genes in 26 advanced lines and 20 wheat varieties, and Sr genes in 43 advanced lines and 27 varieties. Minimum number of Lr genes was found in advanced line D-97 and variety Kohinoor-83, Yr genes in wheat variety Bwp-97 and Sr genes in 6 advanced lines and 8 varieties. Molecular data revealed that genotypes having same origin, from a specified area showed resistance for similar type of genes. In this study, an average similarity of 84% was recorded among wheat genotypes. Out of 18 loci, 15 were found to be polymorphic. (author)

  3. Comparative studies of different varieties of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Alizai, M.N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality of different samples of wheat flour, collected form various flour mills. These were analyzed physically for colour, flavour, taste, texture, microbiologically for total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, yeast, mould and chemically for moisture content, total protein, gluten, acidity, crude fiber and ash content. Effect of storage time on the gluten content was also studied. Out of 24 samples 13 samples were contaminated with mould. Deterioration of food constituents like protein and gluten was recorded in all the samples which were infected with mould. Moisture content of 12 samples out these 13 infected samples were also higher than the required standard. While the rate of 11 samples have moisture content within the specified range (less than 12%). In these samples there were no losses of protein, gluten and were also free from yeast and mould. (author)

  4. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  5. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated ... analysis proved that there has been single nucleotide changes especially in the second exon. The most ..... Successes in breeding for and managing durable resistance ...

  6. Mass photosynthesis and distribution of photo assimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fahong; Zhao Junshi

    1996-01-01

    The mass photosynthesis rate and distribution of photoassimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature were studied using GXH-305 portable CO 2 infrared ray analyzer. The mass photosynthesis rate of winter wheat varieties with better maturity feature showed little difference from the varieties with general maturity feature during the early stage of grain filling phase. However, the mass photosynthesis rate of the former was significantly higher than that of the later during the middle and late stage of grain filling. The study with 14 CO 2 -tracing method showed that the relative activity in different organs of varieties with better maturity feature was significantly higher than that of varieties with worse maturity feature during the later growth stage of winter wheat. The rate of photoassimilates distribution in stalk and root system of winter wheat varieties with better maturity was higher than that in the others organs. The physiological mechanism of difference of grain yield and plant decay in varieties with different maturity feature were also discussed

  7. Monitoring levels of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Brazilian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano L Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and its intake represents a severe risk to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of DON in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour from two representative locations of south Brazil. Experiments were carried out in Pato Branco (Paraná and Coxilha (Rio Grande do Sul in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Levels of DON were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. This mycotoxin was detected in 97% of samples, ranging from 200 to 4140 u,g kg-1. Only 17% of samples presented DON beyond of the maximum allowed by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency up to the year 2012; even though, Fusarium head blight (FHB epidemics were slight low in the growing season that the study was performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first report showing genetic variability of Brazilian cultivars to DON contamination and some genotypes have potential to be exploited as a source of low accumulation of this toxin.

  8. Seedling Resistance to Stem Rust and Molecular Marker Analysis of Resistance Genes in Wheat Cultivars of Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya Li

    Full Text Available Stem rust is one of the most potentially harmful wheat diseases, but has been effectively controlled in China since 1970s. However, the interest in breeding wheat with durable resistance to stem rust has been renewed with the emergence of Ug99 (TTKSK virulent to the widely used resistance gene Sr31, and by which the wheat stem rust was controlled for 40 years in wheat production area worldwide. Yunnan Province, located on the Southwest border of China, is one of the main wheat growing regions, playing a pivotal role in the wheat stem rust epidemic in China. This study investigated the levels of resistance in key wheat cultivars (lines of Yunnan Province. In addition, the existence of Sr25, Sr26, Sr28, Sr31, Sr32, and Sr38 genes in 119 wheat cultivars was assessed using specific DNA markers. The results indicated that 77 (64.7% tested wheat varieties showed different levels of resistance to all the tested races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Using molecular markers, we identified the resistance gene Sr31 in 43 samples; Sr38 in 10 samples; Sr28 in 12 samples, and one sample which was resistant against Ug99 (avirulent to Sr32. No Sr25 or Sr26 (effective against Ug99 was identified in any cultivars tested. Furthermore, 5 out of 119 cultivars tested carried both Sr31 and Sr38 and eight contained both Sr31 and Sr28. The results enable the development of appropriate strategies to breed varieties resistant to stem rust.

  9. Morphoagrobiological properties and productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties under the conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study morphoagrobiological and adaptive properties, level of yielding capacity of recently registered soft winter wheat varieties of various ecological groups under agroecological conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. It was established that the yield level of is a key composite indicator of genotype adaptation to agroecological growing conditions. Experimental data indicate significant deviations of yield depending on the genotype and the year of study. During three years of experiments, yield depending of the variety ranged from 4.26 to 9.71 t/ha, such varieties as ‘CN Kombin’, ‘Estivus’, ‘Tradytsiia odeska’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Lil’ and ‘Fabius’ had higher yields. In case of dry weather conditions and unfavorable agro-ecological factors, the following varieties as ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’, ‘Lil’, ‘Tsentylivka’, ‘Fabius’, ‘Patras’, ‘Montrei’ have demonstrated good adaptive properties. Their yield has decreased by 9,2–19,0%, while in the varieties ‘Mahistral’, ‘Poltavka’, ‘Harantiia odeska’ and ‘Pokrova’ – by 34.4, 42.4, 45.2 and 50.6% accordingly. Conclusions. Investigated soft winter wheat varieties differ in morphoagrobiological characteristics, productivity, height, maturation period, adaptability as well as economic and agronomic value. According to the complex of such indices as productivity, agronomic characters and properties as well as adaptability, in the microzone of Kirovohrad variety testing station it is advisable to grow varie­ties ‘CN Kombi’, ‘Pokrova’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’ and ‘Lil’.

  10. Gliadin and glutenin polymorphism in durum wheat landraces and breeding varieties of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadigov-Baykishi Hamlet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat genotypes including 7 landraces and 17 breeding varieties were studied. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acidic conditions of pH 3.1 was used to study gliadin and glutenin polymorphisms. In total, 32 gliadin and 8 high molecular weight glutenin alleles were identified. The contribution of B genome (58.5% to the allelic variation of durum wheat varieties was higher than of A genome. The cluster analysis delineated genotypes into four main clusters. According to cluster analysis, legitimacy identifying the distribution of botanical varieties through the tree was observed. The study confirms the suitability of biochemical markers for cultivar identification and genetic relation study in durum wheat genotypes.

  11. Allergen relative abundance in several wheat varieties as revealed via a targeted quantitative approach using MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogniaux, Hélène; Pavlovic, Marija; Lupi, Roberta; Lollier, Virginie; Joint, Mathilde; Mameri, Hamza; Denery, Sandra; Larré, Colette

    2015-05-01

    Food allergy has become a major health issue in developed countries, therefore there is an urgent need to develop analytical methods able to detect and quantify with a good sensitivity and reliability some specific allergens in complex food matrices. In this paper, we present a targeted MS/MS approach to compare the relative abundance of the major recognized wheat allergens in the salt-soluble (albumin/globulin) fraction of wheat grains. Twelve allergens were quantified in seven wheat varieties, selected from three Triticum species: T. aestivum (bread wheat), T. durum (durum wheat), and T. monococcum. The allergens were monitored from one or two proteotypic peptides and their relative abundance was deduced from the intensity of one fragment measured in MS/MS. Whereas the abundance of some of the targeted allergens was quite stable across the genotypes, others like alpha-amylase inhibitors showed clear differences according to the wheat species, in accordance with the results of earlier functional studies. This study enriches the scarce knowledge available on allergens content in wheat genotypes, and brings new perspectives for food safety and plant breeding. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  13. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  14. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  15. Grain yields and disease resistance as selection criteria for introduction of new varieties of small grain cereal in Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.

  16. Genetic analysis of rust resistance genes in global wheat cultivars: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktar-Uz-Zaman, Md; Tuhina-Khatun, Mst; Hanafi, Mohamed Musa; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2017-01-01

    Rust is the most devastating fungal disease in wheat. Three rust diseases, namely, leaf or brown rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stem or black rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici West, and stripe or yellow rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. Tritici Eriks, are the most economically significant and common diseases among global wheat cultivars. Growing cultivars resistant to rust is the most sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for controlling rust diseases. To date, more than 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 58 stem rust and 49 stripe rust) have been derived from diverse wheat or durum wheat cultivars and the related wild species using different molecular methods. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects of rust resistance genes, their primitive sources, their distribution in global wheat cultivars and the importance of durable resistant varieties for controlling rust diseases. This information will serve as a foundation for plant breeders and geneticists to develop durable rust-resistant wheat varieties through marker-assisted breeding or gene pyramiding

  17. Anatomical Peculiarities in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) varieties Under Copper Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabayeva, S.; Nurmahanova, A.; Akhmetova, A.; Narmuratova, M.; Asrandina, S.; Alybayeva, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (0.25 mM, 0.5 mM) of Cu/sup 2+/ on anatomical parameters of leaves and roots was investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). The results showed that wheat varieties exposed to 0.5 mM Cu/sup 2+/ exhibited significant alterations in anatomical structure of leaves and roots. The thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, diameter of vascular bundles of leaves of almost all varieties showed a tendency to decrease under copper stress. Our experiments showed an activation of defense responses in the root anatomical structure like exodermis thickening in some varieties in the presence of copper in growth medium as compared to the control. This indicates that copper ions increase the thickness of exodermis, which reduce the absorption of toxic elements by root cells. Copper stress caused a decrease in the thickness of the lower and upper epidermis to varying degrees and reduction in the diameter of vascular bundles of wheat leaves. Copper stress caused a reduction in endodermis thickness thereby decreasing the diameter of the central cylinder of wheat roots. (author)

  18. Study on Spectrum Estimation in Biophoton Emission Signal Analysis of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photon emission signal in visible range (380 nm–630 nm was measured from various wheat kernels by means of a low noise photomultiplier system. To study the features of the photon emission signal, the spectrum estimation method of the photon emission signal is described for the first time. The biophoton emission signal, belonging to four varieties of wheat, is analyzed in time domain and frequency domain. It shows that the intensity of the biophoton emission signal for four varieties of wheat kernels is relatively weak and has dramatic changes over time. Mean and mean square value are obviously different in four varieties; the range was, respectively, 3.7837 and 74.8819. The difference of variance is not significant. The range is 1.1764. The results of power spectrum estimation deduced that the biophoton emission signal is a low frequency signal, and its power spectrum is mostly distributed in the frequency less than 0.1 Hz. Then three parameters, which are spectral edge frequency, spectral gravity frequency, and power spectral entropy, are adopted to explain the features of the kernels’ spontaneous biophoton emission signal. It shows that the parameters of the spontaneous biophoton emission signal for different varieties of wheat are similar.

  19. Concentration of benzoxazinoids in roots of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochmal, Anna; Kus, Jan; Martyniuk, Stefan; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2006-02-22

    Benzoxazinones are naturally occurring secondary metabolites of some Gramineae plants, responsible for their resistance to some pathogenic fungi and for their allelopathic action. Six varieties of winter wheat grown in fields under organic or conventional systems and 11 old accessions were tested for two consecutive seasons and three plant development stages for the concentration in their roots of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their degradation products. This is the first report of six benzoxazinones analyzed in plants grown in the field. An analytical technique employing LC-DAD was used for determination. It was shown that 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, its degradation product 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one, and the lactam 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one were predominant compounds in all tested samples. Their concentrations significantly differed with plant development stage and season, but no significant differences were found between varieties and between plant cultivation systems. The concentrations of 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and its degradation product benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA) were much lower, ranging from 60 to 430 mg/kg of dry matter, depending on accession, stage of development, and season. There was no significant difference found between plants grown in different cultivation systems, but there were significant differences between old and new varieties; concentrations of DIBOA and its derivatives were significantly lower in old accessions. It was concluded that the concentrations of DIBOA and BOA, which are precursors of highly fungicidal 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, and 2-acetylamino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, are theoretically high enough to protect plants against some soilborne pathogens.

  20. Suitability of spring wheat varieties for the production of best quality pizza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehseen, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Saeed, Farhan

    2014-08-01

    The selection of appropriate wheat cultivars is an imperative issue in product development and realization. The nutritional profiling of plants and their cultivars along with their suitability for development of specific products is of considerable interests for multi-national food chains. In this project, Pizza-Hut Pakistan provided funds for the selection of suitable newly developed Pakistani spring variety for pizza production. In this regard, the recent varieties were selected and evaluated for nutritional and functional properties for pizza production. Additionally, emphasis has been paid to assess all varieties for their physico-chemical attributes, rheological parameters and mineral content. Furthermore, pizza prepared from respective flour samples were further evaluated for sensory attributes Results showed that Anmool, Abadgar, Imdad, SKD-1, Shafaq and Moomal have higher values for protein, gluten content, pelshenke value and SDS sedimentation and these were relatively better in studied parameters as compared to other varieties although which were considered best for good quality pizza production. TD-1 got significantly highest score for flavor of pizza and lowest score was observed from wheat variety Kiran. Moreover, it is concluded from current study that all wheat varieties except TJ-83 and Kiran exhibited better results for flavor.

  1. Biochemical and genetic variation of some Syrian wheat varieties using NIR, RAPD and AFLPs techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, B.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess chemical components and genetic variability of five Syrian wheat varieties using NIR, RAPD and AFLP techniques. NIR technique showed that Cham6 was the best variety in term of wheat grain quality due to their lowest protein (%), hardness, water uptake and baking volume and the highest starch (%) compared to the other tested varieties. PCR amplifications with 21 RAPD primers and 13 AFLP PCs primer combinations gave 104 and 466 discernible loci of which 24 (18.823%) and 199 (45.527%) were polymorphic for the both techniques respectively. Our data indicated that the three techniques gave similar results regarding the degree of relatedness among the tested varieties. In the present investigation, AFLP fingerprinting was more efficient than the RAPD assay. Where the letter exhibited lower Marker Index (MI) average (0.219) compared to AFLP one (3.203). The pattern generated by RAPD, AFLPs markers or by NIR separated the five wheat varieties into two groups. The first group consists of two subclusters. The first subcluster involved Cham8 and Bohous6, while the second one includes Cham6 that is very closed to precedent varieties. The second group consists of Bohous9 and Cham7 that were also closely related. Based on this study, the use of NIR, RAPD and AFLP techniques could be a powerful tool to detect the effectiveness relationships of these technologies. (author)

  2. The experience in the development of a new soft wheat variety of Yangfumai 2 with good quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Han Yuepen; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng; Liu Xueyu

    2004-01-01

    A new variety Yangfumai 2 derived from a combination, Yangmail 58 x 1-9012, was developed by the way of hybridization and irradiation. Its flour quality meets the standard of national soft wheat, and its agronomic characteristics are described as the high and steady yield, resistance to bad growth condition, the high value of 1000-grainweight and the good-looking at the late seed-filling stage. Yangfumai 2 is suitable to growth in the region of Huaihe canallying in the south along Yangtze River in the middle and lower area. (authors)

  3. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

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    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  5. Mechanism of Resistance in two Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Lines to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis Noxia: Homoptra: Aphididae) in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinga, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is a recent pest of small cereals that is causing severe yield losses in farmers' fields and farmers have demanded a resistant wheat line. In wheat the pest causes both direct and indirect damage resulting in losses of up to 90%. Control of the aphid is a major constraint in the production of wheat in Kenya requiring the use of more than one systematic insecticide application.This cost is prohibitive.Breeding wheat for resistance to Russian wheat is the cheapest alternative and is the international trend. The use of Russian wheat aphid resistant cultivars may reduce the impact of these pest on cereal production. A study was therefore conducted in Kenya to understand and determine the genetics of inheritance pattern of D. noxia present in two new sources of resistance (RWA 8 and RWA 16). These two new sources would be potential donors of D. noxia resistance in breeding programmes. The two resistant donors with unknown resistance genes for Diuraphis noxia were crossed with susceptible Kenyan commercial wheat cultivar, Heroe. Resistant reaction of F 1 ,BC 1 and F2 indicated that resistance in the two lines differed. Resistant in RWA 8 may be controlled by a single dominant genes while RWA 16 by two incomplete dominant genes. It is unknown wether these genes are identical to any known, designated resistance genes. However, their resistance has been shown to be effective on the RWA population in Kenya. As studies continue on these genes at molecular level, it is recommended that resistant populations are carried on through the breeding programme to possibly identify and release a resistant variety for commercial production

  6. Application of Mutation Techniques in the Development of Drought Tolerant Wheat Varieties in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.G.; Wanga, H.

    1998-01-01

    Development of drought tolerant wheat is very important for Kenya as it could lead to utilisation of a large area of the country, which is otherwise under-utilised for crop production. At present there is no crop of economic importance, which being grown in this area. Mutation technique form one of the breeding methods, which can be used to produce suitable wheat varieties for drought prone areas in this country. Wheat seed variety ''pasa'' was irradiated with 160 gy from cobalt source. These irradiated seed were planted at the cage at Njoro, in the main season of 1996. At M2, 4 heads were harvested from 20 selected plants in each row. These were threshed singly. Three of the heads were planted in three sites which experience drought (Katumani, Naivasha and Narok), while one was kept as reserve. Selections of M3 plants, which showed tolerance to drought as compared to the parent variety were made.The parent scored 2 on a 1 to 5 scale for drought tolerance. On this scale 1 indicates susceptibility to drought while 5 indicates drought tolerance. Twenty-one M3 selections scored 4 or 5 on this scale. These therefore showed higher degree of drought tolerance than pasa. For those to score higher than pasa, mutation should have induced some higher degree of drought tolerance.There is indication that, mutation techniques could be used in inducing drought tolerance to wheat growing in Kenya (author)

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Hellum Nielsen

    Full Text Available Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA. These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8 locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  9. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency of bloat in stocker cattle. In

  10. Early growth response of six wheat varieties under artificial osmotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakwani, A.A.; Dennett, M.D.; Munir, M

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions where seeds of six wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were raised in Petri dishes and were either treated with distilled water (control) or 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 solution. Seeds were treated with 15% PEG solution to establish an artificial osmotic stress condition (water stress) and observe its effect on germination percentage, coleoptile length, shoot and root length, fresh weight of shoot and root. A significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded between varietal and treatment means regarding all traits. Variety Hashim-8 gave maximum germination percentage (93.33%) whereas maximum coleoptile (1.78 cm) and shoot length (5.77 cm) was observed in variety DN-73 which was statistically at par with variety Hashim-8. Similarly, root length (3.63 g), fresh shoot (0.15 g) and root weight (0.12 g) was maximum in variety Dera-98 which was statistically at par with variety Hashim-8. A second experiment was carried out under glass house environment where plants were treated with non-stress (100% field capacity) and water stress (35% field capacity) treatments. Although total grain yield was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all six wheat varieties when grown in water stress condition however Hashim-8 showed the lowest reduction (13%) while Zam-04 showed the highest (32%). The outcome of both experiments indicated that these varieties have great potential to incorporate with the existing commercial wheat varieties in order to obtain high yield in water stress regions. (author)

  11. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  13. TaEDS1 genes positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guiping; Wei, Bo; Li, Guoliang; Gong, Caiyan; Fan, Renchun; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2018-04-01

    Three EDS1 genes were cloned from common wheat and were demonstrated to positively regulate resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The EDS1 proteins play important roles in plant basal resistance and TIR-NB-LRR protein-triggered resistance in dicots. Until now, there have been very few studies on EDS1 in monocots, and none in wheat. Here, we report on three common wheat orthologous genes of EDS1 family (TaEDS1-5A, 5B and 5D) and their function in powdery mildew resistance. Comparisons of these genes with their orthologs in diploid ancestors revealed that EDS1 is a conserved gene family in Triticeae. The cDNA sequence similarity among the three TaEDS1 genes was greater than 96.5%, and they shared sequence similarities of more than 99.6% with the respective orthologs from diploid ancestors. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the EDS1 family originated prior to the differentiation of monocots and dicots, and EDS1 members have since undergone clear structural differentiation. The transcriptional levels of TaEDS1 genes in the leaves were obviously higher than those of the other organs, and they were induced by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. The BSMV-VIGS experiments indicated that knock-down the transcriptional levels of the TaEDS1 genes in a powdery mildew-resistant variety of common wheat compromised resistance. Contrarily, transient overexpression of TaEDS1 genes in a susceptible common wheat variety significantly reduced the haustorium index and attenuated the growth of Bgt. Furthermore, the expression of TaEDS1 genes in the Arabidopsis mutant eds1-1 complemented its susceptible phenotype to powdery mildew. The above evidences strongly suggest that TaEDS1 acts as a positive regulator and confers resistance against powdery mildew in common wheat.

  14. Rheological characteristics of flours milled from different wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Haris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological quality was studied of wheat flours from three varieties of Triticum aestivum L. (Arida, Meritto, Verita delivered to the mill for three years (2007–2009. Physico-chemical parameters observed during the purchase of grain (STN 461100-2 were not significantly different. Also milled flours from tested varieties have by processors required ash content, gluten, acceptable Zeleny index, α-amylase activity (falling number, but as the rheological properties of dough from these flours show, these parameters are unsuited enough (unsuitability of material for efficient processing of flour. Rheological evaluation showed that each variety is suitable for different processing direction. Therefore, if we deliberately separate lots of purchased grain, not only by basic physico-che­mi­cal properties listed in the current standards (CSN and STN, but also by their rheological properties, which are important and reliable indicator of the direction of the end-use processing of wheat flours, the flours will be more likely to succeed in specific cereal technology. For the production of bread was satisfactory rheological properties of dough from variety Arida. Verita variety is suitable for processing into wafers, and a variety Meritto for producing biscuits and crackers. Verita and Me­rit­to varieties so do not achieved the expected values of the rheological optimum for „classic“ bread processing (bakery products despite satisfactory gluten content and falling number to use this processing direction. Reported results show us the possibilities of more efficient selection of varieties or lots purchased grain of wheat for use in baking and buscuit industry by using rheological evaluation methods. Results were evaluated by analysis of data exploration (Boxplot, scattering graphs, classical nonparametric testing of hypotheses and the distribution of the data (Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, rates central tendency and dispersion.

  15. Studies on in vitro induction mutation for wheat mutant of resistance to root rot and its resistance mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1992-06-01

    The screening wheat mutant which has the resistance to root rot was completed in 37 varieties by in vitro induction mutation method. The effect of irradiation on in vitro culture of different wheat explants and the effectiveness of screening rude toxin were studied. Two wheat mutants, RB500 and RB501, which have the resistance to root rot, were obtained. Changes of the ultrastructure and defensive enzymes (SOD, ROD and PAL) were investigated by using mutants and parent under the action of rude toxin. The results showed that the rude toxin could induce changes of enzyme activity, isoenzyme pattern and ultrastructure of the mitochondria and chloroplast. These change correspond to their ability of resistance to disease. The mutant under the action of toxin has the ability to increase the defensive enzyme activity and to reduce the damage of cell membrane system that would result in resistance increasing

  16. Molecular markers based identification of diversity for drought tolerance in bread wheat varieties and synthetic hexaploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahid Hussain; Munir, Muhammad; Kazi, Abdul Mujeeb; Mujtaba, Tahir; Ahmed, Zaheer

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of the wheat genome has delayed the development and application of molecular markers to this species and wheat now lies behind barley, maize and rice in marker development. However, improvements in marker detection systems and in the techniques used to identify markers linked to useful traits has allowed considerable advances to be made in recent years. To evaluate the genetic diversity 53 genotypes of Richard's selection, were studied at National Agriculture Reseach Center (NARC) Islamabad. The present study found that RAPD analysis is a valuable diagnostic tool. Different sets of RAPD primers were used to study the polymorphism at molecular level. Highest number of amplifications was shown by primer OpG-2 in Richard's material. Coefficient of similarity as well as genetic distances among these three sets of materials was calculated by using Unweighted Pair Group of Arithamatic Means (UPGMA) function (Nei and Li, 1979). The SHs derived genotypes of Richard's selection were highly polymorphic with a polymorphism percentage of 69.70 as compared to NUYT (rainfed) and elite Pakistani bread wheat varieties with a polymorphism of 44.44% and 61.11% respectively. Cluster analysis was done in which grouping of genotypes was done on the basis of genetic distances. Cluster analysis revealed that genotypes of Richard's genotypes are showing high level of among cultivar variation as compared to NUYT (Rainfed) and elite Pakistani drought tolerant bread wheat varieties. These genotypes were also phenotypically evaluated.

  17. Induced mutation aiming at obtaining lodging resistance in wheat C V.Omid(Triticum Aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, F.; Rezazadeh, M.; Ghohari, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been an important part breeding research for solving some of the existing problems related to wheat. A locally adopted wheat cultivar 'Omid' which is a traditionally tall wheat mostly cultivated in regions with a continental climate and is susceptible to lodging was chosen as research material. The nuclear research department for agriculture of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran initiated a mutation breeding program for creating genetic variability in wheat using this local cultivar. Seeds of this variety was irradiated with gamma radiation (50-150 Gy) to induce short straw mutants with greater lodging resistance and yield potential. from a total of about 20000 irradiated seeds 1500 plants showing promising agronomic character were isolated as potential mutants. Following progeny tests and selection 18 mutants lines entered preliminary yield trail. Further field trails at different locations gave two promising lines which are characterized by higher yield, lodging resistance and early maturity. (author). 3 tabs

  18. Resistance to stem rust Ug99 in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vera, Eric E; Nelson, Sarah; Singh, Ravi P; Basnet, Bhoja R; Haley, Scott D; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz G; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Rouse, Matthew N; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2014-01-01

    Identified SSR markers ( Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 ) linked with stem rust resistance for efficient use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of resistance genes in wheat breeding programs. More than 80 % of the worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) area is currently sown with varieties susceptible to the Ug99 race group of stem rust fungus. However, wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk, and Ripper have demonstrated Ug99 resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations derived from crosses of a susceptible parent with each of the resistant lines. The segregation of resistance in each population indicated the presence of a single gene. The resistance gene in Niini mapped to short arm of chromosome 6D and was flanked by SSR markers Xcfd49 at distances of 3.9 cM proximal and Xbarc183 8.4 cM distal, respectively. The chromosome location of this resistance was validated in three other populations: PBW343/Coni, PBW343/Tinkio, and Cacuke/Pfunye. Resistance initially postulated to be conferred by the SrTmp gene in Blouk and Ripper was also linked to Xcfd49 and Xbarc183 on 6DS, but it was mapped proximal to Xbarc183 at a similar position to previously mapped genes Sr42 and SrCad. Based on the variation in diagnostic marker alleles, it is possible that Niini and Pfunye may carry different resistance genes/alleles. Further studies are needed to determine the allelic relationships between various genes located on chromosome arm 6DS. Our results provide valuable molecular marker and genetic information for developing Ug99 resistant wheat varieties in diverse germplasm and using these markers to tag the resistance genes in wheat breeding.

  19. Screening commercial wheat (triticum aestivum l.) varieties for agrobacterium mediated transformation ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, N.; Maqbool, A.; Mlaik, K.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is staple food crop of many countries including Pakistan. It has a large number of cultivars and genotypes. All genotypes have different tissue culture response that includes callus induction, regeneration and transformation efficiency. For transgenic plant production it is crucial to know tissue culture efficiency of a selected variety. Therefore, in the present study mature embryos of thirteen elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were evaluated for tissue culture response and their amenability to transformation. Each variety responded differently for callogenesis, transient GUS (glucuronidase) expression and regeneration. The results for callus induction and transient GUS expression ranged from 30-100% and 13-100%, respectively whereas regeneration response was quite different in tested varieties that ranged from 0-44%. Good quality callus was observed in all varieties except Dhurabi-11, Lasani-08, Millat and Pak-81. Maximum transient GUS expression (100%) was found in Faisalabad-2008. Highest regeneration (44%) was noticed in Pak-81. Results indicated that three varieties VIII-83, Faisalabad-2008 and Aas-11 are suitable for transformation in comparison to others. (author)

  20. Comparative efficiency of different methods of gluten extraction in indigenous varieties of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Samra; Hussain, Zaib; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Ahmad Nagra, Saeed; Ashbeal Ziai, Naheeda

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated six varieties of locally grown wheat (Lasani, Sehar, Miraj-08, Chakwal-50, Faisalabad-08 and Inqlab) procured from Punjab Seed Corporation, Lahore, Pakistan for their proximate contents. On the basis of protein content and ready availability, Faisalabad-08 (FD-08) was selected to be used for the assessment of comparative efficiency of various methods used for gluten extraction. Three methods, mechanical, chemical and microbiological were used for the extraction ...

  1. Overexpression of wheat lipid transfer protein gene TaLTP5 increases resistances to Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium graminearum in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Li, Zhao; Xu, Huijun; Zhou, Miaoping; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2012-08-01

    The fungus Cochliobolus sativus is the main pathogen of common root rot, a serious soil-borne disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The fungus Fusarium graminearum is the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. In this study, the wheat lipid transfer protein gene, TaLTP5, was cloned and evaluated for its ability to suppress disease development in transgenic wheat. TaLTP5 expression was induced after C. sativus infection. The TaLTP5 expression vector, pA25-TaLTP5, was constructed and bombarded into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 18. Six TaLTP5 transgenic wheat lines were established and characterized. PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the introduced TaLTP5 gene was integrated into the genomes of six transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns, and heritable. RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the TaLTP5 gene was over-expressed in the transgenic wheat lines compared to segregants lacking the transgene and wild-type wheat plants. Following challenge with C. sativus or F. graminearum, all six transgenic lines overexpressing TaLTP5 exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to both common root rot and Fusarium head blight compared to the untransformed wheat Yangmai 18.

  2. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  3. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  4. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress

  5. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K.; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Éva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda, E-mail: pal.magda@agrar.mta.hu

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Cd induces the salicylic acid metabolism in wheat. • Salicylic acid is synthesized via benzoic acid and/or ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. • Cd tolerance can be explained by the highly induced glutathione metabolism. • Salicylic acid signalling is correlated with glutathione-related mechanisms. - Abstract: Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress.

  6. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the identification of wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Rai Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Pasha, Imran; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    Quality characteristics of wheat are determined by different physiochemical and rheological analysis by using different AACC methods. AACC methods are expensive, time consuming and cause destruction of samples. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most important and emerging tool used for analyzing wheat for different quality parameters. This technique is rapid and sensitive with a great variety of sampling techniques. In the present study different wheat varieties were analyzed for quality assessment and were also characterized by using AACC methods and FTIR technique. The straight grade flour was analyzed for physical, chemical and rheological properties by standard methods and results were obtained. FTIR works on the basis of functional groups and provide information in the form of peaks. On basis of peaks the value of moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and hardness of grain were determined. Peaks for water were observed in the range 1,640 cm(-1) and 3,300 cm(-1) on the basis of functional group H and OH. Protein was observed in the range from 1,600 cm(-1) to 1,700 cm(-1) and 1,550 cm(-1) to 1,570 cm(-1) on the basis of bond amide I and amide II respectively. Fat was also observed within these ranges but on the basis of C-H bond and also starch was observed in the range from 2,800 and 3,000 cm(-1) (C-H stretch region) and in the range 3,000 and 3,600 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). As FTIR is a fast tool it can be easily emplyed for wheat varieties identification according to a set criterion.

  7. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  8. Silencing of copine genes confers common wheat enhanced resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baohong; Ding, Yuan; Liu, He; Hua, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a major threat to the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). It is of great importance to identify new resistance genes for the generation of Bgt-resistant or Bgt-tolerant wheat varieties. Here, we show that the wheat copine genes TaBON1 and TaBON3 negatively regulate wheat disease resistance to Bgt. Two copies of TaBON1 and three copies of TaBON3, located on chromosomes 6AS, 6BL, 1AL, 1BL and 1DL, respectively, were identified from the current common wheat genome sequences. The expression of TaBON1 and TaBON3 is responsive to both pathogen infection and temperature changes. Knocking down of TaBON1 or TaBON3 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) induces the up-regulation of defence responses in wheat. These TaBON1- or TaBON3-silenced plants exhibit enhanced wheat disease resistance to Bgt, accompanied by greater accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and heightened cell death. In addition, high temperature has little effect on the up-regulation of defence response genes conferred by the silencing of TaBON1 or TaBON3. Our study shows a conserved function of plant copine genes in plant immunity and provides new genetic resources for the improvement of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chana, M.J.; Ghanghro, A.B.; Sheikh, S.A.; Nizamani, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 ) commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture percentage were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2 percentage was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6 percentage), high hardness values in Imdad (70.1percentage) and Jouhar (70.2 percentage). However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71 percentage. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 Degree C for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 Degree C in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 Degree C. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU) acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality. (author)

  10. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Ahmad, S.D.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  11. Hydration kinetics of some durum and bread wheat varieties grown in south-eastern region of turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirm, A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydration kinetics of wheat varieties grown in South-Eastern Region of Turkey, covering a temperature range from 25 to 50 degree C was examined. Peleg's model together with Arrhenius relationship were successfully used to evaluate water uptake of some Durum (Local names; Zenit and BurgosBurgos) and Bread (Local names; Dariyel and Karatopak) wheat varieties during soaking at a temperature range of 25-50 degree C. Model was found to be suitable for describing the soaking behaviour of wheat kernels with a coefficient of determination (R2) and Root mean square error (RMSE) greater than 0.9805, and less than 0.051, respectively. The Peleg rate and capacity constants, K1 and K2, were affected by temperature and wheat varieties. Activation energy values of Zenit, BurgosBurgos, Dariyel and Karatopak wheats were found as 39.94, 38.03, 36.25 and 29.54 kJ mol-1, respectively. Zenit wheat was the least hydrated while Karatopak was the most hydrated one due to kernel size and protein content. General equations to describe the water uptake of wheat varieties as a function of soaking time, temperature and initial moisture content were developed. These derived equations can be used for wheat operations such as tempering, mixing, knedding etc. (author)

  12. Induced resistance and gene expression in wheat against leaf rust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... 2Department of Soil, Crop and Climate Sciences, University of the Free State, P.O Box ... Key words: Wheat leaf rust, induced resistance, priming, gene ..... transformation: susceptibility of transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris plants.

  13. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wheat and broad-bean diseases cause considerable losses under Egyptian conditions; therefore, an attempt was made to induce useful mutations in both crops resistant to diseases which may be of direct or indirect use in breeding programmes. The methodology of artificial inoculation, evaluation, selection, radiation levels used are reported, in addition to the economic importance of the varieties used. This work passed through two phases, the first started in the 1972/73 crop season with a small population, while the second in 1974/75 with a larger one to have a better chance of detecting resistant mutants. In the first phase, a total of 3563M 1 wheat plants was grown in addition to approximately 3600-44,000M 2 and 77,646M 3 plants. Twenty-two M 2 plants were selected as showing lower level of leaf rust development, but further tests showed these plants are not true mutants since they rusted at the same level of their parent varieties. Out of the M 3 plants none showed good resistance. In the second phase, 36,000, 277,080 and 289,492 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 73M 2 plants were selected as showing complete resistance to leaf and stem rusts. In field beans out of the first phase, a total of 5760, 37,200 and 33,240M 1 , M 2 and M 3 plants, respectively, was grown and none showed a good level of disease resistance although some were less diseased. These were further tested and proved not true mutants for reduced disease development. In the second phase, 8747, 203,520 and 90,285 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 27M 2 plants were selected as showing a lower level of chocolate spot and rust development. The paper also discusses the use of single versus composite cultures in mutation breeding for disease resistance. (author)

  14. Transfer of genes for stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum and imperial rye to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Rao, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Agropyron elongatum gene for stem rust resistance on chromosome 6A of Knott's Thatcher translocation line was transferred to a susceptible local durum wheat variety, Jaya, through a series of back-crosses. Plants heterozygous for the Agropyron translocation always show at least one open bivalent. Homozygotes have not been obtained, probably because of the absence of male transmission in durum background. Monotelosomic addition of the short arm of Imperial rye chromosome 3R (formerly ''G'' of Sears), which carries a gene(s) for resistance to wheat stem rust, was obtained in the local durum variety. Rust-resistant plants from parents having the added rye telocentric were irradiated with gamma rays just before meiosis, and the pollen obtained from the irradiated spikes was used to pollinate euploid plants. In addition, seeds harvested from 2n+1 resistant plants were irradiated with thermal neutrons and the resistant M 1 plants were selfed to raise M 2 families. Two durum-rye translocation lines were obtained following irradiation. DRT-1 was transmitted normally through the female gametes but showed no male transmission. As a result of this, homozygotes have not been obtained. Gametic transmission rates of DRT-2 are being tested. Alien translocations, which show normal gametic and zygotic transmissions in the hexaploid wheat, may behave differently in a tetraploid background. The results indicate that alien genetic transfers may be more difficult to obtain in durum wheat, probably owing to the reduced buffering effect of the tetraploid genome. (author)

  15. Accelerating resistance breeding in wheat by integrating marker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic resistance is the simplest and most cost-effective way to guard against disease in plants. The pyramiding of resistance genes is a useful practice in bringing about durable resistance. This study aimed to develop a series of doubled haploid (DH) wheat lines containing combinations of wild species genes for rust ...

  16. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  17. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  18. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  19. Appraisal of wheat germplasm for adult plant resistance against stripe rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Kamran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of wheat stripe rust is of great concern for world food security. Owing to resistance breakdown and the appearance of new virulent high-temperature adapted races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, many high yielding commercial varieties in the country lost their yield potential. Searching for new sources of resistance is the best approach to mitigate the problem. Quantitative resistance (partial or adult plant or durable resistance is reported to be more stable than race specific resistance. In the current perusal, a repertoire of 57 promising wheat lines along with the KLcheck line Morocco, developed through hybridisation and selection of local and international lines with International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT origin, were evaluated under natural field conditions at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB during the 2012−2013 and 2013−2014 time periods. Final rust severity (FRS, the area under the rust progress curve (AURPC, the relative area under the rust progress curve (rAURPC, and the coefficient of infection (CI were unraveled to infer the level of quantitative resistance. Final rust severity was recorded when the susceptible check exhibited 100% severity. There were 21 lines which were immune (no disease, 16 which were resistant, five moderately resistant, two resistant-to-moderately resistant, one moderately resistant-to-moderately susceptible, 5 moderately susceptible-to-susceptible, one moderately susceptible, and six exhibited a susceptible response. Nevertheless, 51 lines exhibited a high level of partial resistance while the three lines, NW-5-1212-1, NW-7-30-1, and NW-7-5 all showed a moderate level of partial resistance based on FRS, while 54 lines, on the basis of AURPC and rAURPC, were identified as conferring a high level of partial resistance. Moreover, adult plant resistance was conferred by 47 wheat lines, based on CI value. It was striking that, 13 immune lines

  20. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  1. Response of wheat varieties to different nitrogen levels under agro-climatic conditions of mansehra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, K.; Khan, A.

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment, comprising of three Nitrogen levels viz.0, 60, 120 and 180 kg/ha and five wheat varieties, viz., Pir Sabak-04 (P.S), P.S-05, P.S-08, Atta Habib and Siran, was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra, in 2011. The experiment was laid out in randomised complete block design with split-plot arrangement. The results indicated that varieties and nitrogen levels were significantly different for tillers per m2, days to physiological maturity, plant height (cm), spike length, grains per spike, 1000 grains weight (gm), biological yield (kg/ha) and grain yield (kg/ha), while harvest index (%) was significantly affected by varieties only. Maximum tillers per m2 were produced in varieties P.S-2008, P.S-2004 and P.S-2005. Maximum days to physiological maturity and grains per spike were observed in variety P.S-2008. Taller plants were produced by variety P.S. 2005. Longer spikes, maximum thousand grains weight and grain yield (kg/ha) were obtained in varieties P.S-2008 and Atta Habib, respectively. Maximum biological yield (kg/ha) was recorded in Atta Habib. Among nitrogen levels, maximum tillers per m2, days to physiological maturity, longer spikes, number of grains per spike, thousand grains weight, biological yield and grain yield were maximum when N was applied at the rate of 120 kg/ha. Similarly the interactive response of varieties and nitrogen was significantly affected for days to emergence, grains per spike, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index (%). From the study, it was concluded that the varieties, Pir Sabak-2008 and Atta Habib, produced maximum seed yield whereas nitrogen applied at the rate of 120 kg/ha performed better in productivity than other treatments. (author)

  2. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  3. Expression of a radish defensin in transgenic wheat confers increased resistance to Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Zhou, Miaoping; Zhang, Zengyan; Ren, Lijuan; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Boqiao; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

    2011-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Wheat sharp eyespot, mainly caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis, is one of the major diseases of wheat in China. The defensin RsAFP2, a small cyteine-rich antifungal protein from radish (Raphanus sativus), was shown to inhibit growth in vitro of agronomically important fungal pathogens, such as F. graminearum and R. cerealis. The RsAFP2 gene was transformed into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 12 via biolistic bombardment to assess the effectiveness of the defensin in protecting wheat from the fungal pathogens in multiple locations and years. The genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that RsAFP2 was integrated into the genomes of the transgenic wheat lines and heritable. RT-PCR and Western blot proved that the RsAFP2 was expressed in these transgenic wheat lines. Disease tests showed that four RsAFP2 transgenic lines (RA1-RA4) displayed enhanced resistance to F. graminearum compared to the untransformed Yangmai 12 and the null-segregated plants. Assays on Q-RT-PCR and disease severity showed that the express level of RsAFP2 was associated with the enhanced resistance degree. Two of these transgenic lines (RA1 and RA2) also exhibited enhanced resistance to R. cerealis. These results indicated that the expression of RsAFP2 conferred increased resistance to F. graminearum and R. cerealis in transgenic wheat.

  4. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  5. Investigation of The Relationship Between Grain Yield with Physiological Parameters in Some Bread Wheat Varieties

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    Mehmet KARAMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships between grain yield with physiological parameters in some bread wheat varieties. For this purpose, ten bread wheat genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with 3 replications under rainfall conditions in the experimental field of GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center during the 2012-2013 growing season. The most high yielding varieties in this study, Pehlivan, Kate A-1, Cemre and Anapo, were observed as standing out in terms of flag leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value, flag leaf ash ratio, leaf area index and grain filling period . The correlation analyses of the study showed positive and significant correlations between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at heading stage with chlorophyll content at flowering stage, between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at flowering and heading stages with chlorophyll content of flag leaf at milk stage and between grain filling rate with leaf area index, In addition, positive and significant correlations were identified between flag leaf ash ratio and NDVI reading prior to heading time with grain yield

  6. Evaluation of photosynthetic pigments and protein content in some gamma treated wheat varieties using 60Co as a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Sandeep; Shukla, Pradeep K.; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati; Shukla, Narayani; Gautam, Sanghdeep; Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays are often used on plants in developing varieties that are agriculturally and economically important and have high productivity. The results showed that variety PBW-154 was relatively tolerant to gamma radiation among all the verities, whereas, HD-2733 and LOK-1 were sensitive to gamma radiation varieties. The biochemical parameters in all wheat varieties, chlorophyll content and protein content, showed a significant decrease with the increase in treatment of gamma radiation stress

  7. Mutational rectification for resistance to diseases in rice and bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.N.; Kar, G.N.; Sen, B.

    1976-01-01

    The mutation breeding programme with a view to rectify the defects of severe susceptibility to important diseases of a few varieties of rice and bread wheat was undertaken using different mutagenic treatments with radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), chemical mutagens (EMS, NMU, NEU) and combination of radiation and chemical mutagens (gamma rays + EMS). In rice two mutant strains have shown moderate resistance to helminthosporiose, one strain to both helminthosporiose and blast and five strains resistant to bacterial leaf blight under artificial epiphytotic conditions. In bread wheat, out of large M 2 population, derived from different mutagenic treatments, the frequencies of appearance of mutants resistant to rust diseases were observed to be 0.03 percent in H.D. 1944 from 0.2 percent EMS treatment, 0.06 percent in H.D. 1999 from 0.01 percent NEU treatment and 0.07 percent in Kalyan Sona from combined treatment with 20 krad gamma rays and 0.4 percent EMS. The mutants bred true for resistance upto M 6 generations. A few of the mutants, resistant to different diseases in rjce and bread wheat, proved to be very promising in yield. An early (earlier to Kalyan Sona by 25 days) mutant, derived from Kalyan Sona, topped in yield out of 49 varieties tested in 1974l75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early tested in 1974-75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early mutant is having resistance to yellow and brown rusts. (author)

  8. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  9. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Burg, Simone; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici) and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM) mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew) became more favourable for another pest (aphids).

  10. Indirect effect of a transgenic wheat on aphids through enhanced powdery mildew resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone von Burg

    Full Text Available In agricultural ecosystems, arthropod herbivores and fungal pathogens are likely to colonise the same plant and may therefore affect each other directly or indirectly. The fungus that causes powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici and cereal aphids are important pests of wheat but interactions between them have seldom been investigated. We studied the effects of powdery mildew of wheat on two cereal aphid species, Metopolophium dirhodum and Rhopalosiphum padi. We hypothesized that aphid number and size will be smaller on powdery mildew-infected plants than on non-infected plants. In a first experiment we used six commercially available wheat varieties whereas in the second experiment we used a genetically modified (GM mildew-resistant wheat line and its non-transgenic sister line. Because the two lines differed only in the presence of the transgene and in powdery mildew resistance, experiment 2 avoided the confounding effect of variety. In both experiments, the number of M. dirhodum but not of R. padi was reduced by powdery mildew infection. Transgenic mildew-resistant lines therefore harboured bigger aphid populations than the non-transgenic lines. For both aphid species individual size was mostly influenced by aphid number. Our results indicate that plants that are protected from a particular pest (powdery mildew became more favourable for another pest (aphids.

  11. Dissection of the multigenic wheat stem rust resistance present in the Montenegrin spring wheat accession PI 362698

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to identify and characterize stem rust resistance genes in common wheat, Triticum aestivum, has been stimulated by the emergence of Ug99-lineage races of the wheat stem rust pathogen, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), in Eastern Africa. The Montenegrin spring wheat landrace PI 362698 ...

  12. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  13. SSR allelic diversity changes in 480 European bread wheat varieties released from 1840 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, V; Leisova, L; Exbrayat, F; Stehno, Z; Balfourier, F

    2005-06-01

    A sample of 480 bread wheat varieties originating from 15 European geographical areas and released from 1840 to 2000 were analysed with a set of 39 microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles ranged from 4 to 40, with an average of 16.4 alleles per locus. When seven successive periods of release were considered, the total number of alleles was quite stable until the 1960s, from which time it regularly decreased. Clustering analysis on Nei's distance matrix between these seven temporal groups showed a clear separation between groups of varieties registered before and after 1970. Analysis of qualitative variation over time in allelic composition of the accessions indicated that, on average, the more recent the European varieties, the more similar they were to each other. However, European accessions appear to be more differentiated as a function of their geographical origin than of their registration period. On average, western European countries (France, The Netherlands, Great Britain, Belgium) displayed a lower number of alleles than southeastern European countries (former Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary) and than the Mediterranean area (Italy, Spain and Portugal), which had a higher number. A hierarchical tree on Nei's distance matrix between the 15 geographical groups of accessions exhibited clear opposition between the geographical areas north and south of the arc formed by the Alps and the Carpathian mountains. These results suggest that diversity in European wheat accessions is not randomly distributed but can be explained both by temporal and geographical variation trends linked to breeding practices and agriculture policies in different countries.

  14. Evaluation of Spring Wheat (20 Varieties Adaptation to Soil Drought during Seedlings Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Biesaga-Kościelniak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil drought (10 days on the growth of plants, the accumulation of water and leakage of electrolytes, gas exchange, the contents of chl a + b and carotenoids in leaves and photochemical activity of photosystem II was studied at the seedling stage by transient fluorescent analysis in 20 of the popular varieties of polish spring wheat. Drought caused a particularly strong reduction in vigor of growth of seedlings, net photosynthesis rate and triggered an increase in electrolyte leakage from the leaves. Certain varieties during the drought demonstrated relatively intense CO2 assimilation at low water loss through transpiration. The varieties tested were significantly different in terms of tolerance to drought of the processes of gas exchange and seedlings development. Photochemical processes in PSII showed high tolerance to drought and at the same time low differentiation among varieties. The results obtained suggested that tolerance of growth parameters to drought and CO2 assimilation at the seedling stage may alleviate consequent depression of final yield of the grain.

  15. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE and crude protein (CP of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy (ME content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01 by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01. There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05, such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05. In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME

  16. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel wheat-Agropyron elongatum chromosome translocation line with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Xiangdong; Song, Jie; Ren, Cuicui; Xiao, Yajuan; Gao, Xiaohui; Ru, Zhengang

    2017-01-01

    Agropyron elongatum (Host.) Neviski (synonym, Thinopyrum ponticum Podp., 2n = 70) has been used extensively as a valuable source for wheat breeding. Numerous chromosome fragments containing valuable genes have been successfully translocated into wheat from A. elongatum. However, reports on the transfer of powdery mildew resistance from A. elongatum to wheat are rare. In this study, a novel wheat-A. elongatum translocation line, 11-20-1, developed and selected from the progenies of a sequential cross between wheat varieties (Lankaoaizaoba, Keyu 818 and BainongAK 58) and A. elongatum, was evaluated for disease resistance and characterized using molecular cytogenetic methods. Cytological observations indicated that 11-20-1 had 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis using whole genomic DNA from A. elongatum as a probe showed that the short arms of a pair of wheat chromosomes were replaced by a pair of A. elongatum chromosome arms. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, using wheat D chromosome specific sequence pAs1 as a probe, suggested that the replaced chromosome arms of 11-20-1 were 5DS. This was further confirmed by wheat SSR markers specific for 5DS. EST-SSR and EST-STS multiple loci markers confirmed that the introduced A. elongatum chromosome arms belonged to homoeologous group 5. Therefore, it was deduced that 11-20-1 was a wheat-A. elongatum T5DL∙5AgS translocation line. Both resistance observation and molecular marker analyses using two specific markers (BE443538 and CD452608) of A. elongatum in a F2 population from a cross between line 11-20-1 and a susceptible cultivar Yannong 19 verified that the A. elongatum chromosomes were responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. This work suggests that 11-20-1 likely contains a novel resistance gene against powdery mildew. We expect this line to be useful for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Muhammad K.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Arain, Muhammad B.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Shah, Abdul Q.; Baig, Jameel A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mg kg -1 ). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Septoria tritici Blotch Resistance in Ethiopian Durum Wheat Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef G. Kidane

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch (STB is a devastating fungal disease affecting durum and bread wheat cultivation worldwide. The identification, development, and employment of resistant wheat genetic material is the key to overcoming costs and limitations of fungicide treatments. The search for resistance sources in untapped genetic material may speed up the deployment of STB genetic resistance in the field. Ethiopian durum wheat landraces represent a valuable source of such diversity. In this study, 318 Ethiopian durum wheat genotypes, for the most part traditional landraces, were phenotyped for resistance to different aspects of STB infection. Phenology, yield and yield component traits were concurrently measured the collection. Here we describe the distribution of STB resistance traits in modern varieties and in landraces, and the relation existing between STB resistance and other agronomic traits. STB resistance sources were found in landraces as well as in modern varieties tested, suggesting the presence of alleles of breeding relevance. The genetic material was genotyped with more than 16 thousand genome-wide polymorphic markers to describe the linkage disequilibrium and genetic structure existing within the panel of genotypes, and a genome-wide association (GWA study was run to allow the identification of genomic loci involved in STB resistance. High diversity and low genetic structure in the panel allowed high efficiency GWA. The GWA scan detected five major putative QTL for STB resistance, only partially overlapping those already reported in the wheat literature. We report four putative loci for Septoria resistance with no match in previous literature: two highly significant ones on Chr 3A and 5A, and two suggestive ones on Chr 4B and 5B. Markers underlying these QTL explained as much as 10% of the phenotypic variance for disease resistance. We found three cases in which putative QTL for agronomic traits overlapped marker trait association

  19. Influence of gamma radiation on productiveness of Cuba C-204 wheat variety in spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero Torres, I.; Perez Talavera, S.; Diaz Esquivel, R.

    1995-01-01

    The percentage of flowers carrying seeds in spikes from seed irradiated plant with 100 to 800 Gy and non irradiated control plants was evaluated cv. Cuba C -204 wheat affectation. The results showed a significative (1 %) dose and s'pikes maturity time influence by bi factorial analysis. A significance of 1 % dose-maturity time interaction was obtained too and that bigger flowers carrying seeds percentage is obtained in 400 Gy radiated seeds plants. A delay of 5 days is present in the 500 Gy radiated plants maturity and a seed carrying flowers reduction of 35 % with reference to control. From 600 Gy up in the studied variety seeds were not obtained in the spring season

  20. Differential contribution of two Ppd-1 homoeoalleles to early-flowering phenotype in Nepalese and Japanese varieties of common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh T; Iehisa, Julio C M; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Nasuda, Shuhei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2013-12-01

    Wheat landraces carry abundant genetic variation in heading and flowering times. Here, we studied flowering-related traits of two Nepalese varieties, KU-4770 and KU-180 and a Japanese wheat cultivar, Shiroganekomugi (SGK). These three wheat varieties showed similar flowering time in a common garden experiment. In total, five significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for three examined traits, the heading, flowering and maturation times, were detected using an F2 population of SGK/KU-4770. The QTLs were found at the Ppd-1 loci on chromosomes 2B and 2D and the 2B QTL was also confirmed in another F2 population of SGK/KU-180. The Ppd-D1 allele from SGK and the Ppd-B1 alleles from the two Nepalese varieties might be causal for early-flowering phenotype. The SGK Ppd-D1 allele contained a 2-kb deletion in the 5' upstream region, indicating a photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-D1a allele. Real-time PCR analysis estimating the Ppd-B1 copy number revealed that the two Nepalese varieties included two intact Ppd-B1 copies, putatively resulting in photoperiod insensitivity and an early-flowering phenotype. The two photoperiod-insensitive Ppd-1 homoeoalleles could independently contribute to segregation of early-flowering individuals in the two F2 populations. Therefore, wheat landraces are genetic resources for discovery of alleles useful for improving wheat heading or flowering times.

  1. Variability in Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties differing in nitrogen efficiency as assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Ruby; Gupta, Sarika; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for half of the world. Its productivity and agronomical practices, especially for nitrogen supplementation, is governed by the nitrogen efficiency (NE) of the genotypes. We analyzed 16 popular cultivated Indian varieties of wheat for their NE and variability estimates using a set of 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, derived from each wheat chromosome. These genotypes were categorized into three groups, viz., low, moderate, and high nitrogen efficient. Of these 16 genotypes, we have reported six, eight, and two genotypes in high, moderate, and low NE categories, respectively. The differential NE in these genotypes was supported by nitrogen uptake and assimilation parameters. The values of average polymorphic information content and marker index for these SSR markers were estimated to be 0.32 and 0.59, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient for all possible pairs of varieties ranged from 0.41 to 0.76, indicating the presence of considerable range of genetic diversity at molecular level. The dendrogram prepared on the basis of unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average algorithm grouped the 16 wheat varieties into three major clusters. The clustering was strongly supported by high bootstrap values. The distribution of the varieties in different clusters and subclusters appeared to be related to their variability in NE parameter that was scored. Genetically diverse parents were identified that could potentially be used for their desirable characteristics in breeding programs for improvement of NE in wheat.

  2. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa, a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta. The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs promoter in pBAC-rbcs-ppa expression vector, was transferred into the wheat cultivar Baofeng104 (BF104 by particle bombardment transformation. Fifty-four T0 transgenic plants were generated. The inheritance and expression of the ppa gene were confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR analysis respectively, and seven homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. An aphid bioassay on detached leaf segments revealed that seven ppa transgenic wheat lines had lower aphid growth rates and higher inhibition rates than BF104. Furthermore, two-year aphid bioassays in isolated fields showed that aphid numbers per tiller of transgenic lines were significantly decreased, compared with wild type BF104. Therefore, ppa could be a strong biotechnological candidate to produce aphid-resistant wheat.

  3. Evaluation of induced mutants of wheat for resistance to fungal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.; Fuentes P, R.; Andrade S, N.; Seeman F, P.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluation of induced mutants of wheat for resistance to fungal diseases. Seeds of spring wheat cultivars Austral and Huenufen were exposed to gamma radiation in doses of 0.10 and 0.25 KGy with the objective of producing genotypes resistant to the main fungal diseases, with a high protein content and grain yield, for the southern region of Chile (39 sup(o)-44 sup(o) Latitude south). The selection process and evaluation up to the generation M sub(8) has made possible to identify mutants with a higher protein content and grain yield. Progress made in improving resistance to Puccinia striiformis and tolerance to Septoria spp., has also been important. Some selected mutants, conditioned to their future performance, could be directly used as commercial varieties and other mutants, on crosses with regionally adapted cultivars. (author)

  4. 'CM 88' - A multiple disease resistant chickpea mutant variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.A.; Hassan, Mahmudul; Sadiq, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Chickpea is the most important grain legume crop of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp cicer) are most serious diseases, having the potential to devastate a crop. A multiple disease resistant and high yielding mutant CM 88 has been developed through 100 Gy gamma irradiation treatment of variety 'C 727'. This was once a widely grown and popular variety, which lost its resistance to Ascochyta and was replaced. The selection of mutants was performed in the M2 generation grown in the Ascochyta blight nursery and sixteen mutants were selected. In the subsequent generations CM 88 proved resistant to both Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt, and exhibited superiority in agronomic characteristics. CM 88 was also tested for many years in the various yield trials on research stations and farmers fields throughout the country. In these trials it out yielded both the parent and standard varieties. The mutant CM 88 has been approved by the Punjab Seed Council on 27 October 1994 for general cultivation in the Punjab Province, especially the Thal area which accounts for more than 70% of the area under chickpea cultivation. (author)

  5. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (pdigestibility of NDF changed quadratically (pdigestibility (pdigestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat was stable during the first 3 to 6 mo of post-harvest storage, and decreased during the following 6 to 12 mo of storage under the conditions of this study.

  6. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: How diverse are wheat and barley varieties and landraces from farmer’s fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The present study described the diversity of wheat and barley varieties and landraces available in farmer’s fields in Syria using different indicators. Analysis of spatial and temporal diversity and coefficient of parentage along with measurements of agronomic and morphological traits were employed

  7. Stem and stripe rust resistance in wheat induced by gamma rays and thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorda, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts were made to produce rust-resistant mutants in wheat cultivars. Seeds of G-38290 and G-58383 (T. aestivum), Methoni and Ilectra (T. durum) varieties were irradiated with different doses of γ-rays (3.5, 5, 8, 11, 15 and 21 krad) and thermal neutrons (1.7, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 10.5 and 12.5x10 12 ) and the M 1 plants were grown under isolation in the field. The objective was mainly to induce stripe, leaf and stem rust resistance in G-38290, Methoni and Ilectra varieties and leaf rust resistance in G-58383. Mutations for rust resistance were detected by using the ''chimera method'' under natural and artificial field epiphytotic conditions in M 2 and successive generations. The mutants detected were tested for resistance to a broad spectrum of available races. Mutants resistant or moderately resistant to stripe and stem rusts but not to leaf rust, were selected from G-38290. From the other three varieties tested no rust-resistant mutants were detected. The frequency of resistant mutants obtained increased with increased γ-ray dose-rate, but not with increased thermal neutron doses. Some mutants proved to be resistant or moderately resistant to both rusts and others to one of them. Twenty of these mutants were evaluated for yield from M 5 to M 8 . Some of them have reached the final stage of regional yield trials and one, induced by thermal neutrons, was released this year. (author)

  8. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  9. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of

  10. Induced mutations of rust resistance genes in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Induced mutations are being used as a tool to study genes for resistance in wheat. It was found that Pm1 can be separated from Lr20 and Sr15, but these two react like a single pleiotropic gene. Mutants were further examined in crosses and backmutations have been attempted. (author)

  11. Effects of Sowing Date and Limited Irrigation on Yield and Yield Components of Five Rainfed Wheat Varieties in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Tavakkoli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of sowing date (SD and single irrigation (SI amounts on yield and yield components of rainfed wheat varieties, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plots arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications during 2002-2004 at main station of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh, Iran. Treatments included three sowing dates (early, normal and late, three levels of single irrigation (rainfed, 50 mm and 100 mm only at planting time and five wheat varieties (three numbered lines, Azar2 and double-cross Shahi. Results revealed that interactions of SD, SI and wheat varieties were significant for grain yield, number of kernels per spike and water productivity (P≤0.01. Single irrigation at normal planting time increased grain yield, straw, biomass, harvest index, and water productivity. Grain yield and water productivity were increased by 131% and 84.8%, respectively. Single irrigation at late planting time was not significant on agronomic traits and produced low water productivity. Regarding the reaction of wheat to planting date and single irrigation, results showed that normal single irrigation can improve yield, yield components and water productivity index. The effectiveness of single irrigation under dryland conditions can be observed in all wheat cultivars. Although this effectiveness on yield and yield components is observable, but it is necessary to select the time of irrigation properly.

  12. The Lr34 adult plant rust resistance gene provides seedling resistance in durum wheat without senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Amy; Gilbert, Brian; Boni, Rainer; Krattinger, Simon G; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F; Lagudah, Evans; Ayliffe, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) adult plant resistance gene, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57/Pm38/Ltn1, provides broad-spectrum resistance to wheat leaf rust (Lr34), stripe rust (Yr18), stem rust (Sr57) and powdery mildew (Pm38) pathogens, and has remained effective in wheat crops for many decades. The partial resistance provided by this gene is only apparent in adult plants and not effective in field-grown seedlings. Lr34 also causes leaf tip necrosis (Ltn1) in mature adult plant leaves when grown under field conditions. This D genome-encoded bread wheat gene was transferred to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum) cultivar Stewart by transformation. Transgenic durum lines were produced with elevated gene expression levels when compared with the endogenous hexaploid gene. Unlike nontransgenic hexaploid and durum control lines, these transgenic plants showed robust seedling resistance to pathogens causing wheat leaf rust, stripe rust and powdery mildew disease. The effectiveness of seedling resistance against each pathogen correlated with the level of transgene expression. No evidence of accelerated leaf necrosis or up-regulation of senescence gene markers was apparent in these seedlings, suggesting senescence is not required for Lr34 resistance, although leaf tip necrosis occurred in mature plant flag leaves. Several abiotic stress-response genes were up-regulated in these seedlings in the absence of rust infection as previously observed in adult plant flag leaves of hexaploid wheat. Increasing day length significantly increased Lr34 seedling resistance. These data demonstrate that expression of a highly durable, broad-spectrum adult plant resistance gene can be modified to provide seedling resistance in durum wheat. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of size distribution of starch granules in selected wheat varieties by the Low Angle Laser Light Scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capouchová, I.; Petr, J.; Marešová, D.

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of the size of wheat starch granules using the method LALLS (Low Angle Laser Light Scattering), followed by the evaluation of the effect of variety, experimental site and intensity of cultivation on the vol. % of the starch A (starch granules > 10 μm) was determined. The total starch content and crude protein content in dry matter of flour T530 in selected collection of five winter wheat varieties were determined. Vol. % of the starch A in evaluated collection of wheat varieties varied between 65.31 and 72.34%. The effect of a variety on the vol. % of starch A seemed to be more marked than the effect of site and intensity of cultivation. The highest vol. % of starch A reached evaluated varieties from the quality group C, i.e. varieties unsuitable for baking utilisation (except variety Contra with high total content of starch in dry matter of flour T530, but relatively low vol. % of starch A). A low vol. % of starch A was also found in the variety Hana (very good variety for baking utilisation). Certain variety differences followed from the evaluation of distribution of starch fractions of starch granules, forming starch A. In the case of varieties Hana, Contra and Siria higher representation of fractions up to 30 μm was recorded, while starch A in the varieties Estica and Versailles was formed in higher degree by size fractions of starch granules over 30 μm and particularly size fraction > 50 μm was greatest in these varieties of all evaluated samples. With increasing total starch content in dry matter of flour T530 the crude protein content decreased; the vol. % of starch A not always increased proportionally with increasing total starch content. (author)

  14. Survey the Effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum of Wheat Cultivars Resistance in Yellow Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat is one of the major agricultural crops with respect to human nutrition. It is cultivated over a wide range of environments, because of wide adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. In Iran, 6.2 million hectares are under wheat cultivation, of which 33% is irrigated and 67% is rain-fed, the irrigated wheat growing areas (2 million hectares are located mostly in southern, central and east of Iran Production of crops is under the influence of plant genetic structure, environmental conditions and their interactions. Biotic and abiotic stresses are considered to lower production. Among the biotic stress, the fungal disease is the main factor limiting production of crop plants in hot and humid regions. Stripe rust was not a serious economic concern to the wheat industry for most of the 1990’s due to the use of resistant varieties. However, by 2003 it had developed into a significant issue, particularly as new path types evolved. Even in the dry years of 2003 and 2004, stripe rust cost growers significant income. Provide country's need for wheat as a strategic product, meanwhile, production is free from chemical fungicide is a high but achievable goal. So in order to achieve fertilizer and fungicide resources that in addition to having no adverse effects on consumers and the environment, has been economically able to provide nutrition need of crop plant, is very important. Materials and Methods: With this approach, to survey the effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum in resistance to yellow rust in wheat cultivars, an experiment was conducted at the research station of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments include of Mycorrhiza fungi in three levels (without application of Mycorrhiza strain and using strain Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae, Azospirillum lipoferum bacterium in two

  15. The breeding of a wheat mutant pollen-derived variety Chuanfu No.5 and the related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Pu; Yin Chunrong; Yue Chunfang; Qu Shihong

    2002-01-01

    With the treatment of 150 Gy 60 Co-γ irradiation to the dry F 1 (Mianyang 88-334 x 8811525) hybrid seeds and the donor plants chosen from MF 2 , wheat anther culture was made based on MW 14 and modified MS media and the pure diploid lines of MH 1 derived from anther pollen were obtained. In 1996, the new mutant line 6086 and its sibling lines, 6086 and 6087, were selected and bred successfully. In 2002, the mutant pollen-derived line 6086 was denominated as Chuanfu No.5 by Sichuan Crop Variety Identification Committee and became the first mutant variety via anther culture of wheat in Sichuan. The success of Chuanfu No.5 shown that combining radiation induction and anther technique could shorten the breeding period and increase the efficiency of breeding of wheat

  16. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Resistance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to preharvest sprouting: an association analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart'ianov, S P; Dobrotvorskaia, T V

    2012-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the data about 1422 bread wheat accessions with estimated preharvest sprouting was carried out. Close associations of preharvest sprouting resistance with the grain color and with resistance to Fusarium head blight were revealed, as well as weak, but statistically significant, associations with the type of development, awnedness, and reduced height genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 (insensitive to gibberellin GA3). The pedigree analysis showed that the cluster structures of the gene pools of the North American red-grained and white-grained varieties are practically identical. In both groups, varieties that are resistant to preharvest sprouting differ from susceptible ones in the percentage of the contributions of the Crimean and Mediterranean landraces. Resistance is associated with a high contribution by the Crimean landrace and susceptibility is associated with a high contribution by the Mediterranean landrace.

  18. Screening of wheat germplasm for the source of resistance against leaf and stripe rust under climatic conditions in Bhakkar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, M.A.; Burhan, M.; Shahzad, M.A.; Aslam, M.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the level of resistance and susceptibility against stripe and leaf rust of wheat at Arid Zone Research 1, Institute, Bhakkar during, Rabi 2009, One hundred wheat genotypes were sown in second week of November. Each test line/variety of planted in two rows of 2 meter reach will two row of Morocco after every three entries to increase the disease pressure, fest lines/ varieties were inoculated thrice with highly susceptible Morocco and two most virulent Lr-26 and Lr-23 patho type. Out of eighty four test entries/varieties screened against le leaf rust, 5 exhibited resistant 21 moderately susceptible, 20 susceptible, 28 moderately resistant and 10 were highly susceptible. The present investigation indicated that there was no highly resistant lines/variety with zero disease severity. On the other hand, as regards stripe rust, out of thirty seven lines/varieties only two lines were susceptible to disease, Among other lines/ varieties, 12 resistant, 11 moderately resistant, 6 moderately susceptible and 2 susceptible against disease. Four (4) lines /varieties proved as highly resistant with zero disease severity.

  19. The repair/repopulation effects ratio in the postirradiation recovery of hexaploid wheat varieties contrast by their radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, E.M.; Sarapul'tsev, B.I.

    1988-01-01

    The cytogenic and morphometrical distinctions between hexaploid wheat varieties contrast by their radioresistance during the postirradiation period are attributed to the differential activity of caffeine-dependent repair processes; they are not a reliable function of the rate of aberrant cell elimination

  20. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Key words:

    organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain;

    plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences;

    variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation;

    onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat;

  1. Assessment of on-farm diversity of wheat varieties and landraces: Evidence from farmer’s fields in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of spatial diversity, temporal diversity and coefficient of parentage (COP) were carried out along with measurements of agronomic and morphological traits to explain on-farm diversity of modern varieties or landraces of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum L.) grown by farmers in

  2. Two members of TaRLK family confer powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Xiao, Jin; Xu, Jun; Wan, Wentao; Qin, Bi; Cao, Aizhong; Chen, Wei; Xing, Liping; Du, Chen; Gao, Xiquan; Zhang, Shouzhong; Zhang, Ruiqi; Shen, Wenbiao; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiue

    2016-01-25

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminearum f.sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most severe fungal diseases of wheat. The exploration and utilization of new gene resources is the most effective approach for the powdery mildew control. We report the cloning and functional analysis of two wheat LRR-RLKs from T. aestivum c.v. Prins- T. timopheevii introgression line IGV1-465, named TaRLK1 and TaRLK2, which play positive roles in regulating powdery mildew resistance in wheat. The two LRR-RLKs contain an ORF of 3,045 nucleotides, encoding a peptide of 1014 amino acids, with seven amino acids difference. Their predicted proteins possess a signal peptide, several LRRs, a trans-membrane domain, and a Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. In response to Bgt infection, the TaRLK1/2 expression is up-regulated in a developmental-stage-dependent manner. Single-cell transient over-expression and gene-silencing assays indicate that both genes positively regulate the resistance to mixed Bgt inoculums. Transgenic lines over-expressing TaRLK1 or TaRLK2 in a moderate powdery mildew susceptible wheat variety Yangmai 158 led to significantly enhanced powdery mildew resistance. Exogenous applied salicylic acid (SA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced the expression of both genes, and H2O2 had a higher accumulation at the Bgt penetration sites in RLK over-expression transgenic plants, suggesting a possible involvement of SA and altered ROS homeostasis in the defense response to Bgt infection. The two LRR-RLKs are located in the long arm of wheat chromosome 2B, in which the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm6 is located, but in different regions. Two members of TaRLK family were cloned from IGV1-465. TaRLK1 and TaRLK2 contribute to powdery mildew resistance of wheat, providing new resistance gene resources for wheat breeding.

  3. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Nuclear technique for inducing new genetical sources of powdery mildew resistant mutants of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jinguo; Hu Xiaoyuan; Fan Qingxia; Wang Linqing; Hong Jisong

    1996-01-01

    Three varieties of winter wheat were treated with γ-rays, electron-beams, NaN 3 , EMS with various doses and intermittent irradiation of γ-rays respectively. 16 pure varieties and 12 hybrids were irradiated by γ-rays with appropriate doses (250∼300 Gy) for inducing mutation resistant to powdery mildew in winter wheat. γ-rays, electron-beams, NaN 3 and EMS were effective mutagens for inducing powdery mildew resistant mutants. The latter two were more effective than the former. It showed that the appropriate doses were as follows: γ-rays 300∼350 Gy, electron-beams 100∼200 Gy, NaN 3 1∼3 mmol/L, EMS about 0.3%. It also showed that the intermittent irradiation of γ-rays was more effective than the continuous irradiation for inducing powdery mildew resistant mutants. Irradiating hybrids were more effective materials than pure varieties for this purpose. 86 mutants with resistance to powdery mildew were obtained

  5. The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. E. Ball

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG, in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI, live weight gain (LWG and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05 affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F wheats. An increase (p<0.1 of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the

  6. Perspectives to breed for improved baking quality wheat varieties adapted to organic growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Aart M; Struik, Paul C; van Bueren, Edith T Lammerts

    2012-01-30

    Northwestern European consumers like their bread to be voluminous and easy to chew. These attributes require a raw material that is rich in protein with, among other characteristics, a suitable ratio between gliadins and glutenins. Achieving this is a challenge for organic growers, because they lack cultivars that can realise high protein concentrations under the relatively low and variable availability of nitrogen during the grain-filling phase common in organic farming. Relatively low protein content in wheat grains thus needs to be compensated by a high proportion of high-quality protein. Organic farming therefore needs cultivars with genes encoding for optimal levels of glutenins and gliadins, a maximum ability for nitrogen uptake, a large storage capacity of nitrogen in the biomass, an adequate balance between vegetative and reproductive growth, a high nitrogen translocation efficiency for the vegetative parts into the grains during grain filling and an efficient conversion of nitrogen into high-quality proteins. In this perspective paper the options to breed and grow such varieties are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparative efficiency of different methods of gluten extraction in indigenous varieties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Samra; Hussain, Zaib; Ghafoor, Farkhanda; Nagra, Saeedahmad; Ziai, Naheeda Ashbeal

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated six varieties of locally grown wheat (Lasani, Sehar, Miraj-08, Chakwal-50, Faisalabad-08 and Inqlab) procured from Punjab Seed Corporation, Lahore, Pakistan for their proximate contents. On the basis of protein content and ready availability, Faisalabad-08 (FD-08) was selected to be used for the assessment of comparative efficiency of various methods used for gluten extraction. Three methods, mechanical, chemical and microbiological were used for the extraction of gluten from FD-08. Each method was carried out under ambient conditions using a drying temperature of 55 degrees C. Mechanical method utilized four different processes viz:- dough process, dough batter process, batter process and ethanol washing process using standard 150 mesh. The starch thus obtained was analyzed for its proximate contents. Dough batter process proved to be the most efficient mechanical method and was further investigated using 200 and 300 mesh. Gluten content was determined using sandwich omega-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The results of dough batter process using 200 mesh indicated a starch product with gluten content of 678 ppm. Chemical method indicated high gluten content of more than 5000 ppm and the microbiological method reduced the gluten content from 2500 ppm to 398 ppm. From the results it was observed that no gluten extraction method is viable to produce starch which can fulfill the criteria of a gluten free product (20 ppm).

  8. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking.

  9. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko D. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  10. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  11. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G.; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using...

  12. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  13. Generation of marker-free transgenic hexaploid wheat via an Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation strategy in commercial Chinese wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Liu, Huiyun; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo

    2017-05-01

    Genotype specificity is a big problem lagging the development of efficient hexaploid wheat transformation system. Increasingly, the biosecurity of genetically modified organisms is garnering public attention, so the generation of marker-free transgenic plants is very important to the eventual potential commercial release of transgenic wheat. In this study, 15 commercial Chinese hexaploid wheat varieties were successfully transformed via an Agrobacterium-mediated method, with efficiency of up to 37.7%, as confirmed by the use of Quickstix strips, histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blotting. Of particular interest, marker-free transgenic wheat plants from various commercial Chinese varieties and their F 1 hybrids were successfully obtained for the first time, with a frequency of 4.3%, using a plasmid harbouring two independent T-DNA regions. The average co-integration frequency of the gus and the bar genes located on the two independent T-DNA regions was 49.0% in T 0 plants. We further found that the efficiency of generating marker-free plants was related to the number of bar gene copies integrated in the genome. Marker-free transgenic wheat plants were identified in the progeny of three transgenic lines that had only one or two bar gene copies. Moreover, silencing of the bar gene was detected in 30.7% of T 1 positive plants, but the gus gene was never found to be silenced in T 1 plants. Bisulphite genomic sequencing suggested that DNA methylation in the 35S promoter of the bar gene regulatory region might be the main reason for bar gene silencing in the transgenic plants. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Treated Hydroponic Culture Reduces Length and Diameter of Root Hairs of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important cereal crop worldwide that often suffers from moisture deficits at the reproductive stage. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-treated hydroponic conditions create negative osmotic potential which is compared with moisture deficit stress. An experiment was conducted in a growth chamber to study the effects of PEG on root hair morphology and associated traits of wheat varieties. Plants of 13 wheat varieties were grown hydroponically and three different doses of PEG 6000 (w/v: 0% (control, 0.3% and 0.6% (less than −1 bar were imposed on 60 days after sowing for 20 days’ duration. A low PEG concentration was imposed to observe how initial low moisture stress might affect root hair development. PEG-treated hydroponic culture significantly decreased root hair diameter and length. Estimated surface area reduction of root hairs at the main axes of wheat plants was around nine times at the 0.6% PEG level compared to the control plants. Decrease in root hair diameter and length under PEG-induced culture decreased “potential” root surface area per unit length of main root axis. A negative association between panicle traits, length and dry weight and the main axis length of young roots indicated competition for carbon during their development. Data provides insight into how a low PEG level might alter root hair development.

  15. [The high-molecular glutenins of the soft winter wheats from European countries and their relationship to the glutenin composition of the ancient and modern wheat varieties of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S V; Fedak, G; Lukov, O

    2000-01-01

    The sources of high-quality components of HMW glutenines determining grain quality, as initial material for breeding in the conditions of Ukraine were revealed on the base of analysis of 75 literature sources data about composition of high-molecular weight (HMW) glutenin and pedigrees of 598 European wheats from 12 countries, bred in 1923-1997, including, 449 cultivars from West and 149 East Europe. Origin of these components was observed in varieties of Great Britain, France and Germany from ancient Ukrainian wheat Red Fife and it derivative spring wheats of Canada--Marquis, Garnet, Regent, Saunders, Selkirk and of USA--spring wheat Thatcher and winter wheats--Kanred and Oro--as directly as via cultivars of European countries and Australia; in wheats of East European countries from winter wheats Myronivs'ka 808 and Bezostaya 1 (derivative of Ukrainian cultivars Ukrainka and Krymka) and their descendants; in wheats of Austria and Italy--from the both genetical sources.

  16. New Seeds are Resistant to Wheat Stem Rust (Ug99) Multinational Programme Supported by FAO and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A multinational effort supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization marked a key milestone this week when a Kenyan university debuted two new varieties of disease-resistant wheat to the nation's farmers. Over the past two days, thousands of Kenyan farmers have visited Eldoret University in western Kenya for a two-day agriculture fair highlighting the latest farming technologies. Supporting the development of the new varieties were the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Department and the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. They manage an interregional Technical Cooperation project to develop varieties of wheat that are resistant to a devastating type of fungus, causing a disease known as wheat stem rust. Wheat stem rust under control for over 30 years, but a resurgence of the disease was discovered in 1999 in Uganda that swiftly spread to neighbouring Kenya. The wheat stem rust, caused by the strain of the fungus known as Ug99, named after its place and year of origin, has since spread to Iran, Yemen and South Africa and threatens crops as far away as India as spores are carried by wind. Parasitic rusts threaten global wheat production, reducing plant growth and crop yields. The disease can destroy up to 70-100 percent of the yield of wheat crop if not prevented. 'Improving food security in developing countries through the use of nuclear techniques is an important priority of the IAEA', said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. 'I am pleased that we have been able to make an important contribution to fighting wheat rust'. 'Wheat rusts, particularly the Ug99 strain, are a major threat to food security because rust epidemics can result in devastating yield losses. This international project involving affected countries, plant scientists and breeders and international organizations is a major breakthrough. It clearly shows the benefits of FAO/IAEA collaboration and that

  17. Competitive performance of transgenic wheat resistant to powdery mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kalinina

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM plants offer an ideal model system to study the influence of single genes that confer constitutive resistance to pathogens on the ecological behaviour of plants. We used phytometers to study competitive interactions between GM lines of spring wheat Triticum aestivum carrying such genes and control lines. We hypothesized that competitive performance of GM lines would be reduced due to enhanced transgene expression under pathogen levels typically encountered in the field. The transgenes pm3b from wheat (resistance against powdery mildew Blumeria graminis or chitinase and glucanase genes from barley (resistance against fungi in general were introduced with the ubiquitin promoter from maize (pm3b and chitinase genes or the actin promoter from rice (glucanase gene. Phytometers of 15 transgenic and non-transgenic wheat lines were transplanted as seedlings into plots sown with the same 15 lines as competitive environments and subject to two soil nutrient levels. Pm3b lines had reduced mildew incidence compared with control lines. Chitinase and chitinase/glucanase lines showed the same high resistance to mildew as their control in low-nutrient treatment and slightly lower mildew rates than the control in high-nutrient environment. Pm3b lines were weaker competitors than control lines. This resulted in reduced yield and seed number. The Pm3b line with the highest transgene expression had 53.2% lower yield than the control whereas the Pm3b line which segregated in resistance and had higher mildew rates showed only minor costs under competition. The line expressing both chitinase and glucanase genes also showed reduced yield and seed number under competition compared with its control. Our results suggest that single transgenes conferring constitutive resistance to pathogens can have ecological costs and can weaken plant competitiveness even in the presence of the pathogen. The magnitude of these costs appears related to the degree

  18. Heterosis for yield and its components in bread wheat crosses among powdery mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilker, E.; Tonk, F.A.; Tosun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate heterotic effects between five powdery mildew resistant wheat lines derived from CIMMYT and three susceptible commercial wheat varieties growing in Turkey and to determine mode of gene actions of the parents for yield characters in F1 generation. All 15 F1 crosses and their parents were planted in randomized complete block design in three replications. Measurements were done for plant height, pike length, spike let and kernel number per spike, grain weight per spike and 1000-kernel weight. Promising findings of the crosses 72 x Golia, 70 x Golia, 70 x Basribey, 48 x Basribey, 48 x Atilla-12 and 72 x Atilla12 were obtained to breed new varieties or pure lines having shorter plant height and taller spike length, more number of spike let and kernel per spike, besides higher grain yield than their mid or better parents to improve powdery mildew resistant varieties. (author)

  19. Classification of wheat varieties: Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for varieties that can not be classified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and an artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Nesic, Ljiljana; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing a gliadin extract by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF-MS) combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) is a suitable method for identification of wheat varieties. However, the ANN can not distinguish between all different wheat...

  20. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and the novel highly virulent race of TTKSK and its lineage are threatening wheat production worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify new sources of resistance in wheat-alien introgre...

  1. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and stem rust resistance of five wheat-thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial amphiploids created by crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.), Barkworth & D. R. Dewey may be resistant to major wheat diseases and are an important intermediate material in wheat breeding. In this study, we examined chromosome composition of five Xiaoy...

  2. Variety identification of wheat using mass spectrometry with neural networks and the influence of mass spectra processing prior to neural network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Petersen, M.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks in wheat variety classification is further evaluated.(1) Two principal issues were studied: (a) the number of varieties that could be classified correctly; and (b) various means of....... With the final method, it was possible to classify 30 wheat varieties with 87% correctly classified mass spectra and a correlation coefficient of 0.90....

  3. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  4. Identifying and utilizing resistance to Puccinia striiformis in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line, R.F.; Allan, R.E.; Konzak, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    Resistance to Puccinia striiformis in wheat cultivars, breeding lines, and induced mutants, was studied on plants exposed to natural rust inoculum at field sites and on plants inoculated with specific races and grown under controlled temperatures. Based on infection types and disease intensity at various stages of plant growth throughout the duration of rust establishment, the following resistance-types (R-types) were identified: R-type 1, plants resistant or susceptible at all stages of growth and at both low and high temperatures throughout duration of rust establishment; R-type 2, plants initially resistant in the seedling stage but eventually become susceptible, plants resistant at later stages in the field; R-type 3, variable resistance in the seedling stage, high resistance in later growth stages; R-type 4, plants resistant in the eedling stage, but susceptible in late stages of growth; R-type 5, plants susceptible, but the pathogen is slow to sporulate and consequently, rust increases slower in the field; R-type 6, plants susceptible at low temperatures and resistant at high temperatures at all stages of growth; R-type 7, plants very susceptible at both low and high temperatures in the seedling stage and at low temperatures in later stages; when temperatures are high, plants become more resistant in later stages; R-type 8, plants susceptible at all stages, when rust intensity is low and when not under stress, but become more resistant when intensity is high or under moderate stress in the field. Combinations of the above types were also observed. Techniques for identifying resistance to stripe rust, race specificity of the resistance-types, relationship of plant growth habit and head characteristics to disease intensity, historical significance of various types of resistance in the United States, and methods of using the resistance-types are also discussed. (author)

  5. Allometric analysis of the effects of density on reproductive allocation and Harvest Index in 6 varieties of wheat (Triticum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiao-liang; Weiner, Jacob; Qi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    allocation should be analyzed and interpreted allometrically because ratios or fractions such as Reproductive Effort or Harvest Index are size dependent. We investigated reproductive allocation of individuals in 6 varieties of Triticum (wheat) grown at a wide range of densities. We harvested leaves, stems...... size. There were significant differences among the varieties in the allometric exponent (slope of log–log relationship) of grain versus vegetative mass, such that some varieties produced higher yield (and therefore had a higher Harvest Index) than others when plants were small, while others had higher...... yield at larger sizes. Thus, the Harvest Index and its rank among varieties changed with plant size, which puts into question the practice of selecting for Harvest Index when crop performance varies greatly among individuals, years or environments. Selection for a high Harvest Index when individuals...

  6. Analysis of diallel crosses between six varieties of durum wheat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    $$)9

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... The study of morphological genetic determinism characteristics and production of durum wheat. (Triticum durum Desf.) ... analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) abilities and reciprocal ... increased and at the same time, these components results in an ...

  7. Identification of Striga hermonthica-resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki eSamejima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (< 2.2 Striga plants per pot, while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight (DW in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onwards, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2, did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a

  8. Identification of Striga hermonthica-Resistant Upland Rice Varieties in Sudan and Their Resistance Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Hiroaki; Babiker, Abdel G; Mustafa, Ahmed; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Rice has become a major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, upland rice cultivation is expanding particularly in rainfed areas where the root parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, a major constraint to cereal production, is endemic. Laboratory, pot, and semi-controlled open air experiments were performed to evaluate resistance of selected rice varieties in Sudan to a resident S. hermonthica population. In the laboratory, 27 varieties were screened for post-attachment resistance using the rhizotron technique. Varieties displaying high post-attachment resistance, Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 together with NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, a lowland rice variety, were further evaluated for performance and Striga resistance in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments and for germination inducing activity in a laboratory. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8-5.7 and 8.7-16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. In an artificially Striga-infested field, number of emergent Striga plants per 10 rice hills, at harvest, was 2.0, 2.0, 4.8, 13.5, 13.3, and 18.3 on Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. Germination-inducing activity of root exudates, at 14 days after sowing onward, was markedly lower for Umgar than for NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, and NERICA18. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. Kosti1 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Further the resistance of NERICA5, a variety reported to be endowed with a broad spectrum

  9. Plasticity of the MFS1 promoter leads to multidrug resistance in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omrane, Selim; Audéon, Colette; Ignace, Amandine; Duplaix, Clémentine; Aouini, Lamia; Kema, Gert; Walker, Anne Sophie; Fillinger, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria leaf blotch on wheat. Disease control relies mainly on resistant wheat cultivars and on fungicide applications. The fungus displays a high potential to circumvent both methods. Resistance against all unisite fungicides has been

  10. Identification of leaf rust resistant gene Lr10 in Pakistani wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf (brown) rust is the major disease of wheat in Pakistan and other countries. The disease is more effectively controlled when several rust resistance genes are pyramided into a single line. Molecular survey was conducted to screen 25 Pakistan wheat germplasm for the presence of leaf rust resistance gene Lr10 using ...

  11. Genomic dissection of nonhost resistance to wheat stem rust in Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt) is a devastating disease that has largely been controlled for decades by the deployment of resistance genes. However, new races of this pathogen have emerged that overcome many important wheat stem rust resistance genes used ...

  12. Effects of accelerated aging upon the lipid composition of seeds from two soft wheat varieties from Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzouline, M.; Tahani, N.; Demandre, C.; El Amrani, A.; Benhassaine-Kesri, G.; Serghini Caid, H.

    2009-07-01

    The lipid composition of the seeds from two soft wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum, cv. Marchouche and Mahdia) were analyzed before and after accelerated aging. Eight days of accelerated aging resulted in a total inhibition of seed germ inability as well as a decrease in their total and especially unsaturated fatty acid contents. Oleic and linoleic acid contents decreased particularly in the phosphatidylcholine of the seeds from both varieties. The proportion of polar lipids also decreased after aging as compared to neutral lipids: a 5.8% and 7.2% decrease in polar lipids was e observed in Mahdia and Marchouche cultivars, respectively. In the neutral lipids of the seeds from the Marchouche variety, the percentage of free fatty acids increased whereas the triacylglycerols decreased. After aging, the fatty acid compositions of all lipid classes were modified in the same manner as total fatty acid compositions. Among polar lipids, phospholipid proportions were particularly small, especially the phosphatidylcholine percentages with an 18.1% and 19.1% decrease in Mahdia and Marchouche varieties, respectively. In contrast, MGDG percentages increased, especially in the seeds from the Marchouche variety. A 15.5% increase was noticed when compared with seeds which were not aged. At the same time, the DGDG percentage showed a 16.6% decrease after accelerated aging of the seeds from the Marchouche variety. From these results we concluded that the lipid content decrease observed in seeds after accelerated aging could be linked to a loss in the germination and vigor of wheat seeds. (Author) 38 refs.

  13. Durable field resistance to wheat yellow mosaic virus in transgenic wheat containing the antisense virus polymerase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Liying; Wu, Hongya; Chen, Jiong; Ma, Youzhi; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Du, Lipu; Cheng, Shunhe; Zhang, Boqiao; Ye, Xingguo; Pang, Junlan; Zhang, Xinmei; Li, Liancheng; Andika, Ida B; Chen, Jianping; Xu, Huijun

    2014-05-01

    Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) has spread rapidly and causes serious yield losses in the major wheat-growing areas in China. Because it is vectored by the fungus-like organism Polymyxa graminis that survives for long periods in soil, it is difficult to eliminate by conventional crop management or fungicides. There is also only limited resistance in commercial cultivars. In this research, fourteen independent transgenic events were obtained by co-transformation with the antisense NIb8 gene (the NIb replicase of WYMV) and a selectable gene bar. Four original transgenic lines (N12, N13, N14 and N15) and an offspring line (N12-1) showed high and durable resistance to WYMV in the field. Four resistant lines were shown to have segregated and only contain NIb8 (without bar) by PCR and herbicide resistance testing in the later generations. Line N12-1 showed broad-spectrum resistance to WYMV isolates from different sites in China. After growing in the infested soil, WYMV could not be detected by tissue printing and Western blot assays of transgenic wheat. The grain yield of transgenic wheat was about 10% greater than the wild-type susceptible control. Northern blot and small RNA deep sequencing analyses showed that there was no accumulation of small interfering RNAs targeting the NIb8 gene in transgenic wheat plants, suggesting that transgene RNA silencing, a common mechanism of virus-derived disease resistance, is not involved in the process of WYMV resistance. This durable and broad-spectrum resistance to WYMV in transgenic wheat will be useful for alleviating the damage caused by WYMV. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Overexpression of TiERF1 enhances resistance to sharp eyespot in transgenic wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, ZengYan; Liang, HongXia; Liu, HongXia; Du, LiPu; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

    2008-01-01

    Wheat sharp eyespot, primarily caused by a soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, has become one of the most serious diseases of wheat in China. In this study, an ethylene response factor (ERF) gene from a wheat relative Thinopyrum intermedium, TiERF1, was characterized further, transgenic wheat lines expressing TiERF1 were developed, and the resistance of the transgenic wheat lines against R. cerealis was investigated. Southern blotting analysis indicated that at least two copies of the TiE...

  15. Development and characterization of mutant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions resistant to the herbicide quizalofop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Michael; Haley, Scott D; Anderson, Victoria; Shaner, Dale; Manmathan, Harish; Beil, Craig; Westra, Phillip

    2015-02-01

    New herbicide resistance traits in wheat were produced through the use of induced mutagenesis. While herbicide-resistant crops have become common in many agricultural systems, wheat has seen few introductions of herbicide resistance traits. A population of Hatcher winter wheat treated with ethyl methanesulfonate was screened with quizalofop to identify herbicide-resistant plants. Initial testing identified plants that survived multiple quizalofop applications. A series of experiments were designed to characterize this trait. In greenhouse studies the mutants exhibited high levels of quizalofop resistance compared to non-mutant wheat. Sequencing ACC1 revealed a novel missense mutation causing an alanine to valine change at position 2004 (Alopecurus myosuroides reference sequence). Plants carrying single mutations in wheat's three genomes (A, B, D) were identified. Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase in resistant plants was 4- to 10-fold more tolerant to quizalofop. Populations of segregating backcross progenies were developed by crossing each of the three individual mutants with wild-type wheat. Experiments conducted with these populations confirmed largely normal segregation, with each mutant allele conferring an additive level of resistance. Further tests showed that the A genome mutation conferred the greatest resistance and the B genome mutation conferred the least resistance to quizalofop. The non-transgenic herbicide resistance trait identified will enhance weed control strategies in wheat.

  16. Identification of novel QTL for sawfly resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Sherman; D. K. Weaver; M. L. Hofland; S. E. Sing; M. Buteler; S. P. Lanning; Y. Naruoka; F. Crutcher; N. K. Blake; J. M. Martin; P. F. Lamb; G. R. Carlson; L. E. Talbert

    2010-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly (WSS) (Cephus cinctus Nort.) is an important pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) in the Northern Great Plains. This paper reports the genetic analysis of antixenosis for egg-laying WSS females in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of hard red spring wheat. Female WSS preferentially choose certain wheat genotypes for egg-laying, with the...

  17. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrSE5756 in synthetic hexaploid wheat and its transfer to common wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.J.; Wang, C.Y.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat is an important germplasm resource for transfer of beneficial genes from alien species to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Synthetic hexaploid wheat SE5756 confers a high level of resistance against a wide range of races of Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici Eriks. et Henn.(Pst). The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance pattern, adjacent molecular markers, and chromosomal location of the stripe rust resistance gene in SE5756 and to develop new germplasm. We constructed a segregating population of 116 F2 plants and corresponding F2:3 families from a cross between SE5756 and Xinong979 with Pst races CYR32. Genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant gene, tentatively designated as YrSE5756, was responsible for seedling stage stripe rust resistance in SE5756. A genetic map, encompassing Xwmc626, Xwmc269, Xgwm11, Xbarx137, Xwmc419, Xwmc85, Xgpw5237, Xwmc134, WE173, Xwmc631, and YrSE5756, spanned 70.1 cM on chromosome 1BS. Xwmc419 and Xwmc85 were flanking markers tightly linked to YrSE5756 at genetic distances of 2.3 and 1.8 cM. Typical adult plant responses of the SE5756, varieties of the carrier Yr10 and Yr15, Chuanmai 42 (Yr24/Yr26), Yuanfeng 175 (Yr24/Yr26) and Huixianhong resistant to mixture Pst races (CYR32, CYR33 and V26) were experimented. The results showed that YrSE5756 was likely a new resistance stripe rust gene different from Yr24/Yr26, Yr10 and Yr15. From cross and backcross populations of SE5756/Xinong 979, we developed four new wheat lines with large seeds, stripe rust resistance, and improved agronomic traits: N07178-1, N07178-2, N08256-1, and N08256-2. These new germplasm lines could serve as sources of resistance to stripe rust in wheat breeding. SE5756 has the very vital significance in the development of breeding and expand our resistance germplasm resource gene pool. (author)

  18. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  20. Resistance of durum wheat cultivars to Fusarium culmorum and the difficulty or bringing greenhouse data into agreement with field results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piglionica, V.

    1977-01-01

    Foot-rot, caused by Fusarium culmorum is becoming a more and more serious problem in durum wheat. Therefore, resistance breeding has to be considered and tests were started to assess whether available durum wheat germplasm contains lines or varieties with satisfactory levels of resistance. A wide range of susceptibility was observed among 192 cultivars and lines included in this preliminary test. However, considerable experimental problems were faced, which became evident by an obvious disagreement of results obtained under greenhouse versus field conditions. The paper describes some of the problems and indicates promising approaches to overcome them. The following difficulties have been overcome: (1) Avoiding seeds latently infected; (2) Eliminating possible interference with other pathogenic organisms; (3) Handling the pathogen so that low-pathogenicity mutants do not appear; (4) Standardization of the inoculum level to enable identification of partial resistance. (author)

  1. (MSV) resistant maize varieties for adaptation to a southern guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (19), pp. ... the development of superior maize varieties for the southern guinea savanna ecology. Key words: Zea ... tional agricultural research systems have succeeded in converting ...

  2. Accumulation of aluminum and barium in twelve Punjab wheat varieties and their contents in the agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Lashari, A.K.H.; Haider, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wheat samples of twelve varieties, grown by breeders at NIAB, Faisalabad Pakistan and its soil, were collected and analyzed for aluminum and barium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy using acetylene-nitroxide flame. For dissolution for heavy metals, aluminum and barium, wet acid digestion method was used. The experimental study was conducted using six samples for each twelve varieties of FSC and RD (Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department) as standard reference materials and representative samples, and the soil which was also collected from agricultural plot of Nuclear Inst. of Agricultural and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab. The characteristics mean of both elements in each variety of representative samples was found to be 28.32, 71.02, 37.41, 36.95, 28.32, 47.40, 30.14, 14.69, 25.41, 32.86, 30.14 and 41.95 for the aluminum and 12.67, 6.92, 5.67, 19.82, 3.28, 17.34, 10.25, 10.49, 8.01, 14.23, 15.16 and 6.92 mg/kg for the barium of Chakwal-86, Bakhatawar-92, Shahkar-95, Parwaz-94, Punjab-96, Bahawal pur-97, Shahkar-91, Inquilab-91, Pasban-90, Punjab-85, Faisalabad-85 and Pak-81 varieties respectively. The soil of that specific plot contains 35964.3 and 111.08 mg/kg of aluminum and barium respectively. The representative samples, which are compared with certified samples at 95% confidence limit. The purpose of this study was to study the variation in uptake of aluminum and barium in twelve different wheat varieties grown in same agricultural plot. (author)

  3. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jigang; Lakshman, Dilip K; Galvez, Leny C; Mitra, Sharmila; Baenziger, Peter Stephen; Mitra, Amitava

    2012-03-09

    The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that reduces both grain yield and quality. A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  4. Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jigang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. that reduces both grain yield and quality. Results A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Conclusions Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum.

  5. Identification of genomic associations for adult plant resistance in the background of popular South Asian wheat cultivar, PBW343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rusts, a fungal disease as old as its host plant wheat, an enemy as old as wheat, has caused havoc for over 8,000 years. As the rust pathogens can evolve into new virulent races which quickly defeat to qualitative or vertical the resistance that primarily rely on race specificity over time, adult plant resistance (APR has often been found to be race non-specific and hence is considered have been proven to be a more to be a more reliable and durable strategy to combat this malady. Over decades sets of donor lines have been identified at International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT representing a wide range of APR sources in wheat. In this study, using nine donors and a common parent ‘PBW343’, a popular Green Revolution variety at CIMMYT, the nested association mapping (NAM population of 1122 lines was constructed to understand the APR genetics underlying these founder lines. Thirty-four QTL were associated with APR to rusts, and 20 of 34 QTL had pleiotropic effects on SR, YR and LR resistance. Three chromosomal regions, associated with known APR genes (Sr58/Yr29/Lr46, Sr2/Yr30/Lr27, and Sr57/Yr18/Lr34, were also identified, 13 previously reported QTL regions were validated. Of the 18 QTL first detected in this study, 7 were pleiotropic QTL, distributing on chromosomes 3A, 3B, 6B, 3D, and 6D. The present investigation revealed the genetic relationship of historical APR donor lines, the novel knowledge on APR, as well as the new analytical methodologies to facilitate the applications of NAM design in crop genetics. Results shown in this study will aid the parental selection for hybridization in wheat breeding, and envision the future rust management breeding for addressing potential threat to wheat production and food security.

  6. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating commonly used maize varieties, collected from Melkasa and Bako Agricultural Research Centers and Haramaya University, Ethiopia, against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., one of the most important cosmopolitan stored product pests in maize. A total of 13 improved maize ...

  7. Physical Localization of a Locus from Agropyron cristatum Conferring Resistance to Stripe Rust in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Song, Liqiang; Han, Haiming; Zhou, Shenghui; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-11-13

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2 n = 28, PPPP), one of the wild relatives of wheat, exhibits resistance to stripe rust. In this study, wheat- A . cristatum 6P disomic addition line 4844-12 also exhibited resistance to stripe rust. To identify the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P, ten translocation lines, five deletion lines and the BC₂F₂ and BC₃F₂ populations of two wheat- A . cristatum 6P whole-arm translocation lines were tested with a mixture of two races of Pst in two sites during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017, being genotyped with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers. The result indicated that the locus conferring stripe rust resistance was located on the terminal 20% of 6P short arm's length. Twenty-nine 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers mapped on the resistance locus have been acquired, which will be helpful for the fine mapping of the stripe rust resistance locus. The stripe rust-resistant translocation lines were found to carry some favorable agronomic traits, which could facilitate their use in wheat improvement. Collectively, the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P could be a novel resistance source and the screened stripe rust-resistant materials will be valuable for wheat disease breeding.

  8. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Stay-Green Wheat, a Novel Variety of Wheat in China, on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshan Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural hypoglycemic compounds is important in preventing and managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g were divided into four groups to investigate the effects of the compounds in stay-green wheat (SGW, a novel variety of wheat in China, on T2DM rats. The control group (NDC was fed with a standard diet, while T2DM was induced in the rats belonging to the other three groups by a high-fat diet followed by a streptozotocin (STZ injection. The T2DM rats were further divided into a T2DM control group (DC, which was fed with the normal diet containing 50% common wheat flour, a high dose SGW group (HGW fed with a diet containing 50% SGW flour, and a low dose SGW group (LGW fed with a diet containing 25% SGW flour and 25% common wheat flour. Our results showed that SGW contained cereal antioxidants, particularly high in flavonoids and anthocyanins (46.14 ± 1.80 mg GAE/100 g DW and 1.73 ± 0.14 mg CGE/100 g DW, respectively. Furthermore, SGW exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro (30.33 ± 2.66 μg TE/g DW, p < 0.01. Administration of the SGW at a high and low dose showed significant down-regulatory effects on fasting blood glucose (decreasing by 11.3% and 7.0%, respectively, insulin levels (decreasing by 12.3% and 9.7%, respectively, and lipid status (decreasing by 9.1% and 7.5%, respectively in T2DM rats (p < 0.01. In addition, the T2DM groups treated with SGW at a high and low dose showed a significant increase in the blood superoxide dismutase (1.17 fold and 1.15 fold, respectively and glutathione peroxidase activities (1.37 fold and 1.30 fold, respectively compared with the DC group (p < 0.01. The normalized impaired antioxidant status of the pancreatic islet and of the liver compared with the DC group was also significantly increased. Our results indicated that SGW components exerting a glycemic control and a serum lipid regulation effect may be due to their free radical

  10. Levels of trace elements in different varieties of wheat determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.E.; Taha, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements Ag, Au, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in six wheat samples purchased from the open market in different localities (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Dubai and Australia). The dried powdered samples were decomposed in HNO3-HClO4 acids mixtures and elements were determined using recording atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements. Certified biological standards, Brown's Kale (BK), Orchard Leaves (OL) and tomato leaves (TOML) were used to assure the accuracy of results. However, Co, Pb and Sr were absent from samples except the Egyptian samples. The obtained databases were statistically treated. Several significant and strong positive correlation coefficients (r=0.506-1.00) between the groups of elements were observed. On the other hand, strong negative correlations (r=0.492-0.873) between another group of elements were also shown. (author)

  11. Developing Inset Resistant Maize Varieties for Food Security in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugo, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project aims at increasing maize production and food security through development and deployment of stem borer resistant maize germplasm developed using conventional and through biotechnology methods such as Bt maize. Bt maize offers farmers an effective and practical option for controlling stem borers. It was recognized that the development and routine use of Bt maize will require addressing relevant bio-safety, environmental, and community concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns. Suitable Bt gene have been acquired or synthesized and back-crossed into elite maize germplasm at CIMMYT-Mexico, and the effective Cry-proteins against the major maize stem borers in Kenya were identified to better target pests. Stem borer resistant maize germplasm is being developed through conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. for safe and effective deployment of Bt maize,studies on its impacts on target and non-target arthropods as well as studies on the effects of Bt maize on key non-target arthropods as well as studies on gene flow are underway. Insect resistance management strategies are being developed through quantifying the effectiveness, ???. Socioeconomic impact studies are revealing factors in the society that may influence the adoption of Bt maize in Kenya. Also, baseline data, essential for the monitoring and evaluation of the Bt maize technology in Kenya, has been established. Technology transfer and capacity building, creating awareness and communications have received attention in the project. This paper describes the major research activities as they relate to development of the stem bore resistant maize germplasm

  12. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  13. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  14. Sources of stem rust resistance in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem or black rust of wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ericks and Henn (Pgt) is an important disease on wheat worldwide. Pgt is an obligate biotroph, heteroceous in its life cycle and heterothallic in mating type. Seedlings of 41 emmer (Triticum dicoccum), 56 durum (T. durum) wheat accessions were ...

  15. Evaluating the Production of Doubled Haploid Wheat Lines Using Various Methods of Wheat and Maize Crossing to Develop Heat-Tolerant Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh BAKHSHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, chromosome elimination method was used to develop doubled haploid wheat lines via crosses with maize. The plant materials used included 11, F1 wheat genotypes and maize genotype BC572. In these crosses, the maize plant was used as the male parent.Three methods of haploid production in wheat comprising conventional (A, detached-tiller culture (B and intermediate (C techniques were used and compared. The traits such as the number of seeds set, the number of embryos obtained and the number of haploid seedlings produced were studied. Comparisons showed that among various methods of storing wheat spikes, method (C was better than other techniques in terms of the percentage of seed production, embryo formation and haploid seedling production. Also, in all three methods, the percentage of seed production, the percentage of embryo formation and the percentage of haploid seedling production were respectively equal to 76.84, 25.22 and 51.89. Among the wheat genotypes in all three methods, genotype DH-133 with 87.28 percent seed set and genotype DH-132 with 32.71 percent embryo formation and 65.08 percent haploid seedling production were the best genotypes. A total of 92 doubled haploid lines were produced. In the field evaluations of 86 doubled haploid lines, traits such as growing season, plant height, lodging, kernel yield and 1000 kernel weight were examined. Finally, 3 lines were selected for adaptation and stability testing under heat stress conditions.Keywords: Wheat, Doubled haploid, Chromosome elimination, Detached-tiller culture Özet. Bu çalışmada, mısır ile çaprazlarla çift katlı haploid buğday hatlarının geliştirilmesi için kromozom eliminasyon yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Kullanılan bitki materyalleri 11, F1 buğday genotipleri ve BC572 mısır genotipini içermektedir. Bu çaprazlarda, mısır bitkisi erkek ebeveyn olarak kullanılmıştır. Geleneksel (A, ayrık-yeke kültürü (B ve ara (C

  16. [Immunotoxicologic assessment of genetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-lai; Li, Yong-ning; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Cui, Wen-ming; Jia, Xu-dong

    2012-06-01

    To assess the immunotoxicologic effects of genetically modified drought resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1 gene. A total of 250 female BALB/c mice (6-8 week-old, weight 18-22 g) were divided into five large groups (50 mice for each large group) by body weight randomly. In each large group, the mice were divided into five groups (10 mice for each group) by body weight randomly, which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control and positive control group were fed with feedstuff AIN-93G, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (proportion up to 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, organ coefficient of spleen and thymus, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC), serum 50% hemolytic value (HC50), mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected respectively. After 30 days raise, among negative control group, common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, mice body weight were (21.0±0.3), (20.4±0.7), (21.1±1.0), (21.1±1.0), (19.4±1.0) g, respectively (F=7.47, Pgenetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 was substantially equivalent to parental wheat in the effects on immune organs and immunologic functions of mice, and it didn't show immunotoxicity.

  17. The wheat homolog of putative nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat resistance gene TaRGA contributes to resistance against powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Defu; Wang, Xiaobing; Mei, Yu; Dong, Hansong

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, one of the most destructive wheat diseases worldwide, is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), a fungal species with a consistently high mutation rate that makes individual resistance (R) genes ineffective. Therefore, effective resistance-related gene cloning is vital for breeding and studying the resistance mechanisms of the disease. In this study, a putative nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) R gene (TaRGA) was cloned using a homology-based cloning strategy and analyzed for its effect on powdery mildew disease and wheat defense responses. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that a Bgt isolate 15 and salicylic acid stimulation significantly induced TaRGA in the resistant variety. Furthermore, the silencing of TaRGA in powdery mildew-resistant plants increased susceptibility to Bgt15 and prompted conidia propagation at the infection site. However, the expression of TaRGA in leaf segments after single-cell transient expression assay highly increased the defense responses to Bgt15 by enhancing callose deposition and phenolic autofluorogen accumulation at the pathogen invading sites. Meanwhile, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes decreased in the TaRGA-silenced plants and increased in the TaRGA-transient-overexpressing leaf segments. These results implied that the TaRGA gene positively regulates the defense response to powdery mildew disease in wheat.

  18. Targeted introgression of stem rust Ug99 resistance from wheatgrasses into pasta and bread wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 50 years, a number of stem rust resistance (Sr) genes have been transferred from several wheat-related grasses into durum (i.e. pasta) and bread wheat through chromosome translocations and additions. To utilize these genes for controlling the Ug99 races of the stem rust pathogen, we ini...

  19. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  20. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in U.S. Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat worldwide. It can cause considerable yield losses when epidemics occur. Use of genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control the disease. To determine the genomic regions responsi...

  1. Genetic characterization of stem rust resistance in a global spring wheat germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust is considered one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The recent emergence of the stem rust Ug99 race group poses a serious threat to world wheat production. Utilization of genetic resistance in cultivar development is the optimal way to control stem rust. Here we report association ma...

  2. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this resear...

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY53 and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in wheat reduces aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several wheat genes differentially expressed during the Russian wheat aphid resistance response have recently been identified, their requirement for and specific role in resistance remain unclear. Progress in wheat-aphid interaction research is hampered by inadequate collections of mutant g...

  4. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  5. Resistance of Salmonella enteritidis variety typhimurium to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norberg, A.N.; Maliska, C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiations to kill microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and toxinfections is an example of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Food toxinfections are, amongus, produced mostly by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium. Due to the pauncity of information on the resistance to gamma radiation of Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium this paper has the aim to define the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation lethal dose to these bacteria, in experimentally contaminated milk by samples recovered from our geographycal area. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml were irradiated with doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 Gy. Two samples of surving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.500 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were killed by doses of 1.100 Gy. It was concluded that the 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy. The surviving strains to smaller doses than 1.200 Gy when re-irradiated prompt the forthcoming of more radio-resistant germs. (author) [pt

  6. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  7. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with s...

  8. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and expression of the transgene in six selected T0 transgenic wheat lines were confirmed at the molecular level. Accumulation of avidin protein was detected in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants. Avidin transgene was stably integrated, transcribed and translated as indicated by Southern blot, ELISA, and dot blot analyses, with a high level of expression in transgenic wheat seeds. However, no expression was detected in untransformed wheat seeds. Functional integrity of avidin was confirmed by insect bioassay. The results of bioassay using transgenic wheat plants challenged with wheat weevil revealed 100 % mortality of the insects reared on transgenic plants after 21 days. Transgenic wheat plants had improved resistance to Sitophilus granarius.

  9. Expression of Pinellia pedatisecta Lectin Gene in Transgenic Wheat Enhances Resistance to Wheat Aphids

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoliang Duan; Qiling Hou; Guoyu Liu; Xiaomeng Pang; Zhenli Niu; Xiao Wang; Yufeng Zhang; Baoyun Li; Rongqi Liang

    2018-01-01

    Wheat aphids are major pests during the seed filling stage of wheat. Plant lectins are toxic to sap-sucking pests such as wheat aphids. In this study, Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (ppa), a gene encoding mannose binding lectin, was cloned, and it shared 92.69% nucleotide similarity and 94% amino acid similarity with Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta). The ppa gene, driven by the constitutive and phloem-specific ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (rbcs) promoter in pBAC-rbcs...

  10. Identification of wheat varieties using matrix-assisted laserdesorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and anartificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Helle Aagaard; Kesmir, Can; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    1999-01-01

    of this novelmethod with respect to various experimental parameters has been tested. The results can be summarised: (i)With this approach 97% of the wheat varieties can be classified correctly with a corresponding correlationcoefficient of 1.0, (ii) The method is fast since the time of extracting gliadins from flour......A novel tool for variety identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been developed: an artificialneural network (ANN) is used to classify the gliadin fraction analysed by matrix-assisted laserdesorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The robustness...... by the identity of the operator making theanalysis. This study demonstrates that a combination of an ANN and MALDI-TOFMS analysis of thegliadin fraction provides a fast and reliable tool for the variety identification of wheat. Copyright 1999 JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd....

  11. Gamma rays effect on inducing semidwarf mutants with good quality in the local durum wheat variety (Hamari)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, Nizar

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to test, under our field conditions, some promising M4-M5 mutant lines that were selected under green house conditions (U.K) from a Ph.D. project aimed at improving protein content in a local Syrian durum wheat variety Hamari. The study lasted 3 years, in the first year there were not enough seeds available for replications, thus, about 90 lines were grown in one location after which many unsatisfactory lines were discarded. In the second and third years 3 recently released varieties and 4 advanced lines from ICARDA were included in the trials with 4 replications and 2 and 3 locations in 1989 and 1990 respectively. Nearest Neighbour Analysis was used to estimate the lines yield performance. The results indicated that, in all locations, there were some mutant lines that surpassed the varieties Sham 3 and Bhuth 1. Moreover, in the dry location (Izraa) 3 mutant lines have out yielded the OM-Al Rabi lines which were produced by ICARDA and described as being suitable in dry areas. The employment of ANOFT and FTAB programme was effective in selecting some lines of interest depending on multiple character selection with variable selection pressure. Such selections resulted in short mutant lines that were better in their yield and quality than the recently released varieties (except for variety Daki in the driest location, Izraa). These results need confirmation for three more years with increasing plot size and locations before sending the superior lines to the national testing and multiplication authorities. (author). 10 refs., 14 tabs

  12. Sustracted library obtained from mutant sugarcane variety B 4362 resistant to rust

    OpenAIRE

    María I. Oloriz; Luis Rojas; Víctor Gil; Elio Jiménez

    2002-01-01

    The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful mechanisms for which the plants resist pathogen attack. Mutations carried out previously on the variety B4362, of sugarcane, originated five mutants that express this mechanism towards the attack of rust (Puccinia melanocephala Syd.). By means of a subtractive hybridization among the cDNA obtained starting from the resistant clone inoculated with rust and a pool of cDNA of the susceptible variety (B4362) inoculated and of the resistant c...

  13. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  14. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  15. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  16. Screening for resistance to Fusarium head blight in spring wheat cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Dr. Olga E.; Steenhuis-Broers, Greet; Osman, Aart; Bremer, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium fungi cause Fusarium head blight in wheat. This disease is a problem that occurs both in organic and conventional farming systems. As Fusarium fungi produce mycotoxins in wheat kernels they are a threat to human and animal health. Breeding for disease resistance is the only way to prevent or reduce the occurrence of the disease. The aim of the current research project is to identify different mechanisms of resistance in cultivars and breeding lines to be used in further breeding pro...

  17. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  18. Impact of transgenic wheat with wheat yellow mosaic virus resistance on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jirong; Yu, Mingzheng; Xu, Jianhong; Du, Juan; Ji, Fang; Dong, Fei; Li, Xinhai; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic wheat line N12-1 containing the WYMV-Nib8 gene was obtained previously through particle bombardment, and it can effectively control the wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) disease transmitted by Polymyxa graminis at turngreen stage. Due to insertion of an exogenous gene, the transcriptome of wheat may be altered and affect root exudates. Thus, it is important to investigate the potential environmental risk of transgenic wheat before commercial release because of potential undesirable ecological side effects. Our 2-year study at two different experimental locations was performed to analyze the impact of transgenic wheat N12-1 on bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) at four growth stages (seeding stage, turngreen stage, grain-filling stage, and maturing stage). We also explored the activities of urease, sucrase and dehydrogenase in rhizosphere soil. The results showed that there was little difference in bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil between N12-1 and its recipient Y158 by comparing Shannon's, Simpson's diversity index and evenness (except at one or two growth stages). Regarding enzyme activity, only one significant difference was found during the maturing stage at Xinxiang in 2011 for dehydrogenase. Significant growth stage variation was observed during 2 years at two experimental locations for both soil microbial community diversity and enzyme activity. Analysis of bands from the gel for fungal community diversity showed that the majority of fungi were uncultured. The results of this study suggested that virus-resistant transgenic wheat had no adverse impact on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil during 2 continuous years at two different experimental locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for environmental impact monitoring of transgenic wheat when the introduced gene is

  19. Impact of transgenic wheat with wheat yellow mosaic virus resistance on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirong Wu

    Full Text Available The transgenic wheat line N12-1 containing the WYMV-Nib8 gene was obtained previously through particle bombardment, and it can effectively control the wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV disease transmitted by Polymyxa graminis at turngreen stage. Due to insertion of an exogenous gene, the transcriptome of wheat may be altered and affect root exudates. Thus, it is important to investigate the potential environmental risk of transgenic wheat before commercial release because of potential undesirable ecological side effects. Our 2-year study at two different experimental locations was performed to analyze the impact of transgenic wheat N12-1 on bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE at four growth stages (seeding stage, turngreen stage, grain-filling stage, and maturing stage. We also explored the activities of urease, sucrase and dehydrogenase in rhizosphere soil. The results showed that there was little difference in bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil between N12-1 and its recipient Y158 by comparing Shannon's, Simpson's diversity index and evenness (except at one or two growth stages. Regarding enzyme activity, only one significant difference was found during the maturing stage at Xinxiang in 2011 for dehydrogenase. Significant growth stage variation was observed during 2 years at two experimental locations for both soil microbial community diversity and enzyme activity. Analysis of bands from the gel for fungal community diversity showed that the majority of fungi were uncultured. The results of this study suggested that virus-resistant transgenic wheat had no adverse impact on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil during 2 continuous years at two different experimental locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for environmental impact monitoring of transgenic wheat when the

  20. Wheat Intercropping Enhances the Resistance of Watermelon to Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Lv; Huifang Lv; Haishun Cao; Muhammad A. Nawaz; Hamza Sohail; Yuan Huang; Fei Cheng; Qiusheng Kong; Zhilong Bie

    2018-01-01

    A fungus Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. niveum (FON) is the causal organism of Fusarium wilt in watermelon. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wheat intercropping on the Fusarium wilt of watermelon. Our results showed that wheat intercropping decreases the incidence of Fusarium wilt of watermelon, likely due to the secretion of coumaric acid from the roots of wheat that dramatically inhibits FON spore germination, sporulation, and growth. The secretion of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid...

  1. Salicylic acid regulates basal resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi J; Lee, Hyeonju; Trick, Harold N; Dong, Yanhong; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Previously, expression in wheat of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene (AtNPR1), which encodes a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA) signaling, was shown to reduce severity of FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum. It was hypothesized that SA signaling contributes to wheat defense against F. graminearum. Here, we show that increased accumulation of SA in fungus-infected spikes correlated with elevated expression of the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) gene and FHB resistance. In addition, FHB severity and mycotoxin accumulation were curtailed in wheat plants treated with SA and in AtNPR1 wheat, which is hyper-responsive to SA. In support of a critical role for SA in basal resistance to FHB, disease severity was higher in wheat expressing the NahG-encoded salicylate hydroxylase, which metabolizes SA. The FHB-promoting effect of NahG was overcome by application of benzo (1,2,3), thiadiazole-7 carbothioic acid S-methyl ester, a synthetic functional analog of SA, thus confirming an important role for SA signaling in basal resistance to FHB. We further demonstrate that jasmonate signaling has a dichotomous role in wheat interaction with F. graminearum, constraining activation of SA signaling during early stages of infection and promoting resistance during the later stages of infection.

  2. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards.

  3. The NB-LRR gene Pm60 confers powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shenghao; Wang, Huan; Li, Yiwen; Kong, Zhaosheng; Tang, Dingzhong

    2018-04-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. To date, few powdery mildew resistance genes have been cloned from wheat due to the size and complexity of the wheat genome. Triticum urartu is the progenitor of the A genome of wheat and is an important source for powdery mildew resistance genes. Using molecular markers designed from scaffolds of the sequenced T. urartu accession and standard map-based cloning, a powdery mildew resistance locus was mapped to a 356-kb region, which contains two nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain (NB-LRR) protein-encoding genes. Virus-induced gene silencing, single-cell transient expression, and stable transformation assays demonstrated that one of these two genes, designated Pm60, confers resistance to powdery mildew. Overexpression of full-length Pm60 and two allelic variants in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves induced hypersensitive cell death response, but expression of the coiled-coil domain alone was insufficient to induce hypersensitive response. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and luciferase complementation imaging assays showed that Pm60 protein interacts with its neighboring NB-containing protein, suggesting that they might be functionally related. The identification and cloning of this novel wheat powdery mildew resistance gene will facilitate breeding for disease resistance in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplican sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Esselink, D.G.; Goryunova, S.V.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses

  5. General overview of genetic research and experimentation on coconut varieties tolerant/resistant to Lethal Yellowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouin Luc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lethal Yellowing (LY disease is one of the main threats to coconut industry in many parts of Africa and the Caribbean. Planting resistant varieties has long been recognized as one of the most promising ways of controlling the disease. Considerable efforts have been devoted throughout the world to screening suitable varieties and have often involved international cooperation. It has proven to be a lengthy and difficult task. We present an overview of these efforts with special mention to Ghana, Jamaica and Mexico. Although no variety so far has been proven fully and permanently resistant, treating resistance level as a threshold trait makes it possible to demonstrate significant differences among varieties, which can be exploited effectively to make genetic improvement a component of an integrated control strategy. Based on past experience, we make a few suggestions to increase the diversity of resistance sources and increase the level and the sustainability of resistance to LY in coconut.

  6. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  7. Evolution of high yielding chickpea varieties, having improved plant type and disease resistance, through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Hussan, M.; Haq, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The breeding programme on the use of induced mutations, in chickpea for genetic variability for better plant type, grain yield and disease resistance has been started. The chickpea mutant variety is one of the leading varieties being extensively grown throughout Pakistan and has played its role in stabilizing the chickpea production in the country. Four chickpea varieties were treated, each with two dosed of gamma rays. The main purpose of the mutagenic treatment of these varieties/cultivars, was induce multiple resistance. (A.B.)

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  9. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene confers resistance to anthracnose and rust in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Lo, Clive; Liu, Guoquan; Dibley, Katherine; Chan, Wai Lung; White, Jodie; Milne, Ricky; Zwart, Alexander; Kwong, Eunjung; Keller, Beat; Godwin, Ian; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans

    2017-11-01

    The ability of the wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene (Lr34res) to function across a wide taxonomic boundary was investigated in transgenic Sorghum bicolor. Increased resistance to sorghum rust and anthracnose disease symptoms following infection with the biotrophic pathogen Puccinia purpurea and the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum sublineolum, respectively, occurred in transgenic plants expressing the Lr34res ABC transporter. Transgenic sorghum lines that highly expressed the wheat Lr34res gene exhibited immunity to sorghum rust compared to the low-expressing single copy Lr34res genotype that conferred partial resistance. Pathogen-induced pigmentation mediated by flavonoid phytoalexins was evident on transgenic sorghum leaves following P. purpurea infection within 24-72 h, which paralleled Lr34res gene expression. Elevated expression of flavone synthase II, flavanone 4-reductase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes which control the biosynthesis of flavonoid phytoalexins characterized the highly expressing Lr34res transgenic lines 24-h post-inoculation with P. purpurea. Metabolite analysis of mesocotyls infected with C. sublineolum showed increased levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin metabolites were associated with Lr34res expression, concomitant with reduced symptoms of anthracnose. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Identification of Wheat Varieties Using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry and an Artificial Neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Helle Aagaard; Kesmir, Can; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    1999-01-01

    A novel tool for variety identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L,) has been developed: an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify the gliadin fraction analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The robustness...

  12. Obtaining of coffee varieties with durable resistance to illnesses, using the genetic diversity as improvement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Ruiz, German

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of producing improved coffee varieties with resistance to the leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), the national federation of coffee growers of Colombia initiated in 1970 a research program, whose first results achieved in 1982 were the abstention of the Colombia coffee variety. The use of genetic variability as a strategy in plant breeding for a durable resistance is discussed. In addition, the breeding outline is described and the main features of the developed materials are presented

  13. Resistance of Hordeum chilense against loose smuts of wheat and barley (Ustilago tritici and U. nuda) and its expression in amphiploids with wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Moral, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding purposes given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae tribe. It is resistant to loose smuts of wheat (Ustilago tritici). The resistance is expressed in xTritordeum amphipoids, offering perspectives for its utilization both in tritordeum breeding and for its transfer to wheat. H. chilense and tritordeums are also resistant to barley loose smut (U. nuda). © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Stability of rust resistance and yield potential of some icarda bread wheat lines in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.A.; Khan, A.J.; Azam, F.; Mirza, J.I.; Atiq-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Thirty bread wheat lines resistant to Yellow rust (Yr) were selected after careful screening from two ICARDA nurseries during 1998 - 1999, Rabi season at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar under severe disease pressure. In the following crop cycle, these selections were again field evaluated for stability and effectiveness of Yr resistance at multilocations while their yield potential was ascertained at Tarnab in two different trials with Tatara as commercial check. Results revealed that uniformity was found in the potential behavior of 23 lines (77%) in both the cropping seasons against Yr. This included some high yielding (up to 7067 kg/ ha) and low yielding lines (up to 4333 kg / ha) when compared with the check (6089 kg / ha). Yield potential of some high yielding lines with stable Yr resistance should be further evaluated over sites and seasons for wide adaptability, under national uniform testing in order to select and deploy future varieties to combat Yr for acquiring food security in Pakistan.(author)

  15. Discovery of a novel stem rust resistance allele in durum wheat that exhibits differential reactions to Ug99 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effec...

  16. Mapping and characterization of wheat stem rust resistance genes SrTm5 and Sr60 from Triticum monococcum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence and spread of new virulent races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt), including the TTKSK (Ug99) race group, is a serious threat to global wheat production. In this study, we mapped and characterized two stem rust resistance genes from diploid wheat ...

  17. Using RNA-sequencing and in silico subtraction to identify resistance gene analog markers for Lr16 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is one of the most widespread diseases of wheat worldwide and breeding for resistance is one of the most effective methods of control. Lr16 is a wheat leaf rust resistance gene that provides resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. Simple s...

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in B-Genome Specific UDP-Glucosyl Transferases Associated with Fusarium Head Blight Resistance and Reduced Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Wheat Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pallavi; Gangola, Manu P; Huang, Chen; Kutcher, H Randy; Ganeshan, Seedhabadee; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2018-01-01

    An in vitro spike culture method was optimized to evaluate Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and used to screen a population of ethyl methane sulfonate treated spike culture-derived variants (SCDV). Of the 134 SCDV evaluated, the disease severity score of 47 of the variants was ≤30%. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) genes, TaUGT-2B, TaUGT-3B, and TaUGT-EST, differed between AC Nanda (an FHB-susceptible wheat variety) and Sumai-3 (an FHB-resistant wheat cultivar). SNP at 450 and 1,558 bp from the translation initiation site in TaUGT-2B and TaUGT-3B, respectively were negatively correlated with FHB severity in the SCDV population, whereas the SNP in TaUGT-EST was not associated with FHB severity. Fusarium graminearum strain M7-07-1 induced early expression of TaUGT-2B and TaUGT-3B in FHB-resistant SCDV lines, which were associated with deoxynivalenol accumulation and reduced FHB disease progression. At 8 days after inoculation, deoxynivalenol concentration varied from 767 ppm in FHB-resistant variants to 2,576 ppm in FHB-susceptible variants. The FHB-resistant SCDV identified can be used as new sources of FHB resistance in wheat improvement programs.

  19. Polygalacturonase inhibitor protein from fruits of anthracnose resistant and susceptible varieties of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, S; Thimmareddy, C; Roy, Tapas K

    2010-08-01

    Chilli fruit is highly susceptible to anthracnose infection at the stage of harvest maturity, due to which the fruit yield in the leading commercial variety Byadgi is severely affected. Field studies on screening of several varieties for resistance to anthracnose have shown that a variety of chilli AR-4/99K is resistant to anthracnose infection. In many crops, resistance to fungal attack has been correlated with PGIP activity in developing fruits based on which transgenic varieties have been developed with resistance to fungi. The present study was carried out to determine whether anthracnose resistance in AR-4/99K was due to the increased levels of PGIP alone and/ or due to differences, if any, in the properties of PGIP. Hence, a comparative study of the properties of polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) isolated from fruits of anthracnose resistant chilli var AR-4/99K and a susceptible variety Byadgi was conducted with the objective of utilizing the information in genetic transformation studies. Both the PGIPs from anthracnose resistant and susceptible varieties of chilli exhibited similarities in the elution pattern on Sephadex gel, DEAE cellulose, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The two PGIPs were active over a wide range of pH and temperature. Both PGIPs showed differential inhibitory activity against polygalacturonase (PG) secreted by Colletotrichum gleosporoides, C. capsici, C. lindemuthianum, Fusarium moniliforme and Sclerotium rolfsii. The inhibitory activity of PGIP from both resistant and susceptible varieties was the highest (82% and 76%, respectively) against the PG from Colletotrichum capsici, a pathogen causing anthracnose rot of chilli, while the activity was lower (1.27 to 12.3%) on the other fungal PGs. Although PGIP activity decreased with fruit maturation in both the varieties, the resistant variety maintained a higher activity at 45 days after flowering (DAF) as compared to the susceptible variety which helped it to overcome the infection by

  20. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, "C 306" and a poor chapatti variety, "Sonalika." About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2'-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be "variety or genotype" specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  2. Biotechnology in wheat improvement in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, L.; Kinyua, M.G.; Njau, P.N.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Use of double haploid (DH) and mutation techniques in breeding wheat lines and varieties tolerant to drought, acid soils and resistant to Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) at the National Plant Breeding Research Center in the last 4 years, is reported. The wheat variety, ''Pasa'' irradiated in 1996 is reported to have undergone selection process through yield trials in 1999-2000. Work done in the year 2000 is mainly described

  3. Comparative proteomic responses of two bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-09-01

    Drought (water-deficit) stress is a serious environmental problem in plant growth and cultivation. As one of widely cultivated warm-season turfgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L). Pers.) exhibits drastic natural variation in the drought stress resistance in leaves and stems of different varieties. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify drought-responsive proteins in both leaves and stems of two bermudagrass varieties contrasting in drought stress resistance, including drought sensitive variety (Yukon) and drought tolerant variety (Tifgreen). Through comparative proteomic analysis, 39 proteins with significantly changed abundance were identified, including 3 commonly increased and 2 decreased proteins by drought stress in leaves and stems of Yukon and Tifgreen varieties, 2 differentially regulated proteins in leaves and stems of two varieties after drought treatment, 23 proteins increased by drought stress in Yukon variety and constitutively expressed in Tifgreen variety, and other 3 differentially expressed proteins under control and drought stress conditions. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis (PS), glycolysis, N-metabolism, tricarboxylicacid (TCA) and redox pathways were largely enriched, which might be contributed to the natural variation of drought resistance between Yukon and Tifgreen varieties. These studies provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanism underlying bermudagrass response to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and characterization of resistance to yellow rust and powdery mildew in wild emmer wheat and their transfer to bread wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van C.H.

    1989-01-01

    In wild emmer wheat three different kinds of genes for resistance to yellow rust were found, namely genes causing overall resistance, genes causing adult-plant resistance and genes which induce resistance detectable at higher temperatures. At least eleven different and probably novel major

  5. Characterization and Mapping of Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust Resistance Loci in Hexaploid Wheat Lines UC1110 and PI610750 under Mexican Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Caixia; Hale, Iago L; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Basnet, Bhoja R; Randhawa, Mandeep S; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Singh, Ravi P

    2017-01-01

    Growing resistant wheat varieties is a key method of minimizing the extent of yield losses caused by the globally important wheat leaf rust (LR) and stripe rust (YR) diseases. In this study, a population of 186 F 8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between a synthetic wheat derivative (PI610750) and an adapted common wheat line (cv. "UC1110") were phenotyped for LR and YR response at both seedling and adult plant stages over multiple seasons. Using a genetic linkage map consisting of single sequence repeats and diversity arrays technology markers, in combination with inclusive composite interval mapping analysis, we detected a new LR adult plant resistance (APR) locus, QLr.cim-2DS , contributed by UC1110. One co-located resistance locus to both rusts, QLr.cim-3DC/QYr.cim-3DC , and the known seedling resistance gene Lr26 were also mapped. QLr.cim-2DS and QLr.cim-3DC showed a marginally significant interaction for LR resistance in the adult plant stage. In addition, two previously reported YR APR loci, QYr.ucw-3BS and Yr48 , were found to exhibit stable performances in rust environments in both Mexico and the United States and showed a highly significant interaction in the field. Yr48 was also observed to confer intermediate seedling resistance against Mexican YR races, thus suggesting it should be re-classified as an all-stage resistance gene. We also identified 5 and 2 RILs that possessed all detected YR and LR resistance loci, respectively. With the closely linked molecular markers reported here, these RILs could be used as donors for multiple resistance loci to both rusts in wheat breeding programs.

  6. Symbiont-mediated adaptation by planthoppers and leafhoppers to resistant rice varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrater, J.B.; Jong, de P.W.; Dicke, M.; Chen, Y.H.; Horgan, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, host plant resistance has been the principal focus of public research to reduce planthopper and leafhopper damage to rice in Asia. Several resistance genes have been identified from native varieties and wild rice species, and some of these have been incorporated into high-yielding

  7. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  8. Use of some chemical inducers to improve wheat resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. Sp. Tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Maaroof Emad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of DL-β-aminobutyric acid (BABA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, indoleacetic acid (IAA and salicylic acid (SA on induced systemic resistance was investigated in moderately susceptible and susceptible wheat genotypes Tamuz-2 and AL-8/70 against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Resistance was characterized by reduced infection of yellow rust disease (Yrd. Changes in peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities and in total phenolic compound content demonstrated that the resistance to Puccinia striiformis can be induced by BABA, BTH, IAA and SA in these two wheat genotypes. Further studies are needed before a practical method using many analogue compounds, such as potassium phosphate and biotic agent for Yrd resistance in wheat is developed.

  9. Cytogenetics and stripe rust resistance of wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum hybrid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiyan; Long, Dan; Li, Tinghui; Wu, Yanli; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong; Kang, Houyang

    2018-01-01

    Amphidiploids generated by distant hybridization are commonly used as genetic bridge to transfer desirable genes from wild wheat species into cultivated wheat. This method is typically used to enhance the resistance of wheat to biotic or abiotic stresses, and to increase crop yield and quality. Tetraploid Thinopyrum elongatum exhibits strong adaptability, resistance to stripe rust and Fusarium head blight, and tolerance to salt, drought, and cold. In the present study, we produced hybrid derivatives by crossing and backcrossing the Triticum durum-Th. elongatum partial amphidiploid ( Trititrigia 8801, 2 n  = 6 ×  = 42, AABBEE) with wheat cultivars common to the Sichuan Basin. By means of cytogenetic and disease resistance analyses, we identified progeny harboring alien chromosomes and measured their resistance to stripe rust. Hybrid progenies possessed chromosome numbers ranging from 40 to 47 (mean = 42.72), with 40.0% possessing 42 chromosomes. Genomic in situ hybridization revealed that the number of alien chromosomes ranged from 1 to 11. Out of the 50 of analyzed lines, five represented chromosome addition (2 n  = 44 = 42 W + 2E) and other five were chromosome substitution lines (2 n  = 42 = 40 W + 2E). Importantly, a single chromosome derived from wheat- Th. elongatum intergenomic Robertsonian translocations chromosome was occurred in 12 lines. Compared with the wheat parental cultivars ('CN16' and 'SM482'), the majority (70%) of the derivative lines were highly resistant to strains of stripe rust pathogen known to be prevalent in China. The findings suggest that these hybrid-derivative lines with stripe rust resistance could potentially be used as germplasm sources for further wheat improvement.

  10. Sources of resistance to yellow rust and stem rust in wheat-alien introgressions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is the staple food and the main source of caloric intake in most developing countries, and thereby an important source in order to maintain food security for the growing populations in those countries. Stem rust Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, and yellow rust P. striiformis f. sp. tritici of wheat continues to cause severe damage locally and globally, thereby contributing to food insecurity. In this paper biology and taxonomy of stem rust and yellow rust, breeding for resistance, util...

  11. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  13. Absorption and accumulation of aluminum and barium in eight Sindh wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) varieties and their availability in its soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Kazi, T.G.; Sahito, S.; Shaikh, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of the aluminum and barium contents in eight wheat varieties and the soil have been carried out using wet acid digestion method by nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide for dissolution of two heavy metals, aluminum and barium. The certified and representative samples of eight wheat varieties and the soil of experimental plot of NIA, Tandojam Sindh, Pakistan was done by atomic absorption spectrometry. The experimental study was conducted using six samples for each eight wheat varieties of FSC and RD as stand reference materials and representative samples, its soil was collected from nuclear institute of agriculture (NIA), Tandojam. The characteristics mean of each element for six samples of each variety of representative samples found to be 30.14,15.06, 26.5, 19.05, 23.78, 38.77, 29.23 and 25.6 of the aluminum and 3.81, 6.73, 7.38, 7.17, 3.34, 5.99, 17.34 and 16.4 mg/kg of the barium for Anmol, TJ-83, albadgar-93, Mehran-89, Soughat-90, Sarsabaz, Kiran and SKD-10/9 varieties respectively and its soil contain 50607.1 mg/kg respectively in respectively in representative samples which are compared with certified samples which is at the 95% confidence limit. (author)

  14. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  15. Remapping of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cuiling; Wu, Jingzheng; Yan, Baiqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Zhang, Chaozhong; Lyu, Bo; Ni, Fei; Caplan, Allan; Wu, Jiajie; Fu, Daolin

    2018-02-23

    Yr10 is an important gene to control wheat stripe rust, and the search for Yr10 needs to be continued. Wheat stripe rust or yellow rust is a devastating fungal disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Host disease resistance offers a primary source for controlling wheat stripe rust. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 confers the race-specific resistance to most tested Pst races in China including CYR29. Early studies proposed that Yr10 was a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat gene archived as GenBank accession AF149112 (hereafter designated the Yr10 candidate gene or Yr10 CG ). In this study, we revealed that 15 Chinese wheat cultivars positive for Yr10 CG are susceptible to CYR29. We then expressed the Yr10 CG cDNA in the common wheat 'Bobwhite'. The Yr10 CG -cDNA positive transgenic plants were also susceptible to CYR29. Thus, it is highly unlikely that Yr10 CG corresponds to the Yr10 resistance gene. Using the Yr10 donor 'Moro' and the Pst-susceptible wheat 'Huixianhong', we generated two F 3 populations that displayed a single Mendelian segregation on the Yr10 gene, and used them to remap the Yr10 gene. Six markers were placed in the Yr10 region, with the Yr10 CG gene now mapping about 1.2-cM proximal to the Yr10 locus and the Xsdauw79 marker is completely linked to the Yr10 locus. Apparently, the Yr10 gene has not yet been identified. Fine mapping and positional cloning of Yr10 is important for gene pyramiding for stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  16. Population structure of Chinese southwest wheat germplasms resistant to stripe rust and powdery mildew using the DArT-seq technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqing Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Understanding genetic variability in existing wheat accessions is critical for collection, conservation and use of wheat germplasms. In this study, 138 Chinese southwest wheat accessions were investigated by genotyping using two resistance gene makers (Pm21 and Yr26 and DArT-seq technique. Finally, about 50% cultivars (lines amplified the specific allele for the Yr26 gene (Gwm11 and 40.6% for the Pm21 gene (SCAR1265. By DArT-seq analysis, 30,485 markers (6486 SNPs and 23999 DArTs were obtained with mean polymorphic information content (PIC value 0.33 and 0.28 for DArT and SNP marker, respectively. The mean Dice genetic similarity coefficient (GS was 0.72. Two consistent groups of wheat varieties were identified using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA at the level of both the chromosome 6AS and the whole-genome, respectively. Group I was composed of non-6VS/6AL translocation lines of different origins, while Group II was composed of 6VS/6AL translocation (T6VS/6AL lines, most of which carried the Yr26 and Pm21 genes and originated from Guizhou. Besides, a model-based population structure analysis revealed extensive admixture and further divided these wheat accessions into six subgroups (SG1, SG2, SG3, SG4, SG5 and SG6, based on their origin, pedigree or disease resistance. This information is useful for wheat breeding in southwestern China and association mapping for disease resistance using these wheat germplasms in future.

  17. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  18. Strategies for transferring resistance into wheat: from wide crosses to GM cassettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brande B. H. Wulff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of wheat in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago led to a genetic bottleneck. Modern agriculture has further narrowed the genetic base by introducing extreme levels of uniformity on a vast spatial and temporal scale. This reduction in genetic complexity renders the crop vulnerable to new and emerging pests and pathogens. The wild relatives of wheat represent an important source of genetic variation for disease resistance. For nearly a century farmers, breeders, and cytogeneticists have sought to access this variation for crop improvement. Several barriers restricting interspecies hybridization and introgression have been overcome, providing the opportunity to tap an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. Resistance has been introgressed into wheat from at least 52 species from 13 genera, demonstrating the remarkable plasticity of the wheat genome and the importance of such natural variation in wheat breeding. Two main problems hinder the effective deployment of introgressed resistance genes for crop improvement: (1 the simultaneous introduction of genetically linked deleterious traits and (2 the rapid breakdown of resistance when deployed individually. In this review we discuss how recent advances in molecular genomics are providing new opportunities to overcome these problems.

  19. Nuclear and allied approaches in improvement of wheat for disease and pest resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, R N

    1987-09-01

    The paper attempts to review information on the role of physical and chemical mutagens used directly and indirectly in the improvement of wheat for disease and pest resistance. The illustrations relate to transfer of many useful genes for resistance to rusts and pest from alien sources to Triticum aestivum. Popular wheats have been rectified for resistance to rusts mostly without any negative effects on yield potential. The mutation approach has also been successful in the development of multilines. Multiline constituting mutant components conferring simultaneous resistance to more than one rust pathogen has an additional value. The use of induced mutagenesis in breaking linkage between the genes conferring resistance and other genes for undesirable characters has been described. New disease resistant mutant variations with additional changes of positive effect have been obtained for practical utilization with widening the genetic base of future breeding programmes. (author). 56 refs.

  20. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique O, Olga L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

  1. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahi, I.; Silitonga, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  2. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of powdery mildew-resistant gene Pm57 from Aegilops searsii into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxuan; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Xia, Qing; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Fuqiang; Song, Yuli; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-04-01

    Pm57, a novel resistant gene against powdery mildew, was transferred into common wheat from Ae. searsi and further mapped to 2S s #1L at an interval of FL0.75 to FL0.87. Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most severe foliar diseases of wheat causing reduction in grain yield and quality. Host plant resistance is the most effective and environmentally safe approach to control this disease. Tests of a set of Chinese Spring-Ae. searsii (S s S s , 2n = 2x = 14) Feldman & Kislev ex K. Hammer disomic addition lines with a mixed isolate of the powdery mildew fungus identified a novel resistance gene(s), designed as Pm57, which was located on chromosome 2S s #1. Here, we report the development of ten wheat-Ae. searsii recombinants. The wheat chromosomes involved in five of these recombinants were identified by FISH and SSR marker analysis and three of them were resistant to powdery mildew. Pm57 was further mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2S s #1 at a fraction length interval of FL 0.75 to FL 0.87. The recombinant stocks T2BS.2BL-2S s #1L 89-346 (TA5108) with distal 2S s #1L segments of 28% and 89(5)69 (TA5109) with 33% may be useful in wheat improvement. The PCR marker X2L4g9p4/HaeIII was validated to specifically identify the Ae. searsii 2S s #1L segment harboring Pm57 in T2BS.2BL-2S s #1L against 16 wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines, and the development of more user-friendly KASP markers is underway.

  3. development of wheat germplasm for stem rust resistance in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) rust outbreak is the primary production constraint in Eastern Africa. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for the epidemic of rusts, due to higher rates of evolution of new pathogen races, especially of the virulent stem rust (Puccinia graminis) race, Ug99. The objective of this study was to ...

  4. Development of wheat germplasm for stem rust resistance in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) rust outbreak is the primary production constraint in Eastern Africa. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for the epidemic of rusts, due to higher rates of evolution of new pathogen races, especially of the virulent stem rust (Puccinia graminis) race, Ug99. The objective of this study was to ...

  5. Correlation of chemical compositions of cassava varieties to their resistance to Prostephanus truncatus Horn (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipitan, Adebola A; Sangowusi, Victoria T; Lawal, Omoniyi I; Popoola, Kehinde O

    2015-01-01

    The preference of cassava as a major host by Prostephanus truncatus Horn is a major constraint to ample production of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz and storage. This study analyzed the nutritional and secondary metabolite compositions in 15 cassava varieties, evaluated levels of damage and reproduction by P. truncatus, and assessed their resistance to attack. One hundred grams of dried cassava chips in 250-ml Kilner jars were infested with 10 adult larger grain borerof 0-10 days old and held for 3 months. The nutritional and secondary metabolites compositions of the dry cassava chips were determined using the method of Association of Analytical Chemists . Chip perforation rates in the cassava varieties ranged from 17.7 to 71.6%. The weight of cassava powder varied by about threefold. The final number of larger grain borer in the cassava varieties varied by about sixfold with 63 in 01/0040 and 379 in 01/1368. Hydrocyanic acid content content varied by over 10-fold and correlated negatively with number of larger grain borer. Flavonoid content varied by ∼10%. Tannins and saponin content of the cassava negatively correlated with number of adult P. truncatus. The cassava varieties 95/0166, 92/0326, 01/0040, 05/0024, and 34 91934 had selection index 0.8 were classified as susceptible. The resistance to high damage in the resistant varieties was conferred by secondary metabolites such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and hydrocyanic acid content. The genetic variation in cassava varieties could be explored to breed resistant cassava varieties for use in larger grain borer-endemic areas. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Jong, de H.C.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Dekking, L.; Bosch, H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the

  7. Partial resistance to stripe rust and its effect on sustainability of wheat yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Din, R.U.; Gardazi, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici) poses a serious threat to wheat production in cooler areas of Pakistan. The 70% area of wheat in Pakistan is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the field. Eleven Pakistani commercial wheat cultivars/advance lines including check (Inqalab 91) were assessed for the level of partial resistance against stripe rust using Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded in the remaining cultivars/lines indicating a high level of partial resistance to stripe rust compared to the susceptible check cultivar, Inqalab 91. Among eight cultivars/lines that showed compatible type of reaction (IT greater then equal to 7), one was resistant (relative AUDPC = 20% of Inqalab 91) and six showed very high resistance levels (relative AUDPC greater then equal to 5%). Maximum level of resistance (relative AUDPC = 0.1%) was observed in advanced line, NR 271. The wheat cultivars/lines that showed a slow disease development (low DS and AUDPC), could be considered as -1 partially resistant for stripe rust infection. The yield (2178 kg ha) of susceptible check cultivar Inqalab-91 during 2007 was reduced to 45% as -1 compared to its yield (3945 kg ha) in epidemic free year (2008). Thus the use

  8. Apoplastic ascorbate contributes to the differential ozone sensitivity in two varieties of winter wheat under fully open-air field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaozhong; Pang Jing; Nouchi, Isamu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Yamakawa, Takashi; Zhu Jianguo

    2010-01-01

    We studied leaf apoplastic ascorbates in relation to ozone (O 3 ) sensitivity in two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties: Yangfumai 2 (Y2) and Yangmai 16 (Y16). The plants were exposed to elevated O 3 concentration 27% higher than the ambient O 3 concentration in a fully open-air field from tillering stage until final maturity. The less sensitive variety Y16 had higher concentration of reduced ascorbate in the apoplast and leaf tissue by 33.5% and 12.0%, respectively, than those in the more sensitive variety Y2, whereas no varietal difference was detected in the decline of reduced ascorbate concentration in response to elevated O 3 . No effects of O 3 or variety were detected in either oxidized ascorbate or the redox state of ascorbate in the apoplast and leaf tissue. The lower ascorbate concentrations in both apoplast and leaf tissue should have contributed to the higher O 3 sensitivity in variety Y2. - Apoplastic ascorbate contributes to varietal difference in wheat tolerance to O 3 .

  9. Comparative mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 and functional characterization of resistance-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huagang; Zhu, Shanying; Jiang, Zhengning; Ji, Yaoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Renhui; Bie, Tongde

    2016-04-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 was physically and comparatively mapped by newly developed markers. Seven candidate genes were verified to be required for Pm21 -mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21, a gene derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, has been transferred into common wheat and widely utilized in wheat resistance breeding for powdery mildew. Previously, Pm21 has been located to the bin FL0.45-0.58 of 6VS by using deletion stocks. However, its fine mapping is still a hard work. In the present study, 30 gene-derived 6VS-specific markers were obtained based on the collinearity among genomes of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza and Triticeae, and then physically and comparatively mapped in the bin FL0.45-0.58 and its nearby chromosome region. According to the maps, the bin FL0.45-0.58 carrying Pm21 was closely flanked by the markers 6VS-03 and 6VS-23, which further narrowed the orthologous regions to 1.06 Mb in Brachypodium and 1.38 Mb in rice, respectively. Among the conserved genes shared by Brachypodium and rice, four serine/threonine protein kinase genes (DvMPK1, DvMLPK, DvUPK and DvPSYR1), one protein phosphatase gene (DvPP2C) and two transcription factor genes (DvGATA and DvWHY) were confirmed to be required for Pm21-mediated resistance to wheat powdery mildew by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) and transcriptional pattern analyses. In summary, this study gives new insights into the genetic basis of the Pm21 locus and the disease resistance pathways mediated by Pm21.

  10. Sustracted library obtained from mutant sugarcane variety B 4362 resistant to rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Oloriz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful mechanisms for which the plants resist pathogen attack. Mutations carried out previously on the variety B4362, of sugarcane, originated five mutants that express this mechanism towards the attack of rust (Puccinia melanocephala Syd.. By means of a subtractive hybridization among the cDNA obtained starting from the resistant clone inoculated with rust and a pool of cDNA of the susceptible variety (B4362 inoculated and of the resistant clone not inoculated, it was possible to reduce the number of genes expressed during the infection with the fungus. A subtractive library was carried out where we hope that most of the genes are involved in the hypersensitive response that present these mutants towards the infection of the pathogen. Key words: Subtractive hybridization, hypersensitive response, Puccinia melanocephala Syd.

  11. Genetic mapping reveals a dominant awn-inhibiting gene related to differentiation of the variety anathera in the wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Ryo; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Takumi, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    Aegilops tauschii, a wild wheat relative, is the D-genome donor of common wheat. Subspecies and varieties of Ae. tauschii are traditionally classified based on differences in their inflorescence architecture. However, the genetic information for their diversification has been quite limited in the wild wheat relatives. The variety anathera has no awn on the lemma, but the genetic basis for this diagnostic character is unknown. Wide variations in awn length traits at the top and middle spikes were found in the Ae. tauschii core collection, and the awn length at the middle spike was significantly smaller in the eastward-dispersed sublineage than in those in other sublineages. To clarify loci controlling the awnless phenotype of var. anathera, we measured awn length of an intervariety F 2 mapping population, and found that the F 2 individuals could be divided into two groups mainly based on the awn length at the middle of spike, namely short and long awn groups, significantly fitting a 3:1 segregation ratio, which indicated that a single locus controls the awnless phenotype. The awnless locus, Anathera (Antr), was assigned to the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 5D. Quantitative trait locus analysis using the awn length data of each F 2 individual showed that only one major locus was at the same chromosomal position as Antr. These results suggest that a single dominant allele determines the awnless diagnostic character in the variety anathera. The Antr dominant allele is a novel gene inhibiting awn elongation in wheat and its relatives.

  12. Somatic recombination in wheat stem rust leads to virulence for Ug99-effective SR50 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race-specific resistance genes protect much of the global wheat crop from stem rust disease caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), but often break down due to evolution of new virulent pathogen races. To understand the molecular mechanisms of virulence evolution in Pgt we identified the p...

  13. A novel QTL associated with dwarf bunt resistance in Idaho 444 winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant component of Mendel’s legacy has been the ability to discover, map, and utilize genes for resistance to diseases in the crops that the world relies on for food. Dwarf bunt [Tilletia contraversa Kühn (syn. Tilletia controversa)] is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ...

  14. Impact of temperatures to Hessian Fly resistance of selected wheat cultivars in the Great Plains Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in temperature can result in fundamental changes in plant physiology. This study investigated the impact of different temperatures from 14 to 26 °C on the resistance or susceptibility to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, of selected wheat cultivars that are either currently popular in ...

  15. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of wheat introgression lines carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn., poses a serious threat to global wheat production because of the emergence of Pgt-TTKSK (Ug99). The TTKSK resistant gene Sr39 was derived from Aegilops speltoides through chromosome translocation. In this study, we ch...

  16. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  17. Transgenic Pm3 multilines of wheat show increased powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Diaz Quijano, Carolina; Buesing, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Parlange, Francis; Barret, Pierre; Tassy, Caroline; Sautter, Christof; Winzeler, Michael; Keller, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Resistance (R) genes protect plants very effectively from disease, but many of them are rapidly overcome when present in widely grown cultivars. To overcome this lack of durability, strategies that increase host resistance diversity have been proposed. Among them is the use of multilines composed of near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing different disease resistance genes. In contrast to classical R-gene introgression by recurrent backcrossing, a transgenic approach allows the development of lines with identical genetic background, differing only in a single R gene. We have used alleles of the resistance locus Pm3 in wheat, conferring race-specific resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici), to develop transgenic wheat lines overexpressing Pm3a, Pm3c, Pm3d, Pm3f or Pm3g. In field experiments, all tested transgenic lines were significantly more resistant than their respective nontransformed sister lines. The resistance level of the transgenic Pm3 lines was determined mainly by the frequency of virulence to the particular Pm3 allele in the powdery mildew population, Pm3 expression levels and most likely also allele-specific properties. We created six two-way multilines by mixing seeds of the parental line Bobwhite and transgenic Pm3a, Pm3b and Pm3d lines. The Pm3 multilines were more resistant than their components when tested in the field. This demonstrates that the difference in a single R gene is sufficient to cause host-diversity effects and that multilines of transgenic Pm3 wheat lines represent a promising strategy for an effective and sustainable use of Pm3 alleles. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Construction of new EST-SSRs for Fusarium resistant wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumurtaci, Aysen; Sipahi, Hulya; Al-Abdallat, Ayed; Jighly, Abdulqader; Baum, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Surveying Fusarium resistance in wheat with easy applicable molecular markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) is a prerequest for molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are one of the main sources for development of new SSR candidates. Therefore, 18.292 publicly available wheat ESTs were mined and genotyping of newly developed 55 EST-SSR derived primer pairs produced clear fragments in ten wheat cultivars carrying different levels of Fusarium resistance. Among the proved markers, 23 polymorphic EST-SSRs were obtained and related alleles were mostly found on B and D genome. Based on the fragment profiling and similarity analysis, a 327bp amplicon, which was a product of contig 1207 (chromosome 5BL), was detected only in Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant cultivars (CM82036 and Sumai) and the amino acid sequences showed a similarity to pathogen related proteins. Another FHB resistance related EST-SSR, Contig 556 (chromosome 1BL) produced a 151bp fragment in Sumai and was associated to wax2-like protein. A polymorphic 204bp fragment, derived from Contig 578 (chromosome 1DL), was generated from root rot (FRR) resistant cultivars (2-49; Altay2000 and Sunco). A total of 98 alleles were displayed with an average of 1.8 alleles per locus and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.11 to 0.78. Dendrogram tree with two main and five sub-groups were displayed the highest genetic relationship between FRR resistant cultivars (2-49 and Altay2000), FRR sensitive cultivars (Seri82 and Scout66) and FHB resistant cultivars (CM82036 and Sumai). Thus, exploitation of these candidate EST-SSRs may help to genotype other wheat sources for Fusarium resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance.

  20. [Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with increased resistance to the storage pest obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rui-Ming; Jia, Hai-Yan; Feng, De-Shun; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The transgenic wheat of improved resistance to the storage pest was production. We have introduced the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTI) into cultured embryonic callus cells of immature embryos of wheat elite line by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Independent plantlets were obtained from the kanamycin-resistant calli after screening. PCR and real time PCR analysis, PCR-Southern and Southern blot hybridization indicated that there were 3 transgenic plants viz. transformed- I, II and III (T- I, T-II and T-III). The transformation frequencies were obviously affected by Agrobacterium concentration, the infection duration and transformation treatment. The segregations of CpTI in the transgenic wheat progenies were not easily to be elucidated, and some transgenic wheat lines (T- I and T-III) showed Mendelian segregations. The determinations of insect resistance to the stored grain insect of wheat viz. the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) indicated that the 3 transgenic wheat progeny seeds moth-resistance was improved significantly. The seed moth-eaten ratio of T- I, T-II, T-III and nontransformed control was 19.8%, 21.9%, 32.9% and 58.3% respectively. 3 transgenic wheat T1 PCR-positive plants revealed that the 3 transgenic lines had excellent agronomic traits. They supplied good germplasm resource of insect-resistance for wheat genetic improvement.

  1. Physiological Mechanisms behind Differences in Pod Shattering Resistance in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Kuai

    Full Text Available Pod shattering resistance index (SRI is a key factor affecting the mechanical harvesting of rapeseed. Research on the differences in pod shattering resistance levels of various rapeseed varieties can provide a theoretical basis for varietal breeding and application in mechanical harvesting. The indicators on pod shattering resistance including pod morphology and wall components were evaluated on eight hybrids and open pollinators, respectively, during 2012-2014. The results showed the following: (1 From the current study, SRI varied greatly with variety, and conventional varieties had stronger resistance than hybrid according to the physiological indexes. and (2 Under the experimental conditions, the SRI was linearly related to pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls, and the goodness-of-fit measurements for the regression model of the SRI based on pod wall weight and water content were 0.584** and 0.377*, respectively, reaching the significant level. This illustrated that pod wall weight and the water content in pod walls determined the SRI. (3 Compared with the relative contents of biochemical components in pod walls, the contents of particular biochemical components in pod walls had closer correlations with SRI. Among the biochemical components, the hemicellulose content was the decisive factor for the SRI.

  2. LecRK-V, an L-type lectin receptor kinase in Haynaldia villosa, plays positive role in resistance to wheat powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkuan; Cheng, Jiangyue; Fan, Anqi; Zhao, Jia; Yu, Zhongyu; Li, Yingbo; Zhang, Heng; Xiao, Jin; Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Wang, Xiue

    2018-01-01

    Plant sense potential microbial pathogen using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor-like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment. Its transcript level was higher in the leaves than in roots, culms, spikes and callus. Single-cell transient overexpression of LecRK-V led to decreased haustorium index in wheat variety Yangmai158, which is powdery mildew susceptible. Stable transformation LecRK-V into Yangmai158 significantly enhanced the powdery mildew resistance at both seedling and adult stages. At seedling stage, the transgenic line was highly resistance to 18 of the tested 23 Bgt isolates, hypersensitive responses (HR) were observed for 22 Bgt isolates, and more ROS at the Bgt infection sites was accumulated. These indicated that LecRK-V confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, and ROS and SA pathways contribute to the enhanced powdery mildew resistance in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    BASSOI, M.C.; FLINTHAM, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since red alleles (R) of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgal...

  4. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) in three wheat varieties in an andisol and in an ultisol, IX region. 1. Effect of yield, absorption and N efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrelongue, A.; Pino, Y.; Buneder, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: During 1988/1989 the effect of nitrate and ammoniacal fertilization was studied on yield, yield components, absorption and efficiency of N according the conventional methods in three wheat varieties. The field evaluation was done in an Ultisol and Andisol of the IX Region of Chile. In both soils the statistical design was completely randomized blocks where the sources of N were the treatment: sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium nitrate. In the Andisol the wheat variety used was Laurel and in the Ultisol Dalcahue and Perquenco varieties were used. The rate of N was 160 kg N ha -1 . The application of N had a significant effect on yield in the three environments. For Dalcahue this effect was obtained with sodium nitrate and for Perquenco and Laurel there was not significant differences between nitrogen sources. The results in Ultisol show different behavior between varieties, with a better response of Perquenco according N application but a lower yield in relationship with Dalcahue. The best yield was obtained with Laurel in the Andisol, also with the higher total N absorption, AE and FUE, according with the yield obtained

  5. Standard method for detecting Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus disease-resistant silkworm varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qiong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV disease is one of the most serious silkworm diseases, and it has caused great economic losses to the sericulture industry. So far, the disease has not been controlled effectively by therapeutic agents. Breeding resistant silkworm varieties breeding may be an effective way to improve resistance to BmNPV and reduce economic losses. A precise resistance-detection method will help to accelerate the breeding process. For this purpose, here we described the individual inoculation method (IIM. Details of the IIM include pathogen BmNPV preparation, mulberry leaf size, pathogen volume, rearing conditions, course of infection, and breeding conditions. Finally, a resistance comparison experiment was performed using the IIM and the traditional group inoculation method (GIM. The incidence of BmNPV infection and the within-group variance results showed that the IIM was more precise and reliable than the GIM.

  6. Development of wheat varieties with reduced contents of celiac-immunogenic epitopes through conventional and GM strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Jouanin, A.A.; Schaart, J.G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Cockram, J.; Leigh, F.; Wallington, E.; Boyd, L.A.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cereals, especially wheat, may cause several food-related diseases, of which gluten intolerance (coeliac disease, CD) is the best defined: specific immunogenic epitopes, nine amino acid-long peptide sequences, have been identified from various gluten proteins. These may activate T cells, causing

  7. Influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit haplotypes on dough rheology and baking quality in elite common wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins directly involved in the formation of gluten. Depending on the first amino acid residue of the mature proteins, the LMW-GSs are divided into methionine, serine or isoleucine type. These proteins are encod...

  8. Genetics of resistance to Zymoseptoria tritici and applications to wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James K M; Chartrain, Laëtitia; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Saintenac, Cyrille

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about genes for resistance to Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly Mycosphaerella graminicola). These genes can be placed into two classes, although a few may have characteristics of both classes. Qualitative resistance is controlled by genes which control large fractions of genetic variation, 21 of which have been discovered and mapped so far. Most of them have been shown to be genotype-specific, being effective against the minority of Z. tritici isolates which are avirulent, and Stb6 has been shown to control a gene-for-gene relationship. Most qualitative resistances are unlikely to be durable and some formerly effective genes have been overcome by the evolution of pathogen virulence. Quantitative resistance is generally controlled by genes with small-to-moderate effects on STB. They have generally weaker specificity than qualitative genes and have provided more durable resistance. 89 genome regions carrying quantitative trait loci (QTL) or meta-QTL have been identified to date. Some QTL have been mapped at or near loci of qualitative genes, especially Stb6, which is present in several sources of resistance. Another gene of particular interest is Stb16q, which has been effective against all Z. tritici isolates tested so far. In addition to resistance, the susceptibility of wheat cultivars to STB can also be reduced by disease escape traits, some of which may be undesirable in breeding. The fundamental requirements for breeding for STB-resistance are genetic diversity for resistance in wheat germplasm and a field trial site at which STB epidemics occur regularly and effective selection can be conducted for resistance combined with other desirable traits. If these are in place, knowledge of resistance genes can be applied to improving control of STB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic issues and perspectives on innovation in new resistant grapevine varieties in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaigne Etienne

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The arrival in France of new varieties resistant to downy mildew and powdery mildew calls into question the aims of this “revolution” in a sector dominated by tradition. The proposed evaluation reviews the historical experience of cross-breeding programmes from an evolutionist standpoint before analysing the responses to the new technological paradigm of resistance to disease. Taking account of the time periods, dating their implementation and describing the opportunities open to winemakers, the paper revisits the scientific controversies, the institutional blockages to be eliminated, the means of recognition and the prospects.

  10. Stress and sexual reproduction affect the dynamics of the wheat pathogen effector AvrStb6 and strobilurin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, Gerrit H.J.; Mirzadi Gohari, Amir; Aouini, Lamia; Gibriel, Hesham A.Y.; Ware, Sarah B.; Den Bosch, van Frank; Manning-Smith, Robbie; Alonso-Chavez, Vasthi; Helps, Joe; M’Barek, Ben Sarrah; Mehrabi, Rahim; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Zamani, Elham; Schouten, Henk J.; Lee, van der Theo A.J.; Waalwijk, Cees; Waard, de Maarten A.; Wit, de Pierre J.G.M.; Verstappen, Els C.P.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Meijer, Harold J.G.; Seidl, Michael F.

    2018-01-01

    Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We demonstrate that the Z. tritici–wheat interaction complies with the gene-for-gene model by

  11. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat.

  12. Simultaneous Transfer of Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes from Hexaploid Triticale Cultivar Sorento into Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Yinghui; Cao, Lirong; Liu, Peiyuan; Geng, Miaomiao; Zhang, Qiang; Qiu, Lina; Sun, Qixin; Xie, Chaojie

    2018-01-01

    Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici , and wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, are two important diseases that severely threaten wheat production. Sorento, a hexaploid triticale cultivar from Poland, shows high resistance to the wheat powdery mildew isolate E09 and the leaf rust isolate PHT in Beijing, China. To introduce resistance genes into common wheat, Sorento was crossed with wheat line Xuezao, which is susceptible to both diseases, and the F 1 hybrids were then backcrossed with Xuezao as the recurrent male parent. By marker analysis, we demonstrate that the long arm of the 2R (2RL) chromosome confers resistance to both the leaf rust and powdery mildew isolates at adult-plant and seedling stages, while the long arm of 4R (4RL) confers resistance only to powdery mildew at both stages. The chromosomal composition of BC 2 F 3 plants containing 2R or 2RL and 4R or 4RL in the form of substitution and translocation were confirmed by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Monosomic and disomic substitutions of a wheat chromosome with chromosome 2R or 4R, as well as one 4RS-4DL/4DS-4RL reciprocal translocation homozigote and one 2RL-1DL translocation hemizigote, were recovered. Such germplasms are of great value in wheat improvement.

  13. Identification and characterization of Sr13, a tetraploid wheat gene that confers resistance to the Ug99 stem rust race group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group is virulent to most stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat and poses a serious threat to global wheat production. The durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) gene Sr13 confers resistance to Ug99 in addition to virulent rac...

  14. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  15. Studies on general resistance to stem rust in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Eight cultivars that were thought to have field resistance to stem rust were selected and crossed to produce four four-cultivar hybrids. From those crosses lines were produced that lacked seedling resistance to race 15B-1 of stem rust but had good field resistance to it. They also proved to have field resistance to many other races and it is hoped that the resistance is general. Genetic studies indicated that there is some variation in the lines, but resistance is generally inherited as a quantitative character with several largely recessive genes having small additive effects. This suggests that in an induced mutation programme, no one plant is likely to accumulate sufficient mutant genes that it will appear resistant. (author)

  16. Identification of Biomarkers for Defense Response to Plasmopara viticola in a Resistant Grape Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Chitarrini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P. viticola. We investigated primary and secondary metabolism at 12, 24, 48, and 96 h post-inoculation (hpi. We used methods of identification and quantification for lipids (LC-MS/MS, phenols (LC-MS/MS, primary compounds (GC-MS, and semi-quantification for volatile compounds (GC-MS. We were able to identify and quantify or semi-quantify 176 metabolites, among which 53 were modulated in response to pathogen infection. The earliest changes occurred in primary metabolism at 24–48 hpi and involved lipid compounds, specifically unsaturated fatty acid and ceramide; amino acids, in particular proline; and some acids and sugars. At 48 hpi, we also found changes in volatile compounds and accumulation of benzaldehyde, a promoter of salicylic acid-mediated defense. Secondary metabolism was strongly induced only at later stages. The classes of compounds that increased at 96 hpi included phenylpropanoids, flavonols, stilbenes, and stilbenoids. Among stilbenoids we found an accumulation of ampelopsin H + vaticanol C, pallidol, ampelopsin D + quadrangularin A, Z-miyabenol C, and α-viniferin in inoculated samples. Some of these compounds are known as phytoalexins, while others are novel biomarkers for the defense response in Bianca. This work highlighted some important aspects of the host response to P. viticola in a commercial variety under controlled conditions, providing biomarkers for a better understanding of the mechanism of plant defense and a

  17. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hyun Shin; Eun-Jo Seo; Jae-Seong Choi; JungKwan Lee; Jong-Chul Park; Chun-Sik Kang

    2013-01-01

    Barley kernel discoloration (KD) leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations o...

  18. Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hamayun, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Sopheap; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Biochar addition to soil not only sequesters carbon for the long-term but enhances agricultural productivity. Several well-known benefits arise from biochar amendment, including constant provision of nutrients, increased soil moisture retention, decreased soil bulk density, and sometimes the induction of systemic resistance against foliar and soil borne plant pathogens. However, no research has investigated the potential of biochar to increase resistance against herbivory. The white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a serious agricultural pest that targets rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop that feeds half of the world's human population. Therefore, we investigated the (1) optimization of biochar amendment levels for two rice varieties ('Cheongcheong' and 'Nagdong') and (2) subsequent effects of different biochar amendments on resistance and susceptibility of these two varieties to WBPH infestation. Initial screening results for the optimization level revealed that the application of biochar 10% (w/w) to the rooting media significantly improved plant physiological characteristics of both rice varieties. However, levels of biochar amendment, mainly 1, 2, 3, and 20%, resulted in negative effects on plant growth characteristics. Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice plants grown with the optimum biochar level showed contrasting reactions to WBPH infestation. Specifically, biochar application significantly increased plant growth characteristics of Nagdong when exposed to WBPH infestation and significantly decreased these characteristics in Cheongcheong. The amount of WBPH-induced damage to plants was significantly lower and higher in Nagdong and Cheongcheong, respectively, compared to that in the controls. Higher levels of jasmonic acid caused by the biochar priming effect could have accumulated in response to WBPH infestation, resulting in a maladaptive response to stress, negatively affecting growth and resistance to WBPH in Cheongcheong. This

  19. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  20. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinita Sthapit Kandel

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS, was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL. The population was evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014 and seedling reactions were examined against three races (PSTv-14, PSTv-37, and PSTv-40 of the pathogen under controlled conditions. The population was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and microsatellite markers across the whole wheat genome. A major QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-1BS was identified on chromosome 1B. The closest flanking markers were Xgwm273, Xgwm11, and Xbarc187 1.01 cM distal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS, Xcfd59 0.59 cM proximal and XA365 3.19 cM proximal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS. Another QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-3B, was identified on 3B, which was significant only for PSTv-40 and was not significant in the field, indicating it confers a race-specific resistance. Comparison with markers associated with previously reported Yr genes on 1B (Yr64, Yr65, and YrH52 indicated that QYr.wrsggl1-1BS is potentially a novel stripe rust resistance gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials, along with other all-stage and adult-plant resistance genes to develop cultivars that can provide durable resistance.

  1. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fine-mapping of Pch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine D; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Plieske, Jörg; Polley, Andreas; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Zschäckel, Thomas; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2017-03-01

    Genotypes with recombination events in the Triticum ventricosum introgression on chromosome 7D allowed to fine-map resistance gene Pch1, the main source of eyespot resistance in European winter wheat cultivars. Eyespot (also called Strawbreaker) is a common and serious fungal disease of winter wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis (former name Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for eyespot was performed with 732 microsatellite markers (SSR) and 7761 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90 K iSELECT wheat array using a panel of 168 European winter wheat varieties as well as three spring wheat varieties and phenotypic evaluation of eyespot in field tests in three environments. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 1.20 (most resistant) to 5.73 (most susceptible) with an average value of 4.24 and a heritability of H 2  = 0.91. A total of 108 SSR and 235 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified by considering associations with a -log 10 (P value) ≥3.0. Significant MTAs for eyespot-score BLUEs were found on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 5A, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7D for the SSR markers and chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B and 7D for the SNP markers. For 18 varieties (10.5%), a highly resistant phenotype was detected that was linked to the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 on chromosome 7D. The identification of genotypes with recombination events in the introgressed genomic segment from Triticum ventricosum harboring the Pch1 resistance gene on chromosome 7DL allowed the fine-mapping of this gene using additional SNP markers and a potential candidate gene Traes_7DL_973A33763 coding for a CC-NBS-LRR class protein was identified.

  2. Investigation on the root distributions of Sivas 111/33 and Gerek A-79 wheat varieties grown under Central Anatolian conditions, using tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbek, N.; Halitligil, M.B.; Ozdemir, E.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the vertical root distributions of Sivas 111/33 and Gerek-79 wheat varieties in the soil profile, two field experiments were conducted at Haymana in 1986, and at Lodumlu in 1987 using tracer techniques and 32 p as a tracer. Randomized complete blocks design as four replications was used. The plot size was 12 m 2 (240 m by 5.00 m) in which 32 p isotope plots were established with dimensions of 0.07 mxl. 25 m=0.875 m 2 . They included 4 rows of wheat and in the middle of these rows, 15 holes (25 cam apart) were opened with a portable drill. The holes either had depths of 30, 60 or 90 cm depending on the treatment selected. 4 ml carrier-free 32 p solutions were injected into the holes with the help of plastic tubes at two times, one after seedling emergence and the other at early spring. Plant samples for radioactivity measurements were taken at four different growth stages, namely tillering, shooting, heading and full maturity. The results obtained from these investigations clearly showed that: 1. The root growth of plants showed differences depending on growth stage and variety. 2. At tillering stage the roots of both wheat varieties were not able to reach to the 90 cm soil depth, however, Sivas 111/33 had relatively shallow rotting system and Gerek-79 had deep rooting system at this stage. 3. At shooting, heading and full maturity stages Sivas 111/33 had more roots than Gerek-79, while at 30 and especially 60 cm soil depths Gerek-79 had more roots. Nearly 26%, 32% and 42% of the total roots of Sivas 111/33, and 15%, 42% and 43% of the total roots of Gerek-79 were found at 90, 60 and 30 cm soil depths, respectively. 4. When compared with Gerek-79, Sivas 111/33 was found to be more suitable for drought conditions

  3. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  4. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  5. Fine Mapping of Two Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes Located at the Pm1 Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by (DC. f. sp. ( is a globally devastating foliar disease of wheat ( L.. More than a dozen genes against this disease, identified from wheat germplasms of different ploidy levels, have been mapped to the region surrounding the locus on the long arm of chromosome 7A, which forms a resistance (-gene cluster. and from einkorn wheat ( L. were two of the genes belonging to this cluster. This study was initiated to fine map these two genes toward map-based cloning. Comparative genomics study showed that macrocolinearity exists between L. chromosome 1 (Bd1 and the – region, which allowed us to develop markers based on the wheat sequences orthologous to genes contained in the Bd1 region. With these and other newly developed and published markers, high-resolution maps were constructed for both and using large F populations. Moreover, a physical map of was constructed through chromosome walking with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and comparative mapping. Eventually, and were restricted to a 0.12- and 0.86-cM interval, respectively. Based on the closely linked common markers, , , and (another powdery mildew resistance gene in the cluster were not allelic to one another. Severe recombination suppression and disruption of synteny were noted in the region encompassing . These results provided useful information for map-based cloning of the genes in the cluster and interpretation of their evolution.

  6. Arabidopsis EF-Tu receptor enhances bacterial disease resistance in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Wang, Hsi-Hua; Stefanato, Francesca L; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Zipfel, Cyril; Ridout, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    Perception of pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. The Arabidopsis PRR EF-Tu receptor (EFR) recognizes the bacterial PAMP elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and its derived peptide elf18. Previous work revealed that transgenic expression of AtEFR in Solanaceae confers elf18 responsiveness and broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance. In this study, we developed a set of bioassays to study the activation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in wheat. We generated transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants expressing AtEFR driven by the constitutive rice actin promoter and tested their response to elf18. We show that transgenic expression of AtEFR in wheat confers recognition of elf18, as measured by the induction of immune marker genes and callose deposition. When challenged with the cereal bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. oryzae, transgenic EFR wheat lines had reduced lesion size and bacterial multiplication. These results demonstrate that AtEFR can be transferred successfully from dicot to monocot species, further revealing that immune signalling pathways are conserved across these distant phyla. As novel PRRs are identified, their transfer between plant families represents a useful strategy for enhancing resistance to pathogens in crops. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Reprogramming of Seed Metabolism Facilitates Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Caixiang; Ding, Feng; Hao, Fuhua; Yu, Men; Lei, Hehua; Wu, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhengxi; Guo, Hongxiang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a worldwide problem for wheat production and transgene antisense-thioredoxin-s (anti-trx-s) facilitates outstanding resistance. To understand the molecular details of PHS resistance, we analyzed the metabonomes of the transgenic and wild-type (control) wheat seeds at various stages using NMR and GC-FID/MS. 60 metabolites were dominant in these seeds including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, choline metabolites and fatty acids. At day-20 post-anthesis, only malate level in transgenic wheat differed significantly from that in controls whereas at day-30 post-anthesis, levels of amino acids and sucrose were significantly different between these two groups. For mature seeds, most metabolites in glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline metabolism, biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides and fatty acids had significantly lower levels in transgenic seeds than in controls. After 30-days post-harvest ripening, most metabolites in transgenic seeds had higher levels than in controls including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, choline metabolites and NAD+. These indicated that anti-trx-s lowered overall metabolic activities of mature seeds eliminating pre-harvest sprouting potential. Post-harvest ripening reactivated the metabolic activities of transgenic seeds to restore their germination vigor. These findings provided essential molecular phenomic information for PHS resistance of anti-trx-s and a credible strategy for future developing PHS resistant crops.

  8. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol in the IX Region. II: Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Buneder B, Mirta; Peyrelongue C, Amelia

    1996-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources in three wheat varieties considering an Andisol and an Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with AS, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation.The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology. (author)

  9. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol, in the IX region. 2. Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Peyrelongue C, A.; Buneder B, Mirta

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources un three wheat varieties, considering an Andisol and Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with As, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In the three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation. The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology

  10. Effect of Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzymes and Cell Death Related Traits in Resistant and Susceptible Wheat Cultivars at Grain Filling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasheminasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in Iran. Twenty Iranian wheat cultivars with wide range of sensitivity to drought, including 18 varieties of bread wheat and two varieties of durum wheat were used in two separate field experiments in 2009-2010 at the Experimental Station of College of Agricultural in Shiraz University. Each experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one of the experiments was optimum (100% field capacity while the second experiment was conducted under drought stress (45% field capacity. Several biochemical components including antioxidant enzymes and hydrogen peroxide and some physiological traits were analyzed in the two conditions. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant activity at the grain filling stage. Superoxide dismutase activity showed the highest increase. Lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and cell death increased significantly under drought condition, however membrane stability index decreased. Resistant cultivars showed the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage. This trend was reversed in the susceptible cultivars. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase had a significant correlation with yield stability index. Hydrogen peroxide and cell membrane stability indices showed the highest correlation with yield stability index. Also Pishtaz and Alamut were selected respectively as the most resistance and susceptible cultivars.

  11. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  12. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.; Dong, C.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  13. Simultaneous modification of three homoeologs of TaEDR1 by genome editing enhances powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunwei; Bai, Yang; Wu, Guangheng; Zou, Shenghao; Chen, Yongfang; Gao, Caixia; Tang, Dingzhong

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) incurs significant yield losses from powdery mildew, a major fungal disease caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). enhanced disease resistance1 (EDR1) plays a negative role in the defense response against powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the edr1 mutant does not show constitutively activated defense responses. This makes EDR1 an ideal target for approaches using new genome-editing tools to improve resistance to powdery mildew. We cloned TaEDR1 from hexaploid wheat and found high similarity among the three homoeologs of EDR1. Knock-down of TaEDR1 by virus-induced gene silencing or RNA interference enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, indicating that TaEDR1 negatively regulates powdery mildew resistance in wheat. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate Taedr1 wheat plants by simultaneous modification of the three homoeologs of wheat EDR1. No off-target mutations were detected in the Taedr1 mutant plants. The Taedr1 plants were resistant to powdery mildew and did not show mildew-induced cell death. Our study represents the successful generation of a potentially valuable trait using genome-editing technology in wheat and provides germplasm for disease resistance breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterization of Pm59, a novel powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 181356.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengcheng; Li, Genqiao; Cowger, Christina; Carver, Brett F; Xu, Xiangyang

    2018-05-01

    A new powdery mildew resistance gene, designated Pm59, was identified in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 181356, and mapped in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is an important foliar disease of wheat worldwide. In the Great Plains of the USA, Bgt isolates virulent to widely used powdery mildew resistance genes, such as Pm3a, were previously identified. The objectives of this study were to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan landrace PI 181356, which exhibited high resistance to Bgt isolates collected in southern Great Plains, and identify molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. An F 2 population and F 2:3 lines derived from a cross between PI 181356 and OK1059060-126135-3 were used in this study. Genetic analysis indicated that PI 181356 carries a single dominant gene, designated Pm59, in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Pm59 was mapped to an interval between sequence tag site (STS) markers Xmag1759 and Xmag1714 with genetic distances of 0.4 cM distal to Xmag1759 and 5.7 cM proximal to Xmag1714. Physical mapping suggested that Pm59 is in the distal bin 7AL 0.99-1.00. Pm59 is a novel powdery mildew resistance gene, and confers resistance to Bgt isolates collected from the Great Plains and the state of Montana. Therefore, Pm59 can be used to breed powdery mildew-resistant cultivars in these regions. Xmag1759 is ideal for marker-assisted selection of Pm59 in wheat breeding.

  15. Does wheat genetically modified for disease resistance affect root-colonizing pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Song-Wilson, Yi; Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denatu...

  16. Rothamsted’s aphid-resistant wheat – a turning point for GMOs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynas Mark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rothamsted Research mounted a successful counter-campaign in response to a threat by environmental protesters to destroy their research project examining aphid-resistant genetically modified (GM wheat. This involved the use of online media, petitions, and other tools, by which researchers engaged directly with media and the general public in defense of their work. Lessons are suggested for other researchers in the controversial field of GM plant breeding.

  17. Evaluation on the resistance to aphids of wheat germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, Peoples Republic of China. ... 3College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, ... varieties in Henan Province, China (Li et al., 1998). ... (m a.s.l.), represents the warm temperate continental monsoon ..... Ma R, Chen JL, Cheng DF, Sun JR (2010).

  18. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation.

  19. New Generation of Resistant Sugar Beet Varieties for Advanced Integrated Management of Cercospora Leaf Spot in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Vogel; Johannes Vogel; Christine Kenter; Carsten Holst; Bernward Märländer

    2018-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) epidemics in sugar beet have been increasing in recent years causing higher use of fungicides. Concomitantly, the availability of effective fungicides is at risk because of resistance development in the fungus, the lack of new active ingredients as well as restrictive approval practices. A key option for an integrated management of CLS is cultivation of resistant varieties. Because of the yield penalty in resistant varieties, acceptance in commercial practice so far...

  20. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions. PMID:25806790

  1. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  2. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  3. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  4. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  5. Study on the mechanism of wheat mutants resistance to bi-polaris sorokiniana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu; Wang Guangjin; Tang Fenglan; Liu Lijun; Li Zhongjie

    1992-01-01

    The activities and band number of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and phenylalanine aminolyase (PAL) in plant tissue have been studied after treatment with phytotoxin produced from Bi polaris sorokiniana. The results showed that the activity and band number of these enzymes have been changed markedly. The change in degree of activity for mutants was more than that of the parent, and coincident with the ability of resistance to disease. The authors considered that the toxin tolerance ability and inducibility of SOD and POD by toxin might be one of resistance mechanism of wheat mutant against Bipolaris sorokiniana

  6. Variations in yield and gluten proteins in durum wheat varieties under late-season foliar versus soil application of nitrogen fertilizer in a northern Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Giovanna; Bonas, Urbana; Dal Cortivo, Cristian; Pasini, Gabriella; Marmiroli, Nelson; Mosca, Giuliano; Vamerali, Teofilo

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing demand for high-quality foodstuffs and concern for environmental sustainability, late-season nitrogen (N) foliar fertilization of common wheat is now an important and widespread practice. This study investigated the effects of late-season foliar versus soil N fertilization on yield and protein content of four varieties of durum wheat, Aureo, Ariosto, Biensur and Liberdur, in a three-year field trial in northern Italy. Variations in low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMW-GS), high-molecular-weight glutenins (HMW-GS) and gliadins were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was found that N applied to the canopy did not improve protein rate compared with N application to the soil (general mean 138 mg g -1 ), but moderately increased productivity in the high-yielding varieties Liberdur and Biensur (three-year means 7.23 vs 7.13 and 7.53 vs 7.09 t ha -1 respectively). Technological quality was mainly related to variety choice, Aureo and Ariosto having higher protein rates and glutenin/gliadin ratios. Also found was a strong 'variety × N application method' interaction in the proportions of protein subunits within each class, particularly LMW-GS and gliadins. A promising result was the higher N uptake efficiency, although as apparent balance, combined with higher HMW/LMW-GS ratio in var. Biensur. Late-season foliar N fertilization allows N fertilizer saving, potentially providing environmental benefits in the rainy climate of the northern Mediterranean area, and also leads to variety-dependent up-regulation of essential LMW-GS and gliadins. Variety choice is a key factor in obtaining high technological quality, although it is currently associated with modest grain yield. This study provides evidence of high quality in the specific high-yielding variety Biensur, suggesting its potential as a mono-varietal semolina for pasta production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Transfer of Hessian fly resistance from rye to wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, B.; Hatchett, J.H.; Gill, B.S.; Mukai, Y.; Sebesta, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) resistance gene derived from 'Balbo' rye and its transfer to hexaploid wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations are described. Crosses between resistant 'Balbo' rye and susceptible 'Suwon 92' wheat and between the F1 amphidiploids and susceptible 'TAM 106' and 'Amigo' wheats produced resistant BC2F3 lines that were identified by C-banding analysis as being 6RL telocentric addition lines. Comparative chromosomal analyses and resistance tests revealed that the resistance gene is located on the 6RL telocentric chromosome. X-irradiated pollen of 6RL addition plants was used to fertilize plants of susceptible wheats 'TAM 106,' 'TAM 101,' and 'Vona.' After several generations of selection for resistance, new sublines were obtained that were homogeneous for resistance. Thirteen of these lines were analyzed by C-banding, and three different wheat-6RL chromosomal translocations (T) were identified. Wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations were 6B, 4B, and 4A. Almost the complete 6RL arm is present in T6BS · 6BL-6RL. Only the distal half of 6RL is present in T4BS · 4BL-6RL, which locates the resistance gene in the distal half of 6RL. Only a very small segment (ca 1.0 μm) of the distal region of 6RL is present in an intercalary translocation (Ti) Ti4AS · 4AL-6RL-4AL. The 6RL segment is inserted in the intercalary region between the centromere of chromosome 4A and the large proximal C-band of 4AL. The break-points of the translocations are outside the region of the centromere, indicating that they were induced by the X-ray treatment. All three translocations are cytologically stable and can be used directly in wheat breeding programs

  8. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new wheat-rye 4R chromosome translocation line resistant to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Diaoguo; Zheng, Qi; Zhou, Yilin; Ma, Pengtao; Lv, Zhenling; Li, Lihui; Li, Bin; Luo, Qiaoling; Xu, Hongxing; Xu, Yunfeng

    2013-07-01

    Rye is an important and valuable gene resource for wheat improvement. However, due to extensive growing of cultivars with disease resistance genes from short arm of rye chromosome 1R and coevolution of pathogen virulence and host resistance, these cultivars successively lost resistance to pathogens. Identification and deployment of new resistance gene sources in rye are, therefore, of especial importance and urgency. A new wheat-rye line, designated as WR41-1, was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. It was proved to be a new wheat-rye T4BL·4RL and T7AS·4RS translocation line using sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH), and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) marker analysis. WR41-1 showed high levels of resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 13 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its resistant pattern to 23 different Bgt isolates, WR41-1 may possess new gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differed from previously identified and known powdery mildew genes from rye (Pm7, Pm8, Pm17, and Pm20). In addition, WR41-1 was cytologically stable, had a desirable fertility, and is expected to be useful in wheat improvement.

  9. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in Spring Wheat Landraces Conferring Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak and Spot Blotch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika B. Adhikari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak (BLS, caused by pv. (Smith et al. Bragard et al., and spot blotch (SB, caused by (S. Ito & Kurib. Drechs. ex Dastur, are two emerging diseases of wheat ( L.. To achieve sustainable disease management strategies and reduce yield losses, identifying new genes that confer quantitative resistance would benefit resistance breeding efforts. The main objective of this study was to use association mapping (AM with 832 polymorphic Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to BLS and SB in 566 spring wheat landraces. From data analysis of this diverse panel of wheat accessions, we discovered five novel genomic regions significantly associated with resistance to BLS on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 6B, and 7D. Similarly, four genomic regions were found to be associated with resistance to SB on chromosomes 1A, 3B, 7B, and 7D. A high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed over short genetic distance in the set of wheat accessions studied, and some of these genomic regions appear to be involved in multiple disease resistance (MDR. These results suggest that the AM approach provides a platform for discovery of resistance conditioned by multiple genes with quantitative effects, which could be validated and deployed in wheat breeding programs.

  10. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudate introgression line in wheat and its genetic association with leaf rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Puneet Inder; Kaur, Satinder; Bansal, Mitaly; Yadav, Bharat; Chhuneja, Parveen

    2016-12-01

    A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat-Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291- 2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major gene conditioning adult plant resistance (APR) with stripe rust reaction varying from TR-20MS in resistant RILs signifying the presence of some minor genes as well. Genetic association with leaf rust resistance revealed that two genes are located at a recombination distance of 13%. IL T291-2 had earlier been reported to carry introgressions on wheat chromosomes 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D and 7D. Genetic mapping indicated the introgression of stripe rust resistance gene on wheat chromosome 5DS in the region carrying leaf rust resistance gene LrAc, but as an independent introgression. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers designed from the survey sequence data of 5DS enriched the target region harbouring stripe and leaf rust resistance genes. Stripe rust resistance locus, temporarily designated as YrAc, mapped at the distal most end of 5DS linked with a group of four colocated SSRs and two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers at a distance of 5.3 cM. LrAc mapped at a distance of 9.0 cM from the YrAc and at 2.8 cM from RGA-STS marker Ta5DS_2737450, YrAc and LrAc appear to be the candidate genes for marker-assisted enrichment of the wheat gene pool for rust resistance.

  11. Mildew resistant and less lodging wheat mutants induced in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghedi-Ahmadi, I.

    1989-01-01

    ''Tabassi'' is a lodging and mildew susceptible cultivar. To induce mutations, seeds were gamma irradiated (50 to 150 Gy) in 1982 and selection for lodging resistance was carried out in M 2 . During field experiments with the mutant lines in 1985/86 there has been a heavy mildew epidemic under which mutant 63-5-I (derived from 50 Gy treatment) exhibited considerable resistance and as a consequence, higher yield. The control was 100% infected, the mutant only 40%. The mutant yielded 31% more grain, 7.5% less straw and 4.5% more protein than the control. Lodging of 63-5-I was only 60% in an experiment under rainfed conditions in the same season, resulting in a relative yield increase of about 11%. In 1986/87 there was no mildew epidemic and the mutant yielded the same as ''Tabassi''

  12. [PS II photochemical efficiency in flag leaf of wheat varieties and its adaptation to strong sun- light intensity on farmland of Xiangride in Qinghai Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Sun, Ya-Nan

    2014-09-01

    Taking four wheat varieties developed by Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, as test materials, with the measurement of content of photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of flag leaf, the PS II photochemistry efficiency of abaxial and adaxial surface of flag leaf and its adaptation to strong solar radiation during the period of heading stage in Xiangride region were investigated with the pulse-modulated in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence technique. The results indicated that flag leaf angle mainly grew in horizontal state in Gaoyuan 314, Gaoyuan 363 and Gaoyuan 584, and mainly in vertical state in Gaoyuan 913 because of its smaller leaf area and larger width. Photosynthetic pigments were different among the 4 varieties, and positively correlated with intrinsic PS II photochemistry efficiencies (Fv/Fm). In clear days, especially at noon, the photosynthetic photoinhibition was more serious in abaxial surface of flag leaf due to directly facing the solar radiation, but it could recover after reduction of sunlight intensity in the afternoon, which meant that no inactive damage happened in PS II reaction centers. There were significant differences of PS II actual and maximum photochemical efficiencies at the actinic light intensity (ΦPS II and Fv'/Fm') between abaxial and adaxial surface, and their relative variation trends were on the contrary. The photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and NPQ) had a similar tendency in both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Although ΦPS II and qP were lower in adaxial surface of flag leaf, the Fv'/Fm' was significantly higher, which indicated that the potential PS II capture efficiency of excited energy was higher. The results demonstrated that process of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching could effectively dissipate excited energy caused by strong solar radiation, and there were higher adaptation capacities in wheat varieties natively cultivated in

  13. Wheat transcription factor TaWRKY70 is positively involved in high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Wheat high-temperature seedling-plant (HTSP) resistance to Pst is non-race-specific and durable. WRKY transcription factors have proven to play important roles in ...

  14. Expression of a potato antimicrobial peptide SN1 increases resistance to take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Qi, Lin; Wang, Jingfen; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Wang, Aiyun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-08-01

    Take-all, caused by soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is a devastating root disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Breeding resistant wheat cultivars is the most promising and reliable approach to protect wheat from take-all. Currently, no resistant wheat germplasm is available to breed cultivars using traditional methods. In this study, gene transformation was carried out using Snakin-1 (SN1) gene isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) because the peptide shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro. Purified SN1 peptide also inhibits in vitro the growth of Ggt mycelia. By bombardment-mediated method, the gene SN1 was transformed into Chinese wheat cultivar Yangmai 18 to generate SN1 transgenic wheat lines, which were used to assess the effectiveness of the SN1 peptide in protecting wheat from Ggt. Genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that the alien gene SN1 was integrated into the genomes of five transgenic wheat lines and heritable from T₀ to T₄ progeny. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the introduced SN1 gene was transcribed and highly expressed in the five transgenic wheat lines. Following challenging with Ggt, disease test results showed that compared to segregants lacking the transgene and untransformed wheat plants, these five transgenic wheat lines expressing SN1 displayed significantly enhanced resistance to take-all. These results suggest that SN1 may be a potentially transgenic tool for improving the take-all resistance of wheat.

  15. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  16. Does wheat genetically modified for disease resistance affect root-colonizing pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joana Beatrice; Song-Wilson, Yi; Foetzki, Andrea; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael; Kneubühler, Yvan; Matasci, Caterina; Mascher-Frutschi, Fabio; Kalinina, Olena; Boller, Thomas; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology.

  17. Does wheat genetically modified for disease resistance affect root-colonizing pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Beatrice Meyer

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM wheat with introduced pm3b mildew resistance transgene, on two types of root-colonizing microorganisms, namely pseudomonads and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. Our investigations were carried out in field trials over three field seasons and at two locations. Serial dilution in selective King's B medium and microscopy were used to assess the abundance of cultivable pseudomonads and AMF, respectively. We developed a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE method to characterize the diversity of the pqqC gene, which is involved in Pseudomonas phosphate solubilization. A major result was that in the first field season Pseudomonas abundances and diversity on roots of GM pm3b lines, but also on non-GM sister lines were different from those of the parental lines and conventional wheat cultivars. This indicates a strong effect of the procedures by which these plants were created, as GM and sister lines were generated via tissue cultures and propagated in the greenhouse. Moreover, Pseudomonas population sizes and DGGE profiles varied considerably between individual GM lines with different genomic locations of the pm3b transgene. At individual time points, differences in Pseudomonas and AMF accumulation between GM and control lines were detected, but they were not consistent and much less pronounced than differences detected between young and old plants, different conventional wheat cultivars or at different locations and field seasons. Thus, we conclude that impacts of GM wheat on plant-beneficial root-colonizing microorganisms are minor and not of ecological importance. The cultivation-independent pqqC-DGGE approach proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the dynamics of Pseudomonas populations in a wheat field and even sensitive enough for detecting population responses to altered plant physiology.

  18. Targeted introgression of a wheat stem rust resistance gene by DNA marker-assisted chromosome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhixia; Klindworth, Daryl L; Friesen, Timothy L; Chao, Shiaoman; Jin, Yue; Cai, Xiwen; Xu, Steven S

    2011-04-01

    Chromosome engineering is a useful strategy for transfer of alien genes from wild relatives into modern crops. However, this strategy has not been extensively used for alien gene introgression in most crops due to low efficiency of conventional cytogenetic techniques. Here, we report an improved scheme of chromosome engineering for efficient elimination of a large amount of goatgrass (Aegilops speltoides) chromatin surrounding Sr39, a gene that provides resistance to multiple stem rust races, including Ug99 (TTKSK) in wheat. The wheat ph1b mutation, which promotes meiotic pairing between homoeologous chromosomes, was employed to induce recombination between wheat chromosome 2B and goatgrass 2S chromatin using a backcross scheme favorable for inducing and detecting the homoeologous recombinants with small goatgrass chromosome segments. Forty recombinants with Sr39 with reduced surrounding goatgrass chromatin were quickly identified from 1048 backcross progenies through disease screening and molecular marker analysis. Four of the recombinants carrying Sr39 with a minimal amount of goatgrass chromatin (2.87-9.15% of the translocated chromosomes) were verified using genomic in situ hybridization. Approximately 97% of the goatgrass chromatin was eliminated in one of the recombinants, in which a tiny goatgrass chromosome segment containing Sr39 was retained in the wheat genome. Localization of the goatgrass chromatin in the recombinants led to rapid development of three molecular markers tightly linked to Sr39. The new wheat lines and markers provide useful resources for the ongoing global effort to combat Ug99. This study has demonstrated great potential of chromosome engineering in genome manipulation for plant improvement.

  19. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Yang, Huizhen; Zhan, Haixian; Qiao, Linyi; Guo, Huijuan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-07-28

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  20. Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene pmCH89 in a Putative Wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Introgression Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt, is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68–0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.

  1. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda); Bodnar, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bodnar@bios.edu [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda)

    2012-11-15

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD{sub 50} values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  2. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae; Bodnar, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD 50 values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H 2 O 2 , MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  3. Selection of wheat lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum by somaclonal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1997-10-01

    The screening wheat new lines which have the resistance to Fusarium graminearum were completed by in vitro induced mutation and cell screening. Four new lines with resistance to Fusarium graminearum were obtained. The field inoculating determination in 1990∼1996 showed that their resistance was 1∼2 degree higher than that of parents, and there were variations in main agronomic traits between the new lines and their parents. Changes of the defensive enzymes (SOD, POD), sugar-protein on cell surface, and ultrastructure were investigated by using new lines and their parents under the action of toxin of Fusarium graminearum. The new lines under the action of toxin of Fusarium graminearum have the ability to increase the defensive enzyme activity and thickness of sugarprotein on cell surface and to reduce the damage of cell membrane system that would result in resistance increasing. (8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.)

  4. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpu Zhang

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF, rainfed (RF, reduced nitrogen (RN, and reduced phosphorus (RP environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research.

  5. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Shin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley kernel discoloration (KD leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations of the lemma and palea. The most frequently detected fungal species was Alternaria spp. which exhibited 69.1% and 72.2% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Epicoccum spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were also detected. Fusarium spp., primary pathogen of barley head blight, were rarely occurred in the 2011 and their occurrence increased to 4.7% in 2012. Twenty cultivars of Korean two-rowed barely were evaluated to KD. The average percentage of KD was 8.0−36.0% in 2011 and 5.2−36.6% in 2012. Two cultivars (‘Sacheon 6’ and ‘Dajinbori’ showed KD of 6.2% to 8.8% and determined resistant, however ‘Samdobori’ and ‘Daeyeongbori’ demonstrating KD of 22.2−36.6% were highly susceptible. ‘Jinyangbori’, ‘Danwonbori’, ‘Sinhobori’ and ‘Kwangmaegbori’ showing KD of less than 15% were moderately resistant cultivar.

  6. Major Gene for Field Stem Rust Resistance Co-Locates with Resistance Gene Sr12 in 'Thatcher' Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Kolmer, James A; McCartney, Curt A; Briggs, Jordan; Fetch, Tom; Bariana, Harbans; Choulet, Frederic; Rouse, Matthew N; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pgt), is a damaging disease of wheat that can be controlled by utilizing effective stem rust resistance genes. 'Thatcher' wheat carries complex resistance to stem rust that is enhanced in the presence of the resistance gene Lr34. The purpose of this study was to examine APR in 'Thatcher' and look for genetic interactions with Lr34. A RIL population was tested for stem rust resistance in field nurseries in Canada, USA, and Kenya. BSA was used to find SNP markers associated with reduced stem rust severity. A major QTL was identified on chromosome 3BL near the centromere in all environments. Seedling testing showed that Sr12 mapped to the same region as the QTL for APR. The SNP markers were physically mapped and the region carrying the resistance was searched for sequences with homology to members of the NB-LRR resistance gene family. SNP marker from one NB-LRR-like sequence, NB-LRR3 co-segregated with Sr12. Two additional populations, including one that lacked Lr34, were tested in field nurseries. NB-LRR3 mapped near the maximum LOD for reduction in stem rust severity in both populations. Lines from a population that segregated for Sr12 and Lr34 were tested for seedling Pgt biomass and infection type, as well as APR to field stem rust which showed an interaction between the genes. We concluded that Sr12, or a gene closely linked to Sr12, was responsible for 'Thatcher'-derived APR in several environments and this resistance was enhanced in the presence of Lr34.

  7. Major Gene for Field Stem Rust Resistance Co-Locates with Resistance Gene Sr12 in ‘Thatcher’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W.; Kolmer, James A.; McCartney, Curt A.; Briggs, Jordan; Fetch, Tom; Bariana, Harbans; Choulet, Frederic; Rouse, Matthew N.; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pgt), is a damaging disease of wheat that can be controlled by utilizing effective stem rust resistance genes. ‘Thatcher’ wheat carries complex resistance to stem rust that is enhanced in the presence of the resistance gene Lr34. The purpose of this study was to examine APR in ‘Thatcher’ and look for genetic interactions with Lr34. A RIL population was tested for stem rust resistance in field nurseries in Canada, USA, and Kenya. BSA was used to find SNP markers associated with reduced stem rust severity. A major QTL was identified on chromosome 3BL near the centromere in all environments. Seedling testing showed that Sr12 mapped to the same region as the QTL for APR. The SNP markers were physically mapped and the region carrying the resistance was searched for sequences with homology to members of the NB-LRR resistance gene family. SNP marker from one NB-LRR-like sequence, NB-LRR3 co-segregated with Sr12. Two additional populations, including one that lacked Lr34, were tested in field nurseries. NB-LRR3 mapped near the maximum LOD for reduction in stem rust severity in both populations. Lines from a population that segregated for Sr12 and Lr34 were tested for seedling Pgt biomass and infection type, as well as APR to field stem rust which showed an interaction between the genes. We concluded that Sr12, or a gene closely linked to Sr12, was responsible for ‘Thatcher’-derived APR in several environments and this resistance was enhanced in the presence of Lr34. PMID:27309724

  8. Mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm53 introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into soft red winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Stine; Lyerly, Jeanette H; Worthington, Margaret L; Parks, Wesley R; Cowger, Christina; Marshall, David S; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Murphy, J Paul

    2015-02-01

    A powdery mildew resistance gene was introgressed from Aegilops speltoides into winter wheat and mapped to chromosome 5BL. Closely linked markers will permit marker-assisted selection for the resistance gene. Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease in many areas of the world, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Host plant resistance is the preferred form of disease prevention because it is both economical and environmentally sound. Identification of new resistance sources and closely linked markers enable breeders to utilize these new sources in marker-assisted selection as well as in gene pyramiding. Aegilops speltoides (2n = 2x = 14, genome SS), has been a valuable disease resistance donor. The powdery mildew resistant wheat germplasm line NC09BGTS16 (NC-S16) was developed by backcrossing an Ae. speltoides accession, TAU829, to the susceptible soft red winter wheat cultivar 'Saluda'. NC-S16 was crossed to the susceptible cultivar 'Coker 68-15' to develop F2:3 families for gene mapping. Greenhouse and field evaluations of these F2:3 families indicated that a single gene, designated Pm53, conferred resistance to powdery mildew. Bulked segregant analysis showed that multiple simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to chromosome 5BL segregated with the resistance gene. The gene was flanked by markers Xgwm499, Xwmc759, IWA6024 (0.7 cM proximal) and IWA2454 (1.8 cM distal). Pm36, derived from a different wild wheat relative (T. turgidum var. dicoccoides), had previously been mapped to chromosome 5BL in a durum wheat line. Detached leaf tests revealed that NC-S16 and a genotype carrying Pm36 differed in their responses to each of three Bgt isolates. Pm53 therefore appears to be a new source of powdery mildew resistance.

  9. The cold-induced defensin TAD1 confers resistance against snow mold and Fusarium head blight in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kuwabara, Chikako; Umeki, Natsuki; Fujioka, Mari; Saburi, Wataru; Matsui, Hirokazu; Abe, Fumitaka; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-06-20

    TAD1 (Triticum aestivum defensin 1) is induced during cold acclimation in winter wheat and encodes a plant defensin with antimicrobial activity. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant TAD1 protein inhibits hyphal growth of the snow mold fungus, Typhula ishikariensis in vitro. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TAD1 were created and tested for resistance against T. ishikariensis. Leaf inoculation assays revealed that overexpression of TAD1 confers resistance against the snow mold. In addition, the TAD1-overexpressors showed resistance against Fusarium graminearum, which causes Fusarium head blight, a devastating disease in wheat and barley. These results indicate that TAD1 is a candidate gene to improve resistance against multiple fungal diseases in cereal crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A new 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation transfers stem rust resistance gene Sr59 into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon; Rouse, Matthew N; Nirmala, Jayaveeramuthu; Danilova, Tatiana; Friebe, Bernd; Steffenson, Brian J; Johansson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    A new stem rust resistance gene Sr59 from Secale cereale was introgressed into wheat as a 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation. Emerging new races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), from Africa threaten global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. To broaden the resistance spectrum of wheat to these widely virulent African races, additional resistance genes must be identified from all possible gene pools. From the screening of a collection of wheat-rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome substitution lines developed at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, we described the line 'SLU238' 2R (2D) as possessing resistance to many races of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, including the widely virulent race TTKSK (isolate synonym Ug99) from Africa. The breakage-fusion mechanism of univalent chromosomes was used to produce a new Robertsonian translocation: T2DS·2RL. Molecular marker analysis and stem rust seedling assays at multiple generations confirmed that the stem rust resistance from 'SLU238' is present on the rye chromosome arm 2RL. Line TA5094 (#101) was derived from 'SLU238' and was found to be homozygous for the T2DS·2RL translocation. The stem rust resistance gene on chromosome 2RL arm was designated as Sr59. Although introgressions of rye chromosome arms into wheat have most often been facilitated by irradiation, this study highlights the utility of the breakage-fusion mechanism for rye chromatin introgression. Sr59 provides an additional asset for wheat improvement to mitigate yield losses caused by stem rust.

  11. Identification and characterization of pleiotropic and co-located resistance loci to leaf rust and stripe rust in bread wheat cultivar Sujata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Caixia; Zhang, Yelun; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Basnet, Bhoja R; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Lagudah, Evans S; Singh, Ravi P

    2015-03-01

    Two new co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim - 1AS/QYr.cim - 1AS and QLr.cim - 7BL/YrSuj , in combination with Lr46 / Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46 , and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci, conferred high resistance to rusts in adult plant stage. The tall Indian bread wheat cultivar Sujata displays high and low infection types to leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively, at the seedling stage in greenhouse tests. It was also highly resistant to both rusts at adult plant stage in field trials in Mexico. The genetic basis of this resistance was investigated in a population of 148 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Avocet × Sujata. The parents and RIL population were characterized in field trials for resistance to leaf rust during 2011 at El Batán, and 2012 and 2013 at Ciudad Obregón, Mexico, and for stripe rust during 2011 and 2012 at Toluca, Mexico; they were also characterized three times for stripe rust at seedling stage in the greenhouse. The RILs were genotyped with diversity arrays technology and simple sequence repeat markers. The final genetic map was constructed with 673 polymorphic markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping analysis detected two new significant co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim-1AS/QYr.cim-1AS and QLr.cim-7BL/YrSuj, on chromosomes 1AS and 7BL, respectively. The chromosomal position of QLr.cim-7BL overlapped with the seedling stripe rust resistance gene, temporarily designated as YrSuj. Two previously reported pleiotropic adult plant resistance genes, Lr46/Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46, and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci derived from Avocet were also mapped in the population. The two new co-located resistance loci are expected to contribute to breeding durable rust resistance in wheat. Closely linked molecular markers can be used to transfer all four resistance loci simultaneously to modern wheat varieties.

  12. New Generation of Resistant Sugar Beet Varieties for Advanced Integrated Management of Cercospora Leaf Spot in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Johannes; Kenter, Christine; Holst, Carsten; Märländer, Bernward

    2018-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) epidemics in sugar beet have been increasing in recent years causing higher use of fungicides. Concomitantly, the availability of effective fungicides is at risk because of resistance development in the fungus, the lack of new active ingredients as well as restrictive approval practices. A key option for an integrated management of CLS is cultivation of resistant varieties. Because of the yield penalty in resistant varieties, acceptance in commercial practice so far has been low. The aim of our study was to characterize recent sugar beet varieties registered in Germany in terms of resistance and tolerance to CLS and their value for integrated pest management. The genetic basis of CLS resistance in varieties is protected by intellectual property rights even after variety registration and not open to the public due to economic competition. To gain reliable data for cultivation, varieties have to be tested for their resistance traits under field conditions at varying levels of infection with Cercospora beticola . In collaboration with variety related stakeholders, 15 sugar beet varieties were tested in 49 field trials in Germany from 2014 to 2016 for their yield response to CLS. The trials were set up in a split-plot design with and without infection (i.e., with and without fungicide). The classification of varietal reaction to CLS is based on symptomatic leaf area (susceptibility) and the resulting relative yield loss (tolerance). Since the relation between both parameters varied among varieties, it was used as an additional parameter to describe tolerance. On this basis, three groups of varieties were identified. They can be characterized as a susceptible, a resistant and a presumably tolerant cluster. A comparison of the data with an older dataset originating from 2009 to 2011 revealed that yield performance of recent varieties with resistance to C. beticola caught up with susceptible varieties due to breeding progress. They showed no

  13. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  14. Inheritance and bulked segregant analysis of leaf rust and stem rust resistance genes in eight durum wheat genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt) and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to Pt-race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to Pg...

  15. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Toropi wheat is conditioned by Lr78 and three minor QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, was noted to have long lasting leaf rust resistance that was effective only in adult plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the chromosome location of the leaf rust resistance genes derived from Toropi in two populations of recombinant inbred lines in a partial Thatcher wheat...

  16. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from the soft red winter wheat cultivar Caldwell maps to chromosome 3BS

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Caldwell' is a U.S. soft red winter wheat that has partial, adult plant resistance to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. A line of 'Thatcher*2/Caldwell' with adult plant resistance derived from Caldwell was crossed with 'Thatcher' to develop a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). ...

  17. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  18. Tagging genes for drought resistance by DNA markers in wheat (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.A.; Rahman, S.; Zafar, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat families (F/sub 3) raised from the seed of drought resistant and susceptible F/sub 2/ plants developed from the cross of drought resistant and susceptible parents were grown under greenhouse conditions in polyethylene tubes filled with soil and sand mixture. Drought stress was imposed and monitored at the seedling stage. The relative water content and net photosynthesis was recorded with increasing drought stress until a significant part of the seedling population had zero or negative net photosynthesis. The seedling with zero or negative net photosynthesis were named as drought susceptible and the seedlings at the same drought stress showing net photosynthesis were named as drought resistance. Twenty each of the most susceptible and resistant seedlings were selected for DNA extraction. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique using bulked segregant analysis was used to identify DNA markers linked to drought resistance. The primers OPJ-05, OPJ-14, OPI-20 and OPA-19 produced polymorphic DNA fragments between the contrasting bulks. The polymorphic DNA fragment of 1.55kb produced by the primer OPA-19 was found linked to drought resistance. This DNA marker can be used in markers-assisted selection for drought resistance or to clone drought resistance gene. (author)

  19. Breeding of fungal resistant varieties derived from Grüner Veltliner by chromosomal selection

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    Regner Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultivar Grüner Veltliner is the most appreciated vine in Austrian viticulture. Due to organic growing the demand for mildew resistance within the same wine profile has increased. Cross breeding can provide such new genotypes which combine traits from different sources by parenthood. Linkage of traits with chromosomes or markers allows to predict some aspects of the phenotype. Equipped with chromosomal assisted selection the development of new varieties could be much easier and faster. On the base of two segregating populations derived from crosses of Grüner Veltliner with Malverina and Seyval blanc we could define correlation of chromosomes with some traits. Mainly ampelographic descriptors and resistance against mildew could be aligned. As a quality parameter of the wine Rotundone analyses were performed and could be attributed to chromosome 5 and 9. Selection supported by the composition of the parental chromosomes enables breeding with some arguments of design. The limits for free choice were the availability of sufficient different genotypes with a broad spectrum of chromosomal combinations. Recently released descendent cultivar Donauveltliner was selected due to the high rate of Traminer alleles.

  20. EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO PESTS AND DISEASES OF SOME OLD APPLE VARIETIES

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    Militaru Madalina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Old apple varieties (ˈBotaneˈ, ˈCălugăreştiˈ, ˈDomneştiˈ, ˈCreţesc auriuˈ, ˈGustav durabilˈ, ˈPătulˈ, ˈRoşii de Geoagiuˈ, ˈŞovari, ˈVerzişoareˈ, ˈTare de ghindăˈ, ˈVerzi de Rădăşeniˈ, ˈPoinicˈ were studied in order to assess pests and disease resistance during two growing season. During the experiment, the following disease and pest evaluations were made periodically: apple powdery mildew, apple scab, green apple aphid, apple codling moth, in a plot with low pesticide regime. High scab and powdery mildew resistance was observed at ˈGustav durabilˈ and ˈBotaneˈ cvs. Hight susceptibility for apple codling moth was observed on ˈGustav durabilˈ cv. and for green apple aphid at ˈVerzişoareˈ and ˈTare de ghindăˈ cvs. In conclusion, some old apple cultivars could be a significant source of genes for apple breeding rograms

  1. Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese wheat founder parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is a major abiotic factor affecting grain weight and quality, and is caused by an early break in seed dormancy. Association mapping (AM is used to detect correlations between phenotypes and genotypes based on linkage disequilibrium (LD in wheat breeding programs. We evaluated seed dormancy in 80 Chinese wheat founder parents in five environments and performed a genome-wide association study using 6,057 markers, including 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR, 1,472 diversity array technology (DArT, and 4,492 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. The general linear model (GLM and the mixed linear model (MLM were used in this study, and two significant markers (tPt-7980 and wPt-6457 were identified. Both markers were located on Chromosome 1B, with wPt-6457 having been identified in a previously reported chromosomal position. The significantly associated loci contain essential information for cloning genes related to resistance to PHS and can be used in wheat breeding programs.

  2. Role of Ca ions in the induction of heat-resistance of wheat coleoptiles by brassinosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. E. Kolupaev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of Ca2+ into the signal transduction of exogenous brassinosteroids (BS (24-epibrassinolide – 24-EBL and 24-epicastasterone – 24 ECS causing the increase of heat resistance of the cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. coleoptiles was investigated using calcium chelator EGTA and inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C – neomycin. Twenty-four-hour treatment of coleoptile segments with 10 nM solutions of 24-EBL and 24-ECS led to a transient increase in the generation of superoxide anion radical by cell surface and the subsequent activation of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Pretreatment of coleoptiles with EGTA and neomycin depressed to a considerable extent these effects and leveled the increase in heat resistance of wheat coleoptiles that were caused by BS. Possible mechanisms of involvement of calcium signaling into the formation of reactive oxygen species in plant cells and induction of heat resistance of plant cells by the action of exogenous BS have been discussed.

  3. Genetic basis of qualitative and quantitative resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: from consensus regions to candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Laidò, Giovanni; De Vita, Pasquale; Papa, Roberto; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata; Rubiales, Diego; Mastrangelo, Anna M

    2013-08-19

    Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. The objective of this study was to identify the wheat genomic regions that are involved in the control of powdery mildew resistance through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) meta-analysis approach. This meta-analysis allows the use of collected QTL data from different published studies to obtain consensus QTL across different genetic backgrounds, thus providing a better definition of the regions responsible for the trait, and the possibility to obtain molecular markers that will be suitable for marker-assisted selection. Five QTL for resistance to powdery mildew were identified under field conditions in the durum-wheat segregating population Creso × Pedroso. An integrated map was developed for the projection of resistance genes/ alleles and the QTL from the present study and the literature, and to investigate their distribution in the wheat genome. Molecular markers that correspond to candidate genes for plant responses to pathogens were also projected onto the map, particularly considering NBS-LRR and receptor-like protein kinases. More than 80 independent QTL and 51 resistance genes from 62 different mapping populations were projected onto the consensus map using the Biomercator statistical software. Twenty-four MQTL that comprised 2-6 initial QTL that had widely varying confidence intervals were found on 15 chromosomes. The co-location of the resistance QTL and genes was investigated. Moreover, from analysis of the sequences of DArT markers, 28 DArT clones mapped on wheat chromosomes have been shown to be associated with the NBS-LRR genes and positioned in the same regions as the MQTL for powdery mildew resistance. The results from the present study provide a detailed analysis of the genetic basis of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. The study of the Creso × Pedroso durum-wheat population has revealed some QTL that had not been previously identified. Furthermore

  4. Attempts to induce mutations for resistance of wheat to mildew, stem rust and leaf rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, Z.; Barabas, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Research carried out between 1971 and 1981 is summarized. Attempts to find induced mutants with full resistance to pathotype mixtures of the three pathogens were not successful. Reasons are discussed. Studies on wheat lines tolerant to stem rust infection led to the conclusion that this disease reaction may be often accompanied by a reduced number of infection sites and a longer lag period resulting in reduced spore production. Various selection methods have been evaluated. Selecting for the multigenic 'non race specific' way is promising. (author)

  5. Breeding sesame for diseases and shatter resistant high yielding varieties with induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    ''Suwon 144'', derived from the cross between ''Danbaeckkae'' and mutant MY-74-2 and in spite of its higher yield and quality compared to the check variety, did not pass the nomination to the Committee of Main Crops New Varieties under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, due to the decision of the committee to limit the number of new varieties in sesame as a minor crop in Korea. ''Suwon 144'' will be released again for a fifth year to RYT in 1998. 5,282 cross combinations and 4,341 lines including 1,388 crossings of F 1 were crossed and released to the experimental field of NCES in 1997. Mutants and their cross combinations were released and constituted more than half among them. Seeds of ''Suwon 152'' were treated with NaN 3 and tested for germinability. The other seeds were released and harvested in the experimental field and 419 mutant lines were selected among all the mutant lines. Mutants or materials from cross breeding with mutants occupied 71% (675) among a total of 952 promising lines in yield trials of OYT, PYT, AYT and RYT. For variability of NaN 3 induced genetic male sterile (GMS) mutants and development of restorer/s of GMS, GMS lines were planted, and male sterility (MS) expression evaluated on each line. The selected 4 MS lines with 50% MS were crossed in 22 combinations with 7 recommended varieties. For development of genic-cytoplasmic MS (GCMS) using NaN 3 induced GMS mutants, 40 recommended local Korean and introduced cultivars were crossed in 57 combinations with 4 selected GMS lines expressing 50% male sterility. Various and many sources of unique characteristics have been continuously created through induced mutations, such as determinate; dwarf, lodging,- Phytophthora blight- and shatter- resistant; indehiscent, seamless, taller, stronger thick stems, dense capsule bearing type, semi-dwarf, better maturity, male sterility, smaller seeds, pure white seed coat color and high yields. Lines with these induced desirable characteristics were

  6. Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Su, Yan-Qiu; Yuan, Shu; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst), is one of the most serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the protective mechanism against stripe rust at the adult plant stage, the differences in photosystem II and antioxidant enzymatic systems between susceptible and resistant wheat in response to stripe rust disease (P. striiformis) were investigated. We found that chlorophyll fluorescence and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were higher in resistant wheat than in susceptible wheat after stripe rust infection. Compared with the susceptible wheat, the resistant wheat accumulated a higher level of D1 protein and a lower level of reactive oxygen species after infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that D1 and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation are involved in the resistance to stripe rust in wheat. The CP29 protein was phosphorylated under stripe rust infection, like its phosphorylation in other monocots under environmental stresses. More extensive damages occur on the thylakoid membranes in the susceptible wheat compared with the resistant wheat. The findings provide evidence that thylakoid protein phosphorylation and antioxidant enzyme systems play important roles in plant responses and defense to biotic stress.

  7. Adult Plant Leaf Rust Resistance Derived from Toropi Wheat is Conditioned by Lr78 and Three Minor QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Bernardo, A; Bai, G; Hayden, M J; Chao, S

    2018-02-01

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is an important disease of wheat in many regions worldwide. Durable or long-lasting leaf rust resistance has been difficult to achieve because populations of P. triticina are highly variable for virulence to race-specific resistance genes, and respond to selection by resistance genes in released wheat cultivars. The wheat cultivar Toropi, developed and grown in Brazil, was noted to have long-lasting leaf rust resistance that was effective only in adult plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the chromosome location of the leaf rust resistance genes derived from Toropi in two populations of recombinant inbred lines in a partial Thatcher wheat background. In the first population, a single gene with major effects on chromosome 5DS that mapped 2.2 centimorgans distal to IWA6289, strongly reduced leaf rust severity in all 3 years of field plot tests. This gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance was designated as Lr78. In the second population, quantitative trait loci (QTL) with small effects on chromosomes 1BL, 3BS, and 4BS were found. These QTL expressed inconsistently over 4 years of field plot tests. The adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Toropi involved a complex combination of QTL with large and small effects.

  8. Prediction and analysis of three gene families related to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2017-06-20

    The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens. At the molecular level, these three types of resistance may cover across the whole spectrum of pathogen specificities that are controlled by genes encoding different protein families in wheat. The objective of this study is to predict and analyze genes in three such families: NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeats or NLR), START (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein [STaR] related lipid-transfer) and ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporter. The focus of the analysis is on the patterns of relationships between these protein-coding genes within the gene families and QTLs detected for leaf rust resistance. We predicted 526 ABC, 1117 NLR and 144 START genes in the hexaploid wheat genome through a domain analysis of wheat proteome. Of the 1809 SNPs from leaf rust resistance QTLs in seedling and adult stages of wheat, 126 SNPs were found within coding regions of these genes or their neighborhood (5 Kb upstream from transcription start site [TSS] or downstream from transcription termination site [TTS] of the genes). Forty-three of these SNPs for adult resistance and 18 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the ABC genes whereas 14 SNPs for adult resistance and 29 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the NLR gene. Moreover, we found 17 nonsynonymous SNPs for adult resistance and five SNPs for seedling resistance in the ABC genes, and five nonsynonymous SNPs for

  9. Transgenic Wheat Expressing a Barley UDP-Glucosyltransferase Detoxifies Deoxynivalenol and Provides High Levels of Resistance to Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shin, Sanghyun; Heinen, Shane; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Berthiller, Franz; Nersesian, Natalya; Clemente, Thomas; McCormick, Susan; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat that results in economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase (HvUGT13248) were developed and evaluated for FHB resistance, DON accumulation, and the ability to metabolize DON to the less toxic DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G). Point-inoculation tests in the greenhouse showed that transgenic wheat carrying HvUGT13248 exhibited significantly higher resistance to disease spread in the spike (type II resistance) compared with nontransformed controls. Two transgenic events displayed complete suppression of disease spread in the spikes. Expression of HvUGT13248 in transgenic wheat rapidly and efficiently conjugated DON to D3G, suggesting that the enzymatic rate of DON detoxification translates to type II resistance. Under field conditions, FHB severity was variable; nonetheless, transgenic events showed significantly less-severe disease phenotypes compared with the nontransformed controls. In addition, a seedling assay demonstrated that the transformed plants had a higher tolerance to DON-inhibited root growth than nontransformed plants. These results demonstrate the utility of detoxifying DON as a FHB control strategy in wheat.

  10. Characterization of Novel Gene Yr79 and Four Additional Quantitative Trait Loci for All-Stage and High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in Spring Wheat PI 182103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junyan; Wang, Meinan; See, Deven R; Chao, Shiaoman; Zheng, Youliang; Chen, Xianming

    2018-06-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Exploring new resistance genes is essential for breeding resistant wheat cultivars. PI 182103, a spring wheat landrace originally from Pakistan, has shown a high level of resistance to stripe rust in fields for many years, but genes for resistance to stripe rust in the variety have not been studied. To map the resistance gene(s) in PI 182103, 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross with Avocet Susceptible (AvS). The RIL population was genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism markers and tested with races PST-100 and PST-114 at the seedling stage under controlled greenhouse conditions and at the adult-plant stage in fields at Pullman and Mt. Vernon, Washington under natural infection by the stripe rust pathogen in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A total of five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected. QyrPI182103.wgp-2AS and QyrPI182103.wgp-3AL were detected at the seedling stage, QyrPI182103.wgp-4DL was detected only in Mt. Vernon field tests, and QyrPI182103.wgp-5BS was detected in both seedling and field tests. QyrPI182103.wgp-7BL was identified as a high-temperature adult-plant resistance gene and detected in all field tests. Interactions among the QTL were mostly additive, but some negative interactions were detected. The 7BL QTL was mapped in chromosomal bin 7BL 0.40 to 0.45 and identified as a new gene, permanently designated as Yr79. SSR markers Xbarc72 and Xwmc335 flanking the Yr79 locus were highly polymorphic in various wheat genotypes, indicating that the molecular markers are useful for incorporating the new gene for potentially durable stripe rust resistance into new wheat cultivars.

  11. Lr67/Yr46 confers adult plant resistance to stem rust and powdery mildew in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Singh, Ravi P; Lillemo, Morten; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Bhavani, Sridhar; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lan, Caixia; Calvo-Salazar, Violeta; Lagudah, Evans S

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that Lr67/Yr46 has pleiotropic effect on stem rust and powdery mildew resistance and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. Genes are designated as Sr55, Pm46 and Ltn3 , respectively. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) accession RL6077, known to carry the pleiotropic slow rusting leaf and yellow rust resistance genes Lr67/Yr46 in Thatcher background, displayed significantly lower stem rust (P. graminis tritici; Pgt) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici; Bgt) severities in Kenya and in Norway, respectively, compared to its recurrent parent Thatcher. We investigated the resistance of RL6077 to stem rust and powdery mildew using Avocet × RL6077 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two photoperiod-insensitive F3 families segregating for Lr67/Yr46. Greenhouse seedling tests were conducted with Mexican Pgt race RTR. Field evaluations were conducted under artificially initiated stem rust epidemics with Pgt races RTR and TTKST (Ug99 + Sr24) at Ciudad Obregon (Mexico) and Njoro (Kenya) during 2010-2011; and under natural powdery mildew epiphytotic in Norway at Ås and Hamar during 2011 and 2012. In Mexico, a mean reduction of 41 % on stem rust severity was obtained for RILs carrying Lr67/Yr46, compared to RILs that lacked the gene, whereas in Kenya the difference was smaller (16 %) but significant. In Norway, leaf tip necrosis was associated with Lr67/Yr46 and RILs carrying Lr67/Yr46 showed a 20 % reduction in mean powdery mildew severity at both sites across the 2 years of evaluation. Our study demonstrates that Lr67/Yr46 confers partial resistance to stem rust and powdery mildew and is associated with leaf tip necrosis. The corresponding pleiotropic, or tightly linked, genes, designated as Sr55, Pm46, and Ltn3, can be utilized to provide broad-spectrum durable disease resistance in wheat.

  12. Role of scab-resistant apple varieties in forming assortment of new industrial apple plantings (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Д. Гончарук

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identifying new scab-resistant apple varieties with high biological potential by the set of agronomic characters and the ability to realize it effectively in various soil and climatic conditions. Methods. Field, laboratory, comparison, generalization, statistical ones. Results. The author presents the results of study of 17 scab-resistant non-irrigated apple varieties on a semi-dwarf rootstock as to their adaptability to biotic and abio­tic stressors as well as their economic productivity. The studied varieties appeared to be winter-hardy, frost- and heat-resistant, but medium drought-tolerant ones. They are characterized by weak and moderate susceptibility to powdery mildew, high resistance to fruit rot and very low amounts of brown spot, except for Gold Rush variety. Such 10 year old varieties as ‘Edera’, Florina’, ‘Amulet’ and ‘Perlyna Kyieva’ and 8 year old ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Orlovskoie Polesie’ and ‘Topaz’ formed the highest productivity during the years of study. Due to the pollen quality and high interfertility, ‘Revena’ and ‘Gold Rush’ varieties were identified as universal pollinators for winter scab-resistant apple varieties. Conclusions. Such ecologically resistant winter varieties as ‘Topaz’, ‘Freedom’, ‘Edera’ and autumnal ‘Remo’, ‘Afrodita’, ‘Vitos’, ‘Amulet’ were recognized as promising for new intensive non-irrigated plantations in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. They can be the basis of new gardens occupying 25–30% of the area where ecologically safe fruits for various target purposes will be grown supplying demands of the population and processing industry.

  13. Induction of resistance by silicon in wheat plants to alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P A S; Sampaio, M V; Rodrigues, M P; Korndörfer, A P; Oliveira, R S; Ferreira, S E; Korndörfer, G H

    2014-08-01

    Despite the knowledge about the effects of silicon augmenting antibiosis and nonpreference of plants by apterous aphids, few studies exist on such effects with alate aphids. This study evaluated the effects of silicon fertilization on the biology of alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the effect on nonpreference by S. avenae alates for wheat plants with or without silicon fertilization. A method for rearing aphids on detached leaves was evaluated comparing the biology of apterous aphids reared on wheat leaf sections and on whole plants with and without silicon fertilization. Because the use of detached leaves was a reliable method, the effect of silicon fertilization on the biology of apterous and alate S. avenae was assessed using wheat leaf sections. Biological data of aphids were used to calculate a fertility life table. Finally, the effect of silicon fertilization on the nonpreference of alate aphids was carried out for both vegetative and reproductive phases of wheat. Thirty alate aphids were released in the center of a cage, and the number of aphids per whole plant with or without silicon fertilization was observed. Silicon fertilization induced antibiosis resistance in wheat plants to apterous morphs as shown by reduced fecundity, reproductive period, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, and net reproductive rate; however, alates were unaffected. Plants that received silicon fertilization had fewer alate aphids in both the vegetative and reproductive phases. Thus, silicon fertilization can reduce colonization by alates, enhancing nonpreference resistance, and population growth of apterous S. avenae in wheat plants.

  14. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF WHEAT IN ASSOCIATION WITH BIOTYPES OF Raphanus raphanistrum L. RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO ALS-INHIBITOR HERBICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Oliveira da Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Raphanus raphanistrum ALS herbicide-resistant in wheat crops causes crop yield losses, which makes it necessary to understand the factors that influence the interference of this weed to develop safer management strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the competitive ability of wheat in coexistence with biotypes of R. raphanistrum that are resistant (R biotype and susceptible (S biotypes to ALS herbicides and to determine whether there are differences in the competitiveness of these biotypes. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments were placed in pots and arranged in replacement series for three experiments (1 - wheat with the R biotype; 2 - wheat with the S biotype; and 3 - the R biotype with the S biotype at the following ratios: 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. The competitiveness was analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement experiments and competitiveness indices, including the evaluation of the shoot dry matter of the plants (experiments 1, 2, and 3 and the leaf area (experiment 3. The R and S biotypes significantly decreased the shoot dry matter of the wheat cultivar and demonstrated superior competitive ability compared with the culture. The interspecific competition was more important for the wheat and for the S biotype. The competitiveness of the R biotype compared to the S biotype was similar, with synergism in the leaf area production, which indicates the predominant intraspecific competition exhibited by the R biotype.

  15. Mutations in durum wheat SBEII genes conferring increased amylose and resistant starch affect grain yield components, semolina and pasta quality and fermentation responses in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum spp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that provide human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of t...

  16. Biotransformation of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Near Isogenic Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Koutnik, Andrea; Maloku, Imer; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of nine different biotransformation products of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) formed in wheat during detoxification of the toxin are characterized by liquid chromatography—high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The detected metabolites suggest that DON is conjugated to endogenous metabolites via two major metabolism routes, namely 1) glucosylation (DON-3-glucoside, DON-di-hexoside, 15-acetyl-DON-3-glucoside, DON-malonylglucoside) and 2) glutathione conjugation (DON-S-glutathione, “DON-2H”-S-glutathione, DON-S-cysteinyl-glycine and DON-S-cysteine). Furthermore, conjugation of DON to a putative sugar alcohol (hexitol) was found. A molar mass balance for the cultivar ‘Remus’ treated with 1 mg DON revealed that under the test conditions approximately 15% of the added DON were transformed into DON-3-glucoside and another 19% were transformed to the remaining eight biotransformation products or irreversibly bound to the plant matrix. Additionally, metabolite abundance was monitored as a function of time for each DON derivative and was established for six DON treated wheat lines (1 mg/ear) differing in resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Fhb1 and/or Qfhs.ifa-5A. All cultivars carrying QTL Fhb1 showed similar metabolism kinetics: Formation of DON-Glc was faster, while DON-GSH production was less efficient compared to cultivars which lacked the resistance QTL Fhb1. Moreover, all wheat lines harboring Fhb1 showed significantly elevated D3G/DON abundance ratios. PMID:25775425

  17. Laboratory, greenhouse and field methods for screening rust-resistant wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashaal, S.F.; Kiraly, Z.; Barabas, Z.; Barna, B.; Cereal Research Inst., Szeged, Hungary)

    1977-01-01

    Detached flag leaf cultures were not suitable for evaluation of stem-rust resistance in our screening programme. On the basis of yield evaluation it was possible to screen out ten stem-rust ''tolerant'' wheat lines in field experiments. Rusted and protected microplots of each line were paired within a replicate. After artificial inoculation, the protected plants were sprayed with fungicides (benomyl plus dithiocarbamate plus copper salt) at weekly intervals until maturation to keep each protected plot rust-free. The thousand-kernel weights of rusted and protected plots were compared. When the thousand-kernel weight of protected plot increased only slightly and the rust reaction type of plants was susceptible in the rusted plot, the line was screened out as putative ''tolerant''. On the basis of three-year field trial ten ''tolerant'' lines were selected. Nine out of ten lines proved to be resistant to two stem-rust races in greenhouse tests in the seedling stage, when resistance was determined on the basis of reduced spore production instead of infection types. Resistance of these seedlings related partly to the reduced number of pustules and partly to a slow rusting character of plants. It seems possible to screen resistant cultivars in the greenhouse by the method outlined in this paper, when resistance is determined on the basis of a reduced number of infection sites and/or by the slow rusting capacity. (author)

  18. A storage-protein marker associated with the suppressor of Pm8 for powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S X; McIntosh, R A; Sharp, P J; The, T T

    1996-11-01

    A suppressor of resistance to powdery mildew conferred by Pm8 showed complete association with the presence of a storage-protein marker resolved by electrophoresis on SDS-PAGE gels. This marker was identified as the product of the gliadin allele Gli-A1a. The mildewresponse phenotypes of wheats possessing the 1BL.1RS translocation were completely predictable from electrophoretograms. The suppressor, designated SuPm8, was located on chromosome 1AS. It was specific in its suppression of Pm8, and did not affect the rye-derived resistance phenotypes of wheat lines with Pm17, also located in 1RS, or of lines with Pm7.

  19. Mapping and characterization of the new adult plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr77 derived from Santa Fe winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James A; Su, Zhenqi; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Chao, Shiaoman

    2018-04-25

    A new gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance in wheat was mapped to chromosome 3BL. This gene was designated as Lr77. 'Santa Fe' is a hard red winter cultivar that has had long-lasting resistance to the leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosome location of the adult plant leaf rust resistance in Santa Fe wheat. A partial backcross line of 'Thatcher' (Tc) wheat with adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Santa Fe was crossed with Thatcher to develop a Thatcher//Tc*2/Santa Fe F 6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The RIL population and parental lines were evaluated for segregation of leaf rust resistance in three field plot tests and in an adult plant greenhouse test. A genetic map of the RIL population was constructed using 90,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with the Illumina Infinium iSelect 90K wheat bead array. A significant quantitative trait locus for reduction of leaf rust severity in all four tests was found on chromosome 3BL that segregated as a single adult plant resistance gene. The RILs with the allele from the resistant parent for SNP marker IWB10344 had lower leaf rust severity and a moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response compared to the susceptible RILs and Thatcher. The gene derived from Santa Fe on chromosome 3BL was designated as Lr77. Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay markers linked to Lr77 on 3BL should be useful for selection of wheat germplasm with this gene.

  20. Studies on productivity lodge resistance of radiation induced mutants of syrian local durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfares, A M; Ghazal, H M [Dep. of Radiation Agriculture, Syrian Atomic Energy Commision, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of the research was to induce mutations characterized by lodging resistant and high yielding ability in two syrian local durum wheat land races. This research was carried out at two periods during 1983-1987 and from 1991-1993. At the first period, Kernels of Hourani and Senatore Cappelle were treated with 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 K rad of gamma rays at the Laboratory of the commission of Syrian Atomic Energy to induce mutations. The treated Kernels were planted in 1983/1984 season. After that, selection were practicised on plants which characterized by good performance and lodging resistant. During the successive seasons, screening were made on mutant lines to keep out only lines which show adaptability to intensive cultivation. Second period includes testing of selected lines at two govern orates of syria (Raqqa and Aleppo) during three successive seasons; 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 under intensive cultivation conditions (fertilization, irrigation, stands, etc.).

  1. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaoguo An

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization, mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization, mc-GISH (multicolor GISH and EST (expressed sequence tag-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering.

  2. Inheritance and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Leaf Rust and Stem Rust Resistance in Durum Wheat Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Meriem; Kolmer, James A; Rouse, Matthew N; Chao, Shiaoman; Bulbula, Worku Denbel; Elias, Elias M; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, and stem rust, caused by P. graminis f. sp. tritici, are important diseases of durum wheat. This study determined the inheritance and genomic locations of leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes to P. triticina race BBBQJ and stem rust resistance (Sr) genes to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in durum accessions. Eight leaf-rust-resistant genotypes were used to develop biparental populations. Accessions PI 192051 and PI 534304 were also resistant to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK. The resulting progenies were phenotyped for leaf rust and stem rust response at seedling stage. The Lr and Sr genes were mapped in five populations using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and bulked segregant analysis. Five leaf-rust-resistant genotypes carried single dominant Lr genes whereas, in the remaining accessions, there was deviation from the expected segregation ratio of a single dominant Lr gene. Seven genotypes carried Lr genes different from those previously characterized in durum. The single dominant Lr genes in PI 209274, PI 244061, PI387263, and PI 313096 were mapped to chromosome arms 6BS, 2BS, 6BL, and 6BS, respectively. The Sr gene in PI 534304 mapped to 6AL and is most likely Sr13, while the Sr gene in PI 192051 could be uncharacterized in durum.

  3. [Study on discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang; Song, Wen-qi; Li, Shu-chao

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid identification of fire resistive coating for steel structure of different brands in circulating, a new method for the fast discrimination of varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure by means of near infrared spectroscopy was proposed. The raster scanning near infrared spectroscopy instrument and near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were applied to collect the spectral curve of different brands of fire resistive coating for steel structure and the spectral data were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation(standard normal variate transformation, SNV) and Norris second derivative. The principal component analysis (principal component analysis, PCA)was used to near infrared spectra for cluster analysis. The analysis results showed that the cumulate reliabilities of PC1 to PC5 were 99. 791%. The 3-dimentional plot was drawn with the scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 X 10, which appeared to provide the best clustering of the varieties of fire resistive coating for steel structure. A total of 150 fire resistive coating samples were divided into calibration set and validation set randomly, the calibration set had 125 samples with 25 samples of each variety, and the validation set had 25 samples with 5 samples of each variety. According to the principal component scores of unknown samples, Mahalanobis distance values between each variety and unknown samples were calculated to realize the discrimination of different varieties. The qualitative analysis model for external verification of unknown samples is a 10% recognition ration. The results demonstrated that this identification method can be used as a rapid, accurate method to identify the classification of fire resistive coating for steel structure and provide technical reference for market regulation.

  4. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mapping of stripe rust resistance QTL in Cappelle-Desprez × PBW343 RIL population effective in northern wheat belt of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sushma Kumari; Sharma, Davinder; Duhan, Joginder Singh; Saharan, Mahender Singh; Tiwari, Ratan; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is most important and devastating disease of wheat worldwide, which affects the grain yields, quality and nutrition. To elucidate, the genetic basis of resistance, a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines was developed from a cross between resistant Cappelle-Desprez and susceptible cultivar PBW343 using single-seed descent. Variety PBW343 had been one of the most popular cultivars of North Western Plains Zone, for more than a decade, before succumbing to the stripe rust. Cappelle-Desprez, a source of durable adult plant resistance, has maintained its resistance against stripe rust for a long time in Europe. Map construction and QTL analysis were completed with 1012 polymorphic (DArT and SSR) markers. Screenings for stripe rust disease were carried out in field condition for two consecutive crop seasons (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). Susceptible parent (PBW343) achieved a significant level of disease i.e., 100 % in both the years. In present investigations, resistance in Cappelle-Desprez was found stable and response to the rust ranged from 0 to 1.5 % over the years. The estimated broad-sense heritability (h 2 ) of stripe rust rAUDPC in the mapping population was 0.82. The relative area under the disease progress curve data showed continuous distributions, indicating that trait was controlled multigenically. Genomic region identified on chromosome 2D, was located within the short arm, with flanking markers (Xgwm484-Xcfd73), explained phenotypic variation (PVE) ranged from 13.9 to 31.8 %. The genomic region identified on chromosome 5B was found with the effect of maximum contribution with flanking DArT markers (1376633|F|0-1207571|F|0), PVE ranged from 24 to 27.0 %. This can, therefore, be utilized for marker assisted selection in developing much needed stripe rust resistant lines for the northern wheat belt of India.

  6. TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Yin, Lingjie; Wu, Liang; Lei, Cailin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long

    2013-08-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  7. Compounds of natural origin inducing resistance in winter wheat to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, L.; Martínková, J.; Šindelářová, Milada; Burketová, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2005), s. 469-475 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : winter wheat * inducer of resistence * powdery mildew Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.170, year: 2004

  8. Glycerol-3-phosphate metabolism in wheat contributes to systemic acquired resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Yang

    Full Text Available Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P is a proposed regulator of plant defense signaling in basal resistance and systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The GLY1-encoded glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH and GLI1-encoded glycerol kinase (GK are two key enzymes involved in the G3P biosynthesis in plants. However, their physiological importance in wheat defense against pathogens remains unclear. In this study, quantification analysis revealed that G3P levels were significantly induced in wheat leaves challenged by the avirulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst race CYR23. The transcriptional levels of TaGLY1 and TaGLI1 were likewise significantly induced by avirulent Pst infection. Furthermore, knocking down TaGLY1 and TaGLI1 individually or simultaneously with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS inhibited G3P accumulation and compromised the resistance in the wheat cultivar Suwon 11, whereas the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA and the expression of the SA-induced marker gene TaPR1 in plant leaves were altered significantly after gene silencing. These results suggested that G3P contributes to wheat systemic acquired resistance (SAR against stripe rust, and provided evidence that the G3P function as a signaling molecule is conserved in dicots and monocots. Meanwhile, the simultaneous co-silencing of multiple genes by the VIGS system proved to be a powerful tool for multi-gene functional analysis in plants.

  9. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TRTTF in the Canadian wheat cultivar 'Harvest'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race T...

  10. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a durum wheat Aegilops speltoides chromosome translocation conferring resistance to stem rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust is a serious disease of wheat that has caused historical epidemics, but it has not been a threat in recent decades in North America due to the eradication of the alternate host and deployment of resistant cultivars. However, the recent emergence of Ug99 (or race TTKS) poses a threat to glo...

  11. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Amylase Gene from the Rice Pest Walker and its Inhibitor from Wheat (Variety MP Sehore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralideae, commonly known as yellow stem borer, is a predominant monophagous pest of rice, which causes 5% to 30% loss of the rice crop. We report for the first time, the cloning and sequence analysis of the amylase gene of this pest. The cloned gene translates into a protein of 487 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 54,955 daltons and a theoretical pI of 5.9. The 3D structure of the amylase is predicted from its amino acid sequence by homology modeling using the structure of the amylase from Tenebrio molitor L (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. We also report the purification of a dimeric α-amylase inhibitor from a local variety of wheat MP Sehore that is specific for the amylase of this pest and does not inhibit human salivary amylase or porcine pancreatic amylase. The gene encoding this inhibitor has been cloned and its sequence has been analysed to find a possible explanation for this specificity.

  12. Mining centuries old in-situ conserved Turkish wheat landraces for grain yield and stripe rust resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive five-year (2009-2014 effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA, led to the collection and documentation of around 2,000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey. This study reports the genetic characterization of a subset of bread wheat landraces collected in 2010 from 11 diverse provinces using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology. The potential of this collection to identify loci determining grain yield and stripe rust resistance via genome-wide association (GWA analysis was explored. A high genetic diversity (diversity index = 0.260 and a moderate population structure based on highly inherited spike traits was revealed in the panel. The linkage disequilibrium decayed at 10 cM across the whole genome and was slower as compared to other landrace collections. In addition to previously reported QTL, GWA analysis also identified new candidate genomic regions for stripe rust resistance, grain yield and spike productivity components. New candidate genomic regions reflect the potential of this landrace collection to further increase genetic diversity in elite germplasm.

  13. Genomic and pedigree-based prediction for leaf, stem, and stripe rust resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana, Philomin; Singh, Ravi P; Singh, Pawan K; Crossa, Jose; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Lan, Caixia; Bhavani, Sridhar; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Poland, Jesse A; Bergstrom, Gary C; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. Our objective was to compare three genomic prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), GBLUP A that was GBLUP with selected loci as fixed effects and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces-markers (RKHS-M) with least-squares (LS) approach, RKHS-pedigree (RKHS-P), and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP) to determine the BVs for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (LR), stem rust (SR), and stripe rust (YR). The 333 lines in the 45th IBWSN and the 313 lines in the 46th IBWSN were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. The mean prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31-0.74 for LR seedling, 0.12-0.56 for LR APR, 0.31-0.65 for SR APR, 0.70-0.78 for YR seedling, and 0.34-0.71 for YR APR. For most datasets, the RKHS-MP model gave the highest accuracies, while LS gave the lowest. GBLUP, GBLUP A, RKHS-M, and RKHS-P models gave similar accuracies. Using genome-wide marker-based models resulted in an average of 42% increase in accuracy over LS. We conclude that GS is a promising approach for improvement of quantitative rust resistance and can be implemented in the breeding pipeline.

  14. Exogenous Salicylic Acid Enhances the Resistance of Wheat Seedlings to Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Infestation Under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Joshua; Moch, John; Chen, Ming-Shun; Zhu, Lieceng

    2014-10-01

    Heat stress exerts significant impact on plant-parasite interactions. Phytohormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), play important roles in plant defense against parasite attacks. Here, we studied the impact of a combination of heat stress and exogenous SA on the resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to the Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. We found that the wheat cultivar 'Molly', which contains the resistance gene H13, lost resistance to Hessian fly under heat stress (40°C for 3 and 6 h), and that exogenous application of SA on Molly seedlings right before heat stress can partially prevent the loss of resistance of Molly plants under heat conditions. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the dynamics of plant-insect interactions in the context of heat stress. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  15. High-density genetic mapping of a major QTL for resistance to multiple races of loose smut in a tetraploid wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Knox, Ron E.; Singh, Asheesh K.; DePauw, Ron M.; Campbell, Heather L.; Isidro-Sanchez, Julio; Clarke, Fran R.; Pozniak, Curtis J.; N’Daye, Amidou; Meyer, Brad; Sharpe, Andrew; Ruan, Yuefeng; Cuthbert, Richard D.; Somers, Daryl; Fedak, George

    2018-01-01

    Loose smut, caused by Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr., is a systemic disease of tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). Loose smut can be economically controlled by growing resistant varieties, making it important to find and deploy new sources of resistance. Blackbird, a variety of T. turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum (Nevski) A. Love & D. Love, carries a high level of resistance to loose smut. Blackbird was crossed with the loose smut susceptible durum cultivar Strongfield to produce a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population. The parents and progenies were inoculated with U. tritici races T26, T32 and T33 individually and as a mixture at Swift Current, Canada in 2011 and 2012 and loose smut incidence (LSI) was assessed. Genotyping of the DH population and parents using an Infinium iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array identified 12,952 polymorphic SNPs. The SNPs and 426 SSRs (previously genotyped in the same population) were mapped to 16 linkage groups spanning 3008.4 cM at an average inter-marker space of 0.2 cM in a high-density genetic map. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for loose smut resistance on chromosomes 3A, 6B and 7A. The loose smut resistance QTL on 6B (QUt.spa-6B.2) and 7A (QUt.spa-7A.2) were derived from Blackbird. Strongfield contributed the minor QTL on 3A (QUt.spa-3A.2). The resistance on 6B was a stable major QTL effective against all individual races and the mixture of the three races; it explained up to 74% of the phenotypic variation. This study is the first attempt in durum wheat to identify and map loose smut resistance QTL using a high-density genetic map. The QTL QUt.spa-6B.2 would be an effective source for breeding resistance to multiple races of the loose smut pathogen because it provides near-complete broad resistance to the predominant virulence on the Canadian prairies. PMID:29485999

  16. High-density genetic mapping of a major QTL for resistance to multiple races of loose smut in a tetraploid wheat cross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar

    Full Text Available Loose smut, caused by Ustilago tritici (Pers. Rostr., is a systemic disease of tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.. Loose smut can be economically controlled by growing resistant varieties, making it important to find and deploy new sources of resistance. Blackbird, a variety of T. turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum (Nevski A. Love & D. Love, carries a high level of resistance to loose smut. Blackbird was crossed with the loose smut susceptible durum cultivar Strongfield to produce a doubled haploid (DH mapping population. The parents and progenies were inoculated with U. tritici races T26, T32 and T33 individually and as a mixture at Swift Current, Canada in 2011 and 2012 and loose smut incidence (LSI was assessed. Genotyping of the DH population and parents using an Infinium iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array identified 12,952 polymorphic SNPs. The SNPs and 426 SSRs (previously genotyped in the same population were mapped to 16 linkage groups spanning 3008.4 cM at an average inter-marker space of 0.2 cM in a high-density genetic map. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL for loose smut resistance on chromosomes 3A, 6B and 7A. The loose smut resistance QTL on 6B (QUt.spa-6B.2 and 7A (QUt.spa-7A.2 were derived from Blackbird. Strongfield contributed the minor QTL on 3A (QUt.spa-3A.2. The resistance on 6B was a stable major QTL effective against all individual races and the mixture of the three races; it explained up to 74% of the phenotypic variation. This study is the first attempt in durum wheat to identify and map loose smut resistance QTL using a high-density genetic map. The QTL QUt.spa-6B.2 would be an effective source for breeding resistance to multiple races of the loose smut pathogen because it provides near-complete broad resistance to the predominant virulence on the Canadian prairies.

  17. Identification and evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew and yellow rust in a wheat mapping population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Yang

    Full Text Available Deployment of cultivars with genetic resistance is an effective approach to control the diseases of powdery mildew (PM and yellow rust (YR. Chinese wheat cultivar XK0106 exhibits high levels of resistance to both diseases, while cultivar E07901 has partial, adult plant resistance (APR. The aim of this study was to map resistance loci derived from the two cultivars and analyze their effects against PM and YR in a range of environments. A doubled haploid population (388 lines was used to develop a framework map consisting of 117 SSR markers, while a much higher density map using the 90K Illumina iSelect SNP array was produced with a subset of 80 randomly selected lines. Seedling resistance was characterized against a range of PM and YR isolates, while field scores in multiple environments were used to characterize APR. Composite interval mapping (CIM of seedling PM scores identified two QTLs (QPm.haas-6A and QPm.haas-2A, the former being located at the Pm21 locus. These QTLs were also significant in field scores, as were Qpm.haas-3A and QPm.haas-5A. QYr.haas-1B-1 and QYr.haas-2A were identified in field scores of YR and were located at the Yr24/26 and Yr17 chromosomal regions respectively. A second 1B QTL, QYr.haas-1B-2 was also identified. QPm.haas-2A and QYr.haas-1B-2 are likely to be new QTLs that have not been previously identified. Effects of the QTLs were further investigated in multiple environments through the testing of selected lines predicted to contain various QTL combinations. Significant additive interactions between the PM QTLs highlighted the ability to pyramid these loci to provide higher level of resistance. Interactions between the YR QTLs gave insights into the pathogen populations in the different locations as well as showing genetic interactions between these loci.

  18. Cultural Characteristics of Rhizoctonia cerealis Isolated from Diseased Wheat Fields and Evaluation of the Resistance of Korean Winter Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sook Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It was identified as a sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis that the isolates from abnormal symptoms in wheat that showed yellowing leaves, necrotic spot on stem base and dead tillers. These isolates have slower growth property and fewer mycelia than Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(1A (KACC 40106. They showed binuclear cell, same media cultural and DNA characteristics to R. cerealis. They caused same symptoms on leaves and stem base appeared in artificial inoculation test, comparing to diseased wheat fields and also affect to maturing of kernels. They have optimal growth temperature and acidity on the artificial media as 20~25℃ and pH 5~7, respectively. In the investigation of varietal resistance of Korean winter cereal crops to sharp eyespot, there was no resistant in wheat cultivars that all materials infected over 20% diseased ratio. 12 cultivars including ``Anbaekmil``, however, considered to moderate resistance with 20 to 30% infection ratio. The others crops using in feeding, whole crop barley, oat, rye and triticale were resistant below 15% diseased degree except the rye that showed over 50% infection rate. It was the first evaluation to sharp eyespot resistance for the Korean feeding crop cultivars. Most tested Korean barley cultivars for malting and food were moderate and susceptible to the sharp eyespot. Only 3 hulled barley, ``Tapgolbori``, ``Albori`` and ``Seodunchalbori``, showed resistance with less than 10% diseased ratio. All tested naked barley cultivars showed susceptible response to the disease.

  19. From image processing to classification: IV. Classification of electrophoretic patterns by neural networks and statistical methods enable quality assessment of wheat varieties for breadmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Kesmir, Can; Søndergaard, Ib

    1996-01-01

    The end-use quality of products made from doughs consisting of wheat flour and water is often dependent upon the storage (gluten) proteins of the grain endosperm. Today the electrophoretic patterns of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits are used for quality selections in wheat breed...

  20. From image processing to classification: IV. Classification of electrophoretic patterns by neural networks and statistical methods enable quality assessment of wheat varieties for bread making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.; Kesmir, Can; Søndergaard, Ib

    1996-01-01

    The end-use quality of products made from doughs consisting of wheat flour and water is often dependent upon the storage (gluten) proteins of the grain endosperm. Today the electrophoretic patterns of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits are used for quality selections in wheat breed...

  1. Lamoka, a variety with excellent chip color out of cold storage and resistance to the golden potato cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoka is a white-skinned, white-fleshed potato cultivar variety notable for excellent chip color from cold storage, good yield, and resistance to both common scab and race Ro1 of the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis). It was selected from a cross made at Cornell University in 1...

  2. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  3. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  4. Heritable, De Novo Resistance to Leaf Rust and Other Novel Traits in Selfed Descendants of Wheat Responding to Inoculation with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifers, Dallas L.; Haber, Steve; Martin, Terry J.; McCallum, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Stable resistance to infection with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can be evolved de novo in selfing bread wheat lines subjected to cycles of WSMV inoculation and selection of best-performing plants or tillers. To learn whether this phenomenon might be applied to evolve resistance de novo to pathogens unrelated to WSMV, we examined the responses to leaf rust of succeeding generations of the rust- and WSMV-susceptible cultivar ‘Lakin’ following WSMV inoculation and derived rust-resistant sublines. After three cycles of the iterative protocol five plants, in contrast to all others, expressed resistance to leaf and stripe rust. A subset of descendant sublines of one of these, ‘R1’, heritably and uniformly expressed the new trait of resistance to leaf rust. Such sublines, into which no genes from a known source of resistance had been introgressed, conferred resistance to progeny of crosses with susceptible parents. The F1 populations produced from crosses between, respectively, susceptible and resistant ‘Lakin’ sublines 4-3-3 and 4-12-3 were not all uniform in their response to seedling inoculation with race TDBG. In seedling tests against TDBG and MKPS races the F2s from F1 populations that were uniformly resistant had 3∶1 ratios of resistant to susceptible individuals but the F2s from susceptible F1 progenitors were uniformly susceptible. True-breeding lines derived from resistant individuals in F2 populations were resistant to natural stripe and leaf rust inoculum in the field, while the ‘Lakin’ progenitor was susceptible. The next generation of six of the ‘Lakin’-derived lines exhibited moderate to strong de novo resistance to stem rust races TPMK, QFCS and RKQQ in seedling tests while the ‘Lakin’ progenitor was susceptible. These apparently epigenetic effects in response to virus infection may help researchers fashion a new tool that expands the range of genetic resources already available in adapted germplasm. PMID:24497941

  5. Characteristics and use of wheat mutants tolerant or resistant to Septoria nodorum Berk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, A.; Kleijer, G.; Fried, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation induction was used to obtain mutants tolerant or resistant to Septoria nodorum. This technique is valuable but many genotypes had to be treated because mutants could not be selected from all the genotypes. Short tolerant mutants could be obtained from 3 of the 15 treated tall tolerant lines. Induction of tolerance in susceptible lines of good agronomic value succeeded for 2 of 5 treated varieties. All these mutants showed a reduction in yield potential. One mutant showed partial resistance to S. nodorum. The disease development on the leaves and the spikes of this mutant was much slower than on the original variety. The characteristics of this mutant are discussed in detail. The genetics of tolerance proved to be polygenic and additive, which has consequences on the breeding method. A good way of obtaining a stable system would be the combination of high tolerance and partial resistance in the same cultivar. (author)

  6. A Multiple Decrement Life Table Reveals That Host Plant Resistance and Parasitism Are Major Causes of Mortality for the Wheat Stem Sawfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteler, Micaela; Peterson, Robert K D; Hofland, Megan L; Weaver, David K

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of parasitism, host plant resistance, pathogens, and predation on the demography of wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), developing in susceptible (hollow stem) and resistant (solid stem) wheat hosts. This study is also the first to investigate the prevalence and impact of cannibalism on wheat stem sawfly mortality. Wheat stem sawflies were sampled in two commercial wheat fields over 4 yr from the egg stage through adult emergence, and multiple decrement life tables were constructed and analyzed. Cannibalism, host plant resistance, or unknown factors were the most prevalent factors causing egg mortality. Summer mortality of prediapause larvae ranged from 28 to 84%, mainly due to parasitism by Bracon cephi (Gahan) and Bracon lissogaster Muesebeck, cannibalism, and host plant resistance. Winter mortality ranged from 6 to 54% of the overwintering larvae, mainly due to unknown factors or pathogens. Cannibalism is a major cause of irreplaceable mortality because it is absolute, with only a single survivor in every multiple infested stem. Subsequent to obligate cannibalism, mortality of feeding larvae due to host plant resistance was lower in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Mortality from host plant resistance was largely irreplaceable. Irreplaceable mortality due to parasitoids was greater in hollow stem wheat than in solid stem wheat. Host plant resistance due to stem solidness and parasitism in hollow stems cause substantial mortality in populations of actively feeding larvae responsible for all crop losses. Therefore, enhancing these mortality factors is vital to effective integrated pest management of wheat stem sawfly. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Genetic characterisation of novel resistance alleles to stem rust and stripe rust in wheat-alien introgression lines

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatov, Mahbubjon

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) is one of the most important food crops world-wide, but is attacked by many diseases and pests that cause significant yield losses. Globally, stem rust (Sr) (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss & E. Henning), stripe rust (Yr) (Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks) and leaf rust (Lr) (Puccinia triticina Eriks) are a great threat to wheat production. The majority of the Sr, Yr and Lr resistance genes are already defeated...

  8. Identification of QoI fungicide-resistant genotypes of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora ALLIOUI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is currently one of the most damaging diseases on bread and durum wheat crops worldwide. A total of 120 monoconidial isolates of this fungus were sampled in 2012 from five distinct geographical locations of Algeria (Guelma, Annaba, Constantine, Skikda and Oran and assessed for resistance to Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI, a widely used class of fungicides for the control of fungal diseases of wheat. Resistance was screened using a mismatch PCR assay that identified the G143A mitochondrial cytochrome b substitution associated with QoI resistance. The isolates were QoI-sensitive, since all possessed the G143 wild-type allele, except for three isolates (two from Guelma and one from Annaba, which had fungicide resistance and possessed the A143 resistant allele. QoI resistance was confirmed phenotypically using a microplate bioassay in which the resistant isolates displayed high levels of half-maximal inhibitory azoxystrobin concentrations (IC50s when compared to sensitive reference isolates. Genetic fingerprinting of all isolates with microsatellite markers revealed that the three resistant isolates were distinct haplotypes, and were are not genetically distinguishable from the sensitive isolates. This study highlights QoI-resistant genotypes of Z. tritici in Algeria for the first time, and proposes a management strategy for QoI fungicide application to prevent further spread of resistance across the country or to other areas of Northern Africa.

  9. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Okuno

    Full Text Available Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA, and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  10. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Ayako; Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  11. Genomic Selection for Predicting Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in a Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio P. Arruda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a breeding method that uses marker–trait models to predict unobserved phenotypes. This study developed GS models for predicting traits associated with resistance to head blight (FHB in wheat ( L.. We used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS to identify 5054 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, which were then treated as predictor variables in GS analysis. We compared how the prediction accuracy of the genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBVs was affected by (i five genotypic imputation methods (random forest imputation [RFI], expectation maximization imputation [EMI], -nearest neighbor imputation [kNNI], singular value decomposition imputation [SVDI], and the mean imputation [MNI]; (ii three statistical models (ridge-regression best linear unbiased predictor [RR-BLUP], least absolute shrinkage and operator selector [LASSO], and elastic net; (iii marker density ( = 500, 1500, 3000, and 4500 SNPs; (iv training population (TP size ( = 96, 144, 192, and 218; (v marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices; and (vi control for relatedness in TPs and validation populations (VPs. No discernable differences in prediction accuracy were observed among imputation methods. The RR-BLUP outperformed other models in nearly all scenarios. Accuracies decreased substantially when marker number decreased to 3000 or 1500 SNPs, depending on the trait; when sample size of the training set was less than 192; when using pedigree-based instead of marker-based matrix; or when no control for relatedness was implemented. Overall, moderate to high prediction accuracies were observed in this study, suggesting that GS is a very promising breeding strategy for FHB resistance in wheat.

  12. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects

    OpenAIRE

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F

    2015-01-01

    Background Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. Results A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and express...

  13. Discovery of a Novel Stem Rust Resistance Allele in Durum Wheat that Exhibits Differential Reactions to Ug99 Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaveeramuthu Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses in susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf. Husnot. Although several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24. However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines, and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13. The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.

  14. Characterization of stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in Indian wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust or black rust is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In India, central, peninsular and southern hill zones are particularly prone to stem rust where favourable environmental conditions exist. The recent emergence of wheat stem rust race Ug99 (TTKSK) and related strains threatens global wheat ...

  15. Signal mediators at induction of heat resistance of wheat plantlets by short-term heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Karpets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of functional interplay of calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the cells of wheat plantlets roots (Triticum aestivum L. at the induction of their heat resistance by a short-term influence of hyperthermia (heating at the temperature of 42 °С during 1 minute have been investigated. The transitional increase of NO and H2O2 content, invoked by heating, was suppressed by the treatment of plantlets with the antagonists of calcium EGTA (chelator of exocellular calcium, lanthanum chloride (blocker of calcium channels of various types and neomycin (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipase C. The rise of hydrogen peroxide content, caused by hardening, was partially suppressed by the action of inhibitors of nitrate reductase (sodium wolframate and NO-synthase (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester – L-NAME, and the increasing of nitric oxide content was suppressed by the treatment of plants with the antioxidant ionol and with the scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (dimethylthiourea. These compounds and antagonists of calcium also partially removed the effect of the rise of plantlets’ heat resistance, invoked by hardening heating. The conclusion on calcium’s role in the activation of enzymatic systems, generating reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, and on the functional interplay of these signal mediators at the induction of heat resistance of plantlets by hardening heating is made.

  16. The Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Canopy Temperature Depression, Chlorophyll Content, and Water Use Efficiency in Three Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. Varieties Grown in Dry Regions of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One critical challenge facing the world is the need to satisfy the food requirements of the dramatically growing population. Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in the wheat-producing regions; therefore, wheat yield stability is a major objective of wheat-breeding programs in Jordan, which experience fluctuating climatic conditions in the context of global climate change. In the current study, a two-year field experiment was conducted for exploring the effect of four different water regimes on the yield, yield components, and stability of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; T. durum Desf. Jordanian cultivars as related to Canopy Temperature Depression (CTD, and Chlorophyll Content (measured by Soil-Plant Analysis Development, SPAD. A split plot design was used in this experiment with four replicates. Water treatment was applied as the main factor: with and without supplemental irrigation; 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of field capacity were applied. Two durum wheat cultivars and one bread wheat cultivar were split over irrigation treatments as a sub factor. In both growing seasons, supplemental irrigation showed a significant increase in grain yield compared to the rain-fed conditions. This increase in grain yield was due to the significantly positive effect of water availability on yield components. Values of CTD, SPAD, harvest index, and water use efficiency (WUE were increased significantly with an increase in soil moisture and highly correlated with grain yield. Ammon variety produced the highest grain yield across the four water regimes used in this study. This variety was characterized by the least thermal time to maturity and the highest values of CTD and SPAD. It was concluded that Ammon had the highest stability among the cultivars tested. Furthermore, CTD and SPAD can be used as important selection parameters in breeding programs in Jordan to assist in developing high-yielding genotypes under drought and heat stress conditions.

  17. Association mapping and haplotype analysis of a 3.1-Mb genomic region involved in Fusarium head blight resistance on wheat chromosome 3BS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Hao

    Full Text Available A previous study provided an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics of European and Asian wheat gene pools using a sequenced 3.1-Mb contig (ctg954 on chromosome 3BS. This region is believed to carry the Fhb1 gene for response to Fusarium head blight. In this study, 266 wheat accessions were evaluated in three environments for Type II FHB response based on the single floret inoculation method. Hierarchical clustering (UPGMA based on a Manhattan dissimilarity matrix divided the accessions into eight groups according to five FHB-related traits which have a high correlation between them; Group VIII comprised six accessions with FHB response levels similar to variety Sumai 3. Based on the compressed mixed linear model (MLM, association analysis between five FHB-related traits and 42 molecular markers along the 3.1-Mb region revealed 12 significant association signals at a threshold of P0.1 and P0.05 within each HapB at r(2>0.1 and P<0.001 showed significant differences between the Hap carried by FHB resistant resources, such as Sumai 3 and Wangshuibai, and susceptible genotypes in HapB3 and HapB6. These results suggest that Fhb1 is located within HapB6, with the possibility that another gene is located at or near HapB3. SSR markers and Haps detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of FHB resistance, and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection of Fhb1 in wheat breeding.

  18. Collinearity Analysis and High-Density Genetic Mapping of the Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm40 in PI 672538

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Akash; Yang, Jiezhi; Chen, Wanquan; Liu, Taiguo; Hu, Yuting; Li, Qing; Guo, Jingwei; Zhang, Min; Lei, Li; Li, Xin; Tang, Shengwen; Luo, Peigao

    2016-01-01

    The wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm40, which is located on chromosomal arm 7BS, is effective against nearly all prevalent races of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) in China and is carried by the common wheat germplasm PI 672538. A set of the F1, F2 and F2:3 populations from the cross of the resistant PI 672538 with the susceptible line L1034 were used to conduct genetic analysis of powdery mildew resistance and construct a high-density linkage map of the Pm40 gene. We constructed a high-density linkage genetic map with a total length of 6.18 cM and average spacing between markers of 0.48 cM.Pm40 is flanked by Xwmc335 and BF291338 at genetic distances of 0.58 cM and 0.26 cM, respectively, in deletion bin C-7BS-1-0.27. Comparative genomic analysis based on EST-STS markers established a high level of collinearity of the Pm40 genomic region with a 1.09-Mbp genomic region on Brachypodium chromosome 3, a 1.16-Mbp genomic region on rice chromosome 8, and a 1.62-Mbp genomic region on sorghum chromosome 7. We further anchored the Pm40 target intervals to the wheat genome sequence. A putative linear index of 85 wheat contigs containing 97 genes on 7BS was constructed. In total, 9 genes could be considered as candidates for the resistances to powdery mildew in the target genomic regions, which encoded proteins that were involved in the plant defense and response to pathogen attack. These results will facilitate the development of new markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection of Pm40 in wheat breeding programs. PMID:27755575

  19. Mapping resistance to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen in a spring wheat landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, E M; Gordon, T C; Chao, S; Newcomb, M; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Wanyera, R; Acevedo, M; Brown-Guedira, G; Williamson, S; Bonman, J M

    2015-04-01

    A new gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace PI 374670 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing PI 374670 and the susceptible line LMPG-6. The parents and progeny were evaluated for seedling resistance to Pgt races TTKSK, MCCFC, and TPMKC. The DH lines were tested in field stem rust nurseries in Kenya and Ethiopia. The DH lines were genotyped with the 90K wheat iSelect SNP genotyping platform. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in PI 374670 conditioned seedling resistance to the three Pgt races. The seedling resistance locus mapped to the long arm of chromosome 7A and this result was verified in the RIL population screened with the flanking SNP markers using KASP assays. In the same region, a major QTL for field resistance was detected in a 7.7 cM interval and explained 34-54 and 29-36% of the variation in Kenya and Ethiopia, respectively. Results from tests with specific Pgt races and the csIH81 marker showed that the resistance was not due to Sr22. Thus, a new stem rust resistance gene or allele, either closely linked or allelic to Sr15, is responsible for the seedling and field resistance of PI 374670 to Ug99.

  20. A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum

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    Sanghyun Shin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed or seedling inoculation assay, and to compare these assays with whole plant resistance of twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars to FHB. The clip-dipping assay consists of cutting off the coleoptiles apex, dipping the coleoptiles apex in conidial suspension, covering in plastic bag for 3 days, and measuring the lengths of lesions 7 days after inoculation. There were significant cultivar differences after inoculation with F. graminearum in seedling relative to the controls. Correlation coefficients between the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation and FHB Type II resistance from adult plants were significant (r=0.45; P<0.05. Results from two other seedling inoculation methods, spraying and pin-point inoculation, were not correlated with adult FHB resistance. Single linear correlation was not significant between seed germination assays (soaking and soak-dry and FHB resistance (Type I and Type II, respectively. These results showed that clip-dipping inoculation method using F. graminearum may offer a real possibility of simple, rapid, and reliable for the early screening of FHB resistance in wheat.

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces.

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    Albert Kertho

    Full Text Available Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt, and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ and one race of Pst (PSTv-37 frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.

  2. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  3. TaSYP71, a Qc-SNARE, Contributes to Wheat Resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

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    Minjie eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs are involved in plant resistance; however, the role of SYP71 in the regulation of plant–pathogen interactions is not well known. In this study, we characterized a plant-specific SNARE in wheat, TaSYP71, which contains a Qc-SNARE domain. Three homologues are localized on chromosome 1AL, 1BL and 1DL. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, TaSYP71 was localized to the plasma membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana. Quantitative real-time PCR assays revealed that TaSYP71 homologues was induced by NaCl, H2O2 stress and infection by virulent and avirulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst isolates. Heterologous expression of TaSYP71 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe elevated tolerance to H2O2. Meanwhile, H2O2 scavenging gene (TaCAT was downregulated in TaSYP71 silenced plants treated by H2O2 compared to that in control, which indicated that TaSYP71 enhanced tolerance to H2O2 stress possibly by influencing the expression of TaCAT to remove the excessive H2O2 accumulation. When TaSYP71 homologues were all silenced in wheat by the virus-induced gene silencing system, wheat plants were more susceptible to Pst, with larger infection area and more haustoria number, but the necrotic area of wheat mesophyll cells were larger, one possible explanation that minor contribution of resistance to Pst was insufficient to hinder pathogen extension when TaSYP71were silenced, and the necrotic area was enlarged accompanied with the pathogen growth. Of course, later cell death could not be excluded. In addition, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes were down-regulated in TaSYP71 silenced wheat plants. These results together suggest that TaSYP71 play a positive role in wheat defence against Pst.

  4. Genome-wide association mapping reveals a rich genetic architecture of stripe rust resistance loci in emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhen; Maccaferri, Marco; Chen, Xianming; Laghetti, Gaetano; Pignone, Domenico; Pumphrey, Michael; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    SNP-based genome scanning in worldwide domesticated emmer germplasm showed high genetic diversity, rapid linkage disequilibrium decay and 51 loci for stripe rust resistance, a large proportion of which were novel. Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, is a potentially rich reservoir of variation for improvement of resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in wheat. Resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in emmer wheat has been under-investigated. Here, we employed genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping with a mixed linear model to dissect effective stripe rust resistance loci in a worldwide collection of 176 cultivated emmer wheat accessions. Adult plants were tested in six environments and seedlings were evaluated with five races from the United States and one from Italy under greenhouse conditions. Five accessions were resistant across all experiments. The panel was genotyped with the wheat 90,000 Illumina iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and 5106 polymorphic SNP markers with mapped positions were obtained. A high level of genetic diversity and fast linkage disequilibrium decay were observed. In total, we identified 14 loci associated with field resistance in multiple environments. Thirty-seven loci were significantly associated with all-stage (seedling) resistance and six of them were effective against multiple races. Of the 51 total loci, 29 were mapped distantly from previously reported stripe rust resistance genes or quantitative trait loci and represent newly discovered resistance loci. Our results suggest that GWAS is an effective method for characterizing genes in cultivated emmer wheat and confirm that emmer wheat is a rich source of stripe rust resistance loci that can be used for wheat improvement.

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of NB-ARC resistant genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their expression during leaf rust infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saket; Kazmi, Andaleeb Z; Ahmed, Zainab; Roychowdhury, Gargi; Kumari, Veena; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-07-01

    NB-ARC domain-containing resistance genes from the wheat genome were identified, characterized and localized on chromosome arms that displayed differential yet positive response during incompatible and compatible leaf rust interactions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop; however, its production is affected severely by numerous diseases including rusts. An efficient, cost-effective and ecologically viable approach to control pathogens is through host resistance. In wheat, high numbers of resistance loci are present but only few have been identified and cloned. A comprehensive analysis of the NB-ARC-containing genes in complete wheat genome was accomplished in this study. Complete NB-ARC encoding genes were mined from the Ensembl Plants database to predict 604 NB-ARC containing sequences using the HMM approach. Genome-wide analysis of orthologous clusters in the NB-ARC-containing sequences of wheat and other members of the Poaceae family revealed maximum homology with Oryza sativa indica and Brachypodium distachyon. The identification of overlap between orthologous clusters enabled the elucidation of the function and evolution of resistance proteins. The distributions of the NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were found to be balanced among the three wheat sub-genomes. Wheat chromosome arms 4AL and 7BL had the most NB-ARC domain-containing contigs. The spatio-temporal expression profiling studies exemplified the positive role of these genes in resistant and susceptible wheat plants during incompatible and compatible interaction in response to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. Two NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were modelled in silico, cloned and sequenced to analyze their fine structures. The data obtained in this study will augment isolation, characterization and application NB-ARC resistance genes in marker-assisted selection based breeding programs for improving rust resistance in wheat.

  6. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  7. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

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    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  8. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Wheat using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

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    Marcio P. Arruda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is one of the most important wheat ( L. diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker–trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM controlling for relatedness and population structure. Ten significant SNP–trait associations were detected on chromosomes 4A, 6A, 7A, 1D, 4D, and 7D, and multiple SNPs were associated with on chromosome 3B. Although combination of favorable alleles of these SNPs resulted in lower levels of severity (SEV, incidence (INC, and deoxynivalenol concentration (DON, lines carrying multiple beneficial alleles were in very low frequency for most traits. These SNPs can now be used for creating new breeding lines with different combinations of favorable alleles. This is one of the first GWAS using genomic resources from the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC.

  9. Effect of resistant wheat starch on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine H; Hsu, Walter H; Hollis, James H

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal. Appetite questionnaires and plasma samples were collected before the test meal and at 10 time points after meal consumption. An ad libitum meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten was recorded. Food intake was recorded over the remainder of the day using a diet diary, and appetite was measured hourly using appetite questionnaires. Plasma was assayed to measure biomarkers of satiety and glycemia. Replacing SWF with RWS had no effect on subjective appetite or energy intake at the lunch meal (P > 0.05). Total daily energy intake (including the breakfast meal) was reduced by 179 kcal when participants consumed the RWS muffins (P = 0.05). Replacing SWF with RWS reduced plasma insulin (P  0.05). These results indicate that replacing SWF with RWS decreases plasma insulin concentration and reduces energy intake over a 24-h period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

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    Silvia Venuti

    Full Text Available The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.. A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3 only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+ has an additive effect with Rpv3(+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+ plants.

  11. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sundeep; Archak, Sunil; Tyagi, R K; Kumar, Jagdish; Vk, Vikas; Jacob, Sherry R; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J; Parimalan, R; Sivaswamy, M; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N S; Chowdhury, A K; Saha, B C; Bhattacharya, P M; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M C; Gangwar, O P; Prasad, P; Bharadwaj, S C; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J B; Gm, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M S; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T V; Sharma, R K; Dutta, M; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K C

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  12. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Kumar

    Full Text Available A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu, a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab, a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal, a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  13. Transient heat stress compromises the resistance of wheat (Poales: Poaceae) seedlings to Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Yaleaka; Moch, John; Underwood, Joshua; Kharabsheh, Hamzah; Quesenberry, Amy; Miyagi, Risa; Thomas, Carolyn; Boney, Melanie; Woods, Samantha; Chen, Ming-Shun; Zhu, Lieceng

    2014-02-01

    Heat stress exerts a profound impact on the resistance of plants to parasites. In this research, we investigated the impact of an acute transient heat stress on the resistance of the wheat line 'Molly,' which contains the R gene H13, to an avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) population. We found that a significant portion of Molly seedlings stressed at 40 degrees C for 6 h during or after the initial Hessian fly larval attack became susceptible to otherwise avirulent insects, whereas unstressed control plants remained 100% resistant. Specifically, 77.8, 73.3, 83.3, and 46.7% of plants heat stressed at 0, 6,12, and 24 h, respectively, after the initial larval attack became susceptible. Biochemical analysis revealed that heat stress caused a transient decrease in 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, but an increase in salicylic acid accumulation in Molly plants. The change in phytohormones after heat stress and Hessian fly infestation was not observed in 'Newton,' a near-isogenic but Hessian fly susceptible wheat line. Instead, heat stress caused a relatively prolonged reduction in palmitoleic acid. The role of phytohormones in heat-induced loss of wheat resistance was discussed.

  14. Pyramiding of transgenic Pm3 alleles in wheat results in improved powdery mildew resistance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Teresa; Brunner, Susanne; Herren, Gerhard; Hurni, Severine; Keller, Beat

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of enhanced total transgene expression level and allele-specificity combination in transgenic allele-pyramided Pm3 wheat lines result in improved powdery mildew field resistance without negative pleiotropic effects. Allelic Pm3 resistance genes of wheat confer race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) and encode nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors. Transgenic wheat lines overexpressing alleles Pm3a, b, c, d, f, and g have previously been generated by transformation of cultivar Bobwhite and tested in field trials, revealing varying degrees of powdery mildew resistance conferred by the transgenes. Here, we tested four transgenic lines each carrying two pyramided Pm3 alleles, which were generated by crossbreeding of lines transformed with single Pm3 alleles. All four allele-pyramided lines showed strongly improved powdery mildew resistance in the field compared to their parental lines. The improved resistance results from the two effects of enhanced total transgene expression levels and allele-specificity combinations. In contrast to leaf segment tests on greenhouse-grown seedlings, no allelic suppression was observed in the field. Plant development and yield scores of the pyramided lines were similar to the mean scores of the corresponding parental lines, and thus, the allele pyramiding did not cause any negative effects. On the contrary, in pyramided line, Pm3b × Pm3f normal plant development was restored compared to the delayed development and reduced seed set of parental line Pm3f. Allele-specific RT qPCR revealed additive transgene expression levels of the two Pm3 alleles in the pyramided lines. A positive correlation between total transgene expression level and powdery mildew field resistance was observed. In summary, allele pyramiding of Pm3 transgenes proved to be successful in enhancing powdery mildew field resistance.

  15. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew. PMID:26813794

  16. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Molecular mapping of the novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm36 introgressed from Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, A; Cenci, A; Carluccio, A V; Abdelbacki, A M M; Simeone, R

    2008-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides (2n=4x=AABB), the progenitor of cultivated wheats, shows particular promises as a donor of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances. The wild emmer accession MG29896, resistant to powdery mildew, was backcrossed to the susceptible durum wheat cultivar Latino, and a set of backcross inbred lines (BC(5)F(5)) was produced. Genetic analysis of F(3) populations from two resistant introgression lines (5BIL-29 x Latino and 5BIL-42 x Latino) indicated that the powdery mildew resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Molecular markers and the bulked segregant analysis were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance. Five AFLP markers (XP43M32((250)), XP46M31((410)), XP41M37((100)), XP41M39((250)), XP39M32((120))), three genomic SSR markers (Xcfd07, Xwmc75, Xgwm408) and one EST-derived SSR marker (BJ261635) were found to be linked to the resistance gene in 5BIL-29 and only the BJ261635 marker in 5BIL-42. By means of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome bin 5BL6-0.29-0.76. These results indicated that the two lines had the same resistance gene and that the introgressed dicoccoides chromosome segment was longer (35.5 cM) in 5BIL-29 than that introgressed in 5BIL-42 (less than 1.5 cM). As no powdery mildew resistance gene has been reported on chromosome arm 5BL, the novel resistance gene derived from var. dicoccoides was designated Pm36. The 244 bp allele of BJ261635 in 5BIL-42 can be used for marker-assisted selection during the wheat resistance breeding process for facilitating gene pyramiding.

  18. Introduction of a rice blight resistance gene, Xa21, into five Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A cloned gene, Xa21 was transferred into five widely-used Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system, and over 110 independent transgenic lines were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis of transgenic plants revealed the integration of the whole Xa21 gene into the host genomes. The integrated Xa21 gene was stably inherited, and segregated in a 3∶1 ratio in the selfed T1 generation when one copy of the gene was integrated in the transformants. Inoculation tests displayed that transgenic T0 plants and Xa21 PCR-positive T1 plants were highly resistant to bacterial blight disease. The selected Xa21 homozygous resistant transgenic lines with desirable qualities may be propagated as new varieties or utilized in hybrid rice breeding.

  19. Introduction of a rice blight resistance gene, Xa21, into five Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium -mediated system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟文学; 李晓兵; 田文忠; 周永力; 潘学彪; 曹守云; 赵显峰; 赵彬; 章琦; 朱立煌

    2000-01-01

    A cloned gene, Xa21 was transferred into five widely-used Chinese rice varieties through an Agrobacterium-mediated system, and over 110 independent transgenic lines were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis of transgenic plants revealed the integration of the whole Xa21 gene into the host genomes. The integrated Xa21 gene was stably inherited, and segregated in a 3 : 1 ratio in the selfed T1 generation when one copy of the gene was integrated in the transfor-mants. Inoculation tests displayed that transgenic T0 plants and Xa21 PCR-positive T1 plants were highly resistant to bacterial blight disease. The selected Xa21 homozygous resistant transgenic lines with desirable qualities may be propagated as new varieties or utilized in hybrid rice breeding.

  20. Transgenerational variations in DNA methylation induced by drought stress in two rice varieties with distinguished difference to drought resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Zheng

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions have large impacts on plant growth and crop production. One of the crucial mechanisms that plants use in variable and stressful natural environments is gene expression modulation through epigenetic modification. In this study, two rice varieties with different drought resistance levels were cultivated under drought stress from tilling stage to seed filling stage for six successive generations. The variations in DNA methylation of the original generation (G0 and the sixth generation (G6 of these two varieties in normal condition (CK and under drought stress (DT at seedling stage were assessed by using Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP method. The results revealed that drought stress had a cumulative effect on the DNA methylation pattern of both varieties, but these two varieties had different responses to drought stress in DNA methylation. The DNA methylation levels of II-32B (sensitive and Huhan-3 (resistant were around 39% and 32%, respectively. Genome-wide DNA methylation variations among generations or treatments accounted for around 13.1% of total MSAP loci in II-32B, but was only approximately 1.3% in Huhan-3. In II-32B, 27.6% of total differentially methylated loci (DML were directly induced by drought stress and 3.2% of total DML stably transmitted their changed DNA methylation status to the next generation. In Huhan-3, the numbers were 48.8% and 29.8%, respectively. Therefore, entrainment had greater effect on Huhan-3 than on II-32B. Sequence analysis revealed that the DML were widely distributed on all 12 rice chromosomes and that it mainly occurred on the gene's promoter and exon region. Some genes with DML respond to environmental stresses. The inheritance of epigenetic variations induced by drought stress may provide a new way to develop drought resistant rice varieties.