WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistant raisin grape

  1. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p consumption of a premeal snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  2. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  3. Production of Fumonisin B-2 and B-4 by Aspergillus niger on Grapes and Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured...... on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A. acidus strains isolated from raisins were tested for fumonisin production on laboratory media. Neither A. tubingensis nor A. acidus strains produced fumonisins, but 77% of A. niger strains did. None of the strains produced ochratoxin A....... Ten selected fumonisin producing A. niger strains were further able to produce fumonisin B2 and fumonisin B4 on grapes in the range 171−7841 μg fumonisin B2/kg and 14−1157 μg fumonisin B4/kg. Four selected strains were able to produce fumonisin B2 (5−6476 μg/kg) and fumonisin B4 (12−672 μg...

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on nutritional properties of table grapes Benitaka and dark raisins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda Galassi

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of fruits, but its tropical climate with high humidity and temperature, eventually creates unfavorable conditions for the preservation of food and especially the fruit. Ionizing radiation has the potential to solve problems affecting the food supply in many countries. Using the right dose, this technology can be used to extend shelf life and safety of many fresh fruits in addition to controlling their rates of maturation. There are thousands of grape varieties around the world, most of them belonging Vitis vinifera. This fruit can be dried to obtain raisins in order to maintain the natural characteristics of the product and hinder the growth of microorganisms that can promote the deterioration of fresh fruit. One of the major sources of phenolic compounds are found in grapes, compared to other fruits and vegetables. One of the phenolic compounds represented by resveratrol is that stands out when it comes to fighting various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurological diseases. The irradiations were performed in 60 Co irradiator Multipurpose Center installed on Radiation Technology (CTR-IPEN-CNEN/SP) with different doses: control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy for the analysis of color, texture, sensory and microbiological shelf life. For analysis of phenolic compounds and resveratrol were radiated only at doses: control, 1.5 and 3 kGy. With the results it was found that doses of 0.5, 1.5 kGy grape variety Benitaka have been accepted well both in sensory and shelf life tests. Samples of raisins had no variation in this analysis. No microbial growth was found and after treatment with radiation it was possible to prove the presence of resveratrol in all samples. (author)

  5. Effect of Alternative Irrigation Strategies on Yield and Quality of Fiesta Raisin Grapes Grown in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Abrisqueta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, grapes are fully irrigated, but alternative irrigation strategies to reduce applied irrigation water may be necessary in the future as occurrences of drought increase. This study was conducted in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV of California from 2012 to 2014. Three irrigation treatments were used to study the effects on the yield and quality of Fiesta grapes. The treatments included: grower irrigation (GI weekly irrigation lasting for approximately 65 h; sustained deficit (SD equal to 80% of the GI treatment; and regulated deficit (RD equal to 50% of the GI until fruit set when it was increased to 80% of the GI through harvest and reduced to 50% of the GI after harvest. Average water use across treatments was ≈489 mm. Average yield across all treatments was 7.9 t ha−1, 9.1 t ha−1 and 11.8 t ha−1 in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. Yield was sustained in SD and RD, with up to a 20% reduction in applied water use compared to GI. There were no differences in raisin quality and grade among any of the treatments in any year. The percentage of substandard grapes decreased from an average of 12.6% in 2012 to 3.6% in 2013 and 2014. Growers may use a sustained deficit approach during periods of limited water availability to minimize the effect on yield.

  6. Dissipation pattern, safety evaluation, and generation of processing factor (PF) for pyraclostrobin and metiram residues in grapes during raisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Girame, Rushali; Hingmire, Sandip; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Oulkar, Dasharath; Utture, Sagar; Jadhav, Manjusha

    2015-02-01

    A residue analysis method was validated for trace level estimation of pyraclostrobin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and metiram (analyzed as CS2) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in grapes and raisin matrix. Dissipation of their residues and processing factors (PFs) during raisin making were evaluated through field studies with applications at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD). Residue data during drying process were best fitted to first + first-order kinetics model giving half-life ranging between 6 and 7 days for pyroclostrobin and 4 days for metiram. PFs for metiram and pyraclostrobin related to washing and oil dipping were 0.47 and 0.41, and 0.78 and 0.63 at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD), respectively. PF value of >1 for drying (1.01 and 1.31 for metiram and 1.34 and 1.10 for pyraclostrobin) indicates concentration of the residues during the drying process. The dietary exposure corresponding to average daily consumption of 0.0043 kg raisin per day on each sampling day was less than the respective maximum permissible intake at both the doses.

  7. 7 CFR 989.8 - Natural condition raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES... condition raisins means raisins the production of which includes sun-drying or artificial dehydration but...

  8. Yeast strains role on the sulphur dioxyde combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarède

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of four industrial and indigenous yeast strains on the sulphur dioxide combinations of wines obtained from noble rot and raisining grapes is studied in different growth of the Sauternes area and one growth in the Jurançon area. The analysis of ketonic compounds (pyruvic acid and 2-oxo-glutaric acid, acetaldehyde and PC50 on the wines clearly showed significant statistical difference between the yeast strains for the sulphur dioxide combination. By adding the same dosage of sulphiting, the free SO2 levels are variable depending on the yeast strain used. One strain (Zymaflore ST, isolated from a spontaneous fermentation of a botrytised must, giving wines with low PC50 values, is well adapted for the noble rot must vinification. The choice of the yeast strain is a parameter of importance to limit the sulphur dioxide amount in the wines.

  9. 76 FR 4254 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in effect, California raisin handlers... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0090...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would increase the...

  10. 76 FR 18003 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... the marketing order now in effect, California raisin handlers are subject to assessments. Funds to... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0090...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  11. 75 FR 47490 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand to Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... this spring; and the potential for higher prices in the wine and juice markets, which compete for...-term benefits of this action are expected to outweigh the costs. The committee believes that with no... NS raisin producers benefit more from those raisins which are free tonnage, a lower free tonnage...

  12. Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in sun-dried raisins made from different fragrance intensities grape varieties using a validated HS-SPME with GC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Javed, Hafiz Umer; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    The conditions of sample pretreatments and HS-SPME for extracting volatile compounds from raisins were optimized, and the method was validated in the study. Free and glycosidically bound volatile compounds in three different fragrance intensities raisins were analysed using this method. There were 91 compounds identified, and 72, 26 and 8 of these compounds came from fresh grapes, the auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAO) and the Maillard reaction, respectively. The aroma profiles of Thompson Seedless raisins (TSRs) and Centennial Seedless raisins (CSRs) were similar, while the floral, fruity, green and roasted aromas of CSRs were higher than those of TSRs due to the contributions of benzeneacetaldehyde, 2-pentylfuran, (E)-2-nonenal and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine. Decanal, rose oxide, geraniol, linalool and β-damascenone made the floral and fruity aromas of Zixiang Seedless raisins (ZSRs) greater than those in TSRs and CSRs, but the green and roasted aroma intensities of ZSRs were lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 989.5 - Raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... artificial dehydration, either prior to or after such grapes have been removed from the vines. Removal of a significant part of the natural moisture means removal which has progressed to the point where the grape skin...

  14. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère à l’écran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein coeur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman, tout comme le film de John Ford (1940, furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  15. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère : Une critique politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein cœur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman tout comme le film de John Ford (1940 furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  16. Effects of different level of leaf removal applications on mineral substance of raisins in organic Sultani Çekirdeksiz grape growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateş Fadime

    2016-01-01

    It was found that there was highest average potassium (K, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn contents of the raisin in removing two leaves at berry set time down to the clusters; highest average magnesium (Mg and copper (Cu contents of the raisin in removing two leaves down to the clusters and removing two leaves up to the clusters at verasion time; highest average phosphorus (P contents of the raisin in no leaf removal; highest average sodium (Na contents of the raisin in removing three leaves at the berry set time and removing three leaves at verasion time down and up to the clusters at 5% significant level.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on nutritional properties of table grapes Benitaka and dark raisins; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas propriedades nutricionais das uvas de mesa Benitaka e uvas passas escuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda Galassi

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is a major producer of fruits, but its tropical climate with high humidity and temperature, eventually creates unfavorable conditions for the preservation of food and especially the fruit. Ionizing radiation has the potential to solve problems affecting the food supply in many countries. Using the right dose, this technology can be used to extend shelf life and safety of many fresh fruits in addition to controlling their rates of maturation. There are thousands of grape varieties around the world, most of them belonging Vitis vinifera. This fruit can be dried to obtain raisins in order to maintain the natural characteristics of the product and hinder the growth of microorganisms that can promote the deterioration of fresh fruit. One of the major sources of phenolic compounds are found in grapes, compared to other fruits and vegetables. One of the phenolic compounds represented by resveratrol is that stands out when it comes to fighting various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurological diseases. The irradiations were performed in {sup 60}Co irradiator Multipurpose Center installed on Radiation Technology (CTR-IPEN-CNEN/SP) with different doses: control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy for the analysis of color, texture, sensory and microbiological shelf life. For analysis of phenolic compounds and resveratrol were radiated only at doses: control, 1.5 and 3 kGy. With the results it was found that doses of 0.5, 1.5 kGy grape variety Benitaka have been accepted well both in sensory and shelf life tests. Samples of raisins had no variation in this analysis. No microbial growth was found and after treatment with radiation it was possible to prove the presence of resveratrol in all samples. (author)

  18. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  19. Occurrence of Furnonisins B2 and B4 in Retail Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    Concerns that raisins may be contaminated by fumonisins stem from the persistent occurrence of Aspergillus niger spores on raisins and the recent discovery of fumonisin production by A. niger on grapes, which leads to the widespread occurrence of fumonisin B-2 in wine. This study presents an LC-M...... that the fumonisins are produced mainly during the drying process concomitant with the decreasing water activity. Analysis of multiple packages from one manufacturer showed a 3-fold package-to-package variation, suggesting that a few raisins per package are contaminated.......Concerns that raisins may be contaminated by fumonisins stem from the persistent occurrence of Aspergillus niger spores on raisins and the recent discovery of fumonisin production by A. niger on grapes, which leads to the widespread occurrence of fumonisin B-2 in wine. This study presents an LC...

  20. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nereu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the main biotic causes of crop losses in four grape castes, two red (Touriga Nacional and Baga and two white (Arinto and Chardonnay, and evaluated the potential effect of native biodiversity to provide biotic resistance to pest outbreaks and grape losses. Specifically, the diversity and abundance of bird and insect communities in these vineyards were quantified and divided into functional guilds (pest, neutral or auxiliary, to test whether these natural communities hold the potential to naturally control grape pests (biotic resistance hypothesis under normal vineyard management (including pesticide application regimes. A potential association between distance to the vineyard edge and grape losses was also evaluated. We recorded a very small proportion of grape losses (mean  =  0.6 %; max  =  7.5 %, with insect pests showing a preference for the castes Baga (red and Chardonnay (white, while bird pests avoided the caste Arinto (white. Grape color did not influence losses caused by insect pests, but birds showed a preference for red castes. The caste Baga was also more vulnerable to losses caused by fungi. Despite their low impact on grape production, most insects and birds detected in the six vineyards were pests, which entails a potentially low level of biotic resistance in this highly managed agricultural ecosystem. Further research is necessary to fully evaluate the role of functional biodiversity in vineyards, particularly if alternative production processes

  1. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  2. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  4. 7 CFR 989.702 - Minimum grade standards for packed raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for those factors. (b) Golden Seedless Raisins. Packed Golden Seedless raisins shall at least meet the... Seedless raisins means the raisins have not been detached from the main bunch. Cluster Seedless raisins...

  5. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins, the production of which includes soda dipping, sulfuring, and artificial...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective color...

  7. THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR STIMULATION PRODUCTS BOTH ON INCREASING THE RESISTANCE TO MAJOR PHYTOPATHOGENS ATTACKS, AND ON INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WINE GRAPES HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of fertilization and foliar stimulation products both on increasing the resistance to major phytopathogens attacks, and on increasing the quantity and quality of wine grapes harvest. Applying the foliar fertilizer products Plonvit Kali (c1, Tytanit (c2 and Optysil (c3 to vines, for a period of three years (2011/2013, in phenophases of intensive growth of shoots and grapes at approved dosages, simultaneously with pesticide treatment, not only a reduction of pathogenic fungi attack was obtained, but also and an increase of harvest without diminishing the quality of the grapes.

  8. Residue dissipation and processing factor for dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil during raisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar; Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2015-03-01

    A method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of the residues of dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil in grape and raisin matrix by ethyl acetate based extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the dissipation rate kinetics and processing factor (PF) for these pesticides during raisin making. Residue data during the drying process were best fitted to 1st+1st order rate kinetics with half-life ranging between 8-9 days for dimethomorph, 12-13 days for famoxadone and 9-10 days for cymoxanil at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD), respectively. PF values calculated were 1.03 and 1.14 for dimethomorph, 1.95 and 2.09 for famoxadone, and 1.99 and 1.35 for cymoxanil at SD and DD, respectively. PF value >1 indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making. The residues of detected pesticides in market samples of raisins were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  10. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Di Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  11. 7 CFR 52.1850 - Sizes of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster... Raisins 1 Type III-Raisins with Seeds § 52.1850 Sizes of raisins with seeds—except layer or cluster. The sizes of Raisins with Seeds—except for Layer or Cluster Raisins with Seeds, are not incorporated in the...

  12. Identification of grape cultivars and rootstocks with resistance to vine mealybug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine mealybug, an insect pest capable of causing direct and indirect damage to grape vineyards, costs California growers millions of dollars annually. Insecticide sprays used to manage the pest provide inconsistent results, and sustainable methods of control are needed. A previous study identified a...

  13. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nereu; M. Nereu; R. H. Heleno; F. Lopez-Núñez; M. Agostinho; J. A. Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the ...

  14. Consumer Preferences for Cluster Raisins: A Focus Group Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Matt, Garrett R.; Drukin, April; Campeau-McAllister, Kimberly; Campeau-McAllister, Nicole; Solis, Marco; Gipson, Tenisha

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. raisin industry has experienced a decline in acreage and in number of growers in recent years. One firm is trying a novel approach to marketing raisins, namely, by marketing them still attached to the vine. This product is called cluster raisins. In order to explore consumer preferences related to cluster raisins, and to generate new product ideas and preferred marketing methods, two focus group interviews were implemented. Findings included that a young (i.e., 18 - 25 years) market ...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins... more than 18 percent, by weight, of moisture for all varieties of seedless raisins except the Monukka...

  16. 7 CFR 989.158 - Natural condition raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.158 Natural condition... determined by deducting the sand tare and box tare from the gross weight of the raisins. The sand tare shall be the weight of the sand and other foreign material removed from the raisins by passing the raisins...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1855 - Grades of Sultana raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 52.1855 Grades of Sultana raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of Sultana Raisins that have... in Table IV of this subpart. (b) “U.S. Grade B” is the quality of Sultana Raisins that have similar... than materially affected. Grit, sand, or silt None of any consequence may be present that affects the...

  18. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and assessment of pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor for kresoxim methyl residues in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, Rupali; Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Utture, Sagar C; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Adsule, Pandurang G; Deshmukh, Madhukar B

    2014-04-01

    A field dissipation study was conducted to evaluate the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor (PF) for kresoxim methyl (Ergon 44.3 SC) residues in grapes and during raisin making process at recommended dose (RD) and double the recommended dose (DRD). Kresoxim methyl residues dissipated following 1st-order kinetics with a half-life of 10 and 18 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The PHIs with respect to the European Union maximum residue limit (EU-MRL) of 1 mg kg(-1) for grapes were 13 and 30 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The degradation data during grape to raisin making process were best fitted to nonlinear 1st + 1st-order kinetics with a half-life ranging between 4 and 8 days for both shade drying and with raisin dryer at different doses. The PFs were 1.19 and 1.24 with shade drying and 1.09 and 1.10 with raisin dryer, respectively, which indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making process. The dietary exposure of kresoxim methyl on each sampling day was less than the respective maximum permissible intake both at RD and DRD. The residues of kresoxim methyl in market samples of grapes and raisins were well below the EU-MRL and were also devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure.

  19. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  1. LOW-CALORIES RAISINS OBTAINED BY COMBINED DEHYDRATION: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Laborde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A healthy dehydrated food of high nutritional-quality and added-value was developed: low-calories raisin obtained by an ultrasonic assisted combined-dehydration with two-stage osmotic treatment (D3S complemented by drying. Pink Red Globe grape produced at Mendoza (Argentina, experienced a substitution of sugar by natural sweetener Stevia in two osmotic stages under different conditions (treatment with/without ultrasound; sweetener concentration 18, 20, 22% w/w; time 35, 75, 115 minutes, evaluating soluble solids (SS, moisture (M, total polyphenols (PF, antioxidant efficiency (AE and sugar profile. The multiple optimization of the process by response surface methodology and desirability analysis, allowed to minimize M, maximize SS (Stevia incorporation, and preserve the maximum amount of PF. After the first stage, the optimal treatment reduced the majority sugars of the grape in 32% (sucrose, glucose, and the 57% at the end of the dehydration process.

  2. Melhoramento da videira Grape breeding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Almeida Santos Neto

    1955-01-01

    types 'that proved valuable. In the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, grape breeding work was initiated in 1943 by the Section of Viticulture. The grape breeding program of the Section of Viticulture aimed at obtaining improved varieties for rootstocks, for fresh fruit and raisin consumption, and also for the making of wines and juice. Besides the specific qualities required for each different use, the types to be selected had to be well adapted to local environmental conditions, present resistance to insect pests and diseases, and also be resistant to handling and shipping. The basic material used in the improvement program consisted of the collection of grape varieties of the Instituto Agronômico that included many European and American standard varieties, supplemented by new and wild types imported from North and Central America. In this program special attention is being given to the production of seedless types and to hybrids between standard European and American varieties and the wild species, Vitis gigas and V. tilixfolia. Results already obtained are very encouraging and indicated that some of the new types are very good as rootstocks, whereas others are excellent for table uses or for wine or juice making.

  3. Effects of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil on Decay Resistance and Quality of Iranian Table Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa GERANSAYEH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have become popular. Medicinal plants have been used by human being since ages in traditional medicine due to their therapeutic potential and the search on medicinal plants have led the discovery of novel drug candidates used against diverse diseases. Therefore Thymus vulgaris essential oil was applied in Bidaneh Qermez grape cultivar at six concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?l/l in water. Quality characteristics (pH, decay, vitamin C, reducing sugars, weight loss, berry abscission, dehydration of rachis, berry cracking and sensory analyses were evaluated. The results showed that treated fruits with essential oil had lower decay percentage, dehydration of rachis, berry abscission, berry cracking and higher pH, reducing sugars and storage quality compared to control. As a general result, essential oil treatment caused lower decay incident and longer storability.

  4. Effects of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil on Decay Resistance and Quality of Iranian Table Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa GERANSAYEH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have become popular. Medicinal plants have been used by human being since ages in traditional medicine due to their therapeutic potential and the search on medicinal plants have led the discovery of novel drug candidates used against diverse diseases. Therefore Thymus vulgaris essential oil was applied in �Bidaneh Qermez� grape cultivar at six concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?l/l in water. Quality characteristics (pH, decay, vitamin C, reducing sugars, weight loss, berry abscission, dehydration of rachis, berry cracking and sensory analyses were evaluated. The results showed that treated fruits with essential oil had lower decay percentage, dehydration of rachis, berry abscission, berry cracking and higher pH, reducing sugars and storage quality compared to control. As a general result, essential oil treatment caused lower decay incident and longer storability.

  5. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE ADDED VALUE OF SULTANA SEEDLESS GRAPE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Burak Geyikci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey after USA is the second important raisin grape producer by cv “Sultana”in the world (Kara,2014. The Manisa district alone accounts for 31% of totalgrape production and 80% of the whole sultana seedless raisin grape production inTurkey. 95% of total grape output generated in Manisa is made up of Sultanaseedless grape(TUIK, 2012. In thisstudy, the added value of grape production inManisa has been calculated and according to the findings, the per capita addedvalue of grape production has been computed. In order to calculate the addedvalue of grape production in Manisa, costs of labor, fuel, fertilizer, disinfection,hormone, repair and maintenance of the businesses around have been investigated.After calculated costs had been deducted from total business income, the totaladded value of grape production in Manisa and the per capita added valueofgrape production in Manisa were attained The efficiency per hectare in the sampleproduction units, which was investigated during the field research, measures up to26.470 kg. The percentile distributions of cost items at this efficiency level are;27,8% fuel costs, 23,2% fertilizing costs, 19,9% irrigation costs, 11,4%disinfection costs, 7,5% hormone usage costs, 4,6% harvesting and transportingcosts and the rest consists of maintenance costs. When the costs are deducted from income per hectare (11.646 USD, the added value per hectare turns out to be8843 USD

  6. Behavior of grape breeding lines with distinct resistance alleles to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Sánchez-Mora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola is the main grapevine disease in humid regions. In the present investigation, marker-assisted selection (MAS was used to develop grapevine lines homozygous in loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 for resistance against P. viticola. The experimental populations UFSC-2013-1 (n = 420 and UFSC-2013-2 (n = 237 were obtained by self-pollination of two F1 full-sib plants, originated from a cross between two distinct breeding lines containing the downy mildew resistance loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 in heterozygosity. The two experimental populations were genotyped with four microsatellite markers flanking the two downy mildew resistance loci. Among 637 genotyped plants, 300 (48.2% were homozygous for at least one resistance locus and 10 (1.57% were homozygous for both Rpv1 and Rpv3 loci. These 10 plants challenged with P. viticola inoculum showed a clearly enhanced level of resistance. These plants have a great potential as resistance donors in grapevine breeding.

  7. Identification of two novel powdery mildew resistance loci, Ren6 and Ren7, from the wild Chinese grape species Vitis piasezkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Dániel; Riaz, Summaira; Dry, Ian B; Jermakow, Angelica; Tenscher, Alan C; Cantu, Dario; Oláh, Róbert; Walker, M Andrew

    2016-07-29

    Grapevine powdery mildew Erysiphe necator is a major fungal disease in all grape growing countries worldwide. Breeding for resistance to this disease is crucial to avoid extensive fungicide applications that are costly, labor intensive and may have detrimental effects on the environment. In the past decade, Chinese Vitis species have attracted attention from grape breeders because of their strong resistance to powdery mildew and their lack of negative fruit quality attributes that are often present in resistant North American species. In this study, we investigated powdery mildew resistance in multiple accessions of the Chinese species Vitis piasezkii that were collected during the 1980 Sino-American botanical expedition to the western Hubei province of China. A framework genetic map was developed using simple sequence repeat markers in 277 seedlings of an F1 mapping population arising from a cross of the powdery mildew susceptible Vitis vinifera selection F2-35 and a resistant accession of V. piasezkii DVIT2027. Quantitative trait locus analyses identified two major powdery mildew resistance loci on chromosome 9 (Ren6) and chromosome 19 (Ren7) explaining 74.8 % of the cumulative phenotypic variation. The quantitative trait locus analysis for each locus, in the absence of the other, explained 95.4 % phenotypic variation for Ren6, while Ren7 accounted for 71.9 % of the phenotypic variation. Screening of an additional 259 seedlings of the F1 population and 910 seedlings from four pseudo-backcross populations with SSR markers defined regions of 22 kb and 330 kb for Ren6 and Ren7 in the V. vinifera PN40024 (12X) genome sequence, respectively. Both R loci operate post-penetration through the induction of programmed cell death, but vary significantly in the speed of response and degree of resistance; Ren6 confers complete resistance whereas Ren7 confers partial resistance to the disease with reduced colony size. A comparison of the kinetics of induction of powdery

  8. A randomized study of raisins versus alternative snacks on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Weiter, Kathy; Anderson, James

    2015-02-01

    Just as the type and duration of physical activity can have variable effects on the glucose levels and other cardiometabolic parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so can the types of foods have variable effects as well. This 12-week randomized study of 51 study participants evaluated the impact of routine consumption of dark raisins versus alternative processed snacks on glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type T2DM. In this study, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 23% reduction in postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.024). Also compared to snacks, those who consumed raisins had a 19% reduction in fasting glucose and 0.12% reduction in hemoglobin A1c, although these latter findings did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding blood pressure, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 8.7 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.035) (7.5% [P = 0.031]) but did not experience a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins did not have a significant improvement in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, these data support raisins as a healthy alternative compare to processed snacks in patients with T2DM.

  9. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, A.E.N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  10. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  11. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Water extract of raisins may be used, but not to replace raisins. (3) The baked units may bear icing or... other dairy products does not apply. (5) The total solids are determined by the method prescribed in § 136.110(d), except that section 14.091(b) of “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...

  12. Identification of Biomarkers for Defense Response to Plasmopara viticola in a Resistant Grape Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Chitarrini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P. viticola. We investigated primary and secondary metabolism at 12, 24, 48, and 96 h post-inoculation (hpi. We used methods of identification and quantification for lipids (LC-MS/MS, phenols (LC-MS/MS, primary compounds (GC-MS, and semi-quantification for volatile compounds (GC-MS. We were able to identify and quantify or semi-quantify 176 metabolites, among which 53 were modulated in response to pathogen infection. The earliest changes occurred in primary metabolism at 24–48 hpi and involved lipid compounds, specifically unsaturated fatty acid and ceramide; amino acids, in particular proline; and some acids and sugars. At 48 hpi, we also found changes in volatile compounds and accumulation of benzaldehyde, a promoter of salicylic acid-mediated defense. Secondary metabolism was strongly induced only at later stages. The classes of compounds that increased at 96 hpi included phenylpropanoids, flavonols, stilbenes, and stilbenoids. Among stilbenoids we found an accumulation of ampelopsin H + vaticanol C, pallidol, ampelopsin D + quadrangularin A, Z-miyabenol C, and α-viniferin in inoculated samples. Some of these compounds are known as phytoalexins, while others are novel biomarkers for the defense response in Bianca. This work highlighted some important aspects of the host response to P. viticola in a commercial variety under controlled conditions, providing biomarkers for a better understanding of the mechanism of plant defense and a

  13. Behavior of grape breeding lines with distinct resistance alleles to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Mora, Fernando D.; Saifert, Luciano; Zanghelini, Jean; Assumpção, Wilson T.; Guginski-Piva, Cláudia A.; Giacometti, Renan; Novak, Eduardo I.; Klabunde, Gustavo H.; Eibach, Rudolf; Dal Vesco, Lirio; Nodari, Rubens O.; Welter, Leocir J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is the main grapevine disease in humid regions. In the present investigation, marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to develop grapevine lines homozygous in loci Rpv1 and Rpv3 for resistance against P. viticola. The experimental populations UFSC-2013-1 (n = 420) and UFSC-2013-2 (n = 237) were obtained by self-pollination of two full-sib plants, originated from a cross between two distinct breeding lines containin...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1852 - Grades of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster... Raisins 1 Type III-Raisins with Seeds § 52.1852 Grades of raisins with seeds—except layer or cluster. (a...—Allowances for Defects in Raisins With Seeds—Except Layer or Cluster Defects U.S. Grade A U.S. Grade B U.S...

  15. 7 CFR 989.67 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the procurement of raisins is so regulated as to preclude purchases from domestic handlers; (4) By gift; and (5) By any other means consistent with the provisions of this section, and in outlets...

  16. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community.

  17. Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd) or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks in order to determine whether ChrSd improved insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of hepatic ...

  18. An analysis of relationship between food safety and pesticides usages of grape growers in Manisa province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabat Selçuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Manisa which has the largest vineyard areas and grape production of Turkey. In this research, awareness of environment and pesticide using attitudes of growers and effects on food safety of pesticides were investigated. Main data of the study was collected by survey from 117 grape growers which are settled in Manisa province where sultana production is very widespread. Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, for reaching quality raisin and table grape target, conventional and environment friendly pesticides preference priorities were estimated. The AHP was applied to determine conventional and environment friendly pesticides usages of grape growers related to food safety. As a conclusion, it is understood that this target could be reached with 66.8% using environment friendly pesticides.

  19. 7 CFR 989.701 - Minimum grade and condition standards for natural condition raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Golden Seedless. Natural condition Golden Seedless raisins shall have been prepared from sound, wholesome.... Definitely dark berries means raisins which are definitely darker than dark amber and characteristic of...

  20. 7 CFR 52.1853 - Grades of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster. 52.1853...-Raisins with Seeds § 52.1853 Grades of raisins with seeds—layer or cluster. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is the quality of Layer or Cluster Raisins with Seeds that have similar varietal characteristics; that have a...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1851 - Sizes of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sizes of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster. 52.1851...-Raisins with Seeds § 52.1851 Sizes of raisins with seeds—layer or cluster. The size of Layer or Cluster... measurement as applicable to layer or cluster raisins with seeds are: (a) 3 Crown size or larger. “3 Crown...

  2. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  3. Deactivation of tannins in raisin stalk by polyethylene glycol-600 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6000) and urea on dry and organic matter digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD, respectively) and gas production in vitro. Raisin stalk contained 8.6% crude protein, 85% dry matter, 7% ash, 13.95% total extractable phenol (TEPH) and 2.13% total ...

  4. 7 CFR 457.124 - Raisin crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh fruit on acreage where appropriate cultural practices were followed. Ton—Two thousand (2,000... delivered tons; or (2) For units damaged by rain—By adding the delivered tons to any verified loss of... unit; (e) Final adjustment of a loss on a unit; or (f) Abandonment of the raisins. 10. Causes of Loss...

  5. Chemopreventive properties of raisins originating from Greece in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouri, Aggeliki M; Gioxari, Aristea; Karvela, Evangelia; Kaliora, Andriana C; Karvelas, Michalis; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2013-02-26

    Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality in humans in both developed and developing countries. Dietary patterns influence the risk of colon cancer development, while plant-derived foods have gained great interest, due to the high content of antioxidants. Corinthian raisins (Currants, CR) and Sultanas (S) (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are dried vine fruits produced in Greece with many culinary uses in both the Mediterranean and the Western nutrition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CR and S on human colon cancer cells. Methanol extracts of CR and S were used at different concentrations. The total polyphenol content and anti-radical activity were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH, respectively. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects on HT29 cell culture were evaluated. All extracts exhibited DPPH˙ scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. Both products suppressed cell proliferation, while the levels of glutathione and cyclooxygenase 2 were significantly decreased. A significant reduction in IL-8 levels and NF-kappaB p65 activation was also observed. Both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were dependent on the duration of exposure. Results indicate that the methanol extracts of CR and S exhibit anti-radical activity in vitro, as well as cancer preventive efficacy on colon cancer cells, with S having slightly higher activity. The beneficial properties of these unique dried grapes are attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds.

  6. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  7. Persistence of pirimiphos-methyl in stored sultana raisins, common beans and their processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    When radiolabelled pirimiphos-methyl was applied to sultana raisins and common beans, the total residues decreased from 86 to 68% for raisins in 8 months and from 89 to 44% for beans in 4 months. The major part of the residue was found inside the raisins whereas in beans it was concentrated on the surface. Pirimiphos-methyl was considerably more persistent on raisins than on beans. After the initial penetration of the pesticide, the surface residues remained constant in raisins, while in beans they decreased from 77 to 23%. The bound residues in beans reached a maximum of 1.3%. The reduction of radioactivity during processing was 11% and 9% on prewashed raisins and beans, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  8. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  9. Technological approaches to the vinification of Dornfelder grape variety cultivated in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoce Arina Oana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Dornfelder is a rare grape variety which started to become popular among some wine producers due to the intense colour of its wines. However, it is mostly used in blends and therefore varietal wines of Dornfelder are not found too often. In this paper we present some technological approaches suitable for the production of varietal wines of Dornfelder, some of them novel for the Romanian wine industry. The experimental samples include a classical red wine made by the usual technol- ogy using freshly harvested grapes (DW = Dornfelder wine and two variants made with dried grapes (DR and DWDR. The DR variant (Dornfelder raisin wine is produced by a straw-wine type technology, by fermenting a must obtained from grapes dried for 7 weeks. The DWDR is a variant obtained by fermenting a mixture of crushed dried grapes and new Dornfelder wine, the ratio of crushed raisins to wine being 1:1 in weight. The wines were analysed both physico-chemically and sensorially. After one year of aging in bottles, the variant DWDR of wine, produced by fermenting dried berries in already finished wine, proved to be the most balanced in taste, with an intense and complex aroma of berries and red fruit, also displaying good aging potential and stability. The variant DR appeared dense and intense, but with a less complex fruity aroma, with a dominant note of blueberries and black currants. Both straw wines are preferable to the classic varietal wine, which is vinous, but lacks structure and displays a dissociated acidity and a simple aromatic profile, with dominant sour cherry, mineral and vegetal notes.

  10. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 7 CFR 52.1843 - Summary of types (varieties) of processed raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary of types (varieties) of processed raisins. 52... UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1...

  12. The Labor Market in the Central California Raisin Industry: Five Years after IRCA. California Agricultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Andrew; And Others

    This report examines the effects of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) on the raisin industry's labor market, and provides educators with background on California migrant workers and their deteriorating working conditions. Because the raisin harvest lasts only 3-4 weeks but employs 40,000-50,000 workers, any effects of IRCA on…

  13. 7 CFR 52.1858 - Grades of mixed types or varieties of raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type Vi-Mixed... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of mixed types or varieties of raisins. 52.1858...

  14. Raisins compared with other snack effects on glycemia and blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James W; Weiter, Kathy M; Christian, Amber L; Ritchey, Michelle B; Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    To compare effects of raisin snacks with conventional snacks on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. A 12-week, randomized, controlled trial compared 3-times-a-day consumption of raisins with intake of processed snacks on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors. Men and women were randomized to snacks (n = 15) or raisins (n = 31). Outcome measures were performed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose levels were not significantly affected by intake of raisins or snacks. Mean subject post prandial glucose levels were significantly reduced by raisin intake at 12 weeks; changes with raisin intake were -13.1 mg/dL (P = 0.003 vs baseline; P = 0.03 vs snacks). Eating raisins significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (-0.12%; P = 0.004), a significantly greater level decrease than seen with snack intake (P = 0.036). Snack intake did not significantly affect subject systolic or diastolic blood pressure (BP). Raisin intake was associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks with mean changes of -6.0 to 10.2 mmHg; all these changes were statistically significant (P = 0.015 to 0.001). Raisins were associated with significantly greater changes in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks than snacks (P < 0.05). Body weight did not significantly change within or between groups. Regular consumption of raisins may reduce glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors, including BP rate.

  15. Insights on the stilbenes in Raboso Piave grape (Vitis vinifera L.) as a consequence of postharvest vs on-vine dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; De Rosso, Mirko; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Maoz, Itay; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Grape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out postharvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during postharvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify 19 stilbenes, including resveratrol monomers, dimers (viniferins), oligomers and glucoside derivatives. The two dehydration methods generally had different effects on the above nutraceuticals in grape. The samples kept in warehouses revealed significant increases in Z-ω-viniferin, E-ϵ-viniferin, δ-viniferin and another resveratrol dimer which were not observed in the plants. Trans-Resveratrol increased significantly only in samples dehydrated in the warehouse at 21 °C and 60-70% RH. The findings increase knowledge of stilbene composition in grapes subjected to withering on-vine. The choice of dehydration method affects the contents of these nutraceuticals in the grape and consequently in wines. Reasonably, it could also affect other secondary metabolites important for wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resver...

  17. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  18. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  19. Application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy for Rapid Detection of Fumonisin B2 in Raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heperkan, Dilek; Gökmen, Ece

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid screening method to detect fumonisin produced by Aspergillus niger. A. niger spore suspensions isolated from raisins were inoculated in Petri dishes prepared with sultana raisin or black raisin extracts containing agar and malt extract agar (MEA). After 9 days of incubation at 25°C, fumonisin B2 (FB2) production on each agar plate was determined by subjecting the agar plugs to IR spectroscopy. The presence of amino group (at 1636-1639 cm(-1)) was especially indicative of fumonisin production in MEA and the raisin extracts containing agar. The results were confirmed by HPLC analysis of the agar sample extracts after immunoaffinity column cleanup. It was determined that A. niger produced more FB2 in sultana raisins than in MEA, with no FB2 being produced in black raisin extract agar. This study demonstrated that proper sample preparation procedure followed by FTIR analysis is a useful technique for identifying toxigenic molds and their mycotoxin production in agricultural commodities.

  20. Energy balance and cost analysis for raisin production in Aegean Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Hülya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine energy consumption of input and output used in raisin production and making a cost analysis in Aegean Region. Energy output-input analysis is generally done to determine the scope of environment and energy efficiency of agricultural production. In this study the cost of raisin production was calculated by Manisa Viticulture Research Institute's records in 2015. Costs of inputs and prices of raisin were obtained from various sources such as Turkish Statistical Institute, Aegean Exporters' Association and Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The total energy input necessity for raisin production was 39,066.91 MJ/ha. The research results indicated that the total energy input used for raisin was mainly dependent on non-renewable energy forms (%97. The high ratio of non-renewable energy in the total used energy inputs causes negative effects on the sustainability in agricultural production. Among input energy sources, diesel oil, chemical fertilizers and electricity contained highest energy shares with 34.30%, 26.96%, and 22.50% respectively. The energy ratio and energy productivity were found to be 6.04 and 0.51 kg/MJ. Gross production value and total variable costs for raisin were $ 8,600 and $ 4,528.25, respectively. As a result of cost analysis, gross margin was calculated as $ 4,071.75.

  1. Determination of mycotoxin profiles characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Trinidad Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world grape production has increased, reaching 751 million quintals (Mql in 2013. Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce secondary metabolites in foods, some of which have toxic properties with tenu- azonic acid (TA, alternariol (AOH, alternariol methyl ether (AME being the most important ones. The aim was to determine the characteristic mycotoxin production profiles of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes in the Patagonian region of Argentina. Fifty Alternaria isolates (5 A. alternata, 5 A. arborescens and 40 A. tenuissima were analyzed for the produc- tion of mycotoxins (TA, AOH and AME in autoclaved rice media by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. All isolates were found to be producers of mycotoxins; the 100% was producer of TA (0.016–21.031 mg/kg, 98% produced AOH (0.003–0.057 mg/kg and 36% produced AME (0.001–0.133 mg/kg. Thirty-three isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. In this study, it was demonstrated a high toxigenic potential of Alternaria isolates. Although Alternaria growth on grapes has been amply demonstrated, there are few studies about the incidence their more characteristic mycotoxin sand their toxicogenic capac- ity determination in grapes, wines and derivatives. In addition, mycotoxins studied in this work are not regulated in oenology. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to assess the health risk due to the presence of Alternaria toxins in grapes, wine, grape juice and raisins.

  2. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  3. Fungal contamination and aflatoxins content of dry raisins fruits in Sanaa City, Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghalibi, S.M.; Battah, M.G.; Al-Zubairy, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to study mycoflora and aflatoxin content of dry raisins in Yemen Republic. Thirty six raisins samples collected from different shops and markets in Sana'a city were analyzed mycologically for the presence of fungi. A total of forty eight species belonging to 20 genera were recovered from the analyzed raisins samples on three cultural media. Aspergillus was the most dominant genera on the three types of media, of which A. niger was the most common species. A. flavus was isolated in moderate, low and rare frequency on 1% and 20% sucrose Czapek's and Sabouraud dextrose agar media. Pencillium was isolated in moderate frequency on 1 and 20% sucrose Czapek's agar media, but in low frequency on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium. The raisin samples were analyzed for the presence of total aflatoxin using ELISA technique. The results revealed that 3 out of 7 samples of raisins analyzed were contaminated with total aflatoxin at levels raged from 2678.66 to 11556.88 ppt (ng Kg-1). (author)

  4. La cire cuticulaire des grains de raisin et des feuilles de la vigne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. RADLER

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Je voudrais parler ici des recherches que j'ai effectuées dans le cadre d'un programme de recherches de l'Organisation australienne de recherches (C.S.I.R.O.. Ce sont des recherches sur la structure, la composition chimique et le rôle de la cire cuticulaire des grains de raisins et des feuilles. Ces recherches ont été effectuées principalement lors de l'étude des problèmes relatifs au séchage des raisins pour la production des raisins. Cependant, l'importance de la cire cuticulaire ne se limite pas seulement au séchage des raisins, car elle concerne aussi l'œnologie et les problèmes de la conservation des raisins de table. Je pense donc que mon exposé peut présenter pour vous un certain intérêt.

  5. Pesticide residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A

    2000-04-01

    In this review the results obtained in the 1990s from research on the behavior of pesticide residues on grapes, from treatment to harvest, and their fate in drying, wine-making, and alcoholic beverage processing are reported. The fungicide residues on grapes (cyproconazole, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, penconazole, tetraconazole, and triadimenol), the application rates of which were of a few tens of grams per hectare, were very low after treatment and were not detectable at harvest. Pyrimethanil residues were constant up to harvest, whereas fluazinam, cyprodinil, mepanipyrim, azoxystrobin, and fludioxonil showed different disappearance rates (t(1/2) = 4.3, 12, 12.8, 15.2, and 24 days, respectively). The decay rate of the organophosphorus insecticides was very fast with t(1/2) ranging between 0.97 and 3.84 days. The drying process determined a fruit concentration of 4 times. Despite this, the residue levels of benalaxyl, phosalone, metalaxyl, and procymidone on sun-dried grapes equalled those on the fresh grape, whereas they were higher for iprodione (1.6 times) and lower for vinclozolin and dimethoate (one-third and one-fifth, respectively). In the oven-drying process, benalaxyl, metalaxyl, and vinclozolin showed the same residue value in the fresh and dried fruit, whereas iprodione and procymidone resides were lower in raisins than in the fresh fruit. The wine-making process begins with the pressing of grapes. From this moment onward, because the pesticide on the grape surface comes into contact with the must, it is in a biphasic system, made up of a liquid phase (the must) and a solid phase (cake and lees), and will be apportioned between the two phases. The new fungicides have shown no effect on alcoholic or malolactic fermentation. In some cases the presence of pesticides has also stimulated the yeasts, especially Kloeckera apiculata, to produce more alcohol. After fermentation, pesticide residues in wine were always smaller than those on the

  6. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stilbene synthase (STS is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. “Tonghua-3”, and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000. VaSTS19 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and B. cinerea, but increased susceptibility to PstDC3000. Aniline blue staining revealed that VaSTS19 transgenic lines accumulated more callose compared to nontransgenic control plants, and showed smaller stomatal apertures when exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (flagellin fragment (flg22 or lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Analysis of the expression of several disease-related genes suggested that VaSTS19 expression enhanced defense responses though salicylic acid (SA and/or jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways. These findings provide a deeper insight into the function of STS genes in defense against pathogens, and a better understanding of the regulatory cross talk between SA and JA pathways.

  7. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Wang, Dejun; Wang, Fan; Huang, Li; Tian, Xiaomin; van Nocker, Steve; Gao, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2017-09-17

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19 , from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis . We then generated VaSTS19 -expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 ( Pst DC3000). VaSTS19 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and B. cinerea , but increased susceptibility to Pst DC3000. Aniline blue staining revealed that VaSTS19 transgenic lines accumulated more callose compared to nontransgenic control plants, and showed smaller stomatal apertures when exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (flagellin fragment (flg22) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS)). Analysis of the expression of several disease-related genes suggested that VaSTS19 expression enhanced defense responses though salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. These findings provide a deeper insight into the function of STS genes in defense against pathogens, and a better understanding of the regulatory cross talk between SA and JA pathways.

  8. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  9. The dynamics of ochratoxigenic fungi contents through different stages of dried grape production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakobyan Lusine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried vine fruit (raisin, sultana and currant is the second (after wine most important product of viticulture. Concerning this, the contamination of dried grape by ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA has attracted much attention. Favorable climatic conditions in countries with well-developed viticulture contribute to the spreading of ochratoxigenic fungi. The aim of this work was to identify the contamination sources of dried vine fruit by ochratoxigenic filamentous fungi and OTA, as well to determine the Critical Control Points (CCP at different stages of production. Primary contamination of grapes occurred during vegetation, especially maturation period, when the risk of mechanical damages was the highest one. 48 samples of soil and 81 samples of fresh grape berries collected in 4 regions of Armenia were investigated. As a result, 22 micromycetes sp. from 7 genera were isolated. Drying process is one of the main CCP. As the most of dried products is produced by open sun drying method, secondary contamination occurs in plants. In our studies 27 species of filamentous fungi were revealed in 87 samples of dried vine fruit, collected at different stages of production. The samples had quite high contamination level by potential toxigenic A. niger and A. carbonarius species.

  10. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardimci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses (∼1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes

  11. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, N. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurcet@taek.gov.tr; Ozyardimci, B. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Denli, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Ic, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses ({approx}1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  12. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  13. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  15. Influence de l'irrigation sur le rendement et sur la qualité des raisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cerny

    1968-12-01

     Le travail présenté résume les résultats de l'expérience avec l'irrigation supplémentaire de la vigne dans le domaine sec du Sud de la Moravie ainsi que son influence sur le rendement et la qualité des raisins.

  16. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD. Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of Raisin export was examined using Johansen's and Juselius's cointegration method and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM.The results showed that in the long-term and short-term there is a significant relationship between Raisin exports and its main variables (weighted average of Gross income of importers, Wholesale Prices, real exchange rate, Value-added of agricultural sector; as according to the theory it has negative relationship with exchange rate volatility. The error correction coefficient sentence ECM (-1 significantly and its sign was negative as expected. The value of this coefficient is equal to the -0/20 and indicates that about 20 percent of Raisin exports imbalance from its long-term value, after of a period will be Elapse.

  17. 7 CFR 989.159 - Regulation of the handling of raisins subsequent to their acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts... unless it is found to be practicable to separate the raisins into two new lots, one which meets and the other which fails to meet all of the applicable minimum standards, respectively. Any lot of mixed types...

  18. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  19. 75 FR 35959 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Terry Vawter, Senior Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager...) Help the industry address its marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with demand; (2... marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with domestic and export market needs, and strengthening...

  20. 75 FR 63724 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand To Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ..., or E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] . Small businesses may request... 20250-0237; Telephone: (202) 720-2491, Fax: (202) 720-8938, or E-mail: [email protected], October 18, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 63724

  1. 75 FR 20897 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic impact of this action on small entities... in producer price instability and disorderly market conditions. Volume regulation is helpful to the... stability. Accordingly, in assessing whether to apply volume regulation or, as an alternative, not to apply...

  2. Induction of resistance to gray mold with benzothiadiazole modifies amino acid profile and increases proanthocyanidins in grape: primary versus secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Rossoni, Mara; Borgo, Michele; Ferrara, Luigia; Faoro, Franco

    2005-11-16

    Field treatments of grapevine (cv. Merlot) with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (BTH, 0.3 mM) induced resistance against gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Both incidence and severity of the disease were reduced. The resistance was associated with an increase of total polyphenols in berry skins, in particular, the proanthocyanidin fraction, that increased up to 36%. The amino acid profile of leaves was also modified by treatments, particularly lysine, that augmented 4-fold. Other amino acids involved in resistance mechanisms to either biotic or abiotic stress increased as well. These results indicate that BTH treatments can be used to control gray mold, thereby limiting an excessive use of fungicides, and could be exploited to increase the content of micronutrients of high nutritional value, arising from both primary and secondary metabolisms.

  3. 7 CFR 989.110 - Varietal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN...) Dipped Seedless includes all raisins produced by artificial dehydration of seedless grapes that possess...

  4. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  5. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB 1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB 1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB 1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ∼29% reduction of AFB 1 . According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB 1 kg −1 bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB 1 from the irradiated raisins. - Highlights: • Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. • AFB 1 is produced in raisins. • Irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy affects AFB 1 production. • 10 kGy reduced (∼65%) AFB 1 production by A.parasiticus in raisins. • 10 kGy reduced (∼29%) AFB 1 spiked directly in raisins

  6. Expression of the grape VqSTS21 gene in Arabidopsis confers resistance to osmotic stress and biotrophic pathogens but not Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stilbene synthase (STS is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid, that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans-piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress.

  7. Keeping quality of raisins as affected by irradiation, storage environments and combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, B.; Afridi, S.; Durrani, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Influence of irradiation and storage environments on the quality of raisins was investigated during storage at room temperature for six months. Storage environment included: packaging in clear polyethylene bags in the presence of normal air, nitrogen and vacuum. Insect infestation appeared after two months storage and reached to 5.8, 8.6, 11.7 and 25.8% in the control samples stored in normal air for 3, 4, 5 and 6 months storage, respectively. No infestation was observed in vacuum nitrogen and packed samples. In irradiated samples no infestation was observed during storage in normal air and also vacuum and nitrogen packed samples. Raisin samples packed under vacuum were better in quality than other treatments. (author)

  8. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2008-01-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety H elwani , was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  9. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD). Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of...

  10. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  11. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  12. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  13. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  14. Structures moléculaire et perception tannique des raisins et des vins (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot) du Bordelais

    OpenAIRE

    Chira, Kleopatra

    2009-01-01

    La connaissance de la composition phénolique du Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS) et du Merlot (M) dans la région vitivinicole du bordelais a un intérêt majeur pour définir la structure et la qualité tannique (astringence et amertume) des raisins et des vins. La composition en tanins et anthocyanes de raisins et de vins issus du Cabernet Sauvignon et du Merlot ainsi que leur perception tannique ont été recherchées. L’étude raisins a été réalisée pour cinq parcelles de la région bordelaise (Pauillac, Ma...

  15. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  16. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  17. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2007-08-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks; Ru140, R99 and 3309 C and one local variety Helwani, which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety Helwani, was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. The was a positive effect of of IAA on the resistance of Helwani to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of Helwani to phlloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). The present study provides good information on the possibility of using irradiation and hormone to increase the resistance of grape to phylloxera.(author)

  18. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  19. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  20. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  1. Etude des bactéries acétiques isolées de raisins et de vins - I.- Identification de souches isolées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. BLACKWOOD

    1969-09-01

    Monsieur PEYNAUD nous a confié l'isolement et l'identification des bactéries acétiques prélevées à la dernière récolte sur les raisins plus ou moins pourris de différents vignobles du Bordelais. Le but était de connaître la microflore acétique des raisins et de la comparer à celle des vins.

  2. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  3. Effect of in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion on the allergenicity of grape lipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Rigby, Neil; Moreno, F. Javier; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; van Ree, Ronald; Mills, Clare

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe grape allergy has been linked to lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitization. LTPs are known to be resistant to pepsin digestion, although the effect of gastroduodenal digestion on its allergenicity has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of gastric

  4. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  5. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  6. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  7. Potassium in the Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Berry: Transport and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Y. Rogiers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available K+ is the most abundant cation in the grape berry. Here we focus on the most recent information in the long distance transport and partitioning of K+ within the grapevine and postulate on the potential role of K+ in berry sugar accumulation, berry water relations, cellular growth, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and mitigating senescence. By integrating information from several different plant systems we have been able to generate new hypotheses on the integral functions of this predominant cation and to improve our understanding of how these functions contribute to grape berry growth and ripening. Valuable contributions to the study of K+ in membrane stabilization, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to propose a mechanistic model for the role of this cation in grape berry development.

  8. Effects on grape amino acid concentration through foliar application of three different elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Portu, J; Santamaría, P; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    Elicitors play an important role in the defense against pathogens as an alternative to chemical pesticides by increasing secondary metabolites. Their effect on grape amino acid has been little investigated. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ), chitosan (CHT), and a yeast extract (YE) on grape amino acid composition, through foliar applications to grapevines. The must amino acid concentration was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that CHT and YE treatments decreased the must concentration of several amino acids, affecting total amino acid content (from 2364 to 1961, and 1818mg/L, respectively). However, MeJ treatment had a slight effect on grape amino acid content, increasing the concentration of Met (from 8.95 to 12.13mg/L) and Phe (from 7.96 to 9.29mg/L). It seems to be that, the resistance induction through CHT and YE treatments results in physiological costs to grapevines associated with a decrease on grape amino acid concentration. Consequently, MeJ applications, as a viticultural practice, could be a better tool than CHT and YE treatments, because did not affect grape amino acid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  11. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  12. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the heart and blood vessels, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure, ... symptoms, including pain and swelling. Treating varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Constipation. Cough. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Chronic ...

  13. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  14. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  15. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  16. The Effect of Microwave Heating on the Mortality of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. and Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and Determination of Energy Consumed for Raisin Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Mirabimoghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The suitable weather conditions of Iran makes it as one of the most talented country in producing of the various agricultural products such as grapes and raisins and has a great history in this field. Raisin is a commercial dried fruit, produced by drying of ripe seedless grapes by the moisture content of 16%. A major problem in the production, storage and marketing of stored products is infestation by insect pests. A number of insect species pose a potential threat to a variety of stored products. The Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. Have a widespread distribution in the most part of the world. These species are recognized as the cosmopolitan pests attacking stored-products and cause serious losses both in quantity through feeding damage and quality by contaminating the product with its cast skin and frass. Considering economic importance of pests and problems arising from the use of chemical insecticides and fumigants, it is necessary to replace them with the other appropriate methods. The traditional methods of pest control, while having many advantages such as ease of operation and low cost, have some disadvantages such as slow operations, creation of environmental pollution residues, negative impact on product quality and health hazards on the operator. The use of alternative methods seems to be necessary because of concerns about the health hazards of chemical pesticides and its environment pollution. The researches has been conducted on the ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, cold treatment, conventional hot air or water heating and novel radio frequency and microwave dielectric heating for controlling the insects. The microwave heating is based on the transformation of alternating electromagnetic field energy into thermal energy by affecting the polar molecules of a material. The most important characteristic of the microwave heating method is volumetric heating. Dielectric heating which

  17. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  18. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  19. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the...

  20. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is prohibited...

  1. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... produce grape juice or wine. It contains the common components of grape juice; namely, anthocyanins...

  2. Etude de l'influence des produits de traitement de la vigne sur la microflore des raisins et des vins. Expérimentation 1978-1979. Comparaison avec les résultats de 1975, 1976 et 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sapis-domercq

    1980-09-01

    Following preceding work about microflora identification of pesticides treated grapes, the influence of some of these products (especially anti-mildiou and anti-Botrytis on usual types of yeasts and bacteria involved in wine technology was studied. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus are sensitive to Euparène, Cuprosan and Mycodifol. Lactic and acetic bacteria are less sensitive. Howewer, the highest resistant yeasts have not an alcoholic power sufficient to achieve the fermentation of the sugar up to complete consumption.

  3. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  4. Study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during grape ripening. application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Salinas, M Rosario

    2009-03-25

    The aim of this work was to study the evolution of amino acids and ammonium during grape ripening and to evaluate its application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems (organic and nonorganic). For this purpose, Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot, and Petit Verdot grapes produced using conventional agriculture and Monastrell grape cultivated using organic agriculture, collected during two consecutive harvests at different stages of ripening, were studied. These years of harvest were very different climatic years; even so, the grape varieties presented similar qualitative compositions. Therefore, the percentage of amino acids at harvest moment allowed differentiation of grapes according to variety and cultivated system, regardless of the year. The nitrogen composition could allow estimation of the fermentative aroma potential of grapes. Thus, Syrah was the grape with the greatest aroma potential at harvest. Monastrell nonorganic grape had a concentration of nitrogen compounds superior to that of Monastrell organic grape. In Monastrell, Syrah, and Merlot, traditional varieties in the area, the highest concentration of nitrogen compounds coincided with the highest degrees Baume/total acidity ratio and color index during 2007. Consequently, technological and phenolic maturity of these grape varieties coincided with the maximum composition of nitrogen compounds. However, in 2008, this did not happen because grape ripening was irregular as a consequence of different climatological conditions.

  5. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  6. Fungal Endophytes as a Metabolic Fine-Tuning Regulator for Wine Grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS, total flavonoids (TF, total phenols (TPh, trans-resveratrol (Res and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp. and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp. conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape.

  7. 7 CFR 989.105 - Inspection point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... any area(s) in which he receives grapes or raisins for dehydration unless he keeps his raisin dehydration business separate, physically and by records, from his business of handling raisins. [31 FR 16305...

  8. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  9. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  10. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shami, S. M.; El-Mallah, M. H.; Mohamed, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable a...

  11. Incidence de la clarification des moûts de raisin sur les fermentescibilltés alcoolique et malolactique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Guilloux-Benatier

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Des essais de débourbage en vinification en blanc, réalisés de 1988 à 1992, mettent en évidence le rôle important joué par la teneur en macromolécules solubles dans le moût de raisin. Les moûts de faible turbidité conduisent en effet à des fermentations alcooliques lentes en relation avec de faibles populations levuriennes. Il est également confirmé que la libération de polysaccharides exocellulaires par les levures au cours de la fermentation alcoolique est d'autant plus élevée que le moût de départ a été fortement appauvri en colloïdes de raisin. Par contre, ce sont dans les lots les plus clarifiés que l'on observe la meilleure fermentescibilité malolactique.

  12. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  13. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Zou, Wan; Ma, Wen-rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine. PMID:29565999

  14. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  15. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  16. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  17. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  18. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to improve metabolite accumulation of grape cells by manipulating culture and environmental conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design and conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and light intensity.

  19. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  20. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Evaluation of Sulfur SC 80% and Penconazole EW 20% Effects on Grape Powdery Mildew Disease and Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Karbalaei Khiavi

    2017-12-01

    the leaves and fruits as well as the amount of sugar in sugar increases that were consistent with findings of another researcher. Conclusions: According to the results and taking into consideration environmental protection, the lowest intensity of infection in the leaves and fruit, the highest yield, the most normal sugar and acid concentration were on the treated plants with the sulfur concentration of 2.5 per thousand. According to the results of this study, spraying sulfur SC 80% in the control programs of the disease to prevent the emergence of resistant races of grape powdery mildew would be desirable.

  2. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  3. Ectopic Expression of the Wild Grape WRKY Transcription Factor VqWRKY52 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Powdery Mildew But Not to the Necrotrophic Pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhang; Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Dejun; Guo, Chunlei; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52 , from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate, revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea , compared with wild type (WT) plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic P. syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea . In addition, the relative expression levels of various defense-related genes were compared between the transgenic A. thaliana lines and WT plants following the infection by different pathogens. Collectively, the results indicated that VqWRKY52 plays essential roles in the SA dependent signal transduction pathway and that it can enhance the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by microbial pathogens.

  4. On-farm energy flow in grape orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Karimi; Hossein Moghaddam

    2018-01-01

    Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 317...

  5. Evaluation of Grape Pomace Composting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of composting of grape pomace in strip compost piles. The three variants of compost piles formed from grape pomace and vegetables waste, wood chips and mature in varying proportions were tested. Turning of piles was performed using windrow turner PKS 2.8, in which the achieved performance was monitored. On the performance of windrow turner has a significant influence also cross section or width and height of turning piles and the bulk density of ingredients including their moisture. In evaluating, attention has been paid to assessment of selected parameters (temperature, moisture content of the composting process. From the viewpoint of temperature course, the highest temperature reached at the piles in Var. I (64.1 °C and Var. II (55.3 °C. Moisture of compost piles in the individual variants did not differ significantly and ranged between 25–35%.

  6. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  7. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for market as natural grapes by performing all the normal cultural practices, but not using any inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth regulators...

  8. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  10. The development of global GRAPES 4DVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhu

    2017-04-01

    Four-dimensional variation data assimilation (4DVAR) has given a great contribution to the improvement of NWP system over the past twenty years. Therefore, our strategy is to develop an operational global 4D-Var system from the outset. The aim at the paper is to introduce the development of the global GRAPES four-dimensional variation data assimilation (4DVAR) using incremental analysis schemes and to presents results of a comparison between 4DVAR using 6-hour assimilation window and simplified physics during the minimization with three-dimensional variation data assimilation (3DVAR). The dynamical cores of the tangent-linear and adjoint models are developed directly based on the non-hydrostatic forecast model. In addition, the standard correctness checks have been performed. As well as the development adjoint codes, most of our work is focused on improving the computational efficiency since the bulk of the computational cost of 4D-Var is in the integration of the tangent-linear and adjoint models. In terms of tangent-linear model, the wall-clock time is reduced to about 1.2 times as much as one of nonlinear model through the optimizing of the software framework. The significant computational cost savings on adjoint model result from the removing the redundant recompilations of model trajectories. It is encouraging that the wall-clock time of adjoint model is less than 1.5 times as much as one of nonlinear model. The current difficulty is that the numerical scheme used within the linear model is based on strategically on the numeric of the corresponding nonlinear model. Further computational acceleration should be expected from the improvement on nonlinear numerical algorithm. A series of linearized physical parameterization schemes has been developed to improve the representation of perturbed fields in the linear model. It consists of horizontal and vertical diffusion, sub-grid scale orographic gravity wave drag, large-scale condensation and cumulus convection

  11. Technological properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from grape must fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbegal, Carmen; Peña, Nuria; Russo, Pasquale; Grieco, Francesco; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a secondary fermentation in wine that usually takes place during or at the end of alcoholic fermentation. Lactobacillus plantarum is able to conduct MLF (particularly under high pH conditions and in co-inoculation with yeasts), and some strains are commercially used as MLF starter cultures. Recent evidences suggest a further use of selected L. plantarum strains for the pre-alcoholic acidification of grape must. In this study, we have carried out an integrated (molecular, technological, and biotechnological) characterization of L. plantarum strains isolated from Apulian wines in order to combine the two protechnological features (MLF performances and must acidification aptitudes). Several parameters such as sugar, pH and ethanol tolerance, resistance to lyophilisation and behaviour in grape must were evaluated. Moreover, the expression of stress gene markers was investigated and was linked to the ability of L. plantarum strains to grow and perform MLF. Co-inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L. plantarum in grape must improves the bacterial adaptation to harsh conditions of wine and reduced total fermentation time. For the first time, we applied a polyphasic approach for the characterization of L. plantarum in reason of the MLF performances. The proposed procedure can be generalized as a standard method for the selection of bacterial resources for the design of MLF starter cultures tailored for high pH must. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been developed for the determination of Fe3+ at pH 5.0. The emission wavelength of the grape skin sensor occurs at 680 nm and the excitation wavelength at 421 nm. The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of ...

  13. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wildfrost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify th...

  14. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  15. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  16. Evolution of anthocyanin profile from grape to wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Squadrito

    2010-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Only in varieties in which the anthocyanin profile of grapes is characterized by low percentages of di-oxygenated side-ring forms is it possible to gain information about the varietal origin of a young wine by comparing the profiles of both grape and wine. However, great care is required.

  17. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those... part per million. (c) Uses and restrictions. Grape color extract may be safely used for the coloring of... promulgated under section 401 of the act, unless the use of added color is authorized by such standards. (d...

  18. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... types, in the county for which a premium rate is provided by the actuarial documents: (a) In which you... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance... avoirdupois. Type. A category of grapes (one or more varieties) identified as a type in the Special Provisions...

  19. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93...

  20. Evolution des acides aminés libres dans le moût de raisin sous l'action des levures de fleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. POLO

    1974-03-01

    La plus grande partie des travaux qui existent dans la bibliographie sur la teneur en acides aminés du raisin pendant l'évolution de la maturation ainsi que sur les teneurs des moûts et des vins de différents pays, ont été réalisés par chromatographie sur papier ou en utilisant des méthodes microbiologiques ou colorimétriques.

  1. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  2. 75 FR 34343 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... respond to an ongoing marketing opportunity to meet consumer needs. This marketing opportunity initially... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 925 and 944 [Doc. No. AMS-FV... Table Grapes; Relaxation of Handling Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  3. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Plaza, C.; Saja, J.A. de; Fernández-Escudero, J.A.; Barajas, E.; Medrano, G.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  4. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Fernández-Escudero, J.A. [Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon, Rueda (Spain); Barajas, E. [ITACYL, Valladolid (Spain); Medrano, G. [Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  5. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  6. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins and their regulation in colored grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Mu, Lin; Yan, Guo-Liang; Liang, Na-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2010-12-09

    Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  7. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  8. Diversity of black Aspergilli isolated from raisins in Argentina: Polyphasic approach to species identification and development of SCAR markers for Aspergillus ibericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj Merlera, G; Muñoz, S; Coelho, I; Cavaglieri, L R; Torres, A M; Reynoso, M M

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is a heterogeneous fungal group including some ochratoxin A producer species that usually contaminate raisins. The section contains the Series Carbonaria which includes the toxigenic species Aspergillus carbonarius and nontoxigenic Aspergillus ibericus that are phenotypically undistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from raisins and to develop a specific genetic marker to distinguish A. ibericus from A. carbonarius. The species most frequently found in raisins in this study were Aspergillus tubingensis (35.4%) and A. carbonarius (32.3%), followed by Aspergillus luchuensis (10.7%), Aspergillus japonicus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger (6.2%), Aspergillus welwitschiae (4.6%) and A. ibericus (3.1%). Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting profiles of major Aspergillus section Nigri members, a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was identified. Primers were designed based on the conserved regions of the SCAR marker and were utilized in a PCR for simultaneous identification of A. carbonarius and A. ibericus. The detection level of the SCAR-PCR was found to be 0.01 ng of purified DNA. The present SCAR-PCR is rapid and less cumbersome than conventional identification techniques and could be a supplementary strategy and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  10. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  11. Severe immediate allergic reactions to grapes: part of a lipid transfer protein-associated clinical syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Rigby, Neil R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; van Ree, Ronald; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grape allergy is considered rare; grape lipid transfer protein (LTP; Vit v 1), an endochitinase and a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) have been reported as grape allergens. A considerable number of patients have referred to our department for severe reactions to grapes, and several IgE

  12. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  13. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  14. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  15. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  16. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  17. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    , had pronounced (> or =2 fold) differences in mRNA expression) illustrating the dynamic nature of the developmental process. The subset of 4,151 Unigenes was split into twenty well-correlated expression profiles. Expression profile patterns included those with declining or increasing mRNA expression over the course of berry development as well as transient peak or trough patterns across various developmental stages as defined by the modified E-L system. These detailed surveys revealed the expression patterns for genes that play key functional roles in phytohormone biosynthesis and response, calcium sequestration, transport and signaling, cell wall metabolism mediating expansion, ripening, and softening, flavonoid metabolism and transport, organic and amino acid metabolism, hexose sugar and triose phosphate metabolism and transport, starch metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance. In particular, mRNA expression patterns of transcription factors, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and calcium signaling genes identified candidate factors likely to participate in the progression of key developmental events such as véraison and potential candidate genes associated with such processes as auxin partitioning within berry cells, aroma compound production, and pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Finally, analysis of sugar metabolism gene expression patterns indicated the existence of an alternative pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production that is invoked from véraison to mature berries. These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the transcriptome dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at the dissection of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that govern berry development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape. More importantly, this analysis identified a set

  18. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes, had pronounced (≥2 fold) differences in mRNA expression) illustrating the dynamic nature of the developmental process. The subset of 4,151 Unigenes was split into twenty well-correlated expression profiles. Expression profile patterns included those with declining or increasing mRNA expression over the course of berry development as well as transient peak or trough patterns across various developmental stages as defined by the modified E-L system. These detailed surveys revealed the expression patterns for genes that play key functional roles in phytohormone biosynthesis and response, calcium sequestration, transport and signaling, cell wall metabolism mediating expansion, ripening, and softening, flavonoid metabolism and transport, organic and amino acid metabolism, hexose sugar and triose phosphate metabolism and transport, starch metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance. In particular, mRNA expression patterns of transcription factors, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and calcium signaling genes identified candidate factors likely to participate in the progression of key developmental events such as véraison and potential candidate genes associated with such processes as auxin partitioning within berry cells, aroma compound production, and pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Finally, analysis of sugar metabolism gene expression patterns indicated the existence of an alternative pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production that is invoked from véraison to mature berries. Conclusion These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the transcriptome dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at the dissection of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that govern berry development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape. More importantly

  19. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes, had pronounced (≥2 fold differences in mRNA expression illustrating the dynamic nature of the developmental process. The subset of 4,151 Unigenes was split into twenty well-correlated expression profiles. Expression profile patterns included those with declining or increasing mRNA expression over the course of berry development as well as transient peak or trough patterns across various developmental stages as defined by the modified E-L system. These detailed surveys revealed the expression patterns for genes that play key functional roles in phytohormone biosynthesis and response, calcium sequestration, transport and signaling, cell wall metabolism mediating expansion, ripening, and softening, flavonoid metabolism and transport, organic and amino acid metabolism, hexose sugar and triose phosphate metabolism and transport, starch metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance. In particular, mRNA expression patterns of transcription factors, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis, and calcium signaling genes identified candidate factors likely to participate in the progression of key developmental events such as véraison and potential candidate genes associated with such processes as auxin partitioning within berry cells, aroma compound production, and pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Finally, analysis of sugar metabolism gene expression patterns indicated the existence of an alternative pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production that is invoked from véraison to mature berries. Conclusion These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the transcriptome dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at the dissection of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that govern berry development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape

  20. A summary of recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 experiment is a combination of a high density extensive air shower (EAS array of nearly 400 plastic scintillator detectors, and a large 560 m2 area tracking muon telescope with an energy threshold Eμ >1 GeV. GRAPES-3 has been operating continuously in Ooty, India since 2000. By accurately correcting for the effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature, the muon telescope provides a high precision directional survey of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR intensity. This telescope has been used to observe the acceleration of muons during thunderstorm events. The recent discovery of a transient weakening of the Earth's magnetic shield through the detection of a GCR burst was the highlight of the GRAPES-3 results. We have an ongoing major expansion activity to further enhance the capability of the GRAPES-3 muon telescope by doubling its area.

  1. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  2. Identification and characterization of the grape WRKY family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Feng, Jian Can

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors have functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many studies have focused on functional identification of WRKY transcription factors, but little is known about the molecular phylogeny or global expression patterns of the complete WRKY family. In this study, we identified 80 WRKY proteins encoded in the grape genome. Based on the structural features of these proteins, the grape WRKY genes were classified into three groups (groups 1-3). Analysis of WRKY genes expression profiles indicated that 28 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to biotic stress caused by grape whiterot and/or salicylic acid (SA). In that 16 WRKY genes upregulated both by whiterot pathogenic bacteria and SA. The results indicated that 16 WRKY proteins participated in SA-dependent defense signal pathway. This study provides a basis for cloning genes with specific functions from grape.

  3. Identification and Characterization of the Grape WRKY Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors have functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many studies have focused on functional identification of WRKY transcription factors, but little is known about the molecular phylogeny or global expression patterns of the complete WRKY family. In this study, we identified 80 WRKY proteins encoded in the grape genome. Based on the structural features of these proteins, the grape WRKY genes were classified into three groups (groups 1–3. Analysis of WRKY genes expression profiles indicated that 28 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to biotic stress caused by grape whiterot and/or salicylic acid (SA. In that 16 WRKY genes upregulated both by whiterot pathogenic bacteria and SA. The results indicated that 16 WRKY proteins participated in SA-dependent defense signal pathway. This study provides a basis for cloning genes with specific functions from grape.

  4. Economic characteristics of grape production in South Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in Serbia has a long tradition. Serbia has great potentials for the production of grape and wine, but they are at a low level of utilization. Grape production in Serbia takes place on only 25,000 ha with an average annual production of 285,571 t of grapes with variations according to year. The vineyards and wine production are in a significant decline, while the main bearers of production are small family households or individual producers. The research presented in this paper is the economic characteristics of grapes production in the region of South Banat, Vršac wine-growing region, which occupies 81.2% of the total vineyard area in this part of AP Vojvodina.

  5. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was ... electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry; PBS, phosphate .... The antibacterial tests were carried out by disc diffusion method.

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  8. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou ... of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer ... Conclusion: The combination of vorinostat and GSPs can be an effective and innovative ...

  9. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  10. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  11. Grape Preservation Using Chitosan Combined with β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Youwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 1% chitosan combined with 2% β-cyclodextrin to the preservation of fresh grapes under ambient temperature was investigated. The results indicated that the hydrogen bond formed between the hydroxyl group of β-cyclodextrin and the amidogen or hydroxyl group of chitosan and the crystal form of chitosan was also changed when cyclodextrin was doped into chitosan coating. The compound coating could prolong the shelf life of grapes, maintain lower respiration rate and higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase during storage time, and restrain weight loss and malonaldehyde content increase. Coating grapes with chitosan + β-cyclodextrin was a good method in postharvested grape preservation.

  12. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  13. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  14. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Shulgau; Vladislav Tritek; Alexander Gulyaev; Gulsim Adilgozhina; Talgat Nurgozhin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the benef...

  15. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  16. Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly; Sims, Charles; Odabasi, Asli; Bartoshuk, Linda; Conner, Patrick; Gray, Dennis

    2016-10-14

    The objective of this research was to investigate the acceptability of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) genotypes (cultivars and selections) and to correlate overall liking to other quality measurements to determine the main drivers of liking. Twenty-two genotypes grown at the Univ. of Georgia-Tifton Campus were evaluated. Four retail commercial grape genotypes (Vitis vinifera and "Concord") were also evaluated for comparison. Panelists familiar with muscadine grapes used the hedonic general labeled magnitude scale (HgLMS, -100 = strongest disliking of any kind ever experienced, +100 = strongest liking of any kind ever experienced) to rate overall liking and the liking of appearance, flavor, pulp texture, and skin texture. Puncture testing was done to assess grape berry texture, and compositional attributes soluble solids and pH were also measured. The sensory results indicated that the grapes were variable with overall liking scores from 12.2 to 39.6. The factors highly correlated with overall liking scores were muscadine flavor, pulp and skin liking, while a significant negative correlation was found between skin liking and skin texture and mechanical texture measures. The muscadine grapes with the highest overall liking scores were Ga. 5-1-34 and Ga. 2-8-21. Principal component analysis confirmed that grapes with a thinner skin and a higher pH tended to group around overall liking and flavor points. These results indicate that even among panelists familiar with muscadine grapes, skin thickness is a negative characteristic. Breeding for thinner skins may be a positive step in muscadines gaining a more widespread appeal in the fresh fruit market. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc for solid fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Kwong, Chi Wai; Broström, Markus; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on char and liquid properties. • Liquid pH had a statistically significant effect only on liquid carbon yield. • Higher treatment temperature increased char volatiles that can enhance ignitability. • Char showed promising fuel properties if elevated ash phosphorus can be tolerated. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of grape marc, a residue from grape processing, represents a significant economic and environmental challenge for the winemaking industry. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc could be an efficient way for producing solid fuels on-site at the wineries. In this work the effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on grape marc char and liquid properties were determined based on laboratory experiments and the combustion characteristics of char were assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and fuel ash classification. The results showed that hydrothermal treatment increased the energy and carbon contents and decreased the ash content of grape marc. The effect of liquid pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for the determined carbon yield of liquid samples. The energy yield from grape marc was maximized at lower treatment temperatures, which also decreased the content of less thermally stable compounds in the attained char. Higher treatment temperatures decreased grape marc solid, carbon and energy yields and led to an increase in thermally labile compounds compared to lower temperatures likely due to the condensation of liquid compounds or volatiles trapped in the pores of char particles. The alkali metal contents of char ash were reduced coupled with an increase in respective phosphorus. Overall the results support the use of hydrothermally treated grape marc in solid fuel applications, if elevated levels of ash phosphorus can be tolerated.

  18. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    each sample and put in contact with adults of D. suzukii (5 males and 5 females) for 24 hours. Infestation percentages were expressed by numbers of eggs and infected berries per sample As a preliminary results, we found a relevant infestation on the varieties "Italia" (75%) and "Scarlotta" (60%); coming form organic agriculture fields. The number of eggs collected from each berry ranged from 1 to 5. Twelve samples on a total of 19 came from conventional agriculture, five samples on a total of 23 came from organic agriculture, were found without damages. "Victoria" variety, came form a organic field located at IAMB was seen more resistant to D. suzukii than the varieties "Italia" and "Scarlotta" As a conclusion, there is the evidence that D. suzukii can become a big problem for grape cultivation in Puglia region, jeopardizing a very economically important sector of the regional agriculture Therefore, it is necessary a further investigation to understand the population dynamic and behaviour of this species as well as the possible control strategies for a control in organic agriculture. Key words: Drosophila suzukii, Vitis vinifera, Puglia, infestation, damages, organic agriculture, conventional agriculture

  20. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  1. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... production history shows the majority of the grapes produced in the production area are shipped prior to July... for notifications under the U.S.- Chile Free Trade Agreement, the embassies of Argentina, Brazil...

  2. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  3. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: Influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Gil, A. M.; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Félix Lara, J.; Pardo, F.; Rosario Salinas, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids...

  4. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Price estimation and economic evaluation of the production cost of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argiris Tsakiris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Argiris Tsakiris1, Kiriaki Sotirakoglou2, Panagiotis Kandylis3, Panagiotis Kaldis1, Constantina Tzia4, Yiannis Kourkoutas31Department of Oenology and Beverage Technology, Faculty of Food Technology and Nutrition, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 3Applied Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 4Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: The aim of the study was initially to estimate the price of red wines produced by immobilized cells on dried raisin berries and subsequently to investigate whether the estimated price was sufficient to counterbalance the increased investment and operational costs required for industrial application of the novel biotechnological process. Price estimation of the experimental wines was based on the correlation of sensory quality, determined by a group of trained tasters, and the price of commercial wines available in a certain market. Application of principal component analysis (PCA provided improved results over simple and exponential regression analysis, as only a part of the relationship between the two variables was represented (68.4% and 75.3%, respectively. However, with PCA the total variance explained by the two components was 100%. Taste was more important than aroma in determining sensory quality, and wine price was mainly affected by sensory quality rather than wine age in the Greek market. The total increase of production cost was estimated to be €0.032/bottle, which is significantly lower than the increase of €2.08/bottle price estimated by PCA for the red wines produced by immobilized cells, due to the improved aromatic potential compared with wines produced by

  7. Effect of different levels of raisin waste on performance, nutrients digestibility and protozoal population of Mehraban growing lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, V.; Alipour, D.; Azarfar, A.; Segighi, R.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different inclusion levels of raisin waste (RW) in the diet on the animal performance and ruminal fermentation parameters of growing lambs. Four levels of RW inclusion (i.e., R0, R1, R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} for 0, 100, 200 and 300 g RW kg{sup -}1 dry matter of diet, respectively) were tested. The experimental diets were fed to 24 male lambs (six months old) and six animals were allocated to each treatment. In the first experiment, effects of different levels of RW on the animals performance, some rumen parameters and protozoa populations were studied. In the second experiment, the apparent total tract digestibility of diets and nitrogen balance were measured. The highest final body weights were observed for the R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} diets. The R{sub 3} diet had the lowest dry matter intake (1156 vs. 1303 g day{sup -}1 for R{sub 3} and R{sub 0}, respectively) and feed conversion rate (6.4 vs. 8.7 for R{sub 3} and R{sub 0}, respectively). Total number of protozoa increased with the addition of RW, but Epidinium spp. completely disappeared with the R{sub 3} diet. Inclusion of RW at levels higher than 200 g RW kg{sup -}1 DM of diet significantly reduced crude protein (p = 0.042) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.049). Our findings showed that RW could be included in the diets of growing lambs up to 200 g kg{sup -}1 DM without compromising their production performance. (Author)

  8. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  9. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  10. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  11. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  12. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  13. Grapevine powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw. Burr. – a permanent issue concerning the health status of grapes cenosis in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakova Mariana B.

    2017-01-01

    the spread of the grapes powdery mildew and the field resistance of some varieties were studied. Critical stages of the disease appearance and spread are defined based on the research data. Management strategies are proposed including alternative approach practices.

  14. Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, N.; Mendesa, F.; Pereira, O.; Pinho, P. Guedes de

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen compounds in grape musts on the content of sulphur compounds of wines was studied. Different vinifications were performed with the addition of methionine (20 mg l−1) and/or cysteine (40 mg l−1) to grape musts before alcoholic fermentation. Six grape musts, with different nitrogen composition, from cultivars of the ‘Vinhos Verdes’ Region, in Portugal, were used. Addition of methionine to grape musts enhanced the content of wines in 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, ...

  15. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Fia; Claudio Gori; Ginevra Bucalossi; Francesca Borghini; Bruno Zanoni

    2018-01-01

    The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvent...

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-01-01

    Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  19. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Jian; Liu, Chonghuai; Kibet, Korir Nicholas; Kayesh, Emrul; Shangguan, Lingfei; Li, Xiaoying; Fang, Jinggui

    2012-03-29

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs) from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72 new potential miRNAs and 34 known but non-conserved mi

  20. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr. by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. Results A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Conclusions Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72

  1. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, T1 or T2 treatments caused an increase in TA, TP, AA, TSS, total sugar content, ash, and CIRG index values of grape samples in comparison to that of vines irrigated with T3, T4 and T5 levels. Grape quality response to irrigation levels was altered by rootstocks and quality of grapes harvested from vines grafted on ...

  2. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  3. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  4. Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Vita, Joseph A.; Chen, C. -Y. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages. PMID:26633488

  5. Targeted and untargeted high resolution mass approach for a putative profiling of glycosylated simple phenols in hybrid grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, Chiara; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Nicolini, Giorgio; Giacomelli, Mattia; Roman Villegas, Tomas; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widespread grapevines around the world representing the raw material for high quality wine production. The availability of more resistant interspecific hybrid vine varieties, developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species, has generated much interest, also due to the low environmental effect of production. However, hybrid grape wine composition and varietal differences between interspecific hybrids have not been well defined, particularly for the simple phenols profile. The dynamic of these phenols in wines, where the glycosylated forms can be transformed into the free ones during winemaking, also raises an increasing health interest by their role as antoxidants in wine consumers. In this work an on-line SPE clean-up device, to reduce matrix interference, was combined with ultra-high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in order to increase understanding of the phenolic composition of hybrid grape varieties. Specifically, the phenolic composition of 4 hybrid grape varieties (red, Cabernet Cantor and Prior; white, Muscaris and Solaris) and 2 European grape varieties (red, Merlot; white, Chardonnay) was investigated, focusing on free and glycosidically bound simple phenols and considering compound distribution in pulp, skin, seeds and wine. Using a targeted approach 53 free simple phenols and 7 glycosidic precursors were quantified with quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 2mgKg -1 and calibration R 2 of 0.99 for over 86% of compounds. The untargeted approach made it possible to tentatively identify 79 glycosylated precursors of selected free simple phenols in the form of -hexoside (N=30), -pentoside (21), -hexoside-hexoside (17), -hexoside-pentoside (4), -pentoside-hexoside (5) and -pentoside-pentoside (2) derivatives on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  7. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  8. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  9. Methoxypyrazines biosynthesis and metabolism in grape: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yujuan; Xie, Sha; Guan, Xueqiang; Song, Changzheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-04-15

    This review summarizes research on the discovery, biosynthesis, accumulation, transport, and metabolism of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in grape. The MPs are a family of potent volatile compounds distributed throughout biological kingdoms. These compounds impart herbaceous/green/vegetal sensory attributes to certain varieties of wine. Generally, high levels of MPs in wine are derived mainly from the corresponding grapes. Although two pathways for MPs biosynthesis have been proposed, only the final step and the enzymes that catalyze it has been confirmed in grape, and the metabolic intermediates and key enzymes involved in other steps are still unknown. The limited understanding of MPs metabolism has restricted research on these compounds, and some empirical results cannot be explained by the current knowledge of MPs metabolism. This review provides insights into research on MPs biosynthesis and metabolism, and proposes directions for further research on this important class of flavour/odour compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Tiţa; Ciprian Tuşa; Axenia Rădulescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  11. Amino Acid Composition of Grape Cultivars ( Vitis Spp.) in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; 白石, 眞一

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of free amino acids and other chemical constituents in 75 grape cultivars at maturity were examined. The amino acid concentrations were found to be in decreasing order of arginine, proline, threonine and alanine in Vitis vinifera cultivars and alanine, arginine, threonine and proline in Vitis labmsca cultivars. The concentration of total amino acid was 5,083 ,umol in ‘Campbell Early’ and 3,391 pmol in ‘Yates’, both Vitis labrusca and table grapes. The amounts of total amino ...

  12. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  13. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expressio...... resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the grape infection....

  14. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  15. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

  16. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  17. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above

  18. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  20. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The material was activated with steam under different temperatures, activation times, and activating agent flow rates. Impact resistance index, axial compressive strength, tensile strength by diametrical compression, BET area, and pore volume were measured for product characterization. Satisfactory surface areas and mechanical strengths were found in the final products.

  2. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  3. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... embryo rescue from interspecific hybridization between diploid and tetraploid grape species. Wakana et al. (2003) and Motosugi et al. (2003) studied the formation and developments of hybrid seeds from cross between diploid and tetraploid, and then obtained triploid progenies through embryo rescue.

  4. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  5. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grown for commercial sale for human consumption as fresh fruit on acreage where the cultural practices... determine the minimum quality grade will be: (i) The United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes...; (6) Earthquake; (7) Volcanic eruption; or (8) Failure of irrigation water supply, if caused by an...

  6. Tryptophan Levels during Grape Ripening: Effects of Cultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some cultural practices that are carried out during the grape ripening period are associated with vine stress, including leaf removal, grape bunch removal, and vegetable cover crops. Additionally, several nitrogen and sulfur supplements have also been used directly on leaves during the last stage of the ripening period. In the work described here, five different cultural practices and the reference were applied in three replicates in the same vineyard. The evolution of tryptophan levels was evaluated from just after grape veraison until the harvest date. In some cases, certain specific treatments were also evaluated after the regular harvest date. The cultural techniques that involved the application of nitrogen led to higher levels of tryptophan at the harvest day when compared to other cultural techniques. It was also found that the application of nitrogen without sulfur had a faster effect on the level of tryptophan. It was established that a period of around 20 days is needed for the grapes to show clear differences in tryptophan levels after the application of nitrogen.

  7. Early detection of gray mold in grape using conventional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botrytis cinerea affects grape quality and yield, and can be difficult to manage due in part to non-symptomatic, quiescent infection in berry development. The aim of this study was to develop a dual system for the detection, isolation and quantification of B. cinerea. After three days of samples replication on the modified ...

  8. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui×. Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55).

  9. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  10. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  11. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of histone deacetylase-inhibitor, vorinostat, on antitumour activity of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: Expression of thymidine phosphorlase (TP) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was measured by real-time PCR and western ...

  12. The Antibacterial Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Golvardzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Medicinal plants are highly taken into consideration due to having natural antimicrobial compounds which Iran can be introduced as one of the richest sources of medicinal plants. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of grape seed extract on shelf life of tilapia. Methods: The prepared fish were divided into 2 groups: the first group was treated by dipping for 30 min in grape seed extract (1.5%v/v, and the second group was dipped in distilled water as the control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological (total count of mesophilic aerobic micro organisms, PTC and sensory characteristictis over a perid of 20 days. Results: The study results indicated the extract treatment group significantly delayed (p<0.05 the spoilage process in comparison with the control group, which the total count of psychotrophic bacteria remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log cfu/g. According to sensory analysis, the treated fish with grape seed extract represented the highest quality during the storage. Conclusions: The present study findings revealed that grape seed extract seemed to be extremely effective in extending the shelf life of tilapia fish fillet during the refrigerated storage.

  13. Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant status, immune response, gut morphology and histopathological responses in broiler chickens. ... The secondary titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased significantly in the birds fed 10% GP and the secondary IgG concentration of birds ...

  14. Decision support for grape harvesting at a South African winery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available to be taken routinely. In this paper, two nested scheduling problems are considered. The first, referred to as the active cellar scheduling problem, is concerned with making good scheduling decisions within a winery (i.e. optimal assignments of grape intake...

  15. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    dismutase or catalase. Likewise, no effect was found on 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) residues, a plasma protein oxidation product, or on malondialdehyde in plasma or in LDL, which are markers of lipoprotein oxidation. A marginal effect of grape-skin intervention was observed on plasma ascorbate levels...

  16. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... A Jain1 S Kawakami2 S D Morris1 P K Nayak1 A Oshima2 B S Rao1. HECR Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India and GRAPES-3 Experiment, Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Ooty 643 001, India; Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan ...

  17. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  18. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  19. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11...

  1. α-Ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Saito, Takanori; Ohkawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Shishido, Masahiro; Ikeura, Hiromi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Kondo, Satoru

    2016-03-15

    Effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application on endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata). The expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1), lipoxygenase (VvLOX), and allene oxide synthase (VvAOS) were also examined. The grape berries were dipped in 0.1mM KODA solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25°C for 12 days. The development of infection was significantly suppressed upon KODA treatment. Endogenous ABA, JA and phaseic acid (PA) were induced in inoculated berries. KODA application before inoculation increased endogenous ABA, PA and JA through the activation of VvNCED1, VvCYP707A1 and VvAOS genes, respectively. In addition, terpenes, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and C6-aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal associated with fungal resistance also increased in KODA-treated berries during storage. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of JA, ABA, and some aromatic volatiles induced by KODA application may provide resistance to pathogen infection in grape berries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations.

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of the WRKY III gene family in populus, grape, arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiyi; Feng, Lin; Zhu, Yuxin; Li, Yuan; Yan, Hanwei; Xiang, Yan

    2015-09-08

    WRKY III genes have significant functions in regulating plant development and resistance. In plant, WRKY gene family has been studied in many species, however, there still lack a comprehensive analysis of WRKY III genes in the woody plant species poplar, three representative lineages of flowering plant species are incorporated in most analyses: Arabidopsis (a model plant for annual herbaceous dicots), grape (one model plant for perennial dicots) and Oryza sativa (a model plant for monocots). In this study, we identified 10, 6, 13 and 28 WRKY III genes in the genomes of Populus trichocarpa, grape (Vitis vinifera), Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the WRKY III proteins could be divided into four clades. By microsynteny analysis, we found that the duplicated regions were more conserved between poplar and grape than Arabidopsis or rice. We dated their duplications by Ks analysis of Populus WRKY III genes and demonstrated that all the blocks were formed after the divergence of monocots and dicots. Strong purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of WRKY III genes in Populus. Tissue expression analysis of the WRKY III genes in Populus revealed that five were most highly expressed in the xylem. We also performed quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis of WRKY III genes in Populus treated with salicylic acid, abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol to explore their stress-related expression patterns. This study highlighted the duplication and diversification of the WRKY III gene family in Populus and provided a comprehensive analysis of this gene family in the Populus genome. Our results indicated that the majority of WRKY III genes of Populus was expanded by large-scale gene duplication. The expression pattern of PtrWRKYIII gene identified that these genes play important roles in the xylem during poplar growth and development, and may play crucial role in defense to drought

  4. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must specify by name) Apples, apricots, avocados, bananas, cherries, coffee, dates, figs, grapes (& raisins), nectarines, olives, papayas, peaches, pears, persimmons, pineapples, plums (& prunes...

  5. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  6. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  7. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  8. Influence of skin hardness on dehydration kinetics of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Caudana, Alberto; Giacosa, Simone; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of initial mechanical properties on the evolution of the weight loss of berries through the drying process is scarce. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of skin hardness at two different physiological stages of off-vine drying kinetics of grapes. Skin hardness was evaluated as the berry skin-break force parameter, measured by the texture analysis test. The decrease of berry weight as a function of the drying time was linear, indicating that the drying rates were constant within each cultivar studied (Moscato bianco and Erbaluce), and for each ripening stage and berry skin hardness. The drying rates decreased as berry skin hardness increased for the ripest grapes in the cultivars studied. The study allowed the assessment of the correlation between the skin hardness of fresh berries and the weight loss determined for different drying days. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Application of pollen treated with ionizing radiation in grapes breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Problem concerning the priority of investigations into transformation inducing using plant pollen irradiation method is raised. Data on investigations into grape predominant type pollen irradiation with rigid 1-100 Gy dose gamma rays are considered. Using grape seedling morphological index analysis it is shown that gene transformation inducing is possible using high dose pollen irradiation for cross pollination process. Advantages of the given method are indicated: application of irradiated pollen for pollination allows one to transmit certain characters to progeny at some stages - without impregnation (1); with pollen irradiation dose increase the number of male plant characters transmitted to progeny is reduced (2); deep recessive characters of one of the parent plants can be manifested in progeny or valuable neoplasms can even occur

  10. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  11. TRANSMISSION OF IMPACTS DURING MECHANICAL GRAPE HARVESTING AND TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study vibrational stress on grapes during mechanical harvesting, transfer and delivery to the winery, in order to identify the most critical stages and the consequent effects on the winemaking. An instrumented sphere was used to evaluate and memorise the impacts in the grape harvester and means of transport. Three treatments, obtained by differing harvesting method (manual and mechanical and transport type (short and long distance, were compared. A correlation was sought between the transmitted stresses and characteristics of the harvested product. The effects on product quality were evaluated by chemical analyses of the musts and sensorial analysis of the end-product, vinified using the same procedure.

  12. In vitro neoformation of grape chimeras (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Verdisson

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Difference in grape sensitivity to Botrytis cinerea attacks between cultivars was explained by differences in the epidermic tissue of the fruit. Therefore, this work was conducted to create a grape periclinal chimera, whose fruits would combine the skin of a Botrytis tolerant cultivar with a pulp of an another cultivar admitted its good organoleptic quality and productivity. In a first time, graftings of two cultivars (Chardonnay and Pinot noir were conducted in vitro on 5 different media supplemented with various plant growth regulators. Adventitious shoots were only observed on medium containing BAP and GA3 from a mixed callus structure after four weeks of darkness followed by a light/dark regime. In a second time, RAPD analysis, conducted on these plants, showed their chimerical characteristics.

  13. Grape juice quality control by means of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandizoli, Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Simonelli, Fabio; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the application of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single {sup 1}H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration. (author)

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  15. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  16. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  17. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  18. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Araujo, Michel M.; Silva, Priscila V.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in 60 Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  19. Biodiversity of wine grapes: less than we thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe Editor of the International Journal of Wine Research has had a long-standing interest in the genetics of wine grape varieties. Two publications, in particular, piqued the interest from both the scientific and consumer point of view. Cabernet Sauvignon is the offspring of a chance cross-pollination of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc in western France several centuries ago.

  20. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  1. Multi-experimental characterization of grape skin extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťavíková, L.; Polovka, M.; Hohnová, Barbora; Zemanová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, S (2008), S43-S48 ISSN 1212-1800. [National Conference on Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : EPR * grape skin * PFE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  2. Theme and symbolism in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.; Andrejević Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    John Steinbeck aims to express the American political and social system as the reflection on characterization, plot, and symbols in The Grapes of Wrath. Steinbeck’s characters struggle desperately against forces beyond their understanding or control. Many of those characters suffer tragic fates, yet they almost always marriage to exhibit bravery and retain a sense of dignity throughout their struggles. Steinbeck’s ability to combine harsh critiques of the political and social systems of his t...

  3. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  4. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  5. Potential of Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators for Grape Must Fermentation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Pfusterschmied

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study grape must fermentation is monitored using a self-actuating/self-sensing piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS resonator. The sensor element is excited in an advanced roof tile-shaped vibration mode, which ensures high Q-factors in liquids (i.e., Q ~100 in isopropanol, precise resonance frequency analysis, and a fast measurement procedure. Two sets of artificial model solutions are prepared, representing an ordinary and a stuck/sluggish wine fermentation process. The precision and reusability of the sensor are shown using repetitive measurements (10 times, resulting in standard deviations of the measured resonance frequencies of ~0.1%, Q-factor of ~11%, and an electrical conductance peak height of ~12%, respectively. With the applied evaluation procedure, moderate standard deviations of ~1.1% with respect to density values are achieved. Based on these results, the presented sensor concept is capable to distinguish between ordinary and stuck wine fermentation, where the evolution of the wine density associated with the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during fermentation processes causes a steady increase in the resonance frequency for an ordinary fermentation. Finally, the first test measurements in real grape must are presented, showing a similar trend in the resonance frequency compared to the results of an artificial solutions, thus proving that the presented sensor concept is a reliable and reusable platform for grape must fermentation monitoring.

  6. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  7. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiufeng; Chen Zhaoliang; Qiao Yongjin; Wang Haihong; Qiao Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO 2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  8. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  9. In-Package atmospheric cold plasma treatment of bulk grape tomatoes for their microbiological safety and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment on the inactivation of Salmonella and the storability of grape tomato were investigated. Grape tomatoes, with or without inoculation with Salmonella, were packaged in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) commercial clamsh...

  10. Phenol profiles and antioxidant properties of white skinned grapes and their coloured genotypes during growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyang Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that exhibit a wide range of protective effects with potential benefits for human health related to their antioxidant activities. Grape berries are rich anthocyanins, and these compounds have considerable influence on wine quality. However, these pigments are known to only be present in coloured grape berries. In the present study, we investigated three distinctive grapes, in which only a few reports of mutant strains on the skin colour of the grape berry were reported. Anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic profiles of grape berry skin, pulp, and seeds at different growth stages were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Meanwhile, grape antioxidant properties were evaluated at growth stages, including the early stage, veraison, and mature stage. The results showed that some anthocyanins contents, such as malvidin 3-O-glucoside, are significantly different between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes, with high content in coloured but not in white skin grapes. However, other anthocyanins, such as delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, showed no significant differences between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes. Moreover, non-anthocyanin phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties, except cultivars Pinot Blanc and Pinot Noir, showed no significant differences between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes at any growth stage, including the pulp and seeds. However, significant differences were noted between different cultivars, for example, white-ciputao and Pinot Noir, Pinot Blanc and Muscat Rouge, and coloured-ciputao and Muscat Blanc, showing that the antioxidant capacity was not always in correlation with skin colour of grape berries.

  11. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  12. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Borislav Miličević; Mara Banović; Srećko Tomas; Sanja Radeka; Đordano Peršurić; Igor Lukić

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples) were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Mu...

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  14. The Grape VlWRKY3 Gene Promotes Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The grape WRKY gene, WRKY3 was previously reported to respond to salt and drought stress, as well as methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments in Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera cv. ‘Kyoho.’ In the current study, WRKY3 from the ‘Kyoho’ grape cultivar was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic A. thaliana plants showed improved salt and drought stress tolerance during the germination, seedling and the mature plant stages. Various physiological traits related to abiotic stress responses were evaluated to gain further insight into the role of VlWRKY3, and it was found that abiotic stress caused less damage to the transgenic seedlings than to the wild-type (WT plants. VlWRKY3 over-expression also resulted in altered expression levels of abiotic stress-responsive genes. Moreover, the 35S::VlWRKY3 transgenic A. thaliana lines showed improved resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with the WT plants. Collectively, these results indicate that VlWRKY3 plays important roles in responses to both abiotic and biotic stress, and modification of its expression may represent a strategy to enhance stress tolerance in crops.

  15. PTR-MS monitoring of volatiles fingerprint evolution during grape must cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitri, G.; Ruth, van S.M.; Sacchetti, G.; Piva, G.; Alewijn, M.; Arfelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing temperature on the evolution of volatiles during grape must concentration upon cooking. The evolution of the volatiles fingerprint of grape must heated at 80, 90, and 100 °C was studied by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE E.U. ROLE IN THE WORLD GRAPE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 position in the world grape production based on the data collected from FAO Stat data base for the period 2000-2008, using the index and share methods. The EU-27 is the most important vine cultivator and grape producer in the world. With its 3.5 million ha planted with vine, it accounts for 90.21 % of Europe’s area of vineyards and 48.14 % of the world vine area. In 2008, the EU-27 produced 25.1 million tones grapes placing it on the top position and contributing by 41.56 % to the world production. The top European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Romania achieved 21.8 million tones grapes, representing 86.98 % of the EU-27 and 32.96 % of the world grape production. Italy, Spain and France are among the top 10 grape producers in the world. As a conclusion, even thou the EU-27 planted area decreased by 8.24 % and its grape production declined by 16.16 %, the EU-27 continues to remain the main grape producer in the world.

  17. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flava-3-ols, procyanidins and resveratrol were detected in the juice and powder. The powder was used as anti-browning additive in white wine to test the potential re-use of the unripe grapes in the wine industry. The results indicated that the antioxidant complex from unripe grapes contributed to increasing the anti-browning capacity of white wine. Other applications, such as food and nutraceutical products development, can be considered for the antioxidant complex extracted from unripe grapes. In conclusion, the method proposed in this study may contribute to the exploitation of unripe grapes as a by-product of the winemaking process.

  18. Microsatellite profiles as a basis for intellectual property protection in grape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of microsatellite analysis in a forensic procedure for establishing infringement on plant breeders¿ rights in vegetatively propagated crops was evaluated. A reference collection of 45 seedless grape varieties was chosen as reference collection. Matching probabilities of grape microsatellite

  19. Generation of Valuable Nanomaterials Using Biodegradable Waste: Rags to Riches Story of Red Grape Pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our sustainable research endeavors pertaining to environmental remediation, we envisioned utilizing winery waste, red grape pomace, as a primary source for the dual role of reduction of inorganic salts and capping of the ensuing nanomaterials This study shows that red grape po...

  20. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period

  1. The influence of virus diseases on grape polyphenols of cv. 'Refosk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, I.; Vrhovsek, U.; Korosec-Koruza, Z.

    2003-01-01

    External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors can modulate the synthesis of polyphenols in the plants. Cv. 'Refosk' was used to show the influence of the GLRaV-1 and rugose wood (RW) on the polyphenols in grape. The infection shifted polyphenols from seeds to grape skins but had no impact on anthocyanins

  2. Evaluation of stratospheric temperature simulation results by the global GRAPES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Wang, Yangfeng; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai

    2017-12-01

    Global final analysis (FNL) products and the general circulation spectral model (ECHAM) were used to evaluate the simulation of stratospheric temperature by the global assimilation and prediction system (GRAPES). Through a series of comparisons, it was shown that the temperature variations at 50 hPa simulated by GRAPES were significantly elevated in the southern hemisphere, whereas simulations by ECHAM and FNL varied little over time. The regional warming predicted by GRAPES seemed to be too distinct and uncontrolled to be reasonable. The temperature difference between GRAPES and FNL (GRAPES minus FNL) was small at the start time on the global scale. Over time, the positive values became larger in more locations, especially in parts of the southern hemisphere, where the warming predicted by GRAPES was dominant, with a maximal value larger than 24 K. To determine the reasons for the stratospheric warming, we considered the model initial conditions and ozone data to be possible factors; however, a comparison and sensitivity test indicated that the errors produced by GRAPES were not significantly related to either factor. Further research focusing on the impact of factors such as vapor, heating rate, and the temperature tendency on GRAPES simulations will be conducted.

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  4. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  5. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  6. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  7. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  8. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  9. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Goto-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  10. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  12. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  13. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  14. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  15. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  16. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  17. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  19. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  1. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15 N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  2. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  3. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  4. An in Vitro Assessment of Interaction Between Grape Phylloxera and Indole Acetic Acid Treated Grape Plants Daktulosphaira Vitifolia (FITCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Idris, I.; Taher, N.

    2011-01-01

    the Life table of local strain of grape phylloxera was determined to evaluate the relationship between indole acetic acid (IAA) and phylloxera on our local variety Helwani. The study was carried out by applying in vitro dual culture system. The results showed that there was a great variation in mean developmental time, female longevity, number of laid eggs and egg distribution between all IAA concentrations and plant ages. Based on the tested biological parameters of phylloxera, (Helwani) would be unsuitable host for such destructive insect as it became older and when 2mg/1 of IAA was applied to in vitro culture media. (author)

  5. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  6. Relationship between viticultural climatic indices and grape maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2017-10-01

    Historical temperature data and maturity records were analyzed for 45 vineyard blocks in 15 winegrowing regions across Australia in order to evaluate the suitability of common viticultural indices to estimate date of grape maturity. Five temperature-based viticultural indices (mean January temperature, mean growing season temperature, growing degree days, biologically effective degree days, Huglin Index) along with four springtime temperature indices (mean and maximum temperature summations for September, October, and November; growing degree days and biologically effective degree days modified to include September) were compared to maturity data in order to investigate index relationship to observed maturity timing. Daily heat summations for the months of September, October, and November showed the best correlation to day of year of maturity, suggesting that springtime temperatures are important relative to the timing of grape maturity. Mean January temperature, a commonly used index, had the poorest correlation with day of year of maturity of all the indices included in this study. Indices that included the month of April had poorer correlation than indices that shifted the months included in the growing season to be from September to March inclusive. Calculated index values for the past 30 years for every region included in this study showed increasing temporal trends to various degrees, indicating that all regions studied are experiencing warming temperatures during the growing season. These results emphasize the need to reevaluate viticultural indices in the context of a changing climate.

  7. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  8. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  10. Theme and symbolism in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John Steinbeck aims to express the American political and social system as the reflection on characterization, plot, and symbols in The Grapes of Wrath. Steinbeck’s characters struggle desperately against forces beyond their understanding or control. Many of those characters suffer tragic fates, yet they almost always marriage to exhibit bravery and retain a sense of dignity throughout their struggles. Steinbeck’s ability to combine harsh critiques of the political and social systems of his times with genuine artistry in his characterization, plot, and language is unique in American literature. The Grapes of Wrath is the historically authentic story of the Joad family; Oklahoma farmers dispossessed of their land and forced to become migrant farmers in California. 'The Turtle' is an excerpt from the opening pages of this novel, which won the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize. The book aroused public sympathy for the plight of migratory farm workers and established Steinbeck as one of the most highly regarded writers of his day. Steinbeck’s belief in social justice, and in the human ability to learn from and rise above suffering, infused all his work.

  11. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  12. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-09-17

    This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A) and 99% (film B) invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that (E)-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  14. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A and 99% (film B invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA revealed that (E-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  15. Some advances in the knowledge of grape, wine and distillates chemistry as achieved by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2005-06-01

    Mass spectrometry plays a very important role in acquiring knowledge of the chemistry of grape and its derivative products. By liquid mass spectrometry, anthocyanins of grape were studied, and in hybrid grape extracts, delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin and malvidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-diglucosides were found. A semiquantitative procedure to estimate the amounts and percentages of monoglucoside and diglucoside anthocyanins without chromatography was developed. By gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), aroma compounds of grape, wine and the distillate Italian grappa were studied, and molecular structures characterized. The representative aroma profile of Muscat grape was characterized by 23 terpenols, present in both free and bonded form, and direct correlation between aroma and genetic profile permitted to distinguish between different Muscat grape varieties. Aroma of Italian grappa resulted from and was characterized by several compounds linked to the grape variety, such as vitispiranes, terpenols, ethyl cinnamate, salicylic esters, benzaldehyde and farnesol. Synthesis of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBOA) derivatives and GC/MS analysis resulted in a sensitive and selective method to study carbonyl compounds at the low levels occurring in wine.

  16. Grapevine yield components and composition of Isabel grape produced according to the organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for organic grapes by the juice industry of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil. This region presents a humid and hot summer, ideal climatic conditions for the development of a number of diseases. To control such diseases and problems brought about by other organisms, growers apply pesticides on the grapevines which may leave residues in grapes. However, in general, grapes produced by organic system have lower yield, but there is a lack of research data on this subject. Thus, an experiment was carried out over three years in order to compare the yield components and the physicochemical composition of the must of Isabel grapes conducted in both production systems. When the grapes were ripe, variables related to yield components were evaluated, such as the number of clusters/vine, yield/vine and weight/cluster. Then the grapes were sampled and taken to the laboratory where they were crushed and the musts were centrifuged and analyzed. The 3-year data mean were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The results show that conventional grapevines produced 2.18 times more than organic. However, the grapes from the organic system had higher density, Brix, pH, Brix/titratable acidity ratio, P and Mg but lower K, and Ca varied little between both production systems.

  17. Etude des bactéries acétiques isolées de raisins et de vins - II.- Production de composés cétoniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. BLACKWOOD

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available La deuxième partie de ce travail sur les bactéries acétiques isolées de raisins et de vins est consacrée à l'étude de deux problèmes principaux : d'une part l'identification par chromatographie sur papier des principales substances cétoniques réductrices, d'autre part la détermination de l'influence de divers facteurs sur la croissance des souches représentatives de chaque groupe taxonomique.

  18. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential health benefits from the flavonoids in grape products on vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folts, John D

    2002-01-01

    In the dog, monkey, a nd human we have shown that 5 ml/kg of red wine or 5-10 ml/kg of purple grape juice but not orange or grapefruit juice inhibits platelet activity, and protects against epinephrine activation of platelets. Red wine and purple grape juice enhances platelet and endothelial production of nitric oxide (Fitzpatrick et al., 1993, Parker et al., 2000). This is thought to be one of the mechanisms whereby purple grape juice significantly improved endothelial function in 15 patients with coronary artery disease. The consumption of purple grape juice by the patients also offered increased protection against LDL cholesterol oxidation, even though all the patients were also taking another antioxidant vitamin E, 400 IU/day. The number of people and animals in these studies was small; however, each one acted as their own control as measurements were made in each before, and then after consumption of red wine or purple grape juice. Thus these studies are thought to be significant. We feel that the results of these studies are encouraging and justify further research on larger numbers of subjects. This suggests that the flavonoids in purple grape juice and red wine may inhibit the initiation of atherosclerosis by one or more of the mechanisms described above. It will take years to fully characterize the potential benefits of daily consumption of red wine or purple grape juice for maintaining a healthy heart. Based on the existing evidence of antiplatelet and antioxidant benefits and improved endothelial function from red wine and purple grape juice, it seems reasonable to suggest that moderate amounts of red wine or purple grape juice be included among the 5-7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables per day as recommended by the American Heart Association to help reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the TIFY Gene Family in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucheng; Gao, Min; Singer, Stacy D.; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2012-01-01

    Background The TIFY gene family constitutes a plant-specific group of genes with a broad range of functions. This family encodes four subfamilies of proteins, including ZML, TIFY, PPD and JASMONATE ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins. JAZ proteins are targets of the SCFCOI1 complex, and function as negative regulators in the JA signaling pathway. Recently, it has been reported in both Arabidopsis and rice that TIFY genes, and especially JAZ genes, may be involved in plant defense against insect feeding, wounding, pathogens and abiotic stresses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant TIFY family members is limited, especially in a woody species such as grape. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of two TIFY, four ZML, two PPD and 11 JAZ genes were identified in the Vitis vinifera genome. Phylogenetic analysis of TIFY protein sequences from grape, Arabidopsis and rice indicated that the grape TIFY proteins are more closely related to those of Arabidopsis than those of rice. Both segmental and tandem duplication events have been major contributors to the expansion of the grape TIFY family. In addition, synteny analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that homologues of several grape TIFY genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of lineages that led to grape and Arabidopsis. Analyses of microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression data revealed that grape TIFY genes are not a major player in the defense against biotrophic pathogens or viruses. However, many of these genes were responsive to JA and ABA, but not SA or ET. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape TIFY genes should facilitate further research of this gene family and provide new insights regarding their evolutionary history and regulatory control. PMID:22984514

  1. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CDPK Gene Family in Grape, Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Hu, Yang; Gao, Yu-Rong; Ma, Yan-Fei; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2015-06-30

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. Little is known about the CDPK gene family in grapevine. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the 12X grape genome (Vitis vinifera) and identified nineteen CDPK genes. Comparison of the structures of grape CDPK genes allowed us to examine their functional conservation and differentiation. Segmentally duplicated grape CDPK genes showed high structural conservation and contributed to gene family expansion. Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several grape CDPK genes occured in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grapevine and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis divided the grape CDPK genes into four groups. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the corresponding nineteen homologous CDPK genes in the Chinese wild grape (Vitis pseudoreticulata) under various conditions, including biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone treatments. The expression profiles derived from reverse transcription and quantitative PCR suggested that a large number of VpCDPKs responded to various stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating their versatile roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, we examined the subcellular localization of VpCDPKs by transiently expressing six VpCDPK-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts; this revealed high variability consistent with potential functional differences. Taken as a whole, our data provide significant insights into the evolution and function of grape CDPKs and a framework for future investigation of grape CDPK genes.

  2. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  3. Bone Response to Dietary Co-Enrichment with Powdered Whole Grape and Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is a primary modifiable determinant of chronic noncommunicable disease, including osteoporosis. An etiology of osteoporosis is the stimulation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Dietary polyphenols and probiotics demonstrate protective effects on bone that are associated with reduced ROS formation and suppressed osteoclast activity. This study tested the effect of dietary enrichment with powdered whole grape and probiotics (composed of equal parts Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. bulgaricus on bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of age-related osteoporosis. Groups (n = 7 each of 10-month-old male mice were fed one of six diets for 6 months: 10% grape powder with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder; 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 10% grape powder + 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder + 1% probiotic; 20% sugar control. Femur, tibia and 4th lumbar vertebrae from 10-month-old mice served as comparator baseline samples. Bone microarchitecture was measured by micro-computed tomography and compared across diet groups using analysis of variance. Aging exerted a significant effect on tibia metaphysis trabecular bone, with baseline 10-month-old mice having significantly higher bone volume/total volume (BV/TV and trabecular number measurements and lower trabecular spacing measurements than all 16-month-old groups (p < 0.001. Neither grape nor probiotic enrichment significantly improved bone microarchitecture during aging compared to control diet. The combination of 20% grape + 1% probiotic exerted detrimental effects on tibia metaphysis BV/TV compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, and trabecular number and trabecular spacing compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, 1% probiotic and control groups (p < 0.05. Femur metaphysis trabecular bone displayed less pronounced aging effects than tibia bone, but also showed detrimental effects of the

  4. Etude de l'influence chez la vigne du rapport « partie végétative / partie productrice » sur la production et la qualité des raisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Carbonneau

    1977-06-01

    To improve the quality of wine, in years when the crop potentiel is very high, it is advised to thin out the grape bunches by about 50 p. 100 at the end of july ; to summer prune less severely leaving about 1,10 meters of foliage, and to thin out excess leaves close to the grape bunches at the beginning of september, in every case.

  5. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  6. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  7. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  8. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  9. Chitosan and Laminarin as Alternatives to Copper for Plasmopara viticola Control: Effect on Grape Amino Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; Mancini, V; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Servili, A; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Foglia, R; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Romanazzi, G

    2017-08-30

    Copper fungicide use is limited by the European regulation; therefore, new strategies have been developed to prevent grapevine downy mildew (GDM). However, there is poor information about their effects on grape amino acid composition. This field trial aimed to evaluate the effect on grape amino acid composition of chitosan and of a mixture of laminarin and Saccharomyces extracts (LamE), applied in different strategies with copper hydroxide. The results showed that all the treatments applied to grapevines decreased the concentration of several amino acids. Moreover, treatments that have mostly decreased these compounds are those with copper hydroxide, especially when applied individually. LamE applied individually or alternately with copper hydroxide had the least negative effect on grape amino acid content. These results provide further information about the negative effects of copper on grape quality, which can be reduced when it is used in strategy with LamE or chitosan in GDM control.

  10. The effect of red grape juice on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmard, Zahra; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Reisi, Parham; Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease appearing as a result of free radicals and oxidative stress. Antioxidants agents boost memory and control Alzheimer's disease. Since red grape juice contains antioxidant agents, its effects on speed of learning and improvement of memory was studied in Alzheimer's rats. Alzheimer's model was induced by bilateral infusion of streptozocine into lateral ventricles of brain of male rats. Rats drank 10% red grape juice for 21 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for measuring memory and learning in rats. Our results showed that learning and memory in STZ-group decreased significantly compared to Sham group. However, intake of red grape juice increased speed of learning and improvement of memory in Alzheimer's rats. Our results suggest that there are active ingredients in red grape juice, which probably have therapeutic and preventive effects on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  13. Shading of the fruit zone to reduce grape yield and quality losses caused by sunburn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The study highlights the effects of solar radiation on the composition of grape musts and suggests a potentially cost-effective method to control excessive radiation in vineyards.

  14. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  15. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-28

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  17. Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid ... WGP could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Kinetics of Grape Seed Phenolic Compounds Extraction: Experiment and Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucic´-Kojic´, A.; Sovová, Helena; Planinic´, M.; Tomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 136, 3-4 (2013), s. 1136-1140 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : kinetics modelling * temperature * grape seed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.259, year: 2013

  19. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in piles with higher proportion of pomace (Var.II. Analysis of results shows that the compost made ​​of grape pomace is a quality organic fertilizer, which may have in addition to agronomic point of view also great hygienic and ecological importance.

  20. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome sequences resolve deep relationships of the grape family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Nie, Ze-Long; Mao, Likai; Zhu, Yabing; Kan, Xian-Zhao; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Gerrath, Jean; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Fang, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies of the grape family (Vitaceae) yielded poorly resolved deep relationships, thus impeding our understanding of the evolution of the family. Next-generation sequencing now offers access to protein coding sequences very easily, quickly and cost-effectively. To improve upon earlier work, we extracted 417 orthologous single-copy nuclear genes from the transcriptomes of 15 species of the Vitaceae, covering its phylogenetic diversity. The resulting transcriptome phylogeny provides robust support for the deep relationships, showing the phylogenetic utility of transcriptome data for plants over a time scale at least since the mid-Cretaceous. The pros and cons of transcriptome data for phylogenetic inference in plants are also evaluated.

  2. Transcriptome sequences resolve deep relationships of the grape family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wen

    Full Text Available Previous phylogenetic studies of the grape family (Vitaceae yielded poorly resolved deep relationships, thus impeding our understanding of the evolution of the family. Next-generation sequencing now offers access to protein coding sequences very easily, quickly and cost-effectively. To improve upon earlier work, we extracted 417 orthologous single-copy nuclear genes from the transcriptomes of 15 species of the Vitaceae, covering its phylogenetic diversity. The resulting transcriptome phylogeny provides robust support for the deep relationships, showing the phylogenetic utility of transcriptome data for plants over a time scale at least since the mid-Cretaceous. The pros and cons of transcriptome data for phylogenetic inference in plants are also evaluated.

  3. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  4. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  5. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  6. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  7. Microclimate influence on mineral and metabolic profiles of grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G E; Gaudillere, J-P; Pieri, P; Hilbert, G; Maucourt, M; Deborde, C; Moing, A; Rolin, D

    2006-09-06

    The grape berry microclimate is known to influence berry quality. The effects of the light exposure of grape berry clusters on the composition of berry tissues were studied on the "Merlot" variety grown in a vineyard in Bordeaux, France. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified using different intensities of leaf removal, cluster position relative to azimuth, and berry position in the cluster. Light exposures were identified and classified by in situ measurements of berry temperatures. Berries were sampled at maturity (>19 Brix) for determination of skin and/or pulp chemical and metabolic profiles based on (1) chemical and physicochemical measurement of minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), (2) untargeted 1H NMR metabolic fingerprints, and HPLC targeted analyses of (3) amino acids and (4) phenolics. Each profile defined by partial least-square discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate berries from different light exposure. Discriminant compounds between shaded and light-exposed berries were quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, myricetin-3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside for the phenolics, histidine, valine, GABA, alanine, and arginine for the amino acids, and malate for the organic acids. Capacities of the different profiling techniques to discriminate berries were compared. Although the proportion of explained variance from the 1H NMR fingerprint was lower compared to that of chemical measurements, NMR spectroscopy allowed us to identify lit and shaded berries. Light exposure of berries increased the skin and pulp flavonols, histidine and valine contents, and reduced the organic acids, GABA, and alanine contents. All the targeted and nontargeted analytical data sets used made it possible to discriminate sun-exposed and shaded berries. The skin phenolics pattern was the most discriminating and allowed us to sort sun from shade berries. These metabolite classes can be used to qualify berries collected in an undetermined environment. The

  8. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part I: polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    Mass spectrometry, had and still has, a very important role for research and quality control in the viticulture and enology field, and its analytical power is relevant for structural studies on aroma and polyphenolic compounds. Polyphenols are responsible for the taste and color of wine, and confer astringency and structure to the beverage. The knowledge of the anthocyanic structure is very important to predict the aging attitude of wine, and to attempt to resolve problems about color stability. Moreover, polyphenols are the main compounds related to the benefits of wine consumption in the diet, because of their properties in the treatment of circulatory disorders such as capillary fragility, peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, and microangiopathy of the retina. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are nowadays the best analytical approach to study polyphenols in grape extracts and wine, and are the most effective tool in the study of the structure of anthocyanins. The MS/MS approach is a very powerful tool that permits anthocyanin aglycone and sugar moiety characterization. LC-MS allows the characterization of complex structures of grape polyphenols, such as procyanidins, proanthocyanidins, prodelphinidins, and tannins, and provides experimental evidence for structures that were previously only hypothesized. The matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technique is suitable to determine the presence of molecules of higher molecular weight with high accuracy, and it has been applied with success to study procyanidin oligomers up to heptamers in the reflectron mode, and up to nonamers in the linear mode. The levels of resveratrol in wine, an important polyphenol well-known for its beneficial effects, have been determined by SPME and LC-MS, and the former approach led to the best results in terms of sensitivity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Paul; Pearce, Anthony; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily; Dennis, Eric; Jeffery, David

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl est...

  10. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  11. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  12. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  13. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  14. Treatment of the press residues of pressed grapes on an industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from press residues of grapes by distillation and concentration of the EtOH and extraction of the dried residue after removal of seeds with a mixture of H/sub 2/O and mineral acid. Vegetable oil is extracted from the seeds. Collidal substances are coagulated by roasting prior to extraction of tartaric acid. The grape skins are recovered in flake form.

  15. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  16. Ampelographic Characterization of Turkish Indigenous Grape Accessions and European Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    İşçi, Burçak; Altındişli, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    A total of 35 grape accessions and 3 reference cultivars were used to investigate the genetic polymorphism and relationships among Turkey and other European grape accessions by ampelographic characterization. Total of 74 ampelographic characteristics were identified for 38 genotypes. Ampelographic data were collected  two vegetation periods. The characteristics of the vines were defined and measured according to OIV descriptors. In this study, three synonym varieties (100% similarity) were id...

  17. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  19. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  1. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  2. Grape extract protects against γ-radiation-induced membrane damage strains of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The membrane integrity of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) is compromised by the deleterious actions of γ-radiation in humans. Grapes are the richest source of antioxidants due to presence of potentially bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of the present study was to assess the radioprotective actions of grape extracts against the γ-radiation-induced membrane permeability of human erythrocytes. The scavenging activities in seeds of grape in DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, were higher than skin or pulp of different cultivars. Grape extracts also showed appreciable extent of total antioxidant capacity and effective antihemolytic action. Grape extracts significantly ameliorated the γ-radiation-induced increase of the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an index of lipid peroxidation) in the RBC membrane ghosts. Stored blood showed higher levels of K + ion as compared to the normal blood which was elevated by γ-radiation. Membrane ATPase was inhibited by the exposure to γ-radiation.Treatment of RBCs with the grape extracts prior to the exposure of γ-radiation significantly mitigated these changes in the erythrocyte membranes caused by the lower dose of radiation (4 Gy). (author)

  3. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  4. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  5. Filamentous fungi associated with natural infection of noble rot on withered grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, M; Simonato, B; Favati, F; Bernardi, P; Sbarbati, A; Zapparoli, G

    2018-05-02

    The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  7. Use of Natural Diversity and Biotechnology to Increase the Quality and Nutritional Content of Tomato and Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Gascuel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving fruit quality has become a major goal in plant breeding. Direct approaches to tackling fruit quality traits specifically linked to consumer preferences and environmental friendliness, such as improved flavor, nutraceutical compounds, and sustainability, have slowly been added to a breeder priority list that already includes traits like productivity, efficiency, and, especially, pest and disease control. Breeders already use molecular genetic tools to improve fruit quality although most advances have been made in producer and industrial quality standards. Furthermore, progress has largely been limited to simple agronomic traits easy-to-observe, whereas the vast majority of quality attributes, specifically those relating to flavor and nutrition, are complex and have mostly been neglected. Fortunately, wild germplasm, which is used for resistance against/tolerance of environmental stresses (including pathogens, is still available and harbors significant genetic variation for taste and health-promoting traits. Similarly, heirloom/traditional varieties could be used to identify which genes contribute to flavor and health quality and, at the same time, serve as a good source of the best alleles for organoleptic quality improvement. Grape (Vitis vinifera L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. produce fleshy, berry-type fruits, among the most consumed in the world. Both have undergone important domestication and selection processes, that have dramatically reduced their genetic variability, and strongly standardized fruit traits. Moreover, more and more consumers are asking for sustainable production, incompatible with the wide range of chemical inputs. In the present paper, we review the genetic resources available to tomato/grape breeders, and the recent technological progresses that facilitate the identification of genes/alleles of interest within the natural or generated variability gene pool. These technologies include omics, high

  8. Use of Natural Diversity and Biotechnology to Increase the Quality and Nutritional Content of Tomato and Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Diretto, Gianfranco; Monforte, Antonio J.; Fortes, Ana M.; Granell, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Improving fruit quality has become a major goal in plant breeding. Direct approaches to tackling fruit quality traits specifically linked to consumer preferences and environmental friendliness, such as improved flavor, nutraceutical compounds, and sustainability, have slowly been added to a breeder priority list that already includes traits like productivity, efficiency, and, especially, pest and disease control. Breeders already use molecular genetic tools to improve fruit quality although most advances have been made in producer and industrial quality standards. Furthermore, progress has largely been limited to simple agronomic traits easy-to-observe, whereas the vast majority of quality attributes, specifically those relating to flavor and nutrition, are complex and have mostly been neglected. Fortunately, wild germplasm, which is used for resistance against/tolerance of environmental stresses (including pathogens), is still available and harbors significant genetic variation for taste and health-promoting traits. Similarly, heirloom/traditional varieties could be used to identify which genes contribute to flavor and health quality and, at the same time, serve as a good source of the best alleles for organoleptic quality improvement. Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produce fleshy, berry-type fruits, among the most consumed in the world. Both have undergone important domestication and selection processes, that have dramatically reduced their genetic variability, and strongly standardized fruit traits. Moreover, more and more consumers are asking for sustainable production, incompatible with the wide range of chemical inputs. In the present paper, we review the genetic resources available to tomato/grape breeders, and the recent technological progresses that facilitate the identification of genes/alleles of interest within the natural or generated variability gene pool. These technologies include omics, high-throughput phenotyping

  9. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelet, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Travelet@cermav.cnrs.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Stemmelen, Mylene; Lapinte, Vincent [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); Dubreuil, Frederic [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Robin, Jean-Jacques [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D{sub h}) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C{sub 19} to 19.2 nm for C{sub 57}). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D{sub h}-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].Graphical Abstract

  10. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelet, Christophe; Stemmelen, Mylène; Lapinte, Vincent; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Robin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D h ) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C 19 to 19.2 nm for C 57 ). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D h -values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445–1458, 2013)].Graphical AbstractAmphiphilic copolymers based

  11. Function of VtPGIP in pathogenic fungus resistance of Vitis thunbergii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In plants, polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) are very important to inactivate polygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (VtPGIP) was first isolated from the wild grape Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc., which exhibits high resistance to disease. VtPGIP ...

  12. On Grape, Feast and Community: An Ethnographic Note on the Making of a Grape Harvest Festival in an Italian Town in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the phenomenon of grape harvest festivals in Italy. By exploring ethnographically the grape harvest festival of Lu (Alessandria province, Piedmont region, the paper points out the economic and social roles played by the festivals in modern Italy. The historic analysis of the case study helps to focus on the history of these festivals in the country and the role played by television and localism in defining the present forms of the rite.

  13. On Grape, Feast and Community: An Ethnographic Note on the Making of the Grape Harvest Festival in an Italian Town in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the phenomenon of grape harvest festivals in Italy. By exploring ethnographically the grape harvest festival of Lu (Alessandria province, Piedmont region, the paper points out the economic and social roles played by the festivals in modern Italy. The historic analysis of the case study helps to focus on the history of these festivals in the country and the role played by television and localism in defining the present forms of the rite.

  14. Study of translocation of photosynthate in grapes with radiotracers with the dual purpose of increasing grape production and improving the technology required for the evaluation of the photosynthetic yield of other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcar, J.

    1984-05-01

    Using [ 14 C]-CO 2 to label the products of photosynthesis formed at each leaf on developing, fruiting grape stems the pattern of translocation of sugar to competing ''sinks'' was determined. The studies, which used four economically important Uruguayan wine-grape varieties in field trials, established that the upper parts of the stems were 'parasitic' in that their leaves did not contribute sugars to grape cluster growth. From these results a technique was developed for shortening shoots which resulted in increased sugar content of clusters. Further research on ''source-sink'' relationships in grape will emphasis the role of plant growth regulators and their possible use in agronomic practice

  15. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora; Wilkens, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  16. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Sanhueza

    Full Text Available Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics. Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the

  17. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p sugar (FBS) was significantly higher than in CO + G-CR. Grape intake increased Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression and decreased insulin resistance in CO + G-CR. Sugar replacement with polyphenol-rich grape along with CR improved glucose homeostasis, and substituting corn oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  18. Details of development of the resource for adults with asthma in the RAISIN (randomized trial of an asthma internet self-management intervention) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Deborah; Mair, Frances S; Chaudhuri, Rekha; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Thomas, Mike; Thomson, Neil C; Yardley, Lucy; Wyke, Sally

    2015-07-28

    Around 300 million people worldwide have asthma and prevalence is increasing. Self-management can be effective in improving a range of outcomes and is cost effective, but is underutilised as a treatment strategy. Supporting optimum self-management using digital technology shows promise, but how best to do this is not clear. We aimed to develop an evidence based, theory informed, online resource to support self-management in adults with asthma, called 'Living well with Asthma', as part of the RAISIN (Randomized Trial of an Asthma Internet Self-Management Intervention) study. We developed Living well with Asthma in two phases. Phase 1: A low fidelity prototype (paper-based) version of the website was developed iteratively through input from a multidisciplinary expert panel, empirical evidence from the literature, and potential end users via focus groups (adults with asthma and practice nurses). Implementation and behaviour change theories informed this process. Phase 2: The paper-based designs were converted to a website through an iterative user centred process. Adults with asthma (n = 10) took part in think aloud studies, discussing the paper based version, then the web-based version. Participants considered contents, layout, and navigation. Development was agile using feedback from the think aloud sessions immediately to inform design and subsequent think aloud sessions. Think aloud transcripts were also thematically analysed, further informing resource development. The website asked users to aim to be symptom free. Key behaviours targeted to achieve this include: optimising medication use (including inhaler technique); attending primary care asthma reviews; using asthma action plans; increasing physical activity levels; and stopping smoking. The website had 11 sections, plus email reminders, which promoted these behaviours. Feedback on the contents of the resource was mainly positive with most changes focussing on clarification of language, order of pages and

  19. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.

  20. Investigation into effects of ionizing radiations on physical-chemical properties of bulgarian sorts of peaches and grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Kalinov, V.; Nikolova, M.; Pavlova, E.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree and direction of those changes in physicochemical characteristics of irradiated peaches and grapes which determine their quality after irradiation and during storage. The following main conclusions are made: irradiation with doses of 200 to 300 krad does not cause significant alterations in the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of peaches and grapes; irradiation has a direct effect on the consistancy of peaches and grapes, leading to their softening which is proportional to the radiation dose used; radiation treatment is advisable in the case of peaches and grapes in tended for short-term rather than long-term storage at low temperatures

  1. THE GRAPES AND WINE MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS AND INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion CERTAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine products were and are symbolizing both the agriculture and economy of Moldova. Until the 90s of last century the main consumer of our drinks was the Russian Federative Republic. On its markets we sold more than four fifths of wines from grapes and more than 90 percent of sparkling wine. After the approval of the Declaration of Independence (August 27, 1991, our country has made considerable efforts to reform the national economy, to transition from centrally managed economy to a market economy that - and allows the manufacturer to direct activities according to demand and primarily domestic market. The request of grapes and grape products on the domestic market rules according to our traditions and previous practice and must be covered entirely by the local production. The national market for vine products is characterized by excessive fluctuations generated by the dynamics of production of grapes and processed products thereof, price volatility, increased competition, etc. Grapes and grape products obtained in Moldova exceed the domestic market demand and our country is doomed to commercial relations with other countries and/or groups of countries. The emergence of new socio-economic system open to the world triggered the joint efforts of the international community's own produced undoubtedly important changes not only in shape, but also background in trade flows and wine grapes. The European Union has been and remains an important actor of major interest to us. The signing and ratification in 2014 of the Association Agreement between Moldova and the European Union will definitely contribute to increase the sales in the Common Market of the European Union, but our country is required to know the trade policies of the EU and should adjust its national trade policy to the EU requirements. In the paper the authors reflect on the grapes and grape products market, studying the import and export of such products, seek practical

  2. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  3. Study of the maturation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The edaphoclimatic conditions in Southwest Parana differ from those in traditional wine-growing regions and have a major influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the grapes. Studies of grape maturation under these conditions may enable us to time the supply of raw materials for the elaboration of differentiated wines. This study aimed to quantify the ripening components of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, and Sangiovese grapes grown in Dois Vizinhos, PR, during the harvest seasons of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The grapevines were performed according to the espalier system and grafted on rootstock R110 (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Merlot’ and Paulsen 1103 (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Sangiovese’. The ripening of the grapes was monitored every ten days from the beginning of ripening (verasion until harvest. The following variables were evaluated: mass and diameter of berries, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TTA, total sugars, estimated alcohol content, anthocyanins, and flavanols. Sangiovese berries showed the greatest weight and diameter in the two years. The TSS was higher in the second year of evaluation for Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes. The pH decreased from the first year to the second for all cultivars. There were no significant differences in ATT among the cultivars. A higher content of flavanols was observed during the first growing season of study than during the second. Tempranillo grapes showed the highest concentration of anthocyanins during both growing seasons. Not all cultivars had enough acidity to permit wine stability and guard time. None of the cultivars required the chaptalization of must, presenting good potential of alcohol production.

  4. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  5. John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath: Narrating the Wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath are incredibly modern. The setting can probably be universal, as are many of the underlying themes and narratives about human greed but also human solidarity. Some local cultural features like the federal camps as opposed to the state ‘law of the jungle’ also give us interesting clues on the creation of a national solidarity and welfare network, part of the national identity that moves internal migrants to California. Environmental disasters are also present in the background, as are some of the criticism of intensive agriculture in an ever expanding market treating agricultural produce as commodities. The role of the criminal justice system and social control is also modern, crimmigration, labour movements criminalisations and abuse of police force. All these elements make Grapes of Wrath a truly universal narrative on justice and hope Las uvas de la ira de Steinbeck es una obra increíblemente moderna. Probablemente, el argumento puede ser universal, como muchos de los temas que subyacen y las narraciones sobre la avaricia humana, pero también la solidaridad humana. Algunos rasgos culturales locales, como los campos federales opuestos a la “ley de la jungla” del estado también nos dan unas claves interesantes sobre la creación de una red de solidaridad y bienestar nacional, parte de la identidad nacional que provoca la migración interna a California. Los desastres medioambientales también están presentes de fondo, al igual que una crítica a la agricultura intensiva en un mercado en expansión que trata la producción agrícola como materias primas. El papel del sistema criminal de justicia y el control social también es moderno, crimigración, la criminalización de los movimientos obreros y el abuso de la fuerza policial. Todos estos elementos hacen de Las uvas de la ira una narrativa sobre la justicia y esperanza de carácter universal.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2532913

  6. Fruit-Enhanced Resistance to Microbial Infection Induced by Selective Laser Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia G. Gonzálvez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Table grapes were irradiated with laser pulses at two different wavelengths: one selected at 302.1 nm, that is, resonant with the transresveratrol biphoton absorption band, and another selected at 300 nm, that is a nonresonant wavelength where trans-resveratrol two-photon absorption is negligible. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic analyses of the irradiated grapes' skin showed an enhancement of polyphenols' content when the resonant wavelength was employed. Furthermore, microbiological analysis performed with nontreated (control, nonresonant, and resonantly irradiated grapes demonstrated how the last samples developed a significantly lower number of colony forming units. Since the only difference between the two (resonant and nonresonant irradiation conditions was just a couple of nanometres in the employed UV-B laser wavelengths, the germicidal effect should be considered very similar. As a result, the observed difference in the table grape resistance to microbial infection was attributed to a wavelength-dependent-induced photochemistry. Finally, the potentiality of this method to enhance the postharvest health status of table grapes is remarked.

  7. Comparative effects of red and white grapes on oxidative markers and lipidemic parameters in adult hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Ali Reza; Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of consuming red versus white whole grapes on oxidative and lipidemic indices in people with hypercholesterolemia. Sixty nine patients were randomized into three groups. The two treatment groups consumed 500 g of either Condori red grapes or Shahroodi white grapes daily for 8 weeks, and the third group served as a control. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by colorimetric methods at baseline and at the end of the study. In addition, the polyphenol and fiber content of the two grape varieties was measured. TBARS was reduced in both study groups compared to the control group, and the reduction was greater in the group that consumed red grapes compared to the white grapes. TAC was increased significantly in both red and white grape consuming groups compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were decreased in the red grape group compared to the control group. No significant changes in fasting blood glucose, TG or HDL-C were observed among the groups. The results of this study suggest that consumption of the whole fruit of red grapes has more potent anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic effects compared to the white grapes in hyperlipidemic adult humans. Hence, the whole fruit of red grapes may be an excellent fruit choice not only to prevent oxidative stress related metabolic disorders but also cholesterol related cardiovascular diseases, particularly in hyperlipidemic adult humans.

  8. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  9. Characterization of microbial metabolism of Syrah grape products in an in vitro colon model using targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Mattila, Ismo; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Cheynier, Veronique; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Bes, Magali; Le Bourvellec, Carine; Guyot, Sylvain; Orešič, Matej

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Syrah red grapes are used in the production of tannin-rich red wines. Tannins are high molecular weight molecules, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and poorly absorbed in the upper intestine. In this study, gut microbial metabolism of Syrah grape phenolic compounds was investigated. Methods Syrah grape pericarp was subjected to an enzymatic in vitro digestion model, and red wine and grape skin PA fraction were prepared. Microbial conversion was screened using an in vitro colon model with faec...

  10. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Tian; Wang, Jun-Fang; Cramer, Grant; Dai, Zhan-Wu; Duan, Wei; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wu, Ben-Hong; Fan, Pei-Ge; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2012-09-28

    Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated HSPs, especially small HSPs

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guo-Tian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  13. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  14. Chitosan and grape secondary metabolites: A proteomics and metabolomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavaresco Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained by deacetylation of chitin, and it is involved in defence mechanisms of plants toward diseases. In the present work, V. vinifera L. cv. Ortrugo, grafted on 420A rootstock was grown in pot and treated, at veraison, by 0.03% chitosan solution at cluster level. Just before the treatment (T0 and 24 hours (T1, 48 hours (T2, 72 hours (T3 and 10 days (T4 later, the concentration of stilbenic compounds was detected, and at T1 proteomics and metabolomics analyses were done. Proteomics relies on the analysis of the complete set of proteins existing in a given substrate, while metabolomics relies on the analyses of the complete set of metabolites in a given substrate. The treatment improved the stilbene concentration over the control at T1. Proteomic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL were overexpressed in the treated grapes. SOD is known to be an enzyme active against reactive oxygen species (ROS while PAL is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoids pathway. Metabolomics analysis highlighted the positive role of the treatment in improving the triperpenoid concentration (betulin, erythrodiol, uvaol, oleanolate; these compounds are known to be effective against microbes, insects and fungi.

  15. New Approach to Enrich Pasta with Polyphenols from Grape Marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry produces significant amount of waste that represents a problem for the sector. However, by-products are also promising sources of compounds which may be reused for their nutritional properties. The aim of this work is to exploit wine-making by-products, obtaining an extract by ultrasound-assisted extraction only using water as solvent. The characteristics of spaghetti enriched with grape marc were assessed and compared to control samples. In particular, total phenolic and flavonoids contents, the antioxidant activity, the cooking quality, and the sensory acceptability were evaluated at various steps of pasta production. The enriched spaghetti showed higher total phenolic and flavonoids contents and higher antioxidant activity than the control pasta. In addition, low cooking losses were found. In terms of sensory properties fortified pasta is acceptable as the traditional product, thus demonstrating that it is possible to exploit food waste to better satisfy consumer demand for healthy food products in a more sustainable perspective.

  16. Isolation and culture of leaf protoplasts from Tunisian grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mliki

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental conditions for leaf protoplast isolation and culture were optimised for in vitro plants deriving from shoot culture of two Tunisian grape varieties, Sakasly and Muscat d’Alexandrie (Vitis vinifera L.. The best yields were obtained from leaves of 4 to 5 weeks old in vitro plants, digested for 13 hours under 25 rpm agitation with an enzymatic mixture containing 0.25 % cellulase of Aspergillus niger, 0.25 % cellulase of Penicillium funiculosum, 0.5 % cellulysin of Trichoderma viridae, and 0.2 % macerozyme R-10 of Rhizopus sp. More than 50 % of the purified protoplasts had a diameter of 30-40 μm and were rich in chloroplasts. Best aptitude for cell division was found in protoplasts immobilised in sodium alginate layers at a density of 0.5x106 cell/ml, cultivated in CPW-13 medium containing 4 mg/l of NOA and 0.88 mg/l of TDZ. The variety Muscat d’Alexandrie gave better yield whereas Sakasly showed better cell division rates. Formation of micro and macrocallus have been obtained, but the oxidation of the medium has to be solved in order to promote plant regeneration.

  17. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  18. Effect of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma on white grape juice quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankaj, Shashi Kishor; Wan, Zifan; Colonna, William; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of novel, non-thermal high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) processing on the quality of grape juice. A quality-based comparison of cold plasma treatment with thermal pasteurization treatment of white grape juice was done. HVACP treatment of grape juice at 80 kV for 4 min resulted in a 7.4 log 10 CFU mL -1 reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any significant (P > 0.05) change in pH, acidity and electrical conductivity of the juice. An increase in non-enzymatic browning was observed, but total color difference was very low and within acceptable limits. Spectrophotometric measurements showed a decrease in total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, but they were found to be comparable to those resulting from thermal pasteurization. An increase in total flavonols was observed after HVACP treatments. HVACP treatment of white grape juice at 80 kV for 2 min was found to be comparable to thermal pasteurization in all analyzed quality attributes. HVACP has shown the potential to be used as an alternative to thermal treatment of white grape juice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  20. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Jimenez Despaigne, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  1. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  2. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  3. Elicitor and nitrogen applications to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines: effect on grape amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Elicitors and nitrogen foliar applications to vineyards could regulate grape nitrogen composition, which has an important effect on grape and wine quality. Thus the aim of this research was to study the effect of foliar elicitor treatments, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and yeast extract (YE), and foliar nitrogen applications, urea (Ur) and phenylalanine (Phe), to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines on grape amino acid composition. The results showed that elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to Garnacha and Tempranillo grapevines decreased the must amino acid concentration. However, Phe application to these two grapevines increased the must Phe content. The treatments applied to Graciano grapevines barely effected the grape amino acid content. According to the percentage of variance attributable, the variety had a higher impact on the must amino acid composition than the treatments and their interaction, except in certain amino acids such as Phe. The influence of elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to grapevines on grape amino acid concentration was strongly conditioned by the variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Use of fresh versus frozen or blast-frozen grapes for small-scale fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frank Schmid, Vladimir Jiranek School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide; and Wine Innovation Cluster, The Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia Background: This paper firstly examines the validity of using laboratory-scale fermentations as a means of correlating winemaking outcomes with larger industrial scale fermentations. Secondly, conventional and blast-freezing of whole bunches were investigated for their relative suitability as methods of preservation as determined by the nature of the resulting wines. Methods: Red must fermentations were compared at the laboratory 80 kg scale, and the more industrially representative 500 kg pilot scale. Fermentation profiles and duration for both scales were found to be very similar. Whole bunches were either slow/conventionally frozen (−20°C, or quickly/blast-frozen (−25°C. Results: Wines made from frozen grapes compared well with the wine made from the fresh must. Color and chemical analyses of the wines revealed few differences. A duo-trio sensory evaluation showed that wine from blast-frozen grapes was more similar to the fresh wines than wines from conventional frozen grapes. Conclusion: The findings of this research suggest that whole-bunch blast-freezing of grapes is preferable to conventional freezing. Keywords: wine color, research winemaking, frozen grapes

  5. An approach for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidin polymers into oligomers by sulphurous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Cheng, Jinhui; Fang, Bairui; Wei, Zongmin; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-08-01

    To develop an efficient method for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins polymers into oligomers, an optimized sulphurous acid degradation conditions for grape seed with the temperature of 60 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, and for grape skin with the temperature of 40 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, were established. Afterwards, HSCCC and prep-HPLC were used to fractionate and isolate individual proanthocyanidin oligomers from the degradation products. Total of ten dimeric or trimeric procyanidins were obtained, and most of them presented high yield (from 0.7 mg to 13.6 mg per run in grape seed and from 0.5 mg to 4.1 mg per run in grape skin) and high purity (over 90%). The proposed method provides a new way for large preparation of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from naturally abundant and wasted polymeric ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  7. Grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2018-06-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes ( Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  8. A New Solid Phase Extraction for the Determination of Anthocyanins in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreiro-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the concentration and cleaning of red grape extracts prior to the determination of anthocyanins by UPLC-DAD has been developed. This method is of special interest in the determination of phenolic maturity as it allows the analysis of the anthocyanins present in grapes. Several different SPE cartridges were assessed, including both C-18- and vinylbenzene-based cartridges. C-18-based cartridges presented a very low retention for the glucosylated anthocyanidins while vinylbenzene-based cartridges showed excellent retention for these compounds. The optimized method involves the initial conditioning of the cartridge using 10 mL of methanol and 10 mL of water, followed by loading of up to 100 mL of red grape extract. Ten mL of water was used in the washing step and anthocyanins were subsequently eluted using 1.5 mL of acidified methanol at pH 2. This method simplifies the determination of individual anthocyanins as, on the one hand, it cleans the sample of interference and, on the other hand, it increases the concentration to up to 25:1.5. The developed method has been validated with a range of different grapes and it has also been tested as a means of determining the different anthocyanins in grapes with different levels of maturity.

  9. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subagyono, Dirgarini J.N.; Marshall, Marc; Jackson, W. Roy; Chaffee, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H 2 O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N 2 , at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc. - Highlights: • Liquefaction of algae gave more oil than that of Pinus radiata and grape marc. • Reactions under CO/H 2 O produced higher yields of oil than N 2 . • Water to biomass ratio had little effect on the yields. • Bio-oil from algae contained substantial amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. • Pinus radiata oil was low in N but high in O

  11. Information Sources Influencing Soil Testing Innovation Adoption by Grape Farmers in the Khorramdarreh Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Shirin Golbaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Testing soil  is recognized to be an important practice for sustainable use of nutrients, which has been introduced to Iranian grape farmers as an innovation for over a decade. Its adoption and utilization may be influenced by receiving information from different sources. This study is performed to introduce these information sources that may influence the adoption of soil testing innovation by grape farmers. Using a survey, a sample of 260 out of 3942 grape farmers of the Khorramdarreh Township was selected using a stratified sampling technique and data was collected by structured interviews using a questionnaire. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was discussed and reviewed by a panel of experts consisting of university staff and agricultural professionals. Its reliability was also assessed through a pilot study and its main constructs were approved to be reliable using the Cronbach’s alpha test (measures between 0.71 and 0.84. Less than half of the grape farmers conducted soil testing in their vineyards. A regression analysis showed that variables such as contact of the farmers with model grape producers, Poster Received, publications and listening to radio programs and farmers’ education have a significant positive impact on soil testing innovation adoption. Therefore, both interpersonal and mass media can have a positive effect on farmers to adopt this innovation.

  12. SUBSTRATES UTILIZATION TO ASSESS ROOTEDNESS CAPACITY AND VIABILITY BUDS AT SOME GRAPE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is a fruit crop of enormous economic importance with over eight million hectares planted in vineyards worldwide. Table grapes and wines represent a considerable share of the economy in many grape and wine-producing countries. During the dormant, due to low temperatures and how to prepare grape for entrance in winter time, wood annual increases and buds may be adversely affected. The way how the vines passed by dormant period can affect the buds and wood viability and rooting ability of vine cuttings. In this study were tested on different culture substrates vine cuttings belonging to a noble variety and a hybrid vines: Merlot and Isabella. Noble grapes are a term used to describe the international variety of grapes that are most recognizable for the top quality wine they produce. In this paper was determinate total dry matter of vine cuttings, humidity of biological material, vine cuttings rooting capacity and viability status buds cuttings placed on three nutritional substrates.

  13. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Grape-Based Beverage, “Hardaliye”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production.

  14. Induction of resveratrol biosynthesis in skins of three grape cultivars by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Tsutomu; Okuda, Tohru; Mine, Yohei; Yokotsuka, Koki

    2004-01-01

    Resveratrol production and expression of the genes related to resveratrol biosynthesis were investigated in the skins of three Vitis vinifera cultivars Chardonnay, Koshu and an American hybrid grape, Muscat Bailey A (Bailey x Muscat Hamburg). Resveratrol concentration in the skins of all the grapes increased significantly when exposed to ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation. The UV-induced resveratrol concentration in the grape skins was lower after veraison (onset of ripening) than before it. The maximum concentration of the UV-induced resveratrol in 'Muscat Bailey A' was higher than those in the other two cultivars. The relative mRNA expression levels of stilebene synthase (STS), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes in grape skins 8 hr after UV irradiation were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that STS- and PAL-mRNA expressions were significantly increased by UV irradiation. STS-mRNA expressions in 'Muscat Bailey A' were higher than those in 'Chardonnay' throughout berry development. The UV-induced CHS-mRNA expression in the grape skins decreased before veraison and subsequently increased. (author)

  15. Effects of modified atmosphere packing and honey dip treatments on quality maintenance of minimally processed grape cv. Razaki (V. vinifera L.) during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabır, Ali; Sabır, Ferhan K; Kara, Zeki

    2011-06-01

    Increasing pressure in food conservation sector to replace chemical applications has urged researchers to focus on studying new strategies of extending the postharvest life of produces. In such efforts, numerous materials have been tested for their effectiveness as well as suitability in organic consumption. In this study, effects of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) and honey solution dip on maintenance of quality of minimally processed table grape cv. Razaki were investigated. During the storage at 0 °C with relative humidity of 90%, MAP, honey dip, and their combined applications significantly retarded the weight loss of berries that retained about 2 mm of cap stem. Soluble solid contents of all berries slightly increased, while their acid amounts decreased, resulting in consecutive rises of maturity index. With respect to the sensory score, calculated as mean of ten panelists, honey treatment alone was ranked the highest while control berries had significantly lower value. Overall, MAP, honey solution dip or their combination significantly maintained the general quality of minimally processed grape by delaying quality loss and berry decay. Therefore, honey solution dip yielded promising results to use as an edible organic coating barrier to moisture and resist to water vapor diffusion during the cold storage, offering a good adherence to berry surface.

  16. The effect of different position of grape clusters on the bearing shoot on production results of Cabernet Sauvignon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoloveić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the differences were examined between clones of Cabernet sauvignon (clones ISV-F-V5, ISV-F-V6 and R5, i.e. the difference between uvological properties of grape clusters and grape berries, based on the different positions on the bearing shoot. Tests were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture 'Radmilovac'. Standard ampelographic methods were used in numerous analyses of grape yield, as well as uvological properties of clones. All data were statistically analyzed and processed by the method of two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measuring of one factor (height and Tukey HSD test. Analysis of variance showed no significant differences between clones. The best results were achieved with grape clusters positioned in the base of bearing shoot. The first positioned grape clusters on the bearing shoot had the highest share in the total grape yield, the highest amount of sugar, and the highest positioned grape clusters had higher content of total acids. The differences determined between examined clones were in regard to productivity and quality of grapes which reflected also on production value.

  17. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y...

  18. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... amount of product sold and an increase in returns to producers, shippers, exporters, and carriers... additional 2 percent tolerance for sealed berry cracks on the Exotic grape variety. This action was... minimum size and quality requirements for export shipments of any variety of vinifera species table grapes...

  19. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Optimized techniques for the extraction of grape allergens appropriate for in vivo and in vitro testing and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia V.; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Rigby, Neil; Moren, F. Javier; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Milis, Clare; van Ree, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Standardized allergen extracts are needed for diagnosis and therapy purposes. For grapes, standardization is hampered by low protein and high tannin and pectin concentrations. The aim of the current study was to develop an optimized method for the extraction of grape proteins and possibly extend

  1. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two

  2. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle. PMID:25942487

  3. Enhanced NMR-based profiling of polyphenols in commercially available grape juices using solid-phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, A.K.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Tucker, G.; Daykin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Grapes and related products, such as juices, and in particular, their polyphenols, have previously been associated with many health benefits, such as protection against cardiovascular disease. Within grapes, a large range of structurally diverse polyphenols can be present, and their characterisation

  4. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  5. Resistance and resilience to changing climate of Tuscany and Valpolicella wine grape growing regions in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boselli Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an improved assessment of the practical adaptation options for the viticulture of Tuscany and of Valpolicella and what could be the strength and resilience to climate change of grapevine varieties in these areas. According to the models tested, Italian viticulture is able to adapt better than other countries to global warming, as the placing at various altitudes up in the high hills and mountains sets off the mechanism called resilience.

  6. Evaluation of host resistance to Botrytis bunch rot in Vitis spp. and its correlation with Botrytis leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of Botrytis bunch rot and gray mold, is the number one postharvest disease of fresh grapes in the United States. Fungicide applications are used to manage the disease, but fungicide-resistant isolates are common and postharvest losses occur annually. Host resistanc...

  7. Elemental analysis in cultured cells, tobacco and grape, treated with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoi, K.; Iikura, H; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Relationship between Al toxicity and the Al, Fe and B amount of element in tobacco and grape cells are discussed. Al and Fe were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and B was analyzed by prompt gamma-ray analysis. Callose content was also measured as an indicator of cell damage induced Al toxicity. When tobacco cells were incubated in 1 mM and 300 μM Al solution, the pattern of callose formation was much similar to that of Fe accumulation than that of Al accumulation in tobacco cells, suggesting that the increase of Fe content induced toxic effect along with Al incorporated into the cells. However, this tendency was not observed in grape cells. Boron content did not show any relation to those of Al or Fe throughout the Al treatment in both tobacco and grape cells. (author)

  8. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  9. Response of grape cultivars to nitrogen and phosphorus grown with water harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.M.; Stroehlein, J.L.; Pessarakli, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two fertilizer studies were conducted on mature vineyards established with a water harvesting system on a White House sandy 10 am (fine, mixed, thermic, Ustollic Haplargid) soil at the University of Arizona Oracle Agricultural Center. In one study, two grape (Vitis viinifera L.) cultivars, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Sauvignon blanc', were treated with different levels of 15 N and P fertilizer and tested for tissue NO 3 -N and total-P content. In the second study, eleven grape varieties were treated with three levels of N. Tissue samples were analysed for total P and NO 3 -N content, and the ratio of petiole-P to leaf blade-P was determined. When sufficient quantities of both nutrients were provided, N and P interacted positively resulting in increased grape yields. The petiole-P to leaf blade-P ratio correctly monitored the P status of the vines. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs

  10. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  11. Water loss in table grapes: model development and validation under dynamic storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsem PEREIRA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Water loss is a critical problem affecting the quality of table grapes. Temperature and relative humidity (RH are essential in this process. Although mathematical modelling can be applied to measure constant temperature and RH impacts, it is proved that variations in storage conditions are normally encountered in the cold chain. This study proposed a methodology to develop a weight loss model for table grapes and validate its predictions in non-constant conditions of a domestic refrigerator. Grapes were maintained under controlled conditions and the weight loss was measured to calibrate the model. The model described the water loss process adequately and the validation tests confirmed its predictive ability. Delayed cooling tests showed that estimated transpiration rates in subsequent continuous temperature treatment was not significantly influenced by prior exposure conditions, suggesting that this model may be useful to estimate the weight loss consequences of interruptions in the cold chain.

  12. FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil and quantum models of fatty acids triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Antonova, E. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Dvoretskiy, K. N.; Grechukhina, O. N.; Vasilyeva, L. M.; Rybakov, A. V.; Likhter, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    FT-IR spectra of grape seed oil and glycerol were registered in the 650-4000 cm-1 range. Molecular models of glycerol and some fatty acids that compose the oil under study - linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids - as well as their triglycerides were developed within B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional model. A vibrating FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil was modeled on the basis of calculated values of vibrating wave numbers and IR intensities of the fatty acids triglycerides and with regard to their percentage. Triglyceride spectral bands that were formed by glycerol linkage vibrations were revealed. It was identified that triglycerol linkage has a small impact on the structure of fatty acids and, consequently, on vibrating wave numbers. The conducted molecular modeling became a basis for theoretical interpretation on 10 experimentally observed absorption bands in FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil.

  13. Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

    2010-09-08

    Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate.

  14. Aroma Precursors in Grapes and Wine: Flavor Release during Wine Production and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Francis, I Leigh; Herderich, Markus J

    2018-03-14

    Pioneering investigations into precursors of fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C 13 -norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides, amino acid conjugates, odorless volatiles, hydroxycinnamic acids, and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and nonenzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases, esterases, C-S lyases, and decarboxylases, and through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements. Flavors can also be liberated from glycosides and amino acid conjugates by oral microbiota. Hence, it is increasingly likely that flavor precursors contribute to retronasal aroma formation through in-mouth release during consumption, prompting a shift in focus from identifying aroma precursors in grapes to understanding aroma precursors present in bottled wine.

  15. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely use...... processes in the wine industry.......Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...

  16. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (± SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809.

  17. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. Objective: We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Design: We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg−1 · d−1) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. Results: We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (±SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). Conclusions: We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809. PMID:20844075

  18. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  19. Genetic diversity and pectinolytic activity of epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, M Cilião; Bertéli, M B D; Valle, J S; Paccola-Meirelles, L D; Linde, G A; Barcellos, F G; Colauto, N B

    2017-06-20

    The genetic diversity of epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere is susceptible to environmental variations that determine the predominant carposphere microbiota. Understanding the diversity of yeasts that inhabit grape carposphere in different environments and their pectinolytic activity is a way to understand the biotechnological potential that surrounds us and help improve winemaking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pectinolytic activity and characterize the genetic diversity of isolated epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere. Grapes of the Bordeaux cultivar were collected from different regions of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States, in Brazil, and the yeasts were isolated from these grape carpospheres. Monosporic isolates were morphologically and genetically characterized on potato dextrose agar medium and by PCR-RFLP and rep-PCR (BOX-PCR) in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The index of pectinolytic activity of isolates was also evaluated estimating the ratio between the halo diameter of enzymatic degradation and the diameter of the colony when the isolates were grown in cultivation medium containing 10 g/L pectin, 5 g/L yeast extract, 15 g/L agar, 0.12% (w/v) Congo red, and pH 6.2. We observed that the grape carposphere is an environment with a great genetic diversity of epiphytic yeasts of the following genera: Cryptococcus (31.25%), Pichia (25.0%), Candida (25.0%), Dekkera (12.5%), and Saccharomyces (6.25%). The PCR-RFLP technique allowed analyzing existing polymorphism among individuals of a population based on a more restrict and evolutionarily preserved region, mostly utilized to differentiate isolates at the genus level. Approximately 33% of yeast isolates presented pectinolytic activity with potential biotechnological for wine and fruit juice production. This great genetic variability found indicated that it is a potential reservoir of genes to be applied in viniculture improvement programs.

  20. Genomic Organization, Phylogenetic Comparison and Differential Expression of the SBP-Box Family Genes in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hongmin; Li, Jun; Gao, Min; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Hao; Mao, Linyong; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Xiping

    2013-01-01

    Background The SBP-box gene family is specific to plants and encodes a class of zinc finger-containing transcription factors with a broad range of functions. Although SBP-box genes have been identified in numerous plants including green algae, moss, silver birch, snapdragon, Arabidopsis, rice and maize, there is little information concerning SBP-box genes, or the corresponding miR156/157, function in grapevine. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighteen SBP-box gene family members were identified in Vitis vinifera, twelve of which bore sequences that were complementary to miRNA156/157. Phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrated that plant SBP-domain proteins could be classified into seven subgroups, with the V. vinifera SBP-domain proteins being more closely related to SBP-domain proteins from dicotyledonous angiosperms than those from monocotyledonous angiosperms. In addition, synteny analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that homologs of several grape SBP genes were found in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Expression analysis of the grape SBP-box genes in various organs and at different stages of fruit development in V. quinquangularis ‘Shang-24’ revealed distinct spatiotemporal patterns. While the majority of the grape SBP-box genes lacking a miR156/157 target site were expressed ubiquitously and constitutively, most genes bearing a miR156/157 target site exhibited distinct expression patterns, possibly due to the inhibitory role of the microRNA. Furthermore, microarray data mining and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis identified several grape SBP-box genes that are potentially involved in the defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Conclusion The results presented here provide a further understanding of SBP-box gene function in plants, and yields additional insights into the mechanism of stress management in grape, which may have important implications for the future success of this crop. PMID:23527172

  1. Population Structure, Diversity and Reproductive Mode of the Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae across Its Native Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl T Lund

    Full Text Available Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies. In order to understand the population diversity of grape phylloxera in its native range, more than 500 samples from 19 States and 34 samples from the introduced range (northern California, Europe and South America were genotyped with 32 simple sequence repeat markers. STRUCTURE, a model based clustering method identified five populations within these samples. The five populations were confirmed by a neighbor-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. These populations were distinguished by their Vitis species hosts and their geographic locations. Samples collected from California, Europe and South America traced back to phylloxera sampled in the northeastern United States on V. riparia, with some influence from phylloxera collected along the Atlantic Coast and Central Plains on V. vulpina. Reproductive statistics conclusively confirmed that sexual reproduction is common in the native range and is combined with cyclical parthenogenesis. Native grape phylloxera populations were identified to be under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The identification of admixed samples between many of these populations indicates that shared environments facilitate sexual reproduction between different host associated populations to create new genotypes of phylloxera. This study also found that assortative mating might

  2. Population Structure, Diversity and Reproductive Mode of the Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) across Its Native Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karl T; Riaz, Summaira; Walker, M Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies. In order to understand the population diversity of grape phylloxera in its native range, more than 500 samples from 19 States and 34 samples from the introduced range (northern California, Europe and South America) were genotyped with 32 simple sequence repeat markers. STRUCTURE, a model based clustering method identified five populations within these samples. The five populations were confirmed by a neighbor-joining tree and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). These populations were distinguished by their Vitis species hosts and their geographic locations. Samples collected from California, Europe and South America traced back to phylloxera sampled in the northeastern United States on V. riparia, with some influence from phylloxera collected along the Atlantic Coast and Central Plains on V. vulpina. Reproductive statistics conclusively confirmed that sexual reproduction is common in the native range and is combined with cyclical parthenogenesis. Native grape phylloxera populations were identified to be under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The identification of admixed samples between many of these populations indicates that shared environments facilitate sexual reproduction between different host associated populations to create new genotypes of phylloxera. This study also found that assortative mating might occur across the

  3. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the grape skins showed significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ≥ -7.9 bars and ΨL ≥ -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ≤ -8.0 bars and

  4. Optimization of irrigation water in stone fruit and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Jose Mª; Castillo, Cristina; Temnani, Abdel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. The main objective of this experiment was to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. Five demonstration plots were established in representative crops of the irrigating community of Campotejar (Murcia, Spain): i) Peach trees, cv. catherina in the "Periquitos" farm; ii) Apricot trees, cv. "Red Carlet" in "La Hoya del Fenazar" farm; iii) Nectarine trees, cv. Viowhite in "Agrícola Don Fernando" farm; iv) Table grape, cv "Crimson Seedless" in "La Hornera" farm; and v) Paraguayan cv. carioca in "The Hornera" farm. In each demonstration plot, at least two irrigation treatments were established: i) Control (CTL), irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (120% of crop evapotranspiration) and ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated as CTL during critical periods and decreasing irrigation in non-critical periods. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential and Trunk Diameter Fluctuation derived indices: maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) and trunk daily growth rate (TGR); vegetative growth of the different crops from trunk diameter and pruning dry weight, fruit growth and fruit

  5. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ∼7 log(10) PFU/ml or ∼5 log(10) PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (∼7 log(10) PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log(10) PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log(10) PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log(10) PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log(10) PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

  6. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  8. Thermal control modeling approach for GRAPE (GRAntecan PolarimEter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Varano, I.; Woche, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    GRAPE is the polarimeter planned to be installed on the main Cassegrain focus of GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias), having an equivalent entrance pupil of 10.4 m, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) , in La Palma, Canary Islands. It's meant to deliver full Stokes (IQUV) polarimetry covering the spectral range 0.420-1.6 μ, in order to feed the HORS instrument (High Optical Resolution Spectrograph), mounted on the Nasmyth platform, which has a FWHM resolving power of about 25,000 (5 pixel) designed for the wavelength range of 380-800 nm. Two calcite blocks and a BK-7 prism arranged in a Foster configuration are splitting the Ø12.5mm collimated beam into the ordinary and extraordinary components. The entire subunit from the Foster prisms down to the input fibers is rotated by steps of 45 degrees in order to retrieve Q, U components. By inserting a quarter wave retarder plate before the entrance to the Foster unit circular polarization is measured too. The current paper consist of two main parts: at first CFD simulations are introduced, which have been run compliant to the specifications derived by the environmental conditions and the transient thermal gradients taking into account the presence of the electronic cabinets installed, which are triggering the boundary conditions for the outer structure of the instrument; then a thermal control model is proposed based on heat exchangers to stabilize the inner temperature when compensation via passive insulation is not enough. The tools that have been adopted to reach for such goal are Ansys Multiphysics, in particular CFX package and Python scripts.

  9. GRAPE, Solar Terrestrial Physics in an operational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgiana De Franceschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available […] The collection of papers that forms this special issue represents the whole amplitude of research that is being conducted in the framework of GRAPE, while also connecting to other initiatives that address the same objectives in regions outside the polar regions, and worldwide, such as the Training Research and Applications Network to Support the Mitigation of Ionospheric Threats (TRANSMIT; www.transmitionosphere.net, a Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network that is focused on the study of ionospheric phenomena and their effects on systems embedded in our daily life, Near-Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science (ESPAS, an FP7-funded project that aims to provide the e-Infrastructure necessary to support the access to observations, for the modeling and prediction of the near-Earth Space environment, Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America (CIGALA and its follow-up and extension Countering GNSS High-Accuracy Applications Limitations due to Ionospheric Disturbances in Brazil (CALIBRA, both of which are funded by the European Commission in the frame of FP7, for facing the equatorial ionosphere and its impact on GNSS. The main objective of the present Special Issue of Annals of Geophysics is to collect recent reports on work performed in the polar regions and on the datasets collected in time by the instrumentation deployed across various countries. This collection will set the starting point for further research in the field, especially in the perspective of the new and very advanced space system that will be available in the next few years. […

  10. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Silva, Marta S; Ali, Kashif; Sousa, Lisete; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young H; Grimplet, Jerome; Martinez-Zapater, José M; Verpoorte, Robert; Pais, Maria S

    2011-11-02

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36) and in two seasons (2007 and 2008) were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold) between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38). Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism as well as secondary metabolism. These

  11. Ethephon use and application timing of abscisic acid for improving color of 'Rubi' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of ethephon and of abscisic acid (ABA application timing on the color of 'Rubi' Table grape. Eight treatments were evaluated: control, without application; ethephon 500 mg L‑1 applied seven days after veraison (7 DAV; and two concentrations of ABA (200 and 400 mg L‑1 arranged with three application timings at 7 DAV, at 15 days before harvest (DBH, and at 7 DAV + 15 DBH. ABA does not modify physical‑chemical characteristics of the cluster and improves the color of grapes, especially when applied twice (7 DAV + 15 DBH at the concentration of 400 mg L‑1.

  12. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  13. Influence of manganese fertilizer on efficiency of grapes on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batukaev A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the studies, there has been obtained new information about the manganese influence on productivity of grape plantations, on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic. Manganese fertilizing of 4 kg active ingredient per 1 ha, against the background of nitrogen 90 kg, phosphorus 90 kg and potassium 90 kg/ha, made it into a phase of grape sap flow, which contributes to higher yields, increase of the sugar content of the berries and a significant decrease in juice acidity, in comparison with other options.

  14. Diversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on the surface of Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the gra......This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins...

  15. UHE γ-rays from point sources based on GRAPES-I observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Sreekantan, B.V.; Srivatsan, R.; Tonwar, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment called GRAPES I (Gamma Ray Astronomy at PeV EnergieS) was set up in 1984 at Ooty in India, using 24 scintillation counters, to detect Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced in the atmosphere by the primary cosmic radiation. The goal of the experiment has been to search for Ultra High Energy (UHE) γ-rays (E≥10 14 eV) from point sources in the sky. Here we discuss the results on X-ray binaries CYG X-3, HER X-1 and SCO X-1 obtained with GRAPES I experiment which covers the period 1984--87

  16. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. 134Cs foliar contamination of vine: translocation to grapes and transfer to wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carini, F.; Anguissola Scotti, I.; Montruccoli, M.; Silva, S.

    1996-01-01

    Grape vines growing in pots placed in open field were contaminated by sprinkling an aqueous solution of carrier free 134 Cs. Activity was determined in acini and must at the ripening stage. Interception and Translocation Factors (TLF) were quantified. They strictly depend on the state of growth of the crop. Wine was produced by a laboratory process and analysed as to radiocesium. Transfer parameters, F r and P e , were calculated to predict radiocesium concentration in wine: it is 0.6 times the activity found in grapes. The leaf fruit translocation seems to be the dominant process in the contamination of acini when compared to direct deposition. (author)

  18. A non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis approach for improving energy efficiency of grape production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshroo, Alireza; Mulwa, Richard; Emrouznejad, Ali; Arabi, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops with approximately 67.5 million tonnes produced each year and energy is an important element in modern grape productions as it heavily depends on fossil and other energy resources. Efficient use of these energies is a necessary step toward reducing environmental hazards, preventing destruction of natural resources and ensuring agricultural sustainability. Hence, identifying excessive use of energy as well as reducing energy resources is the main focus of this paper to optimize energy consumption in grape production. In this study we use a two-stage methodology to find the association of energy efficiency and performance explained by farmers' specific characteristics. In the first stage a non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis is used to model efficiencies as an explicit function of human labor, machinery, chemicals, FYM (farmyard manure), diesel fuel, electricity and water for irrigation energies. In the second step, farm specific variables such as farmers' age, gender, level of education and agricultural experience are used in a Tobit regression framework to explain how these factors influence efficiency of grape farming. The result of the first stage shows substantial inefficiency between the grape producers in the studied area while the second stage shows that the main difference between efficient and inefficient farmers was in the use of chemicals, diesel fuel and water for irrigation. The use of chemicals such as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides were considerably less than inefficient ones. The results revealed that the more educated farmers are more energy efficient in comparison with their less educated counterparts. - Highlights: • The focus of this paper is to identify excessive use of energy and optimize energy consumption in grape production. • We measure the efficiency as a function of labor/machinery/chemicals/farmyard manure/diesel-fuel/electricity/water. • Data were obtained from 41 grape

  19. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  20. Rapid determination of the aromatic compounds methyl-anthranilate, 2'-aminoacetophenone and furaneol by GC-MS: Method validation and characterization of grape derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio Dutra, Maria da Conceição; de Souza, Joyce Fagundes; Viana, Arão Cardoso; de Oliveira, Débora; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos

    2018-05-01

    A methodology for the rapid determination of the aromatic compounds methyl anthranilate (MA), 2'-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP) and furaneol by GC-MS was validated and used to characterize grape juice and wine elaborated with the new Brazilian grape varieties cultivated in northeastern Brazil, and Brazilian grape nectars. The method presented linearity (R 2  ˃ 0.9952), good accuracy (CV furaneol in the aroma of grape juice and wines elaborated with the new Brazilian grape varieties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.