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Sample records for resistant nickel base

  1. Galvanic corrosion resistance of welded dissimilar nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Snyder, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A program for evaluating the corrosion resistance of various dissimilar welded nickel-base alloy combinations is outlined. Alloy combinations included ALLCORR, Hastelloy C-276, Inconel 72 and Inconel 690. The GTAW welding process involved both high and minimum heat in-put conditions. Samples were evaluated in the as-welded condition, as well as after having been aged at various condtions of time and temperature. These were judged to be most representative of process upset conditions which might be expected. Corrosion testing evaluated resistance to an oxidizing acid and a severe service environment in which the alloy combinations might be used. Mechanical properties are also discussed

  2. Improvement of acid and base resistance of nickel phosphate pigment by the addition of lanthanum cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hironori; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal phosphates are used as inorganic pigments, however these materials had a weak point for acid and base resistance. Because lanthanum phosphate is insoluble in acidic and basic solution, the addition of lanthanum cation was tried for the improvement of the acid and base resistance of nickel phosphate pigment. The lanthanum-doped nickel phosphates were prepared from phosphoric acid, nickel nitrate, and lanthanum nitrate solution. The additional effects of lanthanum cation were studied on the chemical composition, particle shape and size distribution, specific surface area, color, acid and base resistance of the precipitations and their thermal products

  3. A sulfidation-resistant nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    For applications in mildly to moderately sulfidizing environments, stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys (e.g., alloys 800 and 330), and more recently Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloys (e.g., alloy 556) are frequently used for construction of process equipment. However, for many highly sulfidizing environments, few existing commercial alloys have adequate performance. Thus, a new nickel-based alloy containing 27 wt.% Co, 28 wt.% Cr, 4 wt.% Fe, 2.75 wt.% Si, 0.5 wt.% Mn and 0.05 wt.% C (Haynes alloy HR-160) was developed

  4. Inconel type resistive alloys based on ultrahigh purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsarin, K.A.; Matsarin, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The new nickel high-ohm alloys (ρ = 1.2-1.4 μOhm · m), containing the W, Al, Mo alloying elements in the quantity, not exceeding their solubility in a solid solution, are developed on the basis of the Inconel-type standard alloy. The optical composition of the alloy was determined by the results of the alloy was determined by the results of the electric resistance measurement and technological effectiveness indices (relative to the pressure and workable metal yield). The following optimal component concentrations were established: 14-17 %Cr; 10-12 %Fe; 0.5-1.0 %Cu; 1.0-1.5 %Mn; 0.1-0.2 %C; 0.4-0.6 %Si; 0.5-3.0 %W; 5-16 %Mo; 0.5-2.0 %Al; the remainder - Ni. The new alloys are recommended as materials for resistive elements of direct-glow cathode nodes of low capacity electron tubes [ru

  5. Studies on neutron irradiation effects of iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    1987-09-01

    The present paper describes the results of neutron irradiation effects on iron alloys and nickel-base heat resistant alloys. As for the iron alloys, irradiation hardening and embrittlement were investigated using internal friction measurement, electron microscopy and tensile testings. The role of alloying elements was also investigated to understand the irradiation behavior of iron alloys. The essential factors affecting irradiation hardening and embrittlement were thus clarified. On the other hand, postirradiation tensile and creep properties were measured of Hastelloy X alloy. Irradiation behavior at elevated temperatures is discussed. (author)

  6. Straining electrode behavior and corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys in high temperature acidic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    Repassivation behavior and IGA resistance of nickel base alloys containing 0∼30 wt% chromium was investigated in high temperature acid sulfate solution. (1) The repassivation rate was increased with increasing chromium content. And so the amounts of charge caused by the metal dissolution were decreased with increasing chromium content. (2) Mill-annealed Alloy 600 suffered IGA at low pH environment below about 3.5 at the fixed potentials above the corrosion potential in 10%Na 2 SO 4 +H 2 SO 4 solution at 598K. On the other hand, thermally-treated Alloy 690 was hard to occur IGA at low pH environments which mill-annealed Alloy 600 occurred IGA. (3) It was considered that the reason, why nickel base alloys containing high chromium content such as Alloy 690 (60%Ni-30%Cr-10%Fe) had high IGA/SCC resistance in high temperature acidic solution containing sulfate ion, is due to both the promotion of the repassivation and the suppression of the film dissolution by the formation of the dense chromium oxide film

  7. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  8. Applicability of creep damage rules to a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy Hastelloy XR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Najime; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Nakasone, Yuji

    1992-01-01

    A series of constant load and temperature creep rupture tests and varying load and/or temperature creep rupture tests was carried out on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy Hastelloy XR, which was developed for applications in the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1000deg C in order to examine the applicability of the conventional creep damage rules, i.e., the life fraction, the strain fraction and their mixed rules. The life fraction rule showed the best applicability of these three criteria. The good applicability of the rule was considered to result from the fact that the creep strength of Hastelloy XR was not strongly affected by the change of the chemical composition and/or the microstructure during exposure to the high-temperature simulated HTGR helium environment. In conclusion the life fraction rule is applicable in engineering design of high-temperature components made of Hastelloy XR. (orig.)

  9. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  10. Stability, carbon resistance, and reactivity toward autothermal reforming of nickel on ceria-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthisripok, W.; Laosiripojana, N.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) normally requires a reformer unit, where the fuel such as natural gas, methane, methanol, or ethanol can be reformed to hydrogen before introducing to the main part of fuel cell. Nickel on commercial supports such as Al2O3, MgO, ZrO2 has been widely reported to be used as the reforming catalyst commercially. Carbon formation and catalyst deactivation are always the main problems of using this type of catalyst. It is well established that CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 have been applied as the catalysts in a wide variety of reactions involving oxidation or partial oxidation of hydrocarbons (e.g. automotive catalysis). In order to quantify the performance of nickel on CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports for reformer application, the stabilities toward methane steam reforming and the carbon formation resistance were studied. After 18 hours, nickel on CeO2-ZrO2 with the Ce/Zr ratio of 3/1 presented the best performance in term of stability and activity. It also provided excellent resistance toward carbon formation compared to commercial Ni/Al2O3. The autothermal reforming of methane over Ni catalyst on CeO2 and CeO2-ZrO2 supports were also investigated. Ni/Ce-ZrO2 with the Ce/ Zr ratio of 3/1 also showed the best performance. The kinetics of this reaction was also studied. In the temperature range of 750-900C, the reaction order in methane was always closed to 1. The catalyst showed a slight positive effect of hydrogen and a negative effect of steam on the steam reforming rate. The addition of oxygen increased the steam reforming rate. However, the productions of CO and H2 decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. (author)

  11. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  12. Glow discharge mass spectrometric analysis of nickel-based heat-resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Ryosuke

    1996-01-01

    GD-MS analysis of nickel-based heat-resisting alloys has been performed using a VG 9000 glow discharge (GD) mass spectrometer. Concentrations of not only alloying elements (Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Y, Nb, Mo and W) but also trace elements (B, C, Mg, P, S, Zn, Ga, As, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Pb and Bi) were successfully determined in disk shaped samples. The examination of spectral interference confirmed the following. The influence of manganese argide ( 55 Mn 40 Ar + ) on the ion beam intensity of 95 Mo + was negligible because manganese content of the alloys is usually less than 1 mass%. Mass spectra of 31 P + and 32 S + may be affected by the spectral interference of 62 Ni 2+ and 64 Ni 2+ , respectively, due to the matrix element. However, these ion species were sufficiently separated at the mass resolution 5000 (m/Δm, at 5% peak height) used in this study. Relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: JAERI CRMs, a NIST SRM, a BS CRM, BCS CRMs and the alloys prepared in our Institute. The average RSF-values obtained for Ni=1 were 0.436 for Al, 0.826 for Si, 0.281 for Ti, 0.375 for V, 1.480 for Cr, 1.122 for Mn, 0.754 for Fe, 0.653 for Co, 3.321 for Cu, 0.303 for Y, 0.436 for Nb, 0.862 for Mo, 0.935 for Ta and 1.052 for W. The analytical accuracy (σ d ) obtained was comparable to that of FP-XRF analysis, except for chromium and iron determinations. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of five replicate measurements were within about 2.5%, except for phosphorus (P; 0.003 mass%, RSD; 3.31%) and sulfur (S; 0.005 mass%, RSD; 3.08%). GD-MS analytical values for ODS MA6000 alloy were obtained using a RSF correction program, and the values were in good agreement with those obtained by FP-XRF and by chemical analysis (author)

  13. ON THE INFLUENCE OF COLD WORK ON RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS WITH THERMAL EXPOSURE IN IN-718 NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Elhoucine; Nagy, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    In nickel-base superalloys, irreversible electrical conductivity changes occur above a transition temperature where thermally-activated microstructural evolution initiates. The electrical conductivity first decreases above about 450 deg. C then increases above 600 deg. C. However, the presence of plastic deformation results in accelerated microstructure evolution at an earlier transition temperature. It was recently suggested that this well-known phenomenon might explain the notable conductivity difference between the peened near-surface part and the intact part at sufficiently large depth in surface-treated specimens. The influence of cold work on the electrical conductivity change with thermal exposure offers a probable answer to one of the main remaining questions in eddy current residual stress assessment, namely unusually fast and occasionally even non-monotonic decay of the apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) change that was observed at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. To validate this explanation, the present study investigates the influence of cold work on low-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) resistivity variations with thermal exposure. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the ACPD technique. IN-718 nickel-base superalloy specimens with different levels of cold work were exposed to gradually increasing peak temperatures from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The results indicate that the initial irreversible rise in resistivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher and occurs at about 50 deg. C lower temperature in cold-worked samples of 30% plastic strain than in the intact material.

  14. Corrosion of nickel-base heat resistant alloys in simulated VHTR coolant helium at very high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masami; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1976-01-01

    A comparative evaluation was made on three commercial nickel-base heat resistant alloys exposed to helium-base atmosphere at 1000 0 C, which contained several impurities in simulating the helium cooled very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) environment. The choice of alloys was made so that the effect of elements commonly found in commercial alloys were typically examined. The corrosion in helium at 1000 0 C was characterized by the sharp selection of thermodynamically unstable elements in the oxidizing process and the resultant intergranular penetration and internal oxidation. Ni-Cr-Mo-W type solution hardened alloy such as Hastelloy-X showed comparatively good resistance. The alloy containing Al and Ti such as Inconel-617 suffered adverse effect in contrast to its good resistance to air oxidation. The alloy nominally composed only of noble elements, Ni, Fe and Mo, such as Hastelloy-B showed least apparent corrosion, while suffered internal oxidation due to small amount of active impurities commonly existing in commercial heats. The results were discussed in terms of selection and improvement of alloys for uses in VHTR and the similar systems. (auth.)

  15. Mathematical simulation and optimization of cutting mode in turning of workpieces made of nickel-based heat-resistant alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoljubova, M. N.; Afonasov, A. I.; Kozlov, B. N.; Shavdurov, D. E.

    2018-05-01

    A predictive simulation technique of optimal cutting modes in the turning of workpieces made of nickel-based heat-resistant alloys, different from the well-known ones, is proposed. The impact of various factors on the cutting process with the purpose of determining optimal parameters of machining in concordance with certain effectiveness criteria is analyzed in the paper. A mathematical model of optimization, algorithms and computer programmes, visual graphical forms reflecting dependences of the effectiveness criteria – productivity, net cost, and tool life on parameters of the technological process - have been worked out. A nonlinear model for multidimensional functions, “solution of the equation with multiple unknowns”, “a coordinate descent method” and heuristic algorithms are accepted to solve the problem of optimization of cutting mode parameters. Research shows that in machining of workpieces made from heat-resistant alloy AISI N07263, the highest possible productivity will be achieved with the following parameters: cutting speed v = 22.1 m/min., feed rate s=0.26 mm/rev; tool life T = 18 min.; net cost – 2.45 per hour.

  16. Effect of test temperature on tensile and fatigue properties of nickel-base heat-resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime

    1987-01-01

    A series of tensile and strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from RT to 900 0 C on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy, Hastelloy XR-II, which is one of the candidate alloys for applications in the process heating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Fatigue tests at room temperature and all tensile tests were conducted in air, while fatigue tests at and above 400 0 C were conducted in the simulated HTGR helium environment. In those tests the effect of test temperature on tensile and fatigue properties was investigated. The ductility minimum point was observed near 600 0 C, while tensile and fatigue strengths decreased with increasing test temperature. The fatigue lives estimated with the method proposed by Manson were compatible with the experimental results under the given conditions. For the specimens fatigued at and above 700 0 C, the percentage of the intergranular fracture mode gradually increased with increasing test temperature. (orig.)

  17. Synthesis and Electrical Resistivity of Nickel Polymethacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, M. H.; Khalid, A. H.; Zulfiqar, M.; Butt, P. K.; Khan, Farah; Hussain, Rizwan

    Synthesis of nickel polymethacrylate was carried out using methanolic solutions of sodium hydroxide and polymethacrylic acid. The electrical resistivity of the pellets made from Ni-polymethacrylate was measured at different voltages and temperatures. Results showed that the electrical resistivity of Ni-polymethacrylate decreases significantly with voltage in high temperature regions but the decrease is insignificant at temperatures nearing room temperature. The activation energy at low temperatures is approximately 0.8 eV whereas at high temperature it is in the range 0.21-0.27 eV.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  19. Studies on the Corrosion Resistance of Laser-Welded Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łyczkowska K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the electrochemical corrosion tests of Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 laser-welded superalloys. The studies were conducted in order to assess the resistance to general and pitting corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that Inconel 600 possesses good corrosion resistance, however Inconel 625 is characterized by a greater resistance to general and also to pitting corrosion of the weld as well as the base metal.

  20. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr3C2 coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie; Buchta, William M.; Graybeal, Mark L.; Rhim, Yo-Rhin; Nagle, Dennis C.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr 3 C 2 , with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings

  2. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  3. Mechanical characteristics of heterogeneous structures obtained by high-temperature brazing of corrosion-resistant steels with rapidly quenched non-boron nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B.; Penyaz, M.; Ivannikov, A.; Sevryukov, O.; Bachurina, D.; Fedotov, I.; Voennov, A.; Abramov, E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing nickel filler metals for high temperature brazing corrosion resistance steels different classes is perspective. The use of these alloys leads to the formation of a complex heterogeneous structure in the diffusion zone that contains separations of intermediate phases such as silicides and borides. This structure negatively affects the strength characteristics of the joint, especially under dynamic loads and in corrosive environment. The use of non-boron filler metals based on the Ni-Si-Be system is proposed to eliminate this structure in the brazed seam. Widely used austenitic 12Cr18Ni10Ti and ferrite-martensitic 16Cr12MoSiWNiVNb reactor steels were selected for research and brazing was carried out. The mechanical characteristics of brazed joints were determined using uniaxial tensile and impact toughness tests, and fractography was investigated by electron microscopy.

  4. Saturation volume changes and resistivity changes in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    Saturation defect concentrations generated by thermal neutron irradiation of 235 U doped nickel at liquid helium temperature were measured by changes in electrical resistivity and volume. The experimental procedure is described

  5. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  6. Effect of the post heat treatment on the sliding wear resistance of a nickel base coating deposited by high velocity oxyl-fuel (HVOF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadenas, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Staia, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, a nickel base coating was deposited on an AISI 1020 substrate by using high velocity oxy-fuel technique (HVOF). The coating was subsequently post heat-treated by means of an oxyacetylene flame. For the conditions evaluated in the present study, it was found that the CTT coating coating has 1,15 better wear resistance for the smaller level of the applied load and nearly 50 times for the highest level of the applied load when compared to the STT coatings. These results have been attributed to a better distribution of the hard phases, better cohesion between particles and an increase in hardness, as consequence of the post heat treatment process. A severe wear regime was found for all the samples since the wear rates presented values which were higher tan 1.10''-5 mm''3/m. For the CT T coatings, the wear mechanisms was mainly due to the adhesion and oxidation phenomena, meanwhile for the steel counterpart mechanisms such oxidation, grooving and three body abrasion were observed. (Author) 22 refs

  7. Oxidation resistance of nickel alloys at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyuvin, Yu.D.; Rogel'berg, I.L.; Ryabkina, M.M.; Plakushchaya, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The heat resistance properties of nickel alloys Ni-Cr-Si, Ni-Si-Al, Ni-Si-Mn and Ni-Al-Mn have been studied by the weight method during oxidation in air at 1000 deg and 1200 deg C. It is demonstrated that manganese reduces the heat resistance properties of Ni-Si and Ni-Al alloys, whilst the addition of over 3% aluminium enhances the heat resistance properties of Ni-Si (over 1.5%) alloys. The maximum heat resistance properties are shown by Ni-Si-Al and Ni-Cr-Si alloys with over 2% Si. These alloys offer 3 to 4 times better oxidation resistance as compared with pure nickel at 1000 deg C and 10 times at 1200 deg C

  8. Submicroscopic structure role in resistance of microplastic deformation of precipitation hardening nickel-chromium base alloys. 2. Softening stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitgarts, M.I.; Kukareko, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reasons for decrease of elastic limit and hardness of KhN77TYuR, KhN56VMTYu and KhN67VMTYu alloys at early stages of ageing are analyzed. Alloy softening is shown to be conditioned by development of spatial ordering of γ'-particles by the matrix volume. It is concluded that regularity in particle disposition reduces resistance to microplastic shear to a greater extent than to macroplastic strains

  9. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  10. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes normally are used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium-nickel steels in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  11. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0% and nickel does not exceed 50.0%

  12. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  13. A simplified physics-based model for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Dougal, Roger A.; Weidner, John W.; Gao, Lijun

    This paper presents a simplified model of a nickel hydrogen battery based on a first approximation. The battery is assumed uniform throughout. The reversible potential is considered primarily due to one-electron transfer redox reaction of nickel hydroxide and nickel oxyhydroxide. The non-ideality due to phase reactions is characterized by the two-parameter activity coefficients. The overcharge process is characterized by the oxygen reaction. The overpotentials are lumped to a tunable resistive drop to fit particular battery designs. The model is implemented in the Virtual Test Bed environment, and the characteristics of the battery are simulated and in good agreement with the experimental data within the normal operating regime. The model can be used for battery dynamic simulation and design in a satellite power system, an example of which is given.

  14. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  15. Corrosion and biofouling resistance evaluation of 90-10 copper-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Carol [Consultant to Copper Development Association, UK, Square Covert, Caynham, Ludlow, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Copper-nickel alloys for marine use were developed for naval applications in the early part of the 20. century with a view to improving the corrosion resistance of condenser tubes and seawater piping. They still enjoy widespread use today not only for many navies but also in commercial shipping, floating production, storage and off loading vessels (FPSOs), and in multistage flash desalination. The two popular alloys contain 90% or 70% copper and differ in strength and maximum sea water velocity levels they can handle but it is the 90-10 copper-nickel (CuNi10Fe1Mn) which is the more economic and extensively used. An additional benefit of this alloy is its high resistance to biofouling: in recent years this has led to sheathing developments particularly for structures and boat hulls. This paper provides a review of the corrosion and biofouling resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel based on laboratory test data and documented experience of the alloy in marine environments. Particular attention is given to exposure trials over 8 years in Langstone Harbour, UK, which have recently been completed by Portsmouth University on behalf of the Nickel Institute. These examined four sheathing products; plate and foil as well as two composite products with rubber backing. The latter involved copper-nickel granules and slit sheet. The trial results are consistent with the behaviour of the alloy in the overall review. There is an inherent high resistance to marine biofouling when freely exposed. Prolonged exposure to quiet conditions can result in some growth of marine organisms but this is loosely attached and can readily be removed by wiping or a light scraping. The good corrosion resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel in sea water is also confirmed and associated with the formation of a thin, complex, protective and predominantly cuprous oxide surface film, which forms and matures naturally on exposure to seawater. Sound initial oxide film formation is also known to help protect against

  16. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  17. Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anirudha; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

  18. Electroless nickel-plating for the PWSCC mitigation of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study has been performed as an effort to apply the electroless nickel-plating method for a proposed countermeasure to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of nickel-plating at high temperature water, the electrochemical properties of electroless nickel-plated alloy 600 specimens exposed to simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water were experimentally characterized in high temperature and high pressure water condition. And, the resistance to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was investigated to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity water-flowing environment at high temperature. The plated surfaces were examined by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after exposures to the condition. From this study, it is found that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-plated Alloy 600 is higher than that of electrolytic plating in 290 deg. C water

  19. Electric resistance of nickel and niobium in the temperature range of 300-1300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.I.; Roshchupkin, V.V.; Mozgovoj, A.G.; Semashko, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of nickel and niobium electric resistance on the wire samples by the potentiometric method in the temperature range of 300-1300 K are presented. Experimental data processing by the least square method is carried out; approximating equations of temperature dependence of the nickel and niobium electric resistance are prepared

  20. Assessment of corrosion resistance of cast cobalt- and nickel-chromium dental alloys in acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca, Sven; Caligari Conti, Malcolm; Buhagiar, Joseph; Camilleri, Josette

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degradation resistance of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys used as a base material for partial dentures in contact with saliva. Wiron® 99 and Wironit Extra-Hard® were selected as representative casting alloys for Ni-Cr and Co-Cr alloys, respectively. The alloys were tested in contact with deionized water, artificial saliva and acidified artificial saliva. Material characterization was performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and microhardness and nanohardness testing. The corrosion properties of the materials were then analyzed using open circuit potential analysis and potentiodynamic analysis. Alloy leaching in solution was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. Co-Cr alloy was more stable than the Ni-Cr alloy in all solutions tested. Leaching of nickel and corrosion attack was higher in Ni-Cr alloy in artificial saliva compared with the acidified saliva. The corrosion resistance of the Co-Cr alloy was seen to be superior to that of the Ni-Cr alloy, with the former exhibiting a lower corrosion current in all test solutions. Microstructural topographical changes were observed for Ni-Cr alloy in contact with artificial saliva. The Ni-Cr alloy exhibited microstructural changes and lower corrosion resistance in artificial saliva. The acidic changes did not enhance the alloy degradation. Ni-Cr alloys are unstable in solution and leach nickel. Co-Cr alloys should be preferred for clinical use.

  1. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  2. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  3. Expression Changes in Metal-Resistance Genes in Microbacterium liquefaciens Under Nickel and Vanadium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros-Romero, Grisel; Wrosek-Cabrera, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Pless, Reynaldo C; Rivas-Castillo, A M; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2017-07-01

    Microbacterium liquefaciens MNSH2-PHGII-2 is a nickel-vanadium-resistant bacterium isolated from mine tailings located in Guanajuato, Mexico. In PHGII liquid media, M. liquefaciens has the ability to remove 29.5 ppm of Ni and 168.3 ppm of V. The present study reports, for the first time in M. liquefaciens, the presence of the genes nccA (Ni-Co-Cd resistance), hant (high-affinity nickel transporter), smtA, a metal-binding protein gene, and VAN2 (V resistance), which showed an increased expression under exposure to 200 ppm of Ni and 200 ppm of V during the logarithmic growth phase of the microorganism in PHGII liquid media. Data about the expression profile of genes conferring metal resistance to M. liquefaciens can improve the knowledge of those mechanisms involved in the processes of Ni-V resistance and probably in Ni-V removal processes. Based on our data, we can suggest that M. liquefaciens has the potential to be used in the biological treatment of toxic wastes with high Ni and V content.

  4. Effect of cold working on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of nickel-chromium-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.; Onimura, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to grasp the stress corrosion cracking resistance of cold worked nickel base alloys in PWR primary water, the effect of cold working on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloys 600, X-750 and 690, in high temperature water, have been studied. Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted at 360 0 C (633K) in a simulated PWR primary water for about 12,000 hours (43.2Ms). From the test results, it is concluded that the stress corrosion cracking resistance in the cold worked Alloy 600 at the same applied stress level increases with an increase in cold working ratio, and the cold worked alloys of thermally treated 690 and X-750 have excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance. (Author)

  5. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys with chromium and silicon to the red fuming nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, L.Ya.; Zhirnov, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of binary Ni-Cr, Ni-Si nickel and ternary Ni-Cr-Si alloys in the red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) (8-% of HNO 3 +20% of N 2 O 4 ) is studied. It is shown that nickel alloying with chromium improves its corrosion resistance to the red fuming nitric acid. Nickel alloying with silicon in quantities of up to 5 % reduces, and up to 10%-increases abruptly the corrosion resistance with subsequent decrease of the latter after the further increase of concentration. Ni-15% of Cr alloy alloying with silicon increases monotonously the corrosion resistance. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Solidification phenomena in nickel base brazes containing boron and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, S.K.; Lim, L.C.; Lai, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressants are used extensively in the repair and joining of aero-engine hot-section components. These melting point depressants form hard and brittle intermetallic compounds with nickel which are detrimental to the mechanical properties of brazed joints. The present investigation studied the microstructural evolution in nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressant(s) in simple systems using nickel as the base metal. The basic metallurgical reactions and formation of intermetallic compounds uncovered in these systems will be useful as a guide in predicting the evolution of microstructures in similar brazes in more complex systems involving base metals of nickel base superalloys. The four filler metal systems investigated in this study are: Ni-Cr-Si; Ni-Cr-B; Ni-Si-B and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B

  7. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  8. Negative differential resistance in nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine and nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine/graphene oxide ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arup; Suresh, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    We find negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in ultrathin films of nickel (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine [NiPc(OBu)8] deposited on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate [NiPc(OBu)8/HOPG] and NiPc(OBu)8 on graphene oxide (GO) deposited on HOPG [NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG]. For the NiPc(OBu)8/HOPG system, NiPc(OBu)8 was transferred four times onto HOPG by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. We have prepared a stable Langmuir monolayer of amphiphilic GO at the air-water interface and transferred it onto HOPG by the LB technique. Further, the monolayer of NiPc(OBu)8 was transferred four times for good coverage on GO to obtain the NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG system. The current-voltage characteristics were carried out using a current sensing atomic force microscope (CSAFM) with a platinum (Pt) tip that forms Pt/NiPc(OBu)8/HOPG and Pt/NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG junctions. The CSAFM, UV-visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry studies show that the NDR effect occurs due to molecular resonant tunneling. In the Pt/NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG junction, we find that due to the presence of GO, the features of NDR become more prominent. Also, GO causes a shift in NDR voltage towards a lower value in the negative bias direction. We attribute this behavior to the role of GO in injecting holes into the NiPc(OBu)8 film.

  9. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ{sup '} microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ{sup '} phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  10. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ ' microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ ' phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  11. An overview of advanced high-strength nickel-base alloys for LWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybylowski, J.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the behavior of high strength nickel base alloys used in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling crack propagation in these environments. To provide a foundation for this survey, general mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement are first reviewed. The behavior of high strength nickel base alloys in LWR environments, as well as in other relevant environments is then reviewed. Suggested mechanisms of crack propagation are discussed. Alternate alloys and microstructural modifications that may result in improved behavior are presented. It is now clear that, at temperatures near 100C, alloy X-750, the predominant high strength nickel base alloy used today in LWR applications, is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. A review of published data from hydrogen embrittlement studies of nickel base superalloys during electrolytic charging and in hydrogen sulfide/brine solutions suggests that other nickel base superalloys are available possessing resistance to hydrogen embrittlement superior to that of alloy X-750. Available results of tests in gaseous hydrogen suggest that reduced grain boundary precipitation and a fine distribution of intragranular precipitates that act as irreversible hydrogen traps is the optimum microstructure for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Metal-dusting resistance of uncoated and coated iron and nickel base materials against metal-dusting in heat treatment furnaces with carbonaceous atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingries, Mirko; Ackermann, Helen; Lucka, Klaus; Hoja, Timo; Mehner, Andeas; Zoch, Hans-Werner; Altena, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Metal-Dusting is a well-known corrosion problem that occurs in carburizing atmospheres in industrial thermal processing plants. In literature almost no quantitative data on the metal dusting resistance of typical alloys employed in industrial furnaces are available. Therefore, a series of experiments with uncoated and sol gel ZrO 2 coated high temperature materials was conducted in order to quantify their metal dusting behaviour under conditions close to those in case hardening furnaces. The experimental results show a strong influence of the surface conditions on the alloys resistance and a noticeable enhancement of the resistance by sol gel coatings. (orig.)

  13. Nickel-based materials and high-alloy, special stainless steels. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, U.; Brill, U.; Hoffmann, T.; Jasner, M.; Kirchheiner, R.; Koecher, R.; Richter, H.; Rockel, M.; White, F.

    1993-01-01

    The book is intended as a source of information on nickel-based materials and special stainless steels and apart from the up-to-date materials data presents information on recent developments and knowledge gained, so that it may be a valuable aid to materials engineers looking for cost-effective resolutions of their materials problems in the chemical process industry, power plant operation, and high-temperature applications. The book presents eight individual contributions entitled as follows: (1) Nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels. - Materials survey and data sheets (Ulrich Heubner). (2) Corrosion of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels (Manfred Rockel). (3) Welding of nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels (Theo Hoffmann). (4) High-temperature resistant materials (Ulrich Brill). (5) Application and processing of nickel-base materials in the chemical process industry and in pollution abatement equipment (Reiner Koecher). (6) Selected examples of applications of nickel-base materials in chemical plant (Manfred Jasner, Frederick White). (7) Applications of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels in power plant. (8) The use of nickel-base alloys and stainless steels in pollution abatement processes (R. Kirchheiner). (orig./MM). 151 figs., 226 refs [de

  14. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  15. Evaluation of nickel-based materials for VHTR heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlet, H.; Gentzbittel, J.M.; Cabet, C.; Lamagnere, P.; Blat, M.; Renaud, D.; Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Pierron, D.

    2008-01-01

    Two available conventional nickel-based alloys (617 and 230) have been selected as structural materials for the advanced gas-cooled reactors, especially for the heat exchanger. An extensive research programme has been launched in France within the framework of the ANTARES programme to evaluate the performances of these materials in VHTR service environment. The experimental work is focused on mechanical properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance in the temperature range (700-1 000 deg C) over long time. Thus the experimental work includes creep and fatigue tests on as-received materials, short- and medium-term thermal exposure tests followed by tensile and impact toughness tests, short- and medium-term corrosion exposure tests under impure He environment. The status of the results obtained up to now is given in this paper. Additional tests such as long-term thermal ageing and long-term corrosion tests are required to conclude on the selection of the material. (author)

  16. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  17. Degradation of creep properties in a long-term thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrnik, J.; Strunz, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Muransky, O.; Novy, Z.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    When exposed for long time at elevated temperatures of 430 and 650 deg. C the nickel base superalloy EI 698 VD can experience a significant decrease in creep resistance. The cause of the creep degradation of nickel base superalloy is generally attributed to the microstructural instability at prolonged high temperature exposure. In this article, the creep-life data, generated on long thermally exposed nickel base superalloy EI698 VD were related to the local microstructural changes observed using SEM and TEM analysing techniques. While structure analysis provided supporting evidence concerning the changes associated with grain boundary carbide precipitation, no persuasive evidence of a morphological and/or dimensional gamma prime change was showed. For clarifying of the role of gamma prime precipitates on alloy on creep degradation, the SANS (small angle neutron scattering) experiment was crucial in the characterization of the bulk-averaged gamma prime morphology and its size distribution with respect to the period of thermal exposure

  18. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel welding rods and bare electrodes - approved 1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    This specification covers corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel welding rods for use with the atomic hydrogen and gas-tungsten-arc welding processes and bare electrodes for use with the submerged arc and gas metal-arc welding processes. These welding rods and electrodes include those alloy steels designated as corrosion- or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4% and nickel does not exceed 50%

  19. Impact of Nickel silicide Rear Metallization on Series Resistance of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R

    2018-01-11

    The Silicon-based solar cell is one of the most important enablers toward high efficiency and low-cost clean energy resource. Metallization of silicon-based solar cells typically utilizes screen printed silver-Aluminium (Ag-Al) which affects the optimal electrical performance. To date, metal silicide-based ohmic contacts are occasionally used as an alternative candidate only to the front contact grid lines in crystalline silicon (c-Si) based solar cells. In this paper, we investigate the electrical characteristics of nickel mono-silicide (NiSi)/Cu-Al ohmic contact on the rear side of c-Si solar cells. We observe a significant enhancement in the fill factor of around 6.5% for NiSi/Cu-Al rear contacts leading to increasing the efficiency by 1.2% compared to Ag-Al. This is attributed to the improvement of the parasitic resistance in which the series resistance decreased by 0.737 Ω.cm². Further, we complement experimental observation with a simulation of different contact resistance values, which manifests NiSi/Cu-Al rear contact as a promising low-cost metallization for c-Si solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

  20. Cobalt-free nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Michio; Harada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Cobalt-free nickel-base cast superalloys have been developed. Cobalt is considered to be a beneficial element to strengthen the alloys but should be eliminated in alloys to be used for direct cycle helium turbine driven by helium gas from HTGR (high temp. gas reactor). The elimination of cobalt is required to avoid the formation of radioactive 60 Co from the debris or scales of the alloys. Cobalt-free alloys are also desirable from another viewpoint, i.e. recently the shortage of the element has become a serious problem in industry. Cobalt-free Mar-M200 type alloys modified by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2 wt% B and 1 - 1.5 wt% Hf were found to have a creep rupture strength superior or comparable to that of the original Mar-M200 alloy bearing cobalt. The ductility in tensile test at 800 0 C, as cast or after prolonged heating at 900 0 C (the tensile test was done without removing the surface layer affected by the heating), was also improved by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf. The morphology of grain boundaries became intricated by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf, to such a degree that one can hardly distinguish grain boundaries by microscopes. The change in the grain boundary morphology was considered, as suggested previously by one of the authors (M.Y.), to be the reason for the improvements in the creep rupture strength and tensile ductility. (author)

  1. Influence of disorder on phonon resistivity of ion-implanted nickel hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, L.; Bernas, H.; Thome, L.; Traverse, A.; Nedellec, P.

    1982-01-01

    Metastable nickel hydride NiHsub(1.00) is produced by low energy proton implantation into thin nickel films at 6 K. After annealing at different temperatures (125, 185 K), the sample resistivity-temperature dependence is studied by cycling between 4.2 K and the annealing temperature. The temperature-dependent term in the resistivity is thus determined - for the first time - in an implanted system. A T 3 -dependence is found, in contrast to the T 5 -dependence of the ordered NiH β-phase obtained by electrolytic charging. This result is ascribed to implantation induced disorder. Isochronal annealing experiments are discussed elsewhere. (author)

  2. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  3. Creep rupture properties under varying load/temperature conditions on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy strengthened by boron addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Nakajima, Hajime

    1994-01-01

    A series of constant load and temperature creep rupture tests and varying load and temperature creep rupture tests was carried out on Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is 60 mass ppm at 900 and 1000 C in order to examine the behavior of the alloy under varying load and temperature conditions. The life fraction rule completely fails in the prediction of the creep rupture life under varying load and temperature conditions though the rule shows good applicability for Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is below 10 mass ppm. The modified life fraction rule has been proposed based on the dependence of the creep rupture strength on the boron content level of the alloy. The modified rule successfully predicts the creep rupture life under the test conditions from 1000 to 900 C. The trend observed in the tests from 900 to 1000 C can be qualitatively explained by the mechanism that the oxide film which is formed during the prior exposure to 900 C plays the role of the protective barrier against the boron dissipation into the environment. (orig.)

  4. Creep rupture properties under varying load/temperature conditions on a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy strengthened by boron addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hajime; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko.

    1993-09-01

    A series of constant load and temperature creep rupture tests and varying load and temperature creep rupture tests was carried out on Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is 60 mass ppm at 900 and 1000degC in order to examine the behavior of the alloy under varying load and temperature conditions. The life fraction rule completely fails in the prediction of the creep rupture life under varying load and temperature conditions though the rule shows good applicability for Hastelloy XR whose boron content level is below 10 mass ppm. The modified life fraction rule has been proposed based on the dependence of the creep rupture strength on the born content level of the alloy. The modified rule successfully predicts the creep rupture life under the test conditions from 1000degC to 900degC. The trend observed in the tests from 900degC to 1000degC can be qualitatively explained by the mechanism that the oxide film which is formed during the prior exposure to 900degC plays the role of the protective barrier against the boron dissipation into the environment. (author)

  5. Time-dependent high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior of nickel-base heat-resistant alloys for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hirokazu; Kondo, Tatsuo

    1988-06-01

    A series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests at 900 deg C in the simulated HTGR helium environment were conducted on Hastelloy X and its modified version, Hastelloy XR in order to examine time-dependent high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior. In the tests with the symmetric triangular strain waveform, decreasing the strain rate led to notable reductions in the fatigue life. In the tests with the trapezoidal strain waveform with different holding types, the fatigue life was found to be reduced most effectively in tensile hold-time experiments. Based on the observations of the crack morphology the strain holding in the compressive side was suggested to play the role of suppressing the initiation and the growth of internal cracks or cavities, and to cause crack branching. When the frequency modified fatigue life method and/or the prediction of life by use of the ductility were applied, both the data obtained with the symmetric triangular strain waveform and those with the tensile hold-time experiments lay on the straight line plots. The data, however, obtained with the compressive and/or both hold-time experiments could not be handled satisfactorily by those methods. When the cumulative damage rule was applied, it was found that the reliability of HTGR components was ensured by limiting the creep-fatigue damage fraction within the value of 1. (author)

  6. Influence of Surface Pretreatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Cold-Sprayed Nickel Coatings in Acidic Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Zorawski, Wojciech; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna; Makrenek, Medard; Goral, Anna

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion resistance of the cold-sprayed nickel coatings deposited on the Ni surface (substrate) without and with abrasive grit-blasting treatment of the substrate was investigated. The corundum powder with different grain sizes was used. The corrosive environment contained an acidic chloride solution. The mechanism of the corrosion of nickel was suggested and discussed. Corrosion electrochemical parameters were determined by electrochemical methods. The corrosion effect of a nickel coating depends on the grain size used to prepare the substrate. The nickel coating after the medium grit-blasting treatment of the substrate was found to be the most corrosion resistant. However, the smallest resistance on the corrosion effect should be attributed to the nickel coating on the substrate after the coarse grit-blasting treatment.

  7. Evaluation of High Temperature Corrosion Resistance of Finned Tubes Made of Austenitic Steel And Nickel Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turowska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to evaluate the resistance to high temperature corrosion of laser welded joints of finned tubes made of austenitic steel (304,304H and nickel alloys (Inconel 600, Inconel 625. The scope of the paper covered the performance of corrosion resistance tests in the atmosphere of simulated exhaust gases of the following chemical composition: 0.2% HCl, 0.08% SO2, 9.0% O2 and N2 in the temperature of 800°C for 1000 hours. One found out that both tubes made of austenitic steel and those made of nickel alloy displayed good resistance to corrosion and could be applied in the energy industry.

  8. Cast thermally stable high temperature nickel-base alloys and casting made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuncius, D.A.; Herchenroeder, R.B.; Kirchner, R.W.; Silence, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A cast thermally stable high temperature nickel-base alloy characterized by superior oxidation resistance, sustainable hot strength and retention of ductility on aging is provided by maintaining the alloy chemistry within the composition molybdenum 13.7% to 15.5%; chromium 14.7% to 16.5%; carbon up to 0.1%, lanthanum in an effective amount to provide oxidation resistance up to 0.08%; boron up to 0.015%; manganese 0.3% to 1.0%; silicon 0.2% to 0.8%; cobalt up to 2.0%; iron up to 3.0%; tungsten up to 1.0%; copper up to 0.4%; phosphorous up to 0.02%; sulfur up to 0.015%; aluminum 0.1% to 0.5% and the balance nickel while maintaining the Nv number less than 2.31

  9. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  10. Nanosize boride particles in heat-treated nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.R.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Grain boundary microconstituents in aged nickel-based superalloys were studied by transmission electron microscopy techniques. A nanosized M 5 B 3 boride phase, possibly formed by intergranular solute desegregation-induced precipitation, was positively identified. The presence of these intergranular nanoborides provides reasonable clarification of a previously reported reduction of grain boundary liquation temperature during the weld heat affected zone thermal cycle

  11. Improvement of the Wear Resistance of Ferrous Alloys by Electroless Plating of Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleicheva, J. K.; Karaguiozova, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The electroless nickel (Ni) and composite nickel - nanodiamond (Ni+DND) coatings are investigated in this study. The method EFTTOM-NICKEL for electroless nickel plating with nanosized strengthening particles (DND 4-6 nm) is applied for the coating deposition. The coatings are deposited on ferrous alloys samples. The wear resistance of the coatings is performed by friction wear tests under 50-400 MPa loading conditions - in accordance with a Polish Standard PN-83/H-04302. The microstructure observations are made by optic metallographic microscope GX41 OLIMPUS and the microhardness is determined by Vickers Method. Tests for wear resistance, thickness and microhardness measurements of the coatings without heat treatment and heat treatment are performed. The heat treatment regime is investigated with the aim to optimize the thermal process control of the coated samples without excessive tempering of the substrate material. The surface fatigue failure is determined by contact fatigue test with the purpose to establish suitable conditions for production of high performance materials.

  12. Three-dimensional micro assembly of a hinged nickel micro device by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Wensyang

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional micro assembly of hinged nickel micro devices by magnetic lifting and micro resistance welding is proposed here. By an electroplating-based surface machining process, the released nickel structure with the hinge mechanism can be fabricated. Lifting of the released micro structure to different tilted angles is accomplished by controlling the positions of a magnet beneath the device. An in situ electro-thermal actuator is used here to provide the pressing force in micro resistance welding for immobilizing the tilted structure. The proposed technique is shown to immobilize micro devices at controlled angles ranging from 14° to 90° with respect to the substrate. Design parameters such as the electro-thermal actuator and welding beam width are also investigated. It is found that there is a trade-off in beam width design between large contact pressure and low thermal deformation. Different dominated effects from resistivity enhancement and contact area enlargement during the welding process are also observed in the dynamic resistance curves. Finally, a lifted and immobilized electro-thermal bent-beam actuator is shown to displace upward about 27.7 µm with 0.56 W power input to demonstrate the capability of electrical transmission at welded joints by the proposed 3D micro assembly technique

  13. Corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel containing rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatiani, G.N.; Mandzhgaladze, S.N.; Tavadze, L.F.; Chuvatina, S.N.; Saginadze, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex alloy (foundry alloy) calcite-silicon-magnesium-rare earth metal on corrosion resistance of the 03Kh18N20M3D3C3B steel has been studied. It is shown that introduction of low additions of rare earths improves its corrosion resistance improves its corrosion resistance in agressive media (in 70% - sulfuric acid) in the range of transition from active to passive state. Effect of additional introduction of rare earth metals is not considerable, if potential of steel corrosion is in the range of stable passive state (32% - sulfuric acid). Additional out-of-furnace treatment with complex foundry alloy, containing rare earth metals, provides a possibility to use a steel with a lower content of Cr, Ni, Mo, than in conventional acid-resistant steels in highly agressive media

  14. Effects of alloying elements on nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alloying and impurity elements (tin, iron, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, oxygen, aluminum, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus) on the nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys were studied. The improving effect of iron, nickel and niobium in nodular corrosion resistance were observed. The uniform corrosion resistance was also improved by nickel, niobium and tantalum. The effects of impurity elements, nitrogen, aluminum and phosphorus were negligibly small but increasing the silicon content seemed to improve slightly the uniform corrosion resistance. Hydrogen pick-up fraction were not changed by alloying and impurity elements except nickel. Nickel addition increased remarkably hydrogen pick-up fraction. Although the composition of secondary precipitates changed with contents of alloying elements, the correlation of composition of secondary precipitates to corrosion resistance was not observed. (author)

  15. Stability and resistance of nickel catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Gardini, Diego; de Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2014-01-01

    The long term stability and resistance toward carbon deposition, sulfur, chlorine, and potassium of Ni/ZrO2 as a catalyst for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol in 1-octanol (as a model compound system for bio-oil) has been investigated at 250 degrees C and 100 bar in a trickle bed reactor...

  16. Hot corrosion studies on nickel-based alloys containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.W.; Simkovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    Alloys of Ni--Cr, Ni--Si and Ni--Cr--Si were oxidized and ''hot corroded'' in pure oxygen at 1000 0 C. In the oxidation experiments it was found that small amounts of either chromium or silicon in nickel increased the oxidation rates in comparison to pure nickel in accord with Wagner's parabolic oxidation theory. At high concentrations of the alloying elements the oxidation rates decreased due to the formation of oxide phases other than nickel oxide in the scale. Hot corrosion experiments were conducted on both binary and ternary alloys by oxidizing samples coated with 1.0 mg/cm 2 of Na 2 SO 4 in oxygen at 1000 0 C. In general it was found that high chromium and high silicon alloys displayed excellent resistance to the hot corrosion process gaining or losing less than 0.5 mg/cm 2 in 1800 min at temperature. Microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies of the alloy and the scale indicate that amorphous SiO 2 probably formed to aid in retarding both the oxidation and the hot corrosion process

  17. [Torque resistance of three different types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Hou, Ben-xiang

    2010-10-01

    To compare torsional fracture of three different types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments ProTaper, Hero642 and Mtwo by making a stimulate models in vitro. Through the establishment of model in vitro, compared the different time with 3 kinds of nickel titanium file in cutting-edge bound occurs, and to observe the section of fractured instruments by scanning electron microscope. The resistence to torque was different from three types of nickel titanium instruments. The time to fracture of Mtwo was significantly longer than ProTaper's and Hero642's, but ProTaper's and Hero642's had no significant difference. Three kinds cross-sectional design were different, a lot of toughness nests were seen in broken surface. Most of them were ductile fracture. Time to fracture was influenced by the quality disfigurement. The resistance to torque of Mtwo was better than ProTaper and Hero642. The lifespan was influenced by the design of cross-section. The quality disfigurement of the files reduced the resistance to flexual fatigue.

  18. Nickel-based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha A.

    2015-11-02

    The demand for energy storage technologies is rapidly increasing in portable electronics, transportation, and renewable energy systems. Thus, the objective of this research is to develop and enhance the performance of Ni-based electrochemical supercapacitors by optimizing synthesis conditions and design of the electrode materials. Conventional and on-chip supercapacitors were developed with notable performance enhancement. For conventional supercapacitors, a uniform and conformal coating process was developed to deposit Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon microfibers in-situ by a simple chemical bath deposition at room temperature. The microfibers conformally-coated with Ni(OH)2 make direct physical contacts with essentially every single nanoflakes, leading to more efficient electron transport. Using this strategy, we have achieved devices that exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 on the carbon microfibers (1416 F/g vs. 275 F/g). For on-chip storage applications, microfabricated supercapacitors were developed using a combination of top-down photolithography and bottom-up CBD. The resulting Ni(OH)2 micro-supercapacitors show high-rate redox activity up to 500 V/s and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF/cm2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F/cm3. This volumetric capacitance is 2-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based micro-supercapacitors. Furthermore, these micro-supercapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh/cm3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. To enhance cycling stability, Ni-Cu-OH and Ni-Co-OH ternary electrodes have been prepared with different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios by CBD at room temperature on carbon microfibers. It is observed that the electrodes with Ni:Cu and Ni:Co composition ratio of 100:10 results in an optimum capacitance and cycling stability. For the optimum composition, Ni-Co-OH with

  19. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2001-01-01

    Existing Dual Microstructure Heat Treat (DMHT) technology was successfully applied to Alloy 10, a high strength, nickel-base disk alloy, to produce a disk with a fine grain bore and coarse grain rim. Specimens were extracted from the DMHT disk and tested in tension, creep, fatigue, and crack growth using conditions pertinent to disk applications. These data were then compared with data from "traditional" subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments for Alloy 10. The results showed the DMHT disk to have a high strength, fatigue resistant bore comparable to that of subsolvus Alloy 10. Further, creep resistance of the DMHT rim was comparable to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. Crack growth resistance in the DMHT rim, while better than that for subsolvus, was inferior to that of supersolvus Alloy 10. The slow cool at the end of the DMHT conversion and/or the subsolvus resolution step are thought to be responsible for degrading rim DMHT crack growth resistance.

  20. Effects of cobalt on structure, microchemistry and properties of a wrought nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the basic mechanical properties and microstructure of wrought nickel-base superalloys has been investigated experimentally by systematically replacing cobalt by nickel in Udimet 700 (17 wt% Co) commonly used in gas turbine (jet engine) applications. It is shown that the room temperature tensile yield strength and tensile strength only slightly decrease in fine-grained (disk) alloys and are basically unaffected in coarse-grained (blading) alloys as cobalt is removed. Creep and stress rupture resistances at 760 C are found to be unaffected by cobalt level in the blading alloys and decrease sharply only when the cobalt level is reduced below 8 vol% in the disk alloys. The effect of cobalt is explained in terms of gamma prime strengthening kinetics.

  1. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  2. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Application of light and continuous forces for optimum physiological response and least damage to the tooth supporting structures should be the primary aim of the orthodontist. Nickel titanium alloys with the properties of excellent spring back, super elasticity and wide range of action is one of the natural choices for the clinicians to achieve this goal. In recent periods, various wire manufacturers have come with a variety of wires exhibiting different properties. It is the duty of the clinician to select appropriate wires during various stages of treatment for excellent results. For achieving this evaluation of the properties of these wires is essential. Materials & Methods: This study is focussed on evaluating the super elastic property of eight groups of austenite active nickel titanium wires. Eight groups of archwires bought from eight different manufacturers were studied. These wires were tested through mechanical tensile testing and electrical resistivity methods. Results: Unloading curves were carefully assessed for superelastic behaviour on deactivation. Rankings of the wires tested were based primarily upon the unloading curve’s slope Conclusion: Ortho organisers wires ranked first and superior, followed by American Orthodontics and Ormco A wires. Morelli and GAClowland NiTi wires were ranked last. It can be concluded that the performance of these wires based on rankings should be further evaluated by clinical studies. How to cite this article: Sivaraj A. Comparison of Superelasticity of Nickel Titanium Orthodontic Arch wires using Mechanical Tensile Testing and Correlating with Electrical Resistivity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):1-12. PMID:24155596

  3. Precipitation hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy having good swelling resistance and low neutron absorbence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenko, M.K.; Merrick, H.F.; Gibson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    An iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloy suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding utilizes the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and has a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase and delta phase distributed at or near the grain boundaries. The alloy consists essentially of about 40-50 percent nickel, 7.5-14 percent chromium, 1.5-4 percent niobium, .25-.75 percent silicon, 1-3 percent titanium, .1-.5 percent aluminum, .02-1 percent carbon, .002-.015 percent boron, and the balance iron. Up to 2 percent manganese and up to .01 percent magnesium may be added to inhibit trace element effects; up to .1 percent zirconium may be added to increase radiation swelling resistance; and up to 3 percent molybdenum may be added to increase strength

  4. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kawada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Heat Capacity and Resistance to Cyclic Oxidation of Nickel Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przeliorz R.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of evaluation of heat resistance and specific heat capacity of MAR-M-200, MAR-M-247 and Rene 80 nickel superalloys. Heat resistance was evaluated using cyclic method. Every cycle included heating in 1100°C for 23 hours and cooling for 1 hour in air. Microstructure of the scale was observed using electron microscope. Specific heat capacity was measured using DSC calorimeter. It was found that under conditions of cyclically changing temperature alloy MAR-M-247 exhibits highest heat resistance. Formed oxide scale is heterophasic mixture of alloying elements, under which an internal oxidation zone was present. MAR-M-200 alloy has higher specific heat capacity compared to MAR-M-247. For tested alloys in the temperature range from 550°C to 800°C precipitation processes (γ′, γ″ are probably occurring, resulting in a sudden increase in the observed heat capacity.

  6. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Craveiro de Melo, Marta; Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, Maria; Lopes Buono, Vicente Tadeu

    2002-11-01

    A comparative study of the fatigue resistance of engine-driven nickel-titanium endodontic instruments was performed, aiming to access the influence of the cutting flute design and of the size of the files that reach the working length in curved canal shaping. Geometrical conditions similar to those found in practice were used. Series 29 #5 ProFile, together with #6 and #8 Quantec instruments, were tested in artificial canals with a 45-degree angle of curvature and 5-mm radius of curvature. It was observed that the size of the instrument, which determines the maximum strain amplitude during cyclic deformation, is the most important factor controlling fatigue resistance. The effect of heat sterilization on the fatigue resistance of the instruments was also examined. The results obtained indicate that the application of five sterilization procedures in dry heat increases the average number of cycles to failure of unused instruments by approximately 70%.

  7. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco; Garala, Manish; De Luca, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel-titanium instruments manufactured by using new processes. This was evaluated by comparing instruments produced by using the twisted method (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and those using the M-wire alloy (GTX; Dentsply Tulsa-Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) with instruments produced by a traditional NiTi grinding process (K3, SybronEndo). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments inside curved artificial canals. Results indicated that size 06-25 TF instruments showed a significant increase (p 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 06-20 GT series X instruments. The new manufacturing process produced nickel-titanium rotary files (TF) significantly more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process. Instruments produced with M-wire (GTX) were not found to be more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process.

  8. Improvement of the corrosion resistance on Nd-Fe-B magnet with nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Honshima, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the corrosion-resistant test humidity test (80 0 C, 90%R.H.) autoclave test (120 0 C, 2atm, saturated with water vapor), salt spray test (35 0 C, 5% NaCl) performed on the sintered Nd magnet treated with nickel plating. Al ion-plating and without coating were also exposed to the corrosion test. After the specified periods of corrosion test, the permanent flux loss of the re-magnetized sample was measured. The changes in the appearance were also observed

  9. Nickel detoxification and plant growth promotion by multi metal resistant plant growth promoting Rhizobium species RL9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2013-07-01

    Pollution of the biosphere by heavy metals is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. The aim of the study is to check the resistance of RL9 towards the metals and to observe the effect of Rhizobium species on growth, pigment content, protein and nickel uptake by lentil in the presence and absence of nickel. The multi metal tolerant and plant growth promoting Rhizobium strain RL9 was isolated from the nodules of lentil. The strain not only tolerated nickel but was also tolerant o cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc and copper. The strain tolerated nickel 500 μg/mL, cadmium 300 μg/mL, chromium 400 μg/mL, lead 1,400 μg/mL, zinc 1,000 μg/mL and copper 300 μg/mL, produced good amount of indole acetic acid and was also positive for siderophore, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. The strain RL9 was further assessed with increasing concentrations of nickel when lentil was used as a test crop. The strain RL9 significantly increased growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, nitrogen content, seed protein and seed yield compared to plants grown in the absence of bioinoculant but amended with nickel The strain RL9 decreased uptake of nickel in lentil compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. Due to these intrinsic abilities strain RL9 could be utilized for growth promotion as well as for the remediation of nickel in nickel contaminated soil.

  10. Precipitation in Powder Metallurgy, Nickel Base Superalloys: Review of Modeling Approach and Formulation of Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0333 PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF...PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF ENGINEERING (POSTPRINT) 5a...and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder- metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These

  11. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  12. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  13. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel bare and composite metal cored and stranded arc welding electrodes and welding rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for corrosion or heat resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes and welding rods. These electrodes and welding rods are normally used for arc welding and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  14. Corrosion resistance and long-term durability of super-hydrophobic nickel film prepared by electrodeposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorsand, S.; Raeissi, K.; Ashrafizadeh, F.

    2014-01-01

    A super-hydrophobic nickel film with micro-nano structure was successfully fabricated by electrodeposition process. By controlling electrodeposition parameters and considering different storage times for the coatings in air, various nickel films with different wettability were fabricated. Surface morphology of nickel films was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the micro-nano nickel film was well-crystallized and exhibited pine cone-like microstructure with nano-cone arrays randomly dispersed on each micro-protrusion. The wettability of the micro-nano nickel film varied from super-hydrophilicity (water contact angle 5.3°) to super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle 155.7°) by exposing the surface in air at room temperature. The corrosion resistance of the super-hydrophobic film was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The potentiodynamic curves revealed that the corrosion rate of superhydrophobic surface was only 0.16% of the bare copper substrate. Moreover, EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the corrosion resistance of nickel films considerably improved with an increase in the hydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic surface also exhibited an excellent long-term durability in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.

  15. Eddy Current Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, M.P.; Yu, F.; Nagy, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Shot peening and other mechanical surface enhancement methods improve the fatigue resistance and foreign-object damage tolerance of metallic components by introducing beneficial near-surface compressive residual stresses and hardening the surface. However, the fatigue life improvement gained via surface enhancement is not explicitly accounted for in current engine component life prediction models because of the lack of accurate and reliable nondestructive methods that could verify the presence of compressive near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened hardware. In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electrical resistivity. We found that, in contrast with most other materials, surface-treated nickel-base superalloys exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies, i.e., at decreasing penetration depths. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the excess frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity of shot-peened nickel-base superalloys can be used to estimate the absolute level and penetration depth of the compressive residual stress layer both before and after partial thermal relaxation

  16. Cyclic fatigue resistance of newly manufactured rotary nickel titanium instruments used in different rotational directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianlucca; Gergi, Richard; Grande, Nicola Maria; Osta, Nada; Plotino, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel titanium instruments manufactured with improved heating processes in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. The instruments compared were produced either using the R-phase heat treatment (K3XF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) or the M-wire alloy (ProFile Vortex; DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments in curved artificial canals. Results indicated no significant difference in resistance to cyclic fatigue when rotary nickel titanium instruments are used in clockwise or counterclockwise continuous rotation. In both directions of rotation, size 04-25 K3XF showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 04-25 ProFile Vortex. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2012 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  17. High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrodes Based on Nickel Oxide-coated Nickel Foam Prepared by Sparking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuminjak, Yaowamarn; Daothong, Suphaporn; Kuntarug, Aekapong; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Horprathum, Mati; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Singjai, Pisith

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO particles (3-10 nm) were sparked on Ni foams with varying times (45-180 min). • Larger NiO nanoparticles were aggregated to foam-like structure at a longer time. • The optimal time of 45 min led to a high specific capacity of 920 C/g at 1 A/g. • The specific capacity remained as high as 699 (76% of 920) C/g at 20 A/g. • The optimal electrode exhibited 96% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 4 A/g. - Abstract: In this work, high-performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes were developed based on nickel oxide (NiO)-coated nickel (Ni) foams prepared by a sparking method. NiO nanoparticles deposited on Ni foams with varying sparking times from 45 to 180 min were structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the electrochemical energy storage characteristics of the electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that NiO nanoparticles sparked on Ni foam with a longer time would be agglomerated and formed a foam-like network with large pore sizes and a lower surface area, leading to inferior charge storage behaviors. The NiO/Ni foam electrode prepared with the shortest sparking of 45 min displayed high specific capacities of 920 C g"-"1 (1840 F g"-"1) at 1 A g"-"1 and 699 (76% of 920) C g"-"1 at 20 A g"-"1 in a potential window of 0-0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl as well as a good cycling performance with 96% capacity retention at 4 A g"-"1 after 1000 cycles and a low equivalent series resistance of 0.4 Ω. Therefore, NiO/Ni foam electrodes prepared by the sparking method are highly promising for high-capacity energy storage applications.

  18. Effect of electroless nickel on the series resistance of high-efficiency inkjet printed passivated emitter rear contacted solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenio, Martha A.T. [REC Technology US, Inc., 1159 Triton Dr., Foster City, CA 94301 (United States); Lennon, A.J.; Ho-Baillie, A.; Wenham, S.R. [ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Many existing and emerging solar cell technologies rely on plated metal to form the front surface contacts, and aluminium to form the rear contact. Interactions between the metal plating solutions and the aluminium rear can have a significant impact on cell performance. This paper describes non-uniform nickel deposition on the sintered aluminium rear surface of passivated emitter and rear contacted (PERC) cells patterned using an inkjet printing technique. Rather than being plated homogeneously over the entire rear surface as is observed on an alloyed aluminium rear, the nickel is plated only in the vicinity of the point openings in the rear surface silicon dioxide dielectric layer. Furthermore, this non-uniform nickel deposition was shown to increase the contact resistance of the rear point contacts by an order of magnitude, resulting in higher series resistance values for these fabricated PERC cells. (author)

  19. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  20. Cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments in artificial canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, Oscar; Plotino, Gianluca; Tocci, Luigi; Carrillo, Gabriela; Gambarini, Gianluca; Jaramillo, David E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different nickel-titanium reciprocating instruments. A total of 45 nickel-titanium instruments were tested and divided into 3 experimental groups (n = 15): group 1, WaveOne Primary instruments; group 2, Reciproc R25 instruments; and group 3, Twisted File (TF) Adaptive M-L1 instruments. The instruments were then subjected to cyclic fatigue test on a static model consisting of a metal block with a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. WaveOne Primary, Reciproc R25, and TF Adaptive instruments were activated by using their proprietary movements, WaveOne ALL, Reciproc ALL, and TF Adaptive, respectively. All instruments were activated until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture was recorded visually for each file with a 1/100-second chronometer. Mean number of cycles to failure and standard deviations were calculated for each group, and data were statistically analyzed (P fatigue resistance of Reciproc R25 and TF Adaptive M-L1 was significantly higher than that of WaveOne Primary (P = .009 and P = .002, respectively). The results showed no statistically significant difference between TF Adaptive M-L1 and Reciproc R25 (P = .686). Analysis of the fractured portion under scanning electron microscopy indicated that all instruments showed morphologic characteristics of ductile fracture that were due to accumulation of metal fatigue. No statistically significant differences were found between the instruments tested except for WaveOne Primary, which showed the lowest resistance to cyclic fatigue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nickel speciation in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils via bulk synchrotron-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-07-01

    Serpentine soils have elevated concentrations of trace metals including nickel, cobalt, and chromium compared to non-serpentine soils. Identifying the nickel bearing minerals allows for prediction of potential mobility of nickel. Synchrotron-based techniques can identify the solid-phase chemical forms of nickel with minimal sample treatment. Element concentrations are known to vary among soil particle sizes in serpentine soils. Sonication is a useful method to physically disperse sand, silt and clay particles in soils. Synchrotron-based techniques and sonication were employed to identify nickel species in discrete particle size fractions in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils to better understand solid-phase nickel geochemistry. Nickel commonly resided in primary serpentine parent material such as layered-phyllosilicate and chain-inosilicate minerals and was associated with iron oxides. In the clay fractions, nickel was associated with iron oxides and primary serpentine minerals, such as lizardite. Linear combination fitting (LCF) was used to characterize nickel species. Total metal concentration did not correlate with nickel speciation and is not an indicator of the major nickel species in the soil. Differences in soil texture were related to different nickel speciation for several particle size fractionated samples. A discussion on LCF illustrates the importance of choosing standards based not only on statistical methods such as Target Transformation but also on sample mineralogy and particle size. Results from the F-test (Hamilton test), which is an underutilized tool in the literature for LCF in soils, highlight its usefulness to determine the appropriate number of standards to for LCF. EXAFS shell fitting illustrates that destructive interference commonly found for light and heavy elements in layered double hydroxides and in phyllosilicates also can occur in inosilicate minerals, causing similar structural features and leading to false positive results in

  2. Fiber laser welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Damian M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the application of single mode high power fiber laser (HPFL) for the welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625. Butt joints of Inconel 625 sheets 0,8 mm thick were laser welded without an additional material. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by means of tensile and bending tests, and micro hardness tests, and also metallographic examinations. The results showed that a proper selection of laser welding parameters provides non-porous, fully-penetrated welds with the aspect ratio up to 2.0. The minimum heat input required to achieve full penetration butt welded joints with no defect was found to be 6 J/mm. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the joints are essentially equivalent to that for the base material.

  3. Nickel-base alloys having a low coefficient of thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.F.; Maxwell, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Alloy compositions consisting predominantly of nickel, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, and boron are disclosed. The alloys possess a duplex structure consisting of a nickel--chromium--molybdenum matrix and a semi-continuous network of refractory carbides and borides. A combination of desirable properties is provided by these alloys, including elevated temperature strength, resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion, and a very low coefficient of thermal expansion

  4. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires′ surface texture and friction resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Aly Abbassy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Dunnett′s t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05. Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires.

  5. On superplasticity of corrosion resistant ferritic-austenitic chromium-nickel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovtsev, A P; Sukhanov, V E

    1988-01-01

    The deformability of corrosion resistant chromium-nickel ferritic austenitic steel type O8Kh22N6T under tension, upsetting and torsion in the 600-1200 deg C temperature range is studied. For the deformation rate of the order of 10/sup -3/ s/sup -1/ the effect of superelasticity reveals itself at 850 deg C in the process of ferrite dynamic polymerization, in the 925-950 deg C range, at initial stages of dynamic recrystallization - the dynamic polygonization controlled by chromium carbide dissolving in steel and maximum at 1050 deg C in the process of development of austenite dynamic recrystallization with grain refinement with F/A ratio equalling 1. After upsetting in the elasticity mode at 1050 deg C the impact strength of the above steel is maximum.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys characterization and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, studies have been carried out in several laboratories to characterize the IGSCC (Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking) behaviour of nickel base alloys in aqueous environments. For their relative shortness, CERTs (Constant Extension Rate Tests) have been extensively used, especially at the Corrosion Department of the CEA. However, up to recently, the results obtained with this method remained qualitative. This paper presents a first approach to a quantitative interpretation of CERT results. The basic datum used is the crack trace depth distribution determined on a specimen section at the end of a CERT. It is shown that this information can be used for the calculation of initiation and growth parameters which quantitatively characterize IGSCC phenomenon. Moreover, the rationale proposed should lead to the determination of intrinsic cracking parameters, and so, to in-service behaviour prediction

  7. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of novel nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Ertas, Huseyin; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    New files (ProTaper Next/HyFlex/OneShape) are made from novel nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys/treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of these new instruments with that of Revo-S instruments. Four groups of 20 NiTi endodontic instruments were tested in steel canals with a 3 mm radius and a 60° angle of curvature. The cyclic fatigue of the following NiTi instruments with a tip size 25 and 0.06 taper that were manufactured with different alloys was tested: ProTaper Next X2 (M-Wire), OneShape (conventional NiTi), Revo-S Shaping Universal (conventional NiTi) and HyFlex 25/0.6 (controlled memory NiTi wire). A one-way anova and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05) revealed that the HyFlex files had the highest fatigue resistance and the Revo-S had the least fatigue resistance among the groups (P < 0.001). © 2014 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  8. Cyclic fatigue resistance of XP-endo Shaper compared with different nickel-titanium alloy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, Amr; Elsaka, Shaymaa

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess and compare the resistance to cyclic fatigue of XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instruments with TRUShape (TRS; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), HyFlex CM (HCM; Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH, USA), Vortex Blue (VB; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), and iRace (iR; FKG Dentaire) nickel-titanium rotary instruments at body temperature. Size 30, 0.01 taper of XPS, size 30, 0.04 taper of HCM, VB, iR, and size 30, 0.06 taper of TRS instruments were immersed in saline at 37 ± 1 °C during cyclic fatigue testing. The instruments were tested with 60° angle of curvature and a 3-mm radius of curvature. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated and the length of the fractured segment was measured. Fractographic examination of the fractured surface was performed using a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Statistical significance was set at P ductile fracture of cyclic fatigue failure. XPS instruments exhibited greater cyclic fatigue resistance compared with the other tested instruments. XP-endo Shaper instruments could be used more safely in curved canals due to their higher fatigue resistance.

  9. Corrosion of Nickel-Based Alloys in Ultra-High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2017-03-01

    MgCl2-KCl binary system has been proposed to be used as high temperature reactor coolant. Due to its relatively low melting point, good heat capacity and excellent thermal stability, this system can also be used in high operation temperature concentrating solar power generation system as heat transfer fluid (HTF). The corrosion behaviors of nickel based alloys in MgCl2-KCl molten salt system at 1,000 °C were determined based on long-term isothermal dipping test. After 500 h exposure tests under strictly maintained high purity argon gas atmosphere, the weight loss and corrosion rate analysis were conducted. Among all the tested samples, Ni-201 demonstrated the lowest corrosion rate due to the excellent resistance of Ni to high temperature element dissolution. Detailed surface topography and corrosion mechanisms were also determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

  10. Nickel Oxide (NiO nanoparticles prepared by solid-state thermal decomposition of Nickel (II schiff base precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plate-like NiO nanoparticles were prepared by one-pot solid-state thermal decomposition of nickel (II Schiff base complex as new precursor. First, the nickel (II Schiff base precursor was prepared by solid-state grinding using nickel (II nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO32∙6H2O, and the Schiff base ligand N,N′-bis-(salicylidene benzene-1,4-diamine for 30 min without using any solvent, catalyst, template or surfactant. It was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHN. The resultant solid was subsequently annealed in the electrical furnace at 450 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of NiO were produced and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD at 2θ degree 0-140°, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD and FT-IR results showed that the product is pure and has good crystallinity with cubic structure because no characteristic peaks of impurity were observed, while the SEM and TEM results showed that the obtained product is tiny, aggregated with plate-like shape, narrow size distribution with an average size between 10-40 nm. Results show that the solid state thermal decomposition method is simple, environmentally friendly, safe and suitable for preparation of NiO nanoparticles. This method can also be used to synthesize nanoparticles of other metal oxides.

  11. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  12. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel-based

  13. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  14. ISOTHERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE OF A NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho Engler-Pinto Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gradients arising during transient regimes of start-up and shutdown operations produce a complex thermal and mechanical fatigue loading which limits the life of turbine blades and other engine components operating at high temperatures. More accurate and reliable assessment under non-isothermal fatigue becomes therefore mandatory. This paper investigates the nickel base superalloy CM 247LC-DS under isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF. Test temperatures range from 600°C to 1,000°C. The behavior of the alloy is strongly affected by the temperature variation, especially in the 800°C-1,000°C range. The Ramberg-Osgood equation fits very well the observed isothermal behavior for the whole temperature range. The simplified non-isothermal stress-strain model based on linear plasticity proposed to represent the thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior was able to reproduce the observed behavior for both in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycling.

  15. Relationship of heat treatment-mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.

    1997-01-01

    The nickel-base superalloys have high strength, excellent corrosion resistant, and good creep and fatigue resistance. These alloy improved properties at high temperature derive their mechanical and creep behavior on γ precipitate morphology, and the evolution of such morphology during different heat treatment conditions. The main microstructural variable of Nickel-based superalloys, responsible for the mechanical properties are: a) amount and morphology of precipitates; b) size and shape of grains; and c) carbide distribution. In this work, a Nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 80A, modified little with Zr prepared by melting and casting practices of materials electrolytic in vacuum-induction melting (VIM) type Balzers, to obtain five alloys different and ingots of 2 Kg and 1 Kg, with composition in weight % of Nimonic 80-A is: Ni = bal (76.66), C = 0.01, Cr = 19.83, Fe = 2.4, Mn = 0.17, Si 0.47, Al = 0.19, Zr = 0.4. The solidification process is made in a steel mold. After having realized four thermal treatments, the most representative microstructures there were obtained. The results from tensile tests performed on Instron Servohydraulic testing systems at uniaxial dynamic testing, at constant speeds to ,0.2 cm/min, were: the yield strength, the ultimate strength value, percentage elongation and area reduction. Creep tests were performed at in stress of 90 and 129 MPa, at a temperature of 600 and 680 Centigrades at different times and width of specimen of 1 mm. The alloys were analyzed by MEB(JEOL 35CF) at different magnifications. The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities during creep of alloy Nimonic M3, were investigated. One sample was deformed in creep at 129 MPa and 680 Centigrades during 110 hs. Creep samples were annealing heat treated at 800 Centigrades, during 7 days. After a careful sample preparation procedure, 3100 of cavities were measured in the sample . The cavity size distributions in the sample were obtained. The cavity growth rate, was

  16. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of three different rotary nickel-titanium instruments designed for retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Ugur; Aydin, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    A number of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems have been developed to provide better, faster, and easier cleaning and shaping of the root canal system, and recently, rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment have been introduced. Because the main problem with the rotary NiTi files is fracture, the aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment. Total of 60 instruments of 3 different rotary NiTi systems designed for root canal retreatment were used in this study. Twenty R-Endo R3, 20 ProTaper D3, and 20 Mtwo R (Retreatment) 25.05 instruments were tested. Cyclic fatigue testing of instruments was performed by using a device that allowed the instruments to rotate freely inside an artificial canal. Each instrument was rotated until fracture occurred, and the number of cycles to fracture for each instrument was calculated. Representative samples were also evaluated under a scanning electron microscope to confirm the fracture was flexural. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance test. R-Endo R3 instruments showed better cyclic fatigue resistance than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05 instruments, and the difference was statistically significant (P instruments were more resistant to fatigue failure than ProTaper D3 and Mtwo R 25.05. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel - titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, E; Lo Savio, F; Boninelli, S; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Rapisarda, E; La Rosa, G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different torsional preloads on cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic rotary instruments constructed from conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi), M-Wire or CM-Wire. Eighty new size 25, 0.06 taper Mtwo instruments (Sweden & Martina), size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM (Coltene/Whaledent, Inc) and X2 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. The Torque and distortion angles at failure of new instruments (n = 10) were measured, and 0% (n = 10), 25%, 50% and 75% (n = 20) of the mean ultimate torsional strength as preloading condition were applied according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. The twenty files tested for every extent of preload were subjected to 20 or 40 torsional cycles (n = 10). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm of radius of curvature. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance. Preload repetitions did not influence the cyclic fatigue of the three brands; however, the 25%, 50% and 75% torsional preloading significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of all instruments tested (P 0.05). Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of conventional and treated (M-wire and CM-wire) NiTi rotary instruments except for size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM instruments with a 25% of torsional preloading. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Recovery of creep properties of the nickel-base superalloy nimonic 105

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girdwood, RB

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial constant stress creep tests were performed on the wrought nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 105. Entire creep curves were recorded and curve shapes analysed using the Theta Projection Concept. Rejuventive procedures were applied to pre...

  19. In vitro and in vivo corrosion evaluation of nickel-chromium- and copper-aluminum-based alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, O F; Miranda, W G; Muench, A

    2000-09-01

    The low resistance to corrosion is the major problem related to the use of copper-aluminum alloys. This in vitro and in vivo study evaluated the corrosion of 2 copper-aluminum alloys (Cu-Al and Cu-Al-Zn) compared with a nickel-chromium alloy. For the in vitro test, specimens were immersed in the following 3 corrosion solutions: artificial saliva, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 1.0% sodium sulfide. For the in vivo test, specimens were embedded in complete dentures, so that one surface was left exposed. The 3 testing sites were (1) close to the oral mucosa (partial self-cleaning site), (2) surface exposed to the oral cavity (self-cleaning site), and (3) specimen bottom surface exposed to the saliva by means of a tunnel-shaped perforation (non-self-cleaning site). Almost no corrosion occurred with the nickel-chromium alloy, for either the in vitro or in vivo test. On the other hand, the 2 copper-aluminum-based alloys exhibited high corrosion in the sulfide solution. These same alloys also underwent high corrosion in non-self-cleaning sites for the in vivo test, although minimal attack was observed in self-cleaning sites. The nickel-chromium alloy presented high resistance to corrosion. Both copper-aluminum alloys showed considerable corrosion in the sulfide solution and clinically in the non-self-cleaning site. However, in self-cleaning sites these 2 alloys did not show substantial corrosion.

  20. Aqueous electrochemistry of precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, K.; Ballinger, R.; Prybylowski, J.; Hwang, I.S.

    1990-11-01

    An investigation has been conducted to explore the importance of local crack tip electrochemical processes in precipitation-hardened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys driven by galvanic couples between grain boundary precipitates and the local matrix. The electrochemical behavior of γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] has been determined as a function of titanium concentration, temperature, and solution pH. The electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe solid solution alloys has been investigated as a function of chromium content for a series of 10 Fe-variable Cr (6--18%)-balance Ni alloys, temperature, and pH. The investigation was conducted in neutral and pH3 solutions over the temperature range 25--300 degree C. The results of the investigation show that the electrochemical behavior of these systems is a strong function of temperature and composition. This is especially true for the γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] system where a transition from active/passive behavior to purely active behavior and back again occurs over a narrow temperature range near 100 degree C. Behavior of this system was also found to be a strong function of titanium concentration. In all cases, the Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase was active with respect to the matrix. The peak in activity near 100 degree C correlates well with accelerated crack growth in this temperature range, observed in nickel-base alloy X-750 heat treated to precipitate γ' on the grain boundaries. 20 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Mechanical properties of nanostructured nickel based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhtarov, Sh; Ermachenko, A, E-mail: shamil@anrb.r [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems RAS, 39, Khalturina, Ufa, 450001 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This paper will describe the investigations of a nanostructured (NS) state of nickel based INCONEL alloy 718. This structure was generated in bulk semiproducts by severe plastic deformation (SPD) via multiple isothermal forging (MIF) of a coarse-grained alloy. The initial structure consisted of {gamma}-phase grains with disperse precipitations of {gamma}{sup -}phase in the forms of discs, 50-75 nm in diameter and 20 nm in thickness. The MIF generated structures possess a large quantity of non-coherent plates and rounded precipitations of {delta}-phase, primarily along grain boundaries. In the duplex ({gamma}+{delta}) structure the grains have high dislocation density and a large number of nonequilibrium boundaries. Investigations to determine mechanical properties of the alloy in a nanostructured state were carried out. Nanocrystalline Inconel 718 (80 nm) possesses a very high room-temperature strength after SPD. Microcrystalline (MC) and NS states of the alloy were subjected to strengthening thermal treatment, and the obtained results were compared in order to determine their mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures.

  2. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  3. Fabrication technology of CNT-Nickel Oxide based planar pseudocapacitor for MEMS and NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, E. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Gavrilin, I. M.; Gromov, D. G.; Gruzdev, N. E.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Dronov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication technology of planar pseudocapacitor (PsC) based on carbon nanotube (CNT) forest, synthesized using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method, covered with thin nickel oxide layer deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, is demonstrated. Dependences of deposited oxide layers thickness on device specific capacities is studied. It is shown that pseudocapacity of nickel oxide thin layer increases specific capacity of the CNT's based device up to 2.5 times.

  4. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder- metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient

  5. Welding and Weldability of Directionally Solidified Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J M; David, S A; Reed, R W; Burke, M A; Fitzgerald, T J

    1997-09-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are used extensively in high-temperature service applications, and in particular, in components of turbine engines. To improve high-temperature creep properties, these alloys are often used in the directionally-solidified or single-crystal form. The objective of this CRADA project was to investigate the weldability of both experimental and commercial nickel-base superalloys in polycrystalline, directionally-solidified, and single-crystal forms.

  6. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  7. Reversible Changes in Resistance of Perovskite Nickelate NdNiO3 Thin Films Induced by Fluorine Substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Tomoya; Chikamatsu, Akira; Katayama, Tsukasa; Hirose, Yasushi; Harayama, Isao; Sekiba, Daiichiro; Ikenaga, Eiji; Minohara, Makoto; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2017-03-29

    Perovskite nickel oxides are of fundamental as well as technological interest because they show large resistance modulation associated with phase transition as a function of the temperature and chemical composition. Here, the effects of fluorine doping in perovskite nickelate NdNiO 3 epitaxial thin films are investigated through a low-temperature reaction with polyvinylidene fluoride as the fluorine source. The fluorine content in the fluorinated NdNiO 3-x F x films is controlled with precision by varying the reaction time. The fully fluorinated film (x ≈ 1) is highly insulating and has a bandgap of 2.1 eV, in contrast to NdNiO 3 , which exhibits metallic transport properties. Hard X-ray photoelectron and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopies reveal the suppression of the density of states at the Fermi level as well as the reduction of nickel ions (valence state changes from +3 to +2) after fluorination, suggesting that the strong Coulombic repulsion in the Ni 3d orbitals associated with the fluorine substitution drives the metal-to-insulator transition. In addition, the resistivity of the fluorinated films recovers to the original value for NdNiO 3 after annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. By application of the reversible fluorination process to transition-metal oxides, the search for resistance-switching materials could be accelerated.

  8. Nano-socketed nickel particles with enhanced coking resistance grown in situ by redox exsolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Dragos; Oh, Tae-Sik; Miller, David N.; Ménard, Hervé; Bukhari, Syed M.; Gamble, Stephen R.; Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.; Irvine, John T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Metal particles supported on oxide surfaces are used as catalysts for a wide variety of processes in the chemical and energy conversion industries. For catalytic applications, metal particles are generally formed on an oxide support by physical or chemical deposition, or less commonly by exsolution from it. Although fundamentally different, both methods might be assumed to produce morphologically and functionally similar particles. Here we show that unlike nickel particles deposited on perovskite oxides, exsolved analogues are socketed into the parent perovskite, leading to enhanced stability and a significant decrease in the propensity for hydrocarbon coking, indicative of a stronger metal-oxide interface. In addition, we reveal key surface effects and defect interactions critical for future design of exsolution-based perovskite materials for catalytic and other functionalities. This study provides a new dimension for tailoring particle-substrate interactions in the context of increasing interest for emergent interfacial phenomena.

  9. Long-life fatigue test results for two nickel-base structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowbray, D.F.; Giaquinto, E.V.; Mehringer, F.J.

    1978-11-01

    The results are reported of fatigue tests on two nickel--base alloys, hot-cold-worked and stress-relieved nickel--chrome--iron Alloy 600 and mill-annealed nickel--chrome--moly--iron Alloy 625 in which S-N data were obtained in the life range of 10 6 to 10 10 cycles. The tests were conducted in air at 600 0 F, in the reversed membrane loading mode, at a frequency of approx. 1850 Hz. An electromagnetic, closed loop servo-controlled machine was built to perform the tests. A description of the machine is given

  10. Atomically manufactured nickel-silicon quantum dots displaying robust resonant tunneling and negative differential resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-Yih; Fisher, Brandon L.; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Lilley, Carmen M.

    2017-12-01

    Providing a spin-free host material in the development of quantum information technology has made silicon a very interesting and desirable material for qubit design. Much of the work and experimental progress has focused on isolated phosphorous atoms. In this article, we report on the exploration of Ni-Si clusters that are atomically manufactured via self-assembly from the bottom-up and behave as isolated quantum dots. These small quantum dot structures are probed at the atomic-scale with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, revealing robust resonance through discrete quantized energy levels within the Ni-Si clusters. The resonance energy is reproducible and the peak spacing of the quantum dot structures increases as the number of atoms in the cluster decrease. Probing these quantum dot structures on degenerately doped silicon results in the observation of negative differential resistance in both I-V and dI/dV spectra. At higher surface coverage of nickel, a well-known √19 surface modification is observed and is essentially a tightly packed array of the clusters. Spatial conductance maps reveal variations in the local density of states that suggest the clusters are influencing the electronic properties of their neighbors. All of these results are extremely encouraging towards the utilization of metal modified silicon surfaces to advance or complement existing quantum information technology.

  11. Impact of heat treatments on the fatigue resistance of different rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Lígia Carolina Moreira; Faria Silva, Ana Cristina; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; de Azevedo Bahia, Maria Guiomar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of M-Wire (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) and controlled memory technologies on the fatigue resistance of rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) files by comparing files made using these 2 technologies with conventional NiTi files. Files with a similar cross-sectional design and diameter were chosen for the study: new 30/.06 files of the EndoWave (EW; J. Morita Corp, Osaka, Japan), HyFlex (HF; Coltene/Whaledent, Inc, Cuyahoga Falls, OH), ProFile Vortex (PV; Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and Typhoon (TYP; Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT) systems together with ProTaper Universal F2 instruments (PTU F2; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The compositions and transformation temperatures of the instruments were analyzed using x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, whereas the mean file diameter values at 3 mm from the tip (D3) were measured using image analysis software. The average number of cycles to failure was determined using a fatigue test device. X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that, on average, all the instruments exhibited the same chemical composition, namely, 51% Ni-49% Ti. The PV, TYP, and HF files exhibited increased transformation temperatures. The PTU F2, PV, and TYP files had similar D3 values, which were less than those of the EW and HF files. The average number of cycles to failure values were 150% higher for the TYP files compared with the PV files and 390% higher for the HF files compared with the EW files. M-Wire and controlled memory technologies increase the fatigue resistance of rotary NiTi files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microstructure and wear resistance of a laser clad TiC reinforced nickel aluminides matrix composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wear resistant TiC/(NiAl-Ni 3 Al) composite coating was fabricated on a substrate of electrolyzed nickel by laser cladding using Ni-Al-Ti-C alloy powders. The laser clad coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate and has a homogenous fine microstructure consisting of the flower-like equiaxed TiC dendrite and the dual phase matrix of NiAl and Ni 3 Al. The intermetallic matrix composite coating exhibits excellent wear resistance under both room- and high-temperature sliding wear test conditions due to the high hardness of TiC coupled with the strong atomic bonds of intermetallic matrix

  13. Friction behavior of cobalt base and nickel base hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    A friction behavior of the hardfacing materials such as cobalt base alloy ''Stellite'' and nickel base alloy ''Colmonoy'' used in the sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor was investigated in various sodium environments. Also, friction tests on these materials were carried out in argon environment. And they were compared with those in sodium environment. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In argon, the cobalt base hardfacing alloy showed better friction behavior than the nickel base hardfacing alloy. In sodium, the latter was observed to have the better friction behavior being independent of the sodium temperature. (2) The friction coefficient of each material tends to become lower by pre-exposure in sodium. Particularly, this tendency was remarkable for the nickel base hardfacing alloy. (3) The friction coefficient between SUS 316 and one of these hardfacing materials was higher than that between latter materials. Also, some elements of hardfacing alloys were recognized to transfer on the friction surface of SUS 316 material. (4) It was observed that each tested material has a greater friction coefficient with a decrease of the oxygen content in sodium. (author)

  14. A preliminary investigation of the initiation of pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, A.

    1984-01-01

    Pitting corrosion in a number of austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys that differ widely in their resistance to corrosion was studed by electrochemical and electron-optical techniques. The effect of contamination of the sulphuric acid electrolyte by chloride ions was also investigated. Preliminary results for the surface analysis of samples of 316 stainless steel by Auger electron spectroscopy are presented, and suggestions are included for further application of this technique to the examination of pitting corrosion. A comprehensive review of the literature concerning the initiation of pitting corrosion is included

  15. Comparative estimation of the properties of heat resisting nickel alloy welded joints made by electron-beam and arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morochko, V.P.; Sorokin, L.I.; Yakushin, B.F.; Moryakov, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    As compared to argon arc welding of refractory nickel alloys at 15 m/hour rate, electron beam welding decreases energy consumption per unit length (from 4300 to 2070 cal/cm), the weld area (from 108 to 24 mm 2 ), and the length of the thermal effect zone (from 0.9-1.8 to 0.4-0.8 mm). Electron beam welding also provides for better resistance to hot cracking in the weld metal and in the near-weld zone, as compared to automatic argon arc welding and manual welding with addition of the basic metal. However, this advantage is observed only at welding rates less than 45 m/hour. Electron beam welded joints of refractory nickel alloys with intermetallide reinforcement have higher strength, plasticity and impact strength, and lower scattering of these properties than arc welded joints

  16. Dual Microstructure Heat Treatment of a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John

    2002-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic aircraft will require nickel-base disk alloys that can be used at temperatures in excess of 1300 F. Smaller turbine engines, with higher rotational speeds, also require disk alloys with high strength. To address these challenges, NASA funded a series of disk programs in the 1990's. Under these initiatives, Honeywell and Allison focused their attention on Alloy 10, a high-strength, nickel-base disk alloy developed by Honeywell for application in the small turbine engines used in regional jet aircraft. Since tensile, creep, and fatigue properties are strongly influenced by alloy grain size, the effect of heat treatment on grain size and the attendant properties were studied in detail. It was observed that a fine grain microstructure offered the best tensile and fatigue properties, whereas a coarse grain microstructure offered the best creep resistance at high temperatures. Therefore, a disk with a dual microstructure, consisting of a fine-grained bore and a coarse-grained rim, should have a high potential for optimal performance. Under NASA's Ultra-Safe Propulsion Project and Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, a disk program was initiated at the NASA Glenn Research Center to assess the feasibility of using Alloy 10 to produce a dual-microstructure disk. The objectives of this program were twofold. First, existing dual-microstructure heat treatment (DMHT) technology would be applied and refined as necessary for Alloy 10 to yield the desired grain structure in full-scale forgings appropriate for use in regional gas turbine engines. Second, key mechanical properties from the bore and rim of a DMHT Alloy 10 disk would be measured and compared with conventional heat treatments to assess the benefits of DMHT technology. At Wyman Gordon and Honeywell, an active-cooling DMHT process was used to convert four full-scale Alloy 10 disks to a dual-grain microstructure. The resulting microstructures are illustrated in the

  17. Microstructural and wear characteristics of cobalt free, nickel base intermetallic alloy deposited by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural and wear characteristics of Ni base intermetallic hardfacing alloy (Tribaloy-700) deposited on stainless steel-316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Cobalt base hardfacing alloys have been most commonly used hardfacing alloys for application involving wear, corrosion and high temperature resistance. However, the high cost and scarcity of cobalt led to the development of cobalt free hardfacing alloys. Further, in the nuclear industry, the use of cobalt base alloys is limited due to the induced activity of long lived radioisotope 60 Co formed. These difficulties led to the development of various nickel and iron base alloys to replace cobalt base hardfacing alloys. In the present study Ni base intermetallic alloy, free of Cobalt was deposited on stainless steel- 316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Traditionally, welding and thermal spraying are the most commonly employed hardfacing techniques. Laser cladding has been explored for the deposition of less diluted and fusion-bonded Nickel base clad layer on stainless steel substrate with a low heat input. The laser cladding parameters (Laser power density: 200 W/mm 2 , scanning speed: 430 mm/min, and powder feed rate: 14 gm/min) resulted in defect free clad with minimal dilution of the substrate. The microstructure of the clad layer was examined by Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction technique. The clad layer exhibited sharp substrate/clad interface in the order of planar, cellular, and dendritic from the interface upwards. Dilution of clad with Fe from substrate was very low passing from ∼ 15% at the interface (∼ 40 μm) to ∼ 6% in the clad layer. The clad layer was characterized by the presence of hexagonal closed packed (hcp, MgZn 2 type) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in the eutectic of Laves and face centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution. The

  18. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Oller, Adriana R

    2003-04-01

    Increased lung and nasal cancer risks have been reported in several cohorts of nickel refinery workers, but in more than 90% of the nickel-exposed workers that have been studied there is little, if any evidence of excess risk. This investigation utilizes human exposure measurements, animal data from cancer bioassays of three nickel compounds, and a mechanistic theory of nickel carcinogenesis to reconcile the disparities in lung cancer risk among nickel-exposed workers. Animal data and mechanistic theory suggest that the apparent absence of risk in workers with low nickel exposures is due to threshold-like responses in lung tumor incidence (oxidic nickel), tumor promotion (soluble nickel), and genetic damage (sulfidic nickel). When animal-based lung cancer dose-response functions for these compounds are extrapolated to humans, taking into account interspecies differences in deposition and clearance, differences in particle size distributions, and human work activity patterns, the predicted risks at occupational exposures are remarkably similar to those observed in nickel-exposed workers. This provides support for using the animal-based dose-response functions to estimate occupational exposure limits, which are found to be comparable to those in current use.

  19. Influence of Chromium and Molybdenum on the Corrosion of Nickel Based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J R; Gray, J; Szmodis, A W; Orme, C A

    2005-01-01

    The addition of chromium and molybdenum to nickel creates alloys with exceptional corrosion resistance in a diverse range of environments. This study examines the complementary roles of Cr and Mo in Ni alloy passivation. Four nickel alloys with varying amounts of chromium and molybdenum were studied in 1 molar salt solutions over a broad pH range. The passive corrosion and breakdown behavior of the alloys suggests that chromium is the primary element influencing general corrosion resistance. The breakdown potential was nearly independent of molybdenum content, while the repassivation potential is strongly dependant on the molybdenum content. This indicates that chromium plays a strong role in maintaining the passivity of the alloy, while molybdenum acts to stabilize the passive film after a localized breakdown event

  20. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  1. Development of a highly weldable and corrosion resistant nickel-chromium filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.; Capobianco, T.E.; Etien, R.A.; Mullen, J.V.; Leveillee, S.; Sander, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a long term research effort to develop an improved filler metal for gas-tungsten- arc welding of Alloy 690. The goal of this work was to maintain the corrosion resistance of wrought Alloy 690 while eliminating ductility dip cracking (DDC) or other as welded defects in prototypical welds. Results from weld mockups, weldability testing, microstructural and microchemical characterization, and computational modeling show that ductility dip cracking is a form of precipitation-induced-cracking and can be mitigated via alloying to control the type and extent of carbide formation. Additionally, these tests illustrate that in commercially available filler metals, alloying additions intended to provide DDC resistance (Nb, B, and Zr) are not effective and, in many cases, cause solidification cracking in addition to DDC. Based on these welding results, three candidate alloys of 24 wt.%, 27 wt.%, and 30 wt.% chromium were further evaluated for their mechanical properties, phase stability, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Results to date show weldability mechanical properties, and phase stability comparable to EN82, but significantly improved resistance to EAC. These findings are used to define an alloy designated EN52i, that offers a desirable combination of weldability and corrosion resistance. (author)

  2. Development of a highly weldable and corrosion resistant nickel-chromium filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G.A.; Capobianco, T.E.; Etien, R.A.; Mullen, J.V.; Leveillee, S.; Sander, P.C. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on a long term research effort to develop an improved filler metal for gas-tungsten- arc welding of Alloy 690. The goal of this work was to maintain the corrosion resistance of wrought Alloy 690 while eliminating ductility dip cracking (DDC) or other as welded defects in prototypical welds. Results from weld mockups, weldability testing, microstructural and microchemical characterization, and computational modeling show that ductility dip cracking is a form of precipitation-induced-cracking and can be mitigated via alloying to control the type and extent of carbide formation. Additionally, these tests illustrate that in commercially available filler metals, alloying additions intended to provide DDC resistance (Nb, B, and Zr) are not effective and, in many cases, cause solidification cracking in addition to DDC. Based on these welding results, three candidate alloys of 24 wt.%, 27 wt.%, and 30 wt.% chromium were further evaluated for their mechanical properties, phase stability, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Results to date show weldability mechanical properties, and phase stability comparable to EN82, but significantly improved resistance to EAC. These findings are used to define an alloy designated EN52i, that offers a desirable combination of weldability and corrosion resistance. (author)

  3. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  4. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  5. The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  6. Corrosion characterisation of laser beam and tungsten inert gas weldment of nickel base alloys: Micro-cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Geogy J.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.; Raja, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grain matrix showed better corrosion resistance than grain boundary. • Microcell studies showed distinct corrosion behaviour of individual regions of weldment. • TIG welding resulted in increased stable anodic current density on weld fusion zone. • LB welding resulted in high stable anodic current density for heat affected zone. - Abstract: The electrochemical studies using micro-cell technique gave new understanding of electrochemical behaviour of nickel base alloys in solution annealed and welded conditions. The welding simulated regions depicted varied micro structural features. In case of tungsten inert gas (TIG) weldments, the weld fusion zone (WFZ) showed least corrosion resistance among all other regions. For laser beam (LB) weldments it was the heat-affected zone (HAZ) that showed comparatively high stable anodic current density. The high heat input of TIG welding resulted in slower heat dissipation hence increased carbide precipitation and segregation in WFZ resulting in high stable anodic current density

  7. Rafting in single crystal nickel-base superalloys – An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Page 1 ... aircraft engines as well as land-based power generation applications. Microstruc- ture and high temperature mechanical properties are the major factors controlling the performance of SX ... Single crystal (SX) superalloys are a group of nickel-base superalloys. They exhibit superior high temperatur mechanical ...

  8. Computer aided design of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a computer aided design process for Ni-base superalloys developed and employed at ASEA Brown Boveri. The technique involves a series of modules each of which predicts a particular property of a hypothetical new composition. In the first stage of the development of this design techniques modules were produced to predict phase stability, using PHACOMP, and high temperature creep strength and hot corrosion resistance, using multiple linear regression equations derived from the data in the literature. Alloys designed using these technique are also discussed and, in particular, shortcomings of the design process are highlighted. This information was then used to produce a revamped design methodology involving extra modules, including prediction of an alloy's gamma-prime content. (orig.)

  9. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Novel Rotary Files Manufactured from Different Thermal Treated Nickel-Titanium Wires in Artificial Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataşlıoglu, E; Aydın, U; Yıldırım, C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the static cyclic fatigue resistance of thermal treated rotary files with a conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary file. Four groups of 60 rotary files with similar file dimensions, geometries, and motion were selected. Groups were set as HyFlex Group [controlled memory wire (CM-Wire)], ProfileVortex Group (M-Wire), Twisted File Group (R-Phase Wire), and OneShape Group (conventional NiTi wire)] and tested using a custom-made static cyclic fatigue testing apparatus. The fracture time and fragment length of the each file was also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test at the 95% confidence level (P = 0.05). The HyFlex group had a significantly higher mean cyclic fatigue resistance than the other three groups (P Wire alloy represented the best performance in cyclic fatigue resistance, and NiTi alloy in R-Phase had the second highest fatigue resistance. CM and R-Phase manufacturing technology processed to the conventional NiTi alloy enhance the cyclic fatigue resistance of files that have similar design and size. M-wire alloy did not show any superiority in cyclic fatigue resistance when compared with conventional NiTi wire.

  10. Impact of Nickel silicide Rear Metallization on Series Resistance of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R; Hanna, Amir N; Kutbee, Arwa T; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    the electrical characteristics of nickel mono-silicide (NiSi)/Cu-Al ohmic contact on the rear side of c-Si solar cells. We observe a significant enhancement in the fill factor of around 6.5% for NiSi/Cu-Al rear contacts leading to increasing the efficiency by 1.2

  11. Optical and structural characterization of nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales-Hurtado, M.A.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel oxide-based thin films were obtained using the chemical bath deposition method on glass and silicon substrates. The precursor solution used was a mixture of nickel nitrate, urea, and deionized water. Molar concentration of nickel (0.3-1.0 M), deposition time, and immersing cycles were considered as deposition variables. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data reveal that all as-deposited films correspond to the transparent turbostratic phase α(II)-Ni(OH) 2 . However, the rate of deposition depends on nickel content in the solution. After annealing in air at temperatures above of 300 deg. C, the films are transformed to the NiO phase and show a grey/black color. In these films, scanning electron microscopy images show aggregates of thin stacked sheets on their surface, such aggregates can be easily removed leaving only a thin NiO layer of about 30 nm adhered firmly to the substrate, regardless of nickel concentration in the solution and deposition time. In order to obtain thicker NiO films with good optical properties a procedure is developed performing several immersing-annealing cycles

  12. The speed of growth of the gamma phase comes prime in nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti, M.M; Ges, A.M; Versaci, R.A

    2004-01-01

    Nickel-based alloys have a high fraction in volume of precipitate phase. This precipitate phase provides the characteristics of high mechanical resistance to high temperatures and, therefore, a study of the growth of this phase can predict the behavior of the components in service. This work studies the speed of growth in the alloy INCONEL 713C at temperatures of 800 o C, 875 o C and 950 o C with different treatment times. The present phase in this alloy is Ni3(AlTi), with a very high fraction in volume. The follow-up on the growth of the phase was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The speed of growth presents modifications that increase and decrease as a function of time. These variations in speed are attributed to modifications in the size and morphology of the precipitate particles. The changes in size and morphology directly influence the interfacial energy that produces the change in the speed of growth (CW)

  13. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  14. Fatigue-crack propagation response of two nickel-base alloys in a liquid sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The elevated temperature fatigue-crack propagation response of Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework in air and low-oxygen liquid sodium environments. The crack growth rates of both nickel-base alloys tested in liquid sodium were found to be considerably lower than those obtained in air. This enhanced fatigue resistance in sodium was attributed to the very low oxygen content in the inert sodium environment. Electron fractographic examination of the Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on the prevailing stress intensity level. Under low growth rate conditions, Inconel 600 and Inconel 718 fracture surfaces exhibited a faceted, crystallographic morphology in both air and sodium environments. In the higher growth rate regime, fatigue striations were observed; however, striations formed in sodium were rather ill-defined. These indistinct striations were attributed to the absence of oxygen in the liquid sodium environment. Striation spacing measurements were found to be in excellent agreement with macroscopic growth rates in both environments

  15. Corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel, nickel-base alloy and its weldments in aqueous LiBr solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia Anton, J.; Garcia-Garcia, D. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. E.T.S.I.Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012 E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    With the advances in materials production new alloys have been developed, such as High- Alloy Austenitic Stainless Steels and Nickel-base alloys, with high corrosion resistance. These new alloys are finding applications in Lithium Bromide absorption refrigeration systems, because LiBr is a corrosive medium which can cause serious corrosion problems, in spite of its favourable properties as absorbent. The objective of the present work was to study the corrosion resistance of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031) used as base metal, a Nickel-base alloy (UNS N06059) used as its corresponding filler metal, and the weld metal obtained by the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) procedure. The materials have been tested in different LiBr solutions (400 g/l, 700 g/l, 850 g/l and a commercial 850 g/l LiBr heavy brine containing Lithium Chromate as corrosion inhibitor), at 25 deg. C. Open Circuit Potential tests and potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves have been carried out to obtain information about the general electrochemical behaviour of the materials. The polarization curves of all the alloys tested were typical of passivable materials. Pitting corrosion susceptibility has been evaluated by means of cyclic potentiodynamic curves, which provide parameters to analyse re-passivation properties. The galvanic corrosion generated by the electrical contact between the welded and the base material has been estimated from the polarization diagrams according to the Mixed Potential Method. Samples have been etched to study the microstructure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrate that the pitting resistance of all these materials increases as the LiBr concentration decreases. In general, the presence of chromate tended to shift the pitting potential to more positive values than those obtained in the 850 g/l LiBr solution. (authors)

  16. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  17. Emission spectral analysis of nickel-base superalloys with fixed time intergration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Haruno; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Shunichi; Sudo, Emiko

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of multielements (C, B, Mo, Ta, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Nb, Cu, Ti, Zr, and Al) in nickel-base superalloys (Ni: 68 -- 76%) was performed by emission spectral analysis. At first, samples which had various nickel contents (ni: 68 -- 76%) were prepared by using JAERI R9, nickel and other metals (Fe, Co, or Cr). It was confirmed that in the internal standard method (Ni II 227.73 nm), analytical values of all the elements examined decreased with a decrease of the integration time (ca. 3.9 -- 4.6 s), that is, an increase of the nickel content. On the other hand, according to the fixed time integration method, elements except for C, Mo, and Cr were not interfered within the range of nickel contents examined. A series of nickel-base binary alloys (Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Nb, Mo, and W series) were prepared by high frequency induction melting and the centrifugal casting method and formulae for correcting interferences with near spectral lines were obtained. Various synthetic samples were prepared and analysed by this method. The equations of calibration curves were derived from the data for standard samples (JAERI R1 -- R6, NBS 1189, 1203 -- 1205, and B.S. 600B) by curve fitting with orthogonal polynomials using a computer. For the assessment of this method studied, the F-test was performed by comparison of variances of both analytical values of standard and synthetic samples. The surfaces of specimens were polished with a belt grinder using No. 80 of alumina or silicon carbide endless-paper. The preburn period and integration one were decided at 5 and 6 s respectively. A few standard samples which gave worse reproducibility in emission spectral analysis was investigated with an optical microscope and an electron probe X-ray microanalyser. (author)

  18. Determinants of the quality of brazed joints of nickel-based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Strzelczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry, passenger safety depends on proper quality control at each production stage. The main responsibility for the correct operation of the aircraft lies within a gas turbine. A proper and rigorous selection of the gas turbine construction material is required, and in a further step, the method of joining the construction parts. Nickel superalloys due to the high heat resistance, strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, toughness and corrosion resistance, are very often used for the construction of a gas turbine engine. In the next step, the selection of joining method is necessary. This method must be able to achieve high-quality connections, resistant to work at high temperatures and corrosive environments. The most effective bonding method that meets the above conditions is brazing. In this study non-destructive (visual test and destructive (metallographic test of brazed joint of Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 were conducted.

  19. Torsional resistance of XP-endo Shaper at body temperature compared with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2018-05-01

    To compare the torsional resistance of XP-endo Shaper (XPS; size 30, .01 taper, FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instruments at body temperature with TRUShape (TRS; size 30, .06 taper, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA), ProFile Vortex (PV; size 30, .04 taper, Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties) and FlexMaster (FM; size 30, .04 taper, VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) nickel-titanium rotary instruments. A metal block with a square-shaped mould (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) was positioned inside a glass container. Five millimetres of the tip of each instrument was held inside the metal block by filling the mould with a resin composite. The instruments were tested for torsional resistance in saline solution at 37 °C. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey post hoc tests. The significance level was set at P instruments tested (P instruments (P = 0.211). The ranking for torsional resistance values was: FM > PV > TRS > XPS. FlexMaster and ProFile Vortex instruments were more resistant to torsional stress compared with TRUShape and XP-endo Shaper instruments. The manufacturing process used to produce XP-endo Shaper instruments did not enhance their resistance to torsional stress as compared with the other instruments. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cycle aging studies of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Santarelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The cycle aging of a commercial 18650 lithium-ion battery with graphite anode and lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide-based cathode at defined operating conditions is studied by regular electrochemical characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and post-mortem analysis.

  1. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers.

  3. Relationship of heat treatment-mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys.; Relacion tratamiento termico-propiedades mecanicas de una superaleacion base niquel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L

    1997-12-01

    The nickel-base superalloys have high strength, excellent corrosion resistant, and good creep and fatigue resistance. These alloy improved properties at high temperature derive their mechanical and creep behavior on {gamma} precipitate morphology, and the evolution of such morphology during different heat treatment conditions. The main microstructural variable of Nickel-based superalloys, responsible for the mechanical properties are: (a) amount and morphology of precipitates; (b) size and shape of grains; and (c) carbide distribution. In this work, a Nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 80A, modified little with Zr prepared by melting and casting practices of materials electrolytic in vacuum-induction melting (VIM) type Balzers, to obtain five alloys different and ingots of 2 Kg and 1 Kg, with composition in weight % of Nimonic 80-A is: Ni = bal (76.66), C = 0.01, Cr = 19.83, Fe = 2.4, Mn = 0.17, Si 0.47, Al = 0.19, Zr = 0.4. The solidification process is made in a steel mold. After having realized four thermal treatments, the most representative microstructures there were obtained. The results from tensile tests performed on Instron Servohydraulic testing systems at uniaxial dynamic testing, at constant speeds to ,0.2 cm/min, were: the yield strength, the ultimate strength value, percentage elongation and area reduction. Creep tests were performed at in stress of 90 and 129 MPa, at a temperature of 600 and 680 Centigrades at different times and width of specimen of 1 mm. The alloys were analyzed by MEB(JEOL 35CF) at different magnifications. The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities during creep of alloy Nimonic M3, were investigated. One sample was deformed in creep at 129 MPa and 680 Centigrades during 110 hs. Creep samples were annealing heat treated at 800 Centigrades, during 7 days. After a careful sample preparation procedure, 3100 of cavities were measured in the sample . The cavity size distributions in the sample were obtained. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Swelling in neutron irradiated nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, H.R.; Bell, W.L.

    1972-01-01

    Inconel 625, Incoloy 800 and Hastelloy X were neutron irradiated at 500 to 700 0 C. It was found that of the three alloys investigated, Inconel 625 offers the greatest swelling resistance. The superior swelling resistance of Inconel 625 relative to that of Hastelloy-X is probably related to differences in the concentrations of the minor rather than major alloy constituents, and can involve (a) enhanced recombination of defects in the Inconel 625 and (b) preferential attraction of vacancies to incoherent precipitates. (U.S.)

  5. Sintering and microstructure evolution of columnar nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Qu, S.J.; Liang, J.; Han, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EB-PVD technology is commonly used to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and columnar structure is commonly seen in EB-PVD condensates. The unique columnar structure can provide outstanding resistance against thermal shock and mechanical strains for TBCs. However, a number of researchers have found that the columnar structure can affect the mechanical properties of EB-PVD alloy thin sheet significantly. As yet, works on how to reduce this kind of effects are seldom done. In the present article, we tried to reveal the sintering effects on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of columnar Ni-based superalloy sheet. The results suggests that after sintering, the columnar structure degrades. Degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering. - Abstract: A ∼0.15 mm-thick columnar nickel-based superalloy sheet was obtained by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited alloy sheet was sintered at different conditions. The microstructure of the specimens before and after sintering was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy. An X'Pert texture facility was used to determine the crystallographic orientation of the as-deposited alloy sheet. The phase transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on as-deposited and sintered specimens. The results show that the as-deposited sheet is composed of typical columnar structures. After sintering, however, the columnar structure degrades. The degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering.

  6. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst-A non-noble metal-based general hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Pavel; Agostini, Giovanni; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Lund, Henrik; Agapova, Anastasiya; Junge, Henrik; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO 2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si-O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H 2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal-based catalysts.

  7. Effects of electropolishing surface treatment on the cyclic fatigue resistance of BioRace nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Elias, Carlos N; Vieira, Victor T L; Moreira, Edson J L; Marques, Raquel V L; de Oliveira, Julio C Machado; Debelian, Gilberto; Siqueira, José F

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of electropolishing surface treatment on the number of cycles to fracture of BioRace rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. BioRace size BR5C instruments with or without electropolishing surface treatment were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm until fracture. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polished instruments displayed a significantly higher number of cycles to fracture when compared with nonpolished instruments (P ductile morphologic characteristics. Evaluation of the separated fragments after cyclic fatigue testing showed the presence of microcracks near the fracture surface. Polished instruments exhibited fine cracks that assumed an irregular path (zigzag crack pattern), whereas nonpolished instruments showed cracks running along the machining grooves. Electropolishing surface treatment of BioRace endodontic instruments significantly increased the cyclic fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MeCrAl coatings obtained by arc PVD and pack cementation processes on nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Maciejny, A.; Formanek, B.; Mendala, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on obtaining and structure of high temperature resistance coatings on superalloys. The coatings were deposited on nickel and nickel base superalloys in two stages. During the first stage, the NiCr and NiCrHf coatings were obtained by arc-PVD method. Basic technology, bias, arc current, rotation, parameters of deposition of NiCr and MeCrHf coatings were defined. The high efficiency of deposition of both single and two sources was observed. The targets were made by vacuum melting and machining. An influence of targets chemical composition on coating structure and chemical coatings composition was described. The second stage was made by pack cementation HTLA (high temperature low activity) on 1323 K chromoaluminizing process. These arc-PVD and diffusion (pack cementation) connected processes permitted to obtain MeCrAl and MeCrAlHf type of coatings. The morphology, structure and microchemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. (orig.)

  9. Nickel based alloys for molten salt applications in pyrochemical reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ningshen, S.; Ravi Shankar, A.; Rao, Ch. Jagadeeswara; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing route is one of the best option for reprocessing of spent metallic nuclear fuel from future fast breeder in many countries, especially in the US (Integral fast reactor, IFR), Russia (Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, RIAR), Japan, Korea and India. This technology with intrinsic nuclear proliferation resistance is regarded as one of the most promising nuclear fuel cycle technologies of the next-generation. However, the selection of materials of construction for pyrochemical reprocessing plants is challenging because of the extreme environments, i.e., high radiation, corrosive molten salt (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-KCl-CsCl, KCl-NaCl-MgCl 2 , etc.), reactive molten metals, and high temperature. Efforts have been made to develop compatible materials for various unit operations like salt preparation, electrorefining, cathode processing and alloy casting in pyrochemical reprocessing. Nickel and its alloy are the candidate materials for salt purification exposed to molten LiCl-KCl under Cl 2 bubbling, in air or ultra high purity argon environment. In the present study, the corrosion behavior of candidate materials like Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel 690 exposed to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt environment at 500 to 600 °C have been carried out. The surface morphology of the exposed samples and scales were examined by SEM/EDX and XRD. The weight loss results indicated that Inconel 600 and Inconel 690 offer better corrosion resistance compared to Inconel 625 in air and chlorine environment. Higher corrosion of Inconel 625 is attributed to development of Mo rich salt layers. However, Ni base alloys exhibited a decreasing trend of weight loss with increasing time of exposure and weight gain was observed under UHP Ar environment. The mechanism of corrosion of Ni base alloys appeared to be due to formation of Cr rich and Ni rich layers of Cr 2 O 3 , NiO and spinel oxides at the surface and subsequent spallation. Based on the present studies, Inconel 690

  10. Chromium depletion on the surface of nickel based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dille, E.R.; McDonald, J.L.; Berry, P.

    1988-01-01

    Successful selection of corrosion resistant materials for flue gas desuflurization applications is tricky business at best. Most simulated, accelerated, concentrated corrosion tests try to rank materials to known corrosive condition. If you check the actual data, occasionally you find anomalies such as highly corrosion resistant materials performing below what was expected, while the rest of the group is performing normally. In the field the authors have observed similar results with few acceptable explanations. Recently the authors have found numerous cases of Ni/Cr/Mo alloys with a surface analysis below the ASTM specified range for the element chromium. These surface analysis have been done with a portable X-ray Fluorescent Instrument with the initial results confirmed by an independent laboratory

  11. Development of welding technology for improving the metallurgical and mechanical properties of 21st century nickel based superalloy 686

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmurugan, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Manikandan, M., E-mail: mano.manikandan@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2017-04-13

    Alloy 686 is a highly corrosion resistant 21st-Century Nickel based superalloy derived from Ni-Cr-Mo ternary system. The alloying elements chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) are added to improve the resistance to corrosion in the broad range of service environment. The presence of a higher percentage of alloying elements Cr and Mo lead to microsegregation and end up with hot cracking in the fusion zone of Nickel-based superalloys. However, there is scanty of information regarding the welding of alloy 686 with respect to the microsegregation of alloying elements. The present study investigates the possibility of bringing down the microsegregation to cut down the formation of secondary phases in the fusion zone. The weld joints were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) with ERNiCrMo-10 filler and without filler wire (autogenous) mode. The microstructural properties of the weld joints were studied with optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The joints fabricated by pulsed current (PC) technique shows refined microstructure, narrower weld bead and practically no heat affected zone (HAZ). Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrates the presence of secondary phases in the interdendritic regions of GTAW case. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying element. The results show that the segregation of Mo noticed in the interdendritic zone of GTAW both autogenous and filler wire. Tensile and Impact tests were done to evaluate the strength, ductility, and toughness of the weld joints. The results show that the PCGTA helps to obtain improved strength, ductility and toughness of the weld joints compared to their respective GTAW. Bend test did not lead to cracking irrespective of the type of welding adopted in the present study.

  12. Irreversibility in transformation behavior of equiatomic nickel-titanium alloy by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity were precisely performed on shape memory Ni 50 Ti 50 alloy in order to reveal the irreversible behavior of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation with thermal cycling. The hump in the electrical resistivity during cooling is enhanced with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles to result in a peak, although no peak in the electrical resistivity is observed on the reverse transformation during heating. The electrical resistivity in the low-temperature phase, of which the temperature dependence is linear, increases with increasing the number of complete thermal cycles. The temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity in the temperature region of the high-temperature phase increases with elevating the temperature. The transformation is strongly influenced by incomplete thermal cycles to result in a peak in the resistivity even on the reverse transformation after incomplete thermal cycling. It is thought that the anomalous behavior such as enhancement of a resistivity-peak, the increase in the electrical resistivity of the low-temperature phase, and the nonlinear relation between the resistivity and the temperature in the high-temperature phase are attributable to the appearance of an intermediate phase stabilized by transformation-induced defects, the accumulation of the transformation-induced defects, and the electron scattering due to the softening of a phonon mode in the high-temperature phase, respectively. It proved useful to make more accurate measurements of the electrical resistivity in order to investigate the intrinsic behavior of the transformation in NiTi

  13. Atomic force microscopy imaging to measure precipitate volume fraction in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhettar, A.; Troyon, M.; Hazotte, A.

    1995-01-01

    In nickel-based superalloys, quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscopy images fails in providing accurate microstructural data, whereas more efficient techniques are very time-consuming. As an alternative approach, the authors propose to perform quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy images of polished/etched surfaces (quantitative microprofilometry). This permits the measurement of microstructural parameters and the depth of etching, which is the main source of measurement bias. Thus, nonbiased estimations can be obtained by extrapolation of the measurements up to zero etching depth. In this article, the authors used this approach to estimate the volume fraction of γ' precipitates in a nickel-based superalloy single crystal. Atomic force microscopy images of samples etched for different times show definition, homogeneity, and contrast high enough to perform image analysis. The result after extrapolation is in very good agreement with volume fraction values available from published reports

  14. Phase Transformations in Nickel base Superalloy Inconel 718 during Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jambor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base superalloys are hi-tech materials intended for high temperature applications. This property owns a complex microstructure formed by matrix of Ni and variety of precipitates. The type, form and the amount of these phases significantly affect the resulting properties of these alloys. At sufficiently long exposure to high temperatures, the transformation phase can occur, which can lead to degradation of properties of these alloys. A cyclic plastic deformation can accelerate these changes, and they could occur at significantly lower temperatures or in shorter time of exposure. The aim of this study is to describe phase transformation, which can occur by a cyclic plastic deformation at high temperatures in nickel base superalloy Inconel 718.

  15. Realization of transient memory-loss with NiO-based resistive switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Z.; Yu, Q.; Deng, L. J.; Yin, Y.; Hosaka, Sumio

    2012-11-01

    A resistive switching device based on a nickel-rich nickel oxide thin film, which exhibits inherent learning and memory-loss abilities, is reported in this work. The conductance of the device gradually increases and finally saturates with the number of voltage pulses (or voltage sweepings), which is analogous to the behavior of the short-term and long-term memory in the human brain. Furthermore, the number of the voltage pulses (or sweeping cycles) required to achieve a given conductance state increases with the interval between two consecutive voltage pulses (or sweeping cycles), which is attributed to the heat diffusion in the material of the conductive filaments formed in the nickel oxide thin film. The phenomenon resembles the behavior of the human brain, i.e., forgetting starts immediately after an impression, a larger interval of the impressions leads to more memory loss, thus the memorization needs more impressions to enhance.

  16. Genome-centric evaluation of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 resistant to high concentrations of uranium and nickel isolated from the Savannah River Site (SRS, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Pathak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Savannah River Site (SRS, an approximately 800-km2 former nuclear weapons production facility located near Aiken, SC remains co-contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides. To gain a better understanding on microbially-mediated bioremediation mechanisms, several bacterial strains resistant to high concentrations of Uranium (U and Nickel (Ni were isolated from the Steeds Pond soils located within the SRS site. One of the isolated strains, designated as strain SRS-W-2-2016, grew robustly on both U and Ni. To fully understand the arsenal of metabolic functions possessed by this strain, a draft whole genome sequence (WGS was obtained, assembled, annotated and analyzed. Genome-centric evaluation revealed the isolate to belong to the Burkholderia genus with close affiliation to B. xenovorans LB400, an aggressive polychlorinated biphenyl-degrader. At a coverage of 90×, the genome of strain SRS-W-2-2016 consisted of 8,035,584 bases with a total number of 7071 putative genes assembling into 191 contigs with an N50 contig length of 134,675 bases. Several gene homologues coding for resistance to heavy metals/radionuclides were identified in strain SRS-W-2-2016, such as a suite of outer membrane efflux pump proteins similar to nickel/cobalt transporter regulators, peptide/nickel transport substrate and ATP-binding proteins, permease proteins, and a high-affinity nickel-transport protein. Also noteworthy were two separate gene fragments in strain SRS-W-2-2016 homologous to the spoT gene; recently correlated with bacterial tolerance to U. Additionally, a plethora of oxygenase genes were also identified in the isolate, potentially involved in the breakdown of organic compounds facilitating the strain's successful colonization and survival in the SRS co-contaminated soils. The WGS project of Burkholderia sp. strain SRS-W-2-2016 is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession #MSDV00000000.

  17. Analysis of nickel-base alloys by Grimm-type glow discharge emission and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, N.P.; Strauss, J.A.; Van Maarseveen, I.; Ivanfy, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-base alloys can be analysed as satisfactorily as steels by XRF as well as by the Grimm-type source, in spite of problems caused by element combinations, spectral line overlap and the influence of the structure and heat conduction properties on sputtering in the glow discharge source. This extended abstract briefly discusses the use of Grimm-type glow discharge emission and XRF as techniques for the analysis of nickel-base alloys

  18. The Effect of Forging Variables on the Supersolvus Heat-Treatment Response of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0160 THE EFFECT OF FORGING VARIABLES ON THE SUPERSOLVUS HEAT-TREATMENT RESPONSE OF POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS... POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR...treatment (SSHT) of two powder - metallurgy , gamma–gamma prime superalloys, IN-100 and LSHR, was established. For this purpose, isothermal, hot

  19. Detection of creep damage in a nickel base superalloy using NDE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, H.; Mora, B.; Barrera, G.

    2009-10-01

    Due to elevated temperatures, excessive stresses and severed corrosion conditions, turbine engine components are subject to creep processes that limit the components life such as a turbine bucket. The failure mechanism of a turbine bucket is related primarily to creep and corrosion and secondarily to thermal fatigue. As a result, it is desirable to assess the current conditions of such turbine component. This study uses the eddy current nondestructive evaluation technique in an effort to monitor the creep damage in a nickel base super-alloy, turbine bucket after service. The experimental results show an important electrical conductivity variation in eddy current images on the creep damage zone of nickel base super-alloy samples cut from a turbine bucket. Thermoelectric power measurements were also conducted in order to obtain a direct correlation between the presence of material changes due to creep damage and the electrical conductivity measurements. This research work shows an alternative non-destructive method in order to detect creep damage in a nickel base super-alloy turbine bucket. (Author)

  20. A continuum model for the anisotropic creep of single crystal nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Sharat C.; Rajagopal, K.R.; Rao, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the constitutive theory developed by Prasad et al. [Prasad SC, Rao IJ, Rajagopal KR. A continuum model for the creep of single crystal nickel-base superalloys. Acta Mater 2005;53(3):669-79], to describe the creep anisotropy associated with crystallographic orientation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys. The constitutive theory is cast within a general thermodynamic framework that has been developed to describe the response of materials capable of existing in multiple stress free configurations ('natural configurations'). Central to the theory is the prescription of the forms for the stored energy and rate of dissipation functions. The stored energy reflects the fact that the elastic response exhibits cubic symmetry. The model takes into account the fact that the symmetry of single crystals does not change with inelastic deformation. The rate of dissipation function is also chosen to be anisotropic, in that it reflects invariance to transformations that belong to the cubic symmetry group. The model is used to simulate uniaxial creep of single crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 for loading along the , and orientations. The predictions of the theory agree well with the experimental data

  1. Study of cutting speed on surface roughness and chip formation when machining nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A.; Mohamed, Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Nickel- based alloy is difficult-to-machine because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at higher temperature. The machinability of nickel- based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using different types of inserts under dry conditions on a computer numerical control (CNC) turning machine at different stages of cutting speed. The effects of cutting speed on surface roughness have been investigated. This study explores the types of wear caused by the effect of cutting speed on coated and uncoated carbide inserts. In addition, the effect of burr formation is investigated. The chip burr is found to have different shapes at lower speeds. Triangles and squares have been noticed for both coated and uncoated tips as well. The conclusion from this study is that the transition from thick continuous chip to wider discontinuous chip is caused by different types of inserts. The chip burr has a significant effect on tool damage starting in the line of depth-of-cut. For the coated insert tips, the burr disappears when the speed increases to above 150 m/min with the improvement of surface roughness; increasing the speed above the same limit for uncoated insert tips increases the chip burr size. The results of this study showed that the surface finish of nickel-based alloy is highly affected by the insert type with respect to cutting speed changes and its effect on chip burr formation and tool failure

  2. Development of phased array UT procedure for crack depth sizing on nickel based alloy weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Okada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been occurred at the nickel based alloy weld components such as steam generator safe end weld, reactor vessel safe end weld, and so on, in PWR. Defect detection and sizing is important in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. In the reactor vessel safe end weld, it was impossible to measure crack depth of PWSCC. The crack was detected in the axial direction of the safe end weld. Furthermore, the crack had some features such as shallow, large aspect ratio (ratio of crack depth and length), sharp geometry of crack tip, and so on. Therefore, development and improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for ultrasonic inspection technique is required. Phased array UT technique was applied to nickel based alloy weld specimen with SCC cracks. From the experimental results, good accuracy of crack depth sizing by phased array UT for the inside inspection was shown. From these results, UT procedure for crack depth sizing was verified. Therefore, effectiveness of phased array UT for crack depth sizing in the nickel based alloy welds was shown. (author)

  3. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  4. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 types of nickel-titanium rotary instruments (K3, Mtwo, ProTaper). Three brands of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments of the same size (tip diameter 0.25 mm and constant 0.06 taper) were selected: K3, Mtwo and Protaper (F2). 24 instruments for each brand were used to evaluate the effects of autoclave sterilization on inner character in the as-received condition and after subjection to 0, 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles (6 for each group). Time to fracture (TtF) from the start of the test to the moment of file breakage and the length of the fractured fragment were recorded. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. Another 12 NiTi rotary instruments for each brand were used, 6 subjected to 10 autoclave sterilization cycles and the other as control. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the changes in surface topography and inner character. For cyclic fatigue resistance, when sterilization was not performed, K3 showed the highest value of TtF means and ProTaper the lowest. The differences between each brand were statistically significant (Pinstruments were intensified greatly after 10 cycles of sterilization. Cycle fatigue resistance is different among instruments of different brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  5. Cyclic fatigue resistance tests of Nickel-Titanium rotary files using simulated canal and weight loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-In Cho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium (NiTi files obtained in a conventional test using a simulated canal with a newly developed method that allows the application of constant fatigue load conditions. Materials and Methods ProFile and K3 files of #25/.06, #30/.06, and #40/.04 were selected. Two types of testing devices were built to test their fatigue performance. The first (conventional device prescribed curvature inside a simulated canal (C-test, the second new device exerted a constant load (L-test whilst allowing any resulting curvature. Ten new instruments of each size and brand were tested with each device. The files were rotated until fracture and the number of cycles to failure (NCF was determined. The NCF were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc test for each method. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed to examine any association between methods. Results Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ = -0.905 showed a significant negative correlation between methods. Groups with significant difference after the L-test divided into 4 clusters, whilst the C-test gave just 2 clusters. From the L-test, considering the negative correlation of NCF, K3 gave a significantly lower fatigue resistance than ProFile as in the C-test. K3 #30/.06 showed a lower fatigue resistance than K3 #25/.06, which was not found by the C-test. Variation in fatigue test methodology resulted in different cyclic fatigue resistance rankings for various NiTi files. Conclusions The new methodology standardized the load during fatigue testing, allowing determination fatigue behavior under constant load conditions.

  6. Tungsten wire--nickel base alloy composite development. Contractor report, 1 Jun 1974--29 Feb 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brentnall, W.D.; Moracz, D.J.

    1976-03-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed, and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W--Hf--C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/m 2 (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics

  7. Study of alumina-trichite reinforcement of a nickel-based matric by means of powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, A.; Hivert, A.

    1982-01-01

    Research was conducted on reinforcing nickel based matrices with alumina trichites by using powder metallurgy. Alumina trichites previously coated with nickel are magnetically aligned. The felt obtained is then sintered under a light pressure at a temperature just below the melting point of nickel. The halogenated atmosphere technique makes it possible to incorporate a large number of additive elements such as chromium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum, niobium, aluminum, etc. It does not appear that going from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale in production would create any major problems.

  8. Effect of co-exposure to nickel and particulate matter on insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Rao, Xiaoquan; Wang, Tse-Yao; Jiang, Silis Y; Ying, Zhekang; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Zhong, Mianhua; Deiuliis, Jeffrey A; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-11-05

    It has been well recognized that toxicity of fine ambient air particulate matter (PM(2.5)) may depend on its chemical constituents, including components such as soluble metals that may theoretically exert distinctive effects. We have recently demonstrated an important effect of PM(2.5) on metabolic function. Since transition metals, such as nickel (Ni), represent an important component of exposure in certain environments, and may significantly influence the toxicity of inhalational exposure, we investigated the effects of Ni as a variable component of ambient PM(2.5) exposure. Male ApoE knockout mice were exposed to filtered air (FA), fine-sized nickel sulfate particles alone (Ni) at 0.44 μg/m(3), concentrated ambient air PM(2.5) (CAPs) at a mean of 70 μg/m(3), or CAPs+Ni in Tuxedo, NY, 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 3 months. Exposure to Ni, irrespective of co-exposure to CAPs, resulted in body weight gain, while exposure to CAPs+Ni significantly enhanced fasting glucose and worsened insulin resistance measures (HOMA-IR), when compared with exposure to CAPs alone. CAPs+Ni exposure induced a significant decrease in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α. Exposure to Ni or CAPs+Ni significantly induced microcirculatory dysfunction and increased monocytic cell infiltration into lung and adipose, and decreased uncoupling protein 1 expression at gene and protein levels and several brown adipocyte-specific genes in adipose tissue. Ni exposure has effects on metabolic and inflammatory parameters that are comparable to that of CAPs. Additionally, Ni synergistically exacerbates CAPs-induced adverse effects on some of, but not all of, these parameters, that may be mediated via the AMPK signaling pathway. These findings have important implications for inhaled transition metal toxicity that may exert synergistic effects with other PM(2.5) components.

  9. Pyruvic oxime nitrification and copper and nickel resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Miguel; Obrzydowski, Jennifer; Ayers, Mary; Virparia, Sonia; Wang, Meijing; Stefan, Kurtis; Linchangco, Richard; Castignetti, Domenic

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3-C(NOH)-COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus) known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1) was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu(2+) or 0.5 mM Ni(2+) was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu(2+) or 0.5 mM Ni(2+). The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  10. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  11. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of KNiHCF homogeneous phase on the fabric surface, which consisted of crystalline cubic-shaped nanoparticles (70 to 100 nm). The efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent for removal of cesium ions was evaluated under various experimental conditions. It has demonstrated a rapid adsorption process, high adsorption capacity over a wide pH range, and selectivity in Cs ion removal from model solutions with high concentration of sodium ions.

  12. Nickel-resistance determinants in Acidiphilium sp. PM identified by genome-wide functional screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi San Martin-Uriz

    Full Text Available Acidiphilium spp. are conspicuous dwellers of acidic, metal-rich environments. Indeed, they are among the most metal-resistant organisms; yet little is known about the mechanisms behind the metal tolerance in this genus. Acidiphilium sp. PM is an environmental isolate from Rio Tinto, an acidic, metal-laden river located in southwestern Spain. The characterization of its metal resistance revealed a remarkable ability to tolerate high Ni concentrations. Here we report the screening of a genomic library of Acidiphilium sp. PM to identify genes involved in Ni resistance. This approach revealed seven different genes conferring Ni resistance to E. coli, two of which form an operon encoding the ATP-dependent protease HslVU (ClpQY. This protease was found to enhance resistance to both Ni and Co in E. coli, a function not previously reported. Other Ni-resistance determinants include genes involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the synthesis of branched amino acids. The diversity of molecular functions of the genes recovered in the screening suggests that Ni resistance in Acidiphilium sp. PM probably relies on different molecular mechanisms.

  13. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  14. Beta-electric power supply based in nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Gusev, V.V.; Zaddeh, V.V.; Petrenko, N.S.; Tsvetkov, L.A.; Tikhomiorov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    One analyzes the possibility to design 63 Ni base β-electric microwatt atomic battery expected to serve minimum 30 years. One proposes a process to ensure the full-scale commercial production of 63 Ni with 80-90% concentration in the end product. One presents and analyzes the design of a microporous silicon base β-electric converter with the optimized configuration and depth of micropores (microchannels). 63 Ni is coated on the microchannel inner surface. 63 Ni base atomic battery laboratory mock-up is available. Paper lists the design parameters and the volt-ampere characteristics of 500 microwatt capacity 63 Ni (of 90% concentration) base atomic battery [ru

  15. Fracture behavior of nickel-based alloys in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, W.J.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-08-01

    The cracking resistance of Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and their welds, EN82H and EN52, was characterized by conducting J{sub IC} tests in air and hydrogenated water. All test materials displayed excellent toughness in air and high temperature water, but Alloy 690 and the two welds were severely embrittled in low temperature water. In 54 C water with 150 cc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O, J{sub IC} values were typically 70% to 95% lower than their air counterparts. The toughness degradation was associated with a fracture mechanism transition from microvoid coalescence to intergranular fracture. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that susceptibility to low temperature cracking is due to hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The effects of water temperature, hydrogen content and loading rate on low temperature crack propagation were studied. In addition, testing of specimens containing natural weld defects and as-machined notches was performed to determine if low temperature cracking can initiate at these features. Unlike the other materials, Alloy 600 is not susceptible to low temperature cracking as the toughness in 54 C water remained high and a microvoid coalescence mechanism was operative in both air and water.

  16. Study of the structure and development of the set of reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of research: There are two sizes (several microns and nanodimensional of strengthening j'-phase in single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys, used for making blades of modern gas turbine engines (GTD. For in-depth study of structural and phase condition of such alloys not only qualitative description of created structure is necessary, but quantitative analysis of alloy components geometrical characteristics. Purpose of the work: Development of reference material sets of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloy composition and structure. Research methods: To address the measurement problem of control of structural and geometrical characteristics of single-crystal heat resisting and intermetallic alloys by analytical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis the research was carried out using certified measurement techniques on facilities, entered in the Register of Measurement Means of the Russian Federation. The research was carried out on microsections, foils and plates, cut in the plane {100}. Results: It is established that key parameters, defining the properties of these alloys are particle size of strengthening j' -phase, the layer thickness of j-phase between them and parameters of phases lattice. Metrological requirements for reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys are formulated. The necessary and sufficient reference material set providing the possibility to determine the composition and structure parameters of single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys is defined. The developed RM sets are certified as in-plant reference materials. Conclusion: The reference materials can be used for graduation of spectral equipment when conducting element analysis of specified class alloys; for calibration of means of measuring alloy structure parameters; for measurement of alloys phases lattice parameters; for structure reference pictures

  17. Resistivity and strain behavior during transformation cycling in nickel-titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1983-09-01

    The effects of stress and transformation fatigue cycling on the resistivity and strain behaviors in Ni-Ti wires were studied. The samples consisted of uncycled wires and wires cycled 5.78 million times in shape memory heat engine devices. Measurements of resistivity and strain were made as a function of temperature at various applied uniaxial tensile stresses. The resistivity-temperature and strain-temperature behaviors were observed to depend on the temperature or the portion of the transformation cycle at which the stress change is made. It was found that the low temperature resistivity and strain increased with increasing stress. Also, the transformation fatigue cycled wires showed a higher and broader resistivity peak with two-stage behavior. The increase in strain with increasing stress is explained in terms of the crystallographic multiplicity of martensite plates and the alteration of the martensite plate structure in response to the applied stress. Prior transformation fatigue cycling causes a decrease in the applied stress dependence of the total strain changes. Also, the shape of curve is changed upon annealing and the M/sub S/ temperature is lowered by transformation fatigue cycling. The lower M/sub S/ temperature upon cycling is due to a stabilization of the high-temperature phase due to transformation-induced dislocations acting as an impediment to further martensite nucleation. Another effect of the stress is to increase the resistivity of the low-temperature phase. However, it was noticed that the stress should be increased above M/sub S/ temperature to increase the resistivity of the low temperature phase. The increase in low-temperature resistivity is partially due to the change in form factor during transformation shape change and due to the alteration of the martensite variants in a preferred direction

  18. Electroless Nickel-Based Catalyst for Diffusion Limited Hydrogen Generation through Hydrolysis of Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P. Anderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts based on electroless nickel and bi-metallic nickel-molybdenum nanoparticles were synthesized for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation. The catalysts were synthesized by polymer-stabilized Pd nanoparticle-catalyzation and activation of Al2O3 substrate and electroless Ni or Ni-Mo plating of the substrate for selected time lengths. Catalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts was tested for the hydrolyzation of alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for hydrogen generation. The effects of electroless plating time lengths, temperature and NaBH4 concentration on hydrogen generation rates were analyzed and discussed. Compositional analysis and surface morphology were carried out for nano-metallized Al2O3 using Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDAX. The as-plated polymer-stabilized electroless nickel catalyst plated for 10 min and unstirred in the hydrolysis reaction exhibited appreciable catalytic activity for hydrolysis of NaBH4. For a zero-order reaction assumption, activation energy of hydrogen generation using the catalyst was estimated at 104.6 kJ/mol. Suggestions are provided for further work needed prior to using the catalyst for portable hydrogen generation from aqueous alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for fuel cells.

  19. A retrospective analysis of nickel exposure data at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Monica M; Van Der Merwe, Cornelius J; Linde, Stefan J L; Du Plessis, Johan L

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze historical soluble nickel exposure data from a South African base metal refinery and to identify trends in the soluble nickel exposure from 1981 until 2014 in the electrowinning department. Exposure data were presented in an exposure matrix, which described exposure profiles for both area and personal exposures inside two tankhouses. Exposure data were standardized by converting total nickel aerosol concentrations to inhalable nickel concentrations (correction factor 3.0). One-way analyses of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to identify significant differences in log-transformed area and personal exposures from 1982 until 2014, and the trends were assessed with linear regression. Differences were evaluated in area exposure between sections inside the tankhouses, i.e., East, West, and Center bays and in personal exposure between occupations, i.e., cell workers, crane drivers, and supervisors. Area exposure in Tankhouse 1 declined significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) between 1982 and 1986 with a factor of 29. However, after 1986 no significant downward trend in area exposure was evident in Tankhouse 1. Personal exposures in Tankhouse 1 significantly (p ≤ 0.0001) decreased with a factor of three between 1991 and 2014. No significant trends were evident in area and personal exposure in Tankhouse 2. Downward exposure trends were evident in Tankhouse 1 and may be ascribed to the implementation of various control measures and process changes, e.g., increasing polypropylene bead load. Limited data were available for Tankhouse 2, therefore, no trend in exposure could be established. Retrospective analyses may be used to identify trends and anomalies in exposure which might not have been identified during daily exposure monitoring.

  20. Fracture resistance of dental nickel-titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chih-Wen; Deng, Yu-Lun; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-05-01

    Dental nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments are widely used in endodontic therapy because they are efficient with a higher success rate. However, an unpredictable fracture of instruments may happen due to the surface characteristics of imperfection (or irregularity). This study assessed whether a novel surface treatment could increase fatigue fracture resistance of dental NiTi rotary instruments. A 200- or 500-nm thick Ti-zirconium-boron (Ti-Zr-B) thin film metallic glass was deposited on ProTaper Universal F2 files using a physical vapor deposition process. The characteristics of coating were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In cyclic fatigue tests, the files were performed in a simulated root canal (radius=5 mm, angulation=60°) under a rotating speed of 300rpm. The fatigue fractured cross sections of the files were analyzed with their fractographic performances through scanning electron microscopy images. The amorphous structure of the Ti-Zr-B coating was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The surface of treated files presented smooth morphologies without grinding irregularity. For the 200- and 500-nm surface treatment groups, the coated files exhibited higher resistance of cyclic fatigue than untreated files. In fractographic analysis, treated files showed significantly larger crack-initiation zone; however, no significant differences in the areas of fatigue propagation and catastrophic fracture were found compared to untreated files. The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Influence of Cyclic Flexural Deformation on the Torsional Resistance of Controlled Memory and Conventional Nickel-titanium Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Eufemia Carolina Peláez; Resende, Pedro Damas; Peixoto, Isabella Faria da Cunha; Pereira, Érika Sales Joviano; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes; Bahia, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic deformation on the torsional resistance of controlled memory (CM) nickel-titanium files in comparison with superelastic (SE) instruments with similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. New 30/.06 HyFlex (HF; Coltene/Whaledent, Inc, Cuyahoga Falls, OH), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), RaCe (FKG, La-Chaux De Fonds, Switzerland), and ProTaper Universal F2 instruments (F2; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were assessed. The diameter and pitch length were measured along the active part of the instruments. The number of cycles to failure (Nf) in flexural fatigue and the torsional resistance were evaluated for new files (n = 10). Ten new instruments of each type were fatigued to 3/4 of their fatigue life and then submitted to torsion until rupture. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (α = .05). New CM files had a significantly higher Nf when compared with SE instruments; HF exhibited the highest value (P = .001). The mean torque value for F2 was the highest (P = .001). CM files precycled to 3/4 Nf had a significantly lower torque than the new files (HF: P = .003, Typhoon: P = .001), whereas the SE instruments displayed no significant differences (F2: P = .059, RaCe: P = .079). Cyclic flexural loading significantly reduced the torsional resistance of CM instruments. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of irrigation on surface roughness and fatigue resistance of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J-J; Tang, X-N; Ge, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of irrigation on the surface roughness and fatigue resistance of HyFlex and M3 controlled memory (CM) wire nickel-titanium instruments. Two new files of each brand were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Then, the instruments were dynamically immersed in either 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for 10 min, followed by AFM analysis. The roughness average (Ra) and root mean square (RMS) values were analysed statistically using an independent sample t-test. Then, 36 files of each brand were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 12). Group 1 (the control group) was composed of new instruments. Groups 2 and 3 were dynamically immersed in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions for 10 min, respectively. The number of rotations to failure for various groups was analysed using the one-way analysis of variance software. For M3 files, the Ra and RMS values significantly increased (P  0.05) NaOCl. The resistance to cyclic fatigue of both HyFlex and M3 files did not significantly decrease (P > 0.05) by immersing in 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA solutions. Except the HyFlex files immersed in NaOCl, the surface roughness of other files exposed to irrigants increased. However, a change in the surface tomography of CM wire instruments caused by contact with irrigants for 10 min did not trigger a decrease in cyclic fatigue resistance. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A comparative study of the cytotoxicity and corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium and titanium-niobium shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Rebecca E; Ma, Ji; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Munoz-Pinto, Dany; Karaman, Ibrahim; Rubitschek, Felix; Maier, Hans J; Hahn, Mariah S

    2012-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) are commonly used in a range of biomedical applications. However, concerns exist regarding their use in certain biomedical scenarios due to the known toxicity of Ni and conflicting reports of NiTi corrosion resistance, particularly under dynamic loading. Titanium-niobium (TiNb) SMAs have recently been proposed as an alternative to NiTi SMAs due to the biocompatibility of both constituents, the ability of both Ti and Nb to form protective surface oxides, and their superior workability. However, several properties critical to the use of TiNb SMAs in biomedical applications have not been systematically explored in comparison with NiTi SMAs. These properties include cytocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and alterations in alloy surface composition in response to prolonged exposure to physiological solutions. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to comparatively investigate these aspects of NiTi (49.2 at.% Ti) and TiNb (26 at.% Nb) SMAs. The results from the current studies indicate that TiNb SMAs are less cytotoxic than NiTi SMAs, at least under static culture conditions. This increased TiNb cytocompatibility was correlated with reduced ion release as well as with increased corrosion resistance according to potentio-dynamic tests. Measurements of the surface composition of samples exposed to cell culture medium further supported the reduced ion release observed from TiNb relative to NiTi SMAs. Alloy composition depth profiles also suggested the formation of calcium phosphate deposits within the surface oxide layers of medium-exposed NiTi but not of TiNb. Collectively, the present results indicate that TiNb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of atmospheric corrosion on electroplated zinc and zinc nickel coatings by Electrical Resistance (ER) Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    ER (Electrical Resistance) probes provide a measurement of metal loss, measured at any time when a metal is exposed to the real environment. The precise electrical resistance monitoring system can evaluate the corrosion to the level of nanometers, if the conductivity is compensated for temperature...... and magnetic fields. With this technique very important information about the durability of a new conversion coatings for aluminum, zinc and zinc alloys exposed to unknown atmospheric conditions can be gathered. This is expected to have a major impact on a number of industrial segments, such as test cars...

  5. Combined thermodynamic study of nickel-base alloys. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, C.R.; Meschter, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Achievements during this period are the following: (1) initiation of a high-temperature study of the Ni-Ta system using the galvanic cell technique, (2) emf study of high-temperature thermodynamics in the Ni-Mo system, (3) measured heat capacity data on ordered and disordered Ni 4 Mo, (4) heat capacities of Ni and disordered Ni 3 Fe, and (5) computer correlation of thermodynamic and phase diagram data in binary Ni-base alloys

  6. Microstructural investigation of thermally aged nickel-based superalloy 718Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Lawrence; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Stockinger, Martin; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Leitner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The effects of thermal aging upon the nickel-based 718Plus superalloy are investigated and modelled. Yield strength and micro-hardness measurements are made after solution annealing and after aging at 788 °C for 4 h. In order to explain the differences in strength and hardness, a detailed investigation of the microstructure is performed using transmission electron microscopy. The size and phase fraction of the γ′ precipitates are measured and related to the measured hardness and yield strength using a theoretical model of precipitation strengthening based on the shearing of precipitates in terms of coherency strengthening and the formation of an antiphase boundary

  7. Nickel doping effect on resistance to movement of edge dislocations in α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brovkov, V.A.; Dudarev, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Microplastic deformation of α-Fe polycrystals and Fe-Ni solid solutions is studied. Data on concentration and temperature dependences of a resistance to movement of edge dislocation at the expense of elastic interaction with atoms of the doping element are obtained

  8. Nickel doping effect on resistance to movement of edge dislocations in. cap alpha. -Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovkov, V.A.; Dudarev, E.F. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Sibirskij Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1984-03-01

    Microplastic deformation of ..cap alpha..-Fe polycrystals and Fe-Ni solid solutions is studied. Data on the concentration and temperature dependences of resistance to movement of edge dislocation at the expense of elastic interaction with atoms of the doping element are obtained.

  9. Observations of cellular transformation products in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.Y.; Ralph, B.

    1979-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to identify the products in cellularly transformed regions of alloys based on the Nimonic 80 A composition. The commercial alloy is shown to undergo a small degree of cellular transformation even after conventional heat treatments, while recrystallization is found to increase the incidence of this reaction type. Low carbon versions of this alloy demonstrate cellular precipitation over a wider range of heat treatments. It is shown that the cellular reaction may take place in these alloys under a variety of different conditions and with a range of driving forces. Reasons for this unexpected behaviour are offeredm as is a suggestion as to why the cellular reaction occurs on a local scale. (author)

  10. Highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy for reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoichi.

    1996-01-01

    The alloy of the present invention is a zirconium based alloy comprising tin (Sn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) in zirconium (Zr). The amount of silicon (Si) as an impurity is not more than 60ppm. It is preferred that Sn is from 0.9 to 1.5wt%, that of Cr is from 0.05 to 0.15wt%, and (Fe + Ni) is from 0.17 to 0.5wt%. If not less than 0.12wt% of Fe is added, resistance against nodular corrosion is improved. The upper limit of Fe is preferably 0.40wt% from a view point of uniform suppression for the corrosion. The nodular corrosion can be suppressed by reducing the amount of Si-rich deposition product in the zirconium based alloy. Accordingly, a highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy improved for the corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 and usable for a fuel cladding tube of a BWR type reactor can be obtained. (I.N.)

  11. TOPSIS based parametric optimization of laser micro-drilling of TBC coated nickel based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, K.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Manivannan, R.

    2018-06-01

    The technique for order of preference by similarity ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach was used for optimizing the process parameters of laser micro-drilling of nickel superalloy C263 with Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC). Plasma spraying was used to deposit the TBC and a pico-second Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to drill the specimens. Drilling angle, laser scan speed and number of passes were considered as input parameters. Based on the machining conditions, Taguchi L8 orthogonal array was used for conducting the experimental runs. The surface roughness and surface crack density (SCD) were considered as the output measures. The surface roughness was measured using 3D White Light Interferometer (WLI) and the crack density was measured using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The optimized result achieved from this approach suggests reduced surface roughness and surface crack density. The holes drilled at an inclination angle of 45°, laser scan speed of 3 mm/s and 400 number of passes found to be optimum. From the Analysis of variance (ANOVA), inclination angle and number of passes were identified as the major influencing parameter. The optimized parameter combination exhibited a 19% improvement in surface finish and 12% reduction in SCD.

  12. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  13. Localized electrochemical corrosion of nickel-based alloys. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Oyeleye, O.; Davidson, M.; Dudek, D.; Hatton, T.A.; Tester, J.W.; Helling, R.K.; Erickson, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    The technique of monitoring open-circuit potential over time to study pitting corrosion of Alloy 600 was demonstrated at 95 0 C. Chloride ion and oxygen levels were varied to determine the conditions required for pit initiation and propagation at 25 0 C and 95 0 C. Without applied potential pitting was not observed at 25 0 C in solutions of up to 2.6 M NaCl. At 95 0 C pit initiation occurred above 0.22 M NaCl for a nitrogen sparged system, 0.042 M NaCl for a contaminated air sparged system and 0.059 M for an O 2 sparged system. At 95 0 C initiation followed by propagation was observed at 0.22 M, 0.12 M and 0.11 M NaCl for the N 2 , air and O 2 sparged systems, respectively. A theoretical model, using a hemispherical pit geometry and transport based on the Nernst-Einstein equation, was developed to predict changes in ion concentration, current and pit size. For a pit with an initial radius of 100 A, a fixed potential difference of 0.5 V and constant ionic diffusivities on the order of 10 -5 , cm 2 /sec, the model predicts that the solution within the pit will become saturated with metal chloride within 2 x 10 -7 seconds. The current density increases exponentially with time and reaches a maximum value of 7.2 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at the point of saturation

  14. Effect of technological procedures on the crack resistance of nickel alloy welded joints under heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasarov, Yu.S.; Sorokin, L.I.; Yakushin, B.F.; Moryashchev, S.F.

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the efficiency of some technological procedures directed to the increase of crack resistance of KhN50MBKTYUR (EhP99) alloy welded joints under heat treatment was conducted. Welded joints were manufactured by the methods of electron beam welding, laser welding, automatic argon-arc welding. The latter was conducted by conventional technology as well as with electromagnetic mixing of liquid metal of welding bath, with compulsory cooling of weld matal, with pulse arc. It is shown that the high fracture resistance of welded joints, manufactured by electron beam and laser welding is achieved by combination of high mechanical properties of heat affected zone metal and reduced elastic potential energy margin of residual welding stresses (as compared to argon-arc welding)

  15. Effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of thermally treated Nickel-Titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Shen, Y; Peng, B; Haapasalo, M

    2016-10-01

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, Twisted Files (TF), K3XF, Race, and K3, and evaluate the effect of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of these instruments both before and after the files were cycled. Five types of NiTi instruments with similar size 30, .06 taper were selected: HyFlex CM, TF, K3XF, Race and K3. Files were tested in a simulated canal with a curvature of 60° and a radius of 3 mm. The number of cycles to failure of each instrument was determined to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance. Each type of instruments was randomly divided into four experimental groups: group 1 (n = 20), unsterilized instruments; group 2 (n = 20), pre-sterilized instruments subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization; group 3 (n = 20), instruments tested were sterilized at 25%, 50% and 75% of the mean cycles to failure as determined in group 1, and then cycled to failure; group 4 (n = 20), instruments cycled in the same manner as group 3 but without sterilization. The fracture surfaces of instruments were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HyFlex CM, TF and K3XF had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than Race and K3 in the unsterilized group 1 (P Autoclave sterilization significantly increased the MCF of HyFlex CM and K3XF (P Autoclaving extended the cyclic fatigue life of HyFlex CM and K3XF. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessment of dermal exposure and skin condition of workers exposed to nickel at a South African base metal refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Johannes L; Eloff, Frederik C; Badenhorst, Casper J; Olivier, Johretha; Laubscher, Petrus J; Van Aarde, Michiel N; Franken, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess dermal exposure of cell workers to nickel at a South African base metal refinery and to characterize their skin condition by measuring the skin hydration and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) indices. The skin hydration index of the index finger, palm, neck, and forehead was measured before, during and at the end of the shift. The TEWL index was measured before and at the end of the shift. Dermal exposure samples were collected with Ghostwipes from the index finger and palm of the dominant hand, before, during, and at the end of the shift. Neck and forehead samples were collected before and at the end of the shift. Wipe samples of various surfaces in the workplace were also collected. Wipes were analyzed for nickel according to NIOSH method 9102, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Hydration indices measured on the hands decreased significantly during the shift, but recovered to normal levels by the end of the shift. TEWL indices for the index finger and palm of the hands are indicative of a low barrier function even before commencement of the shift, which further deteriorated significantly during the shift. During the shift, substantial nickel skin loading occurred on the index finger and palm of the hand. Levels on the neck and forehead were much lower. Various workplace surfaces, which workers come into contact with, were also contaminated with nickel. The skin condition and high levels of nickel on the skin were most probably caused by inadequate chemical protection provided by protective gloves. Although, the permeability of nickel through intact skin is considered to be low, a decreased barrier function of dehydrated or slightly damaged skin will increase its permeability for nickel. The ethnicity of these exposed workers may contribute significantly toward the low incidence of allergic contact dermatitis observed. Several measures to lower dermal exposure to nickel are also recommended.

  17. Highly efficient electrochemical hydrogen evolution based on nickel diselenide nanowall film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chun; Xie, Lisi; Sun, Xuping; Asiri, Abdullah M.; He, Yuquan

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, we report on hydrothermal growth of nickel diselenide nanowall film on carbon cloth (NiSe2 NW/CC) through topotactic transformation from a Ni(OH)2 precursor based on anion exchange reactions. When tested as an integrated 3D hydrogen-evolving cathode in strongly acidic media, NiSe2 NW/CC exhibits outstanding catalytic activity superior to its powder counterpart and strong long-term durability. It displays 10 and 100 mA cm-2 at overpotentials of 145 and 183 mV, respectively, with its catalytic activity being retained for 40 h.

  18. Microstructural characteristics of high-temperature oxidation in nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    Superalloys are used for aerospace and nuclear applications where they can withstand high-temperature and severe oxidizing conditions. High-temperature oxidation behavior of a nickel-base superalloy is examined using optical and scanning electron microscopical techniques. The morphology of the oxide layers developed is examined, and EDX microanalysis reveals diffusion of the elements across the oxide-metal interface. Evidence of internal oxidation is presented, and the role of structural defects is considered. The morphology of the oxide-metal interface formed in the specimens exposed in steam and air is examined to elucidate the mechanism of high-temperature oxidation

  19. Investigations of carbon diffusion and carbide formation in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Bongartz, K.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Nickel, H.

    1989-11-01

    The present thesis describes the carburization behaviour of nickel based alloys in heavily carburizing environments. The mechanisms of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in NiCr alloys with and without ternary additions of iron, cobalt or molybdenum have been investigated. Using the results of carburization experiments, a mathematical model which describes carbon diffusion and carbide formation, was developed. The simulation of the carburization process was carried out by an iterative calculation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the alloy. An accurate description of the carbon profiles as a function of time became possible by using a finite-difference calculation. (orig.) [de

  20. Strength and structure during hot deformation of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, N.D.; Sellars, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of deformational variables on the flow stress and microstructure developed by plane strain compression testing and experimental rolling of three otherwise well characterized nickel-base super alloys, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90 and Waspaloy are presented. Rolled or tested samples were sectioned longitudinally at mid-width and were prepared for optical metallography. X-ray analysis of particles observed in several samples was carried out on polished and lightly etehed surfaces using a diffractometer with CoKα radiation. For other samples, energy dispersive x-ray analysis was also carried out in a scanning microscope. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Homogenization Kinetics of a Nickel-based Superalloy Produced by Powder Bed Fusion Laser Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Levine, Lyle E; Allen, Andrew J; Campbell, Carelyn E; Lass, Eric A; Cheruvathur, Sudha; Stoudt, Mark R; Williams, Maureen E; Idell, Yaakov

    2017-04-01

    Additively manufactured (AM) metal components often exhibit fine dendritic microstructures and elemental segregation due to the initial rapid solidification and subsequent melting and cooling during the build process, which without homogenization would adversely affect materials performance. In this letter, we report in situ observation of the homogenization kinetics of an AM nickel-based superalloy using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. The identified kinetic time scale is in good agreement with thermodynamic diffusion simulation predictions using microstructural dimensions acquired by ex situ scanning electron microscopy. These findings could serve as a recipe for predicting, observing, and validating homogenization treatments in AM materials.

  2. Precipitate Contribution to the Acoustic Nonlinearity in Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Seok KIM; Cliff J.LISSENDEN

    2009-01-01

    The influence of γ' precipitate on the acoustic nonlinearity is investigated for a nickel-based superalloy,which is subjected to creep deformation.During creep deformation,the cuboidal γ' precipitate is preferentially coarsened in a direction perpendicular to the applied stress axis.The length and shape factor of the γ' precipitate increase with creep time.The increase of relative acoustic nonlinearity with increasing fraction of creep life is discussed in relation to the rafting of γ' precipitate,which is closely related to the scattering and distortion of the acoustic wave.

  3. The machinability of nickel-based alloys in high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kramar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to their mechanical, thermal and chemical properties, nickel-based alloys are generally included among materials that are hard to machine. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the capabilities of conventional and high-pressure jet assisted (HPJA turning of hard-to-machine materials, namely Inconel 718. The capabilities of different hard turning procedures are compared by means of chip breakability. The obtained results show that HPJA method offers a significant increase in chip breakability, under the same cutting conditions (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut.

  4. Superior creep strength of a nickel-based superalloy produced by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pröbstle, M., E-mail: martin.proebstle@fau.de [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Neumeier, S.; Hopfenmüller, J.; Freund, L.P. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Niendorf, T. [Institut für Werkstofftechnik (Materials Engineering), Universität Kassel, Mönchebergstr. 3, D-34125 Kassel (Germany); Schwarze, D. [SLM Solutions GmbH, Roggenhorster Straße 9c, D-23556 Lübeck (Germany); Göken, M. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-09-30

    The creep properties of a polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy produced via selective laser melting were investigated in this study. All heat treatment conditions of the additively manufactured material show superior creep strength compared to conventional cast and wrought material. The process leads to a microstructure with fine subgrains. In comparison to conventional wrought material no Niobium rich δ phase is necessary to control the grain size and thus more Niobium is available for precipitation hardening and solid solution strengthening resulting in improved creep strength.

  5. Thermogravimetric study of reduction of oxides present in oxidized nickel-base alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen, and hydrogen plus carbon reduction of three oxidized nickel-base alloy powders (a solid solution strengthened alloy both with and without the gamma prime formers aluminum and titanium and the solid solution strengthened alloy NiCrAlY) were evaluated by thermogravimetry. Hydrogen and hydrogen plus carbon were completely effective in reducing an alloy containing chromium, columbium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. However, with aluminum and titanium present the reduction was limited to a weight loss of about 81 percent. Carbon alone was not effective in reducing any of the alloys, and none of the reducing conditions were effective for use with NiCrAlY.

  6. Cyclic plastic response of nickel-based superalloy at room and at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Petrenec, Martin; Chlupova, Alice; Tobias, Jiri; Petras, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-based cast IN 738LC superalloy has been cycled at increasing strain amplitudes at room temperature and at 800 C. Hysteresis loops were analyzed using general statistical theory of the hysteresis loop. Dislocation structures of specimens cycled at these two temperatures were studied. They revealed localization of the cyclic plastic strain in the thin bands which are rich in dislocations. The analysis of the loop shapes yields effective stresses of the matrix and of the precipitates and the probability density function of the critical internal stresses at both temperatures. It allows to find the sources of the high cyclic stress.

  7. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ′(Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni 3 Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ′ and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C

  8. Process of welding gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speigel, Lyle B.; White, Raymond Alan; Murphy, John Thomas; Nowak, Daniel Anthony

    2003-11-25

    A process for welding superalloys, and particularly articles formed of gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys whose chemistries and/or microstructures differ. The process entails forming the faying surface of at least one of the articles to have a cladding layer of a filler material. The filler material may have a composition that is different from both of the articles, or the same as one of the articles. The cladding layer is machined to promote mating of the faying surfaces, after which the faying surfaces are mated and the articles welded together. After cooling, the welded assembly is free of thermally-induced cracks.

  9. Investigation of grain competitive growth during directional solidification of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xinbao [National Energy R and D Center of Clean and High-Efficiency Fossil-Fired Power Generation Technology, Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xi' an (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China); Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jun [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China)

    2015-08-15

    Grain competitive growth of nickel-based single-crystal superalloys during directional solidification was investigated. A detailed characterization of bi-crystals' competitive growth was performed to explore the competitive grain evolution. It was found that high withdrawal rate improved the efficiency of grain competitive growth. The overgrowth rate was increased when the misorientation increased. Four patterns of grain competitive growth with differently oriented dispositions were characterized. The results indicated that the positive branching of the dendrites played a significant role in the competitive growth process. The effect of crystal orientation and heat flow on the competitive growth can be attributed to the blocking mechanism between the adjacent grains. (orig.)

  10. A highly efficient microfluidic nano biochip based on nanostructured nickel oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Azahar; Solanki, Pratima R; Patel, Manoj K; Dhayani, Hemant; Agrawal, Ved Varun; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2013-04-07

    We present results of the studies relating to fabrication of a microfluidic biosensor chip based on nickel oxide nanorods (NRs-NiO) that is capable of directly measuring the concentration of total cholesterol in human blood through electrochemical detection. Using this chip we demonstrate, with high reliability and in a time efficient manner, the detection of cholesterol present in buffer solutions at clinically relevant concentrations. The microfluidic channel has been fabricated onto a nickel oxide nanorod-based electrode co-immobilized with cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) that serves as the working electrode. Bare indium tin oxide served as the counter electrode. A Ag/AgCl wire introduced to the outlet of the microchannel acts as a reference electrode. The fabricated NiO nanorod-based electrode has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, HR-TEM, FT-IR, UV-visible spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The presented NRs-NiO based microfluidic sensor exhibits linearity in the range of 1.5-10.3 mM, a high sensitivity of 0.12 mA mM(-1) cm(-2) and a low value of 0.16 mM of the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km).

  11. Polynitroaniline as brightener for zinc–nickel alloy plating from non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc–nickel coating obtained from the ... Electroplated zinc coatings are considered as one of the many ways of corrosion ... oxidation of orthonitroaniline. Graphite electrodes ...

  12. The influence of nickel-nitrogen ratio on the deformation behaviour of austenitic stainless steels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmid, OE

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available necking is resisted when martensite forms gradually and selectively, preventing the formation and propagation of micronecks and microcracks. The microstructures of ten alloys, each having a type 301 base composition, but systematically varying nickel...

  13. High Performance Flexible Pseudocapacitor based on Nano-architectured Spinel Nickel Cobaltite Anchored Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-step fabrication method for nano-architectured spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) anchored MWCNTs composite. • High performance flexible energy-storage devices. • The NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs Exhibits 2032 Fg −1 capacitance which is 1.62 times greater than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 at 1 Ag −1 . - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile two-step fabrication method for nano-architectured spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based electrodes for high performance flexible energy-storage devices. As electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, the NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2032 Fg −1 , which is nearly 1.62 times greater than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes at 1 Ag −1 . The synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs composite shows excellent rate performance (83.96% capacity retention at 30 Ag −1 ) and stability with coulombic efficiency over 96% after 5,000 cycles when being fully charged/discharged at 1 Ag −1 . Furthermore, NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs achieve a maximum energy density of 48.32 Whkg −1 at a power density of 480 Wkg −1 which is 60% higher than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 electrode and significantly outperformed electrode materials based on NiCo 2 O 4 which are currently used in the state-of-the-art supercapacitors throughout the literature. This superior rate performance and high-capacity value offered by NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs is mainly due to enhanced electronic and ionic conductivity, which provides a short diffusion path for ions and an easy access of electrolyte flow to nickel cobaltite redox centers besides the high conductivity of MWCNTs

  14. Multimodal Nanoscale Characterization of Transformation and Deformation Mechanisms in Several Nickel Titanium Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalena, Lee

    . NiTiAu alloys are shown to demonstrate work output at extremely high temperatures - above 400 °C - where the potential benefits may offset material cost. Crystal structures and chemical effects of previously undocumented secondary phases are extensively examined using STEM and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). These insights are combined with mechanical test data to develop an understanding of the critical microstructure-property relationships involved. In addition to the native corrosion resistance common to all these alloys, a nickel rich NiTi-1Hf alloy is shown to demonstrate extremely high strength and wear resistance, making it an ideal candidate for tribological applications such as bearings used in corrosive environments. Details of the stress-induced martensite phase are revealed in this alloy system using synchrotron radiation and aberration-corrected STEM. Finally, post mortem Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) and in situ High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) are used to explore the remarkable grain refinement process that occurs in NiTi and related alloys through load-biased thermal cycling. Microstructural changes in the form of defect generation and subgrain development are key mechanistic insights sought to further understand the processes resulting in unrecovered strain accumulation, which lead to detrimental functional fatigue in these alloys.

  15. Moringa oleifera-based diet protects against nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Adeyemi, Oluyomi; Sokolayemji Aroge, Cincin; Adewumi Akanji, Musbau

    2017-01-01

    Multiple health-promoting effects have been attributed to the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves, as part of diet without adequate scientific credence. This study evaluated the effect of M. oleifera-based diets on nickel (Ni) - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male rats assigned into six groups were given oral administration of 20 mg/kg body weight nickel sulfate in normal saline and either fed normal diet orM. oleifera-based diets for 21 days. All animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 24 hours after the last treatment. Ni exposure elevated the rat plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase significantly. Ni exposure also raised the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol while depleting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Further, Ni exposure raised rat plasma malondialdehyde but depleted reduced glutathione concentrations. The histopathological presentations revealed inflammation and cellular degeneration caused by Ni exposure. We show evidence thatM. oleifera-based diets protected against Ni-induced hepatotoxicity by improving the rat liver function indices, lipid profile as well as restoring cellular architecture and integrity. Study lends credence to the health-promoting value ofM. oleifera as well as underscores its potential to attenuate hepatic injury. PMID:28808207

  16. High Temperature Oxidation of Nickel-based Cermet Coatings Composed of Al2O3 and TiO2 Nanosized Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-09-01

    New technological challenges in oil production require materials that can resist high temperature oxidation. In-Situ Combustion (ISC) oil production technique is a new method that uses injection of air and ignition techniques to reduce the viscosity of bitumen in a reservoir and as a result crude bitumen can be produced and extracted from the reservoir. During the in-situ combustion process, production pipes and other mechanical components can be exposed to air-like gaseous environments at extreme temperatures as high as 700 °C. To protect or reduce the surface degradation of pipes and mechanical components used in in-situ combustion, the use of nickel-based ceramic-metallic (cermet) coating produced by co-electrodeposition of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 have been suggested and earlier research on these coatings have shown promising oxidation resistance against atmospheric oxygen and combustion gases at elevated temperatures. Co-electrodeposition of nickel-based cermet coatings is a low-cost method that has the benefit of allowing both internal and external surfaces of pipes and components to be coated during a single electroplating process. Research has shown that the volume fraction of dispersed nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles in the nickel matrix which affects the oxidation resistance of the coating can be controlled by the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution, as well as the applied current density during electrodeposition. This paper investigates the high temperature oxidation behaviour of novel nanostructured cermet coatings composed of two types of dispersed nanosized ceramic particles (Al2O3 and TiO2) in a nickel matrix and produced by coelectrodeposition technique as a function of the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution and applied current density. For this purpose, high temperature oxidation tests were conducted in dry air for 96 hours at 700 °C to obtain mass changes (per unit of area) at specific time

  17. Copper and nickel alloys and titanium for seawater applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    1977-01-01

    Copper and nickel alloys and titanium have been successfully used for heat exchangers on ships, in power plants and for chemical apparatus and piping systems because of their resistance against corrosion in sea water. Aluminium brass and copper nickel alloys, the standard materials for condensers and coolers, however, may be attacked, the corrosion depending on water quality, water velocity, and structural conditions. The mechanisms of corrosion are discussed. Under severe conditions the use of titanium may be indicated. The use of nickel base alloys is advantageous at elevated temperatures, e.g. for chemical reactions and for evaporation processes. Examples are given for application and for prevention of corrosion. (orig.) [de

  18. Immobilisation of strontium, nickel and iodide by a sulphate-resisting Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, E.; Tits, J.; Spieler, P.; Dobler, J.-P.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of Sr(II), Ni(II) and I(-I) with sulphate-resisting Portland cement was investigated under highly alkaline conditions. Batch-sorption studies were performed by contacting HTS cement (haute teneur en silice, sulphate-resisting Portland cement, Lafarge, France) with artificial cement pore water (ACW). The composition of ACW was 0.18 M KOH, 0.114 M NaOH and 1.2 mM Ca(OH) 2 . 85 Sr, 63 Ni and 125 I were used as tracers. In the experiments with Sr(II) and Ni(II), isosaccharinic acid (ISA) was added to ACW at 10 -5 M to 10 -2 M in order to study the effect of complexing ligands on radionuclide retention. The stability of the tracer solutions and the cement suspensions were first assessed. Moreover, the inventory of the stable elements were determined in cement and cement pore water. We then studied the kinetics of the radionuclide-cement interaction process and measured the dependence of the distribution ratio (R d ) on the concentration of ISA and on the concentration of cement particles (S:L ratio). In the case of 63 Ni and 125 I a strong decrease in the distribution ratio (R d ) with increasing S:L ratio was observed. There is strong indication that the inventory of the stable fraction of an element present in cement pore water accounts for the retention of the radioisotope fraction. The results further indicate that phase transformations may occur in non-pre-equilibrated cement systems (non-equilibrium conditions) which affect 63 Ni uptake by HTS cement. The distribution ratios measured on HTS cement were compared with values obtained from measurements on important cement components (portlandite, CSH/C(A)SH-phases)

  19. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Lacalle Luis Norberto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation.

  20. Prediction of recrystallisation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys during investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwisawas Chinnapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of gas turbines for jet propulsion and power generation requires the manufacture of turbine blades from single crystal nickel-based superalloys, most typically using investment casting. During the necessary subsequent solution heat treatment, the formation of recrystallised grains can occur. The introduction of grain boundaries into a single crystal component is potentially detrimental to performance, and therefore manufacturing processes and/or component geometries should be designed to prevent their occurrence. If the boundaries have very low strength, they can degrade the creep and fatigue properties. The root cause for recrystallisation is microscale plasticity caused by differential thermal contraction of metal, mould and core; when the plastic deformation is sufficiently large, recrystallisation takes place. In this work, numerical and thermo-mechanical modelling is carried out, with the aim of establishing computational methods by which recrystallisation during the heat treatment of single crystal nickel-based superalloys can be predicted and prevented prior to their occurrence. Elasto-plastic law is used to predict the plastic strain necessary for recrystallisation. The modelling result shows that recrystallisation is most likely to occur following 1.5–2.5% plastic strain applied at temperatures between 1000 ∘C and 1300 ∘C; this is validated with tensile tests at these elevated temperatures. This emphasises that high temperature deformation is more damaging than low temperature deformation.

  1. Optical modeling of nickel-base alloys oxidized in pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clair, A. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France); Foucault, M.; Calonne, O. [Areva ANP, Centre Technique Departement Corrosion-Chimie, 30 Bd de l' industrie, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Finot, E., E-mail: Eric.Finot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon cedex (France)

    2012-10-01

    The knowledge of the aging process involved in the primary water of pressurized water reactor entails investigating a mixed growth mechanism in the corrosion of nickel-base alloys. A mixed growth induces an anionic inner oxide and a cationic diffusion parallel to a dissolution-precipitation process forms the outer zone. The in situ monitoring of the oxidation kinetics requires the modeling of the oxide layer stratification with the full knowledge of the optical constants related to each component. Here, we report the dielectric constants of the alloys 600 and 690 measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry and fitted to a Drude-Lorentz model. A robust optical stratification model was determined using focused ion beam cross-section of thin foils examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric constants of the inner oxide layer depleted in chromium were assimilated to those of the nickel thin film. The optical constants of both the spinels and extern layer were determined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic ellipsometry of Ni-base alloy oxidation in pressurized water reactor Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements of the dielectric constants of the alloys Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical simulation of the mixed oxidation process using a three stack model Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scattered crystallites cationic outer layer; linear Ni-gradient bottom layer Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of the refractive index of the spinel and the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers.

  2. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  3. Cyclic Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Iron-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Adam Khan, M.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.; Sathiyanarayanan, S.

    2018-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of nickel-iron-based superalloy are studied at 900 ° and 1000 °C. The significant role of alloying elements with respect to the exposed medium is studied in detail. The mass change per unit area was catastrophic for the samples exposed at 1000 °C and gradual increase in mass change was observed at 900 °C for both the environments. The exposed samples were further investigated with SEM, EDS and XRD analysis to study the metallurgical characteristics. The surface morphology has expressed the in situ nature of the alloy and its affinity toward the environment. The EDS and XRD analysis has evidently proved the presence of protective oxides formation on prolonged exposure at elevated temperature. The predominant oxide formed during the exposure at high temperature has a major contribution toward the protection of the samples. The nickel-iron-based superalloy is less prone to oxidation and hot corrosion when compared to the existing alloy in gas turbine engine simulating marine environment.

  4. Effect of Microstructure on Electrical Conductivity of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie; Annamalai, Swaminathan; Fan, Zheng; Chan, Wai Luen

    2017-08-01

    Eddy current spectroscopy is one of the promising non-destructive methods for residual stress evaluation along the depth of subsurface-treated nickel-base superalloys, but it is limited by its sensitivity to microstructure. This paper studies the influence of microstructure on the electrical conductivity of two nickel-base alloys, RR1000 and IN100. Different microstructures were attained using heat treatment cycles ranging from solution annealing to aging, with varying aging time and temperature. Eddy current conductivity was measured using conductivity probes of frequencies ranging between 1 and 5 MHz. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the microstructure was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. For the heat treatment conditions between the solution annealing and the peak aging, the electrical conductivity of RR1000 increased by 6.5 pct, which is duly substantiated by the corresponding increase in hardness (12 pct) and the volume fraction of γ' precipitates (41 pct). A similar conductivity rise of 2.6 pct for IN100 is in agreement with the increased volume fraction of γ' precipitates (12.5 pct) despite an insignificant hardening between the heat treatment conditions. The observed results with RR1000 and IN100 highlight the sensitivity of electrical conductivity to the minor microstructure variations, especially the volume fraction of γ' precipitates, within the materials.

  5. Synergistic effect of rhenium and ruthenium in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.X. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, C.Y., E-mail: cywang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.N. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan, P. [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zezhang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Re and Ru synergistic effects in nickel-based superalloys are investigated. • The Al site occupation of Re atom in the γ′ phase is observed directly. • The addition of Ru results in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase. -- Abstract: The microstructures of ternary Ni–Al–Re and quaternary Ni–Al–Re–Ru single-crystal alloys were investigated at atomic and electronic levels to clarify the synergistic effect of Re and Ru in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys. In the Ni–Al–Re alloy, it was directly observed that Re atom occupied the Al site of γ′ phase. In the Ni–Al–Re–Ru alloy, the mechanisms of Re repartition between γ and γ′ phases were proposed. In the dendritic cores, high concentrations of Re exceeded the solubility limit of γ′ phase and partitioned to γ phase, which led to the homogenization. In the interdendritic regions, Ru resulted in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase which was proved by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

  6. An experimental study of aluminium electrowinning using a nickel-based hydrogen diffusion anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namboothiri, Sankar; Taylor, Mark P.; Chen, John J.J.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Cooksey, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and formation of water vapour. → Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. → HF emissions can be minimised by conducting the electrolysis at 750 o C. → The nickel based anode surface corroded during electrolysis. → Its application is constrained by the material limitation of the porous anode. - Abstract: Laboratory scale electrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the electrowinning of aluminium using hydrogen diffusion anodes. A potassium-based electrolyte (KF-AlF 3 -Al 2 O 3 ), porous nickel alloy anode and molybdenum disk cathode were used in experiments at 750 o C. Hydrogen gas was supplied to the anode/electrolyte interface through the porous anode. Experiments were conducted in potentiostatic, galvanostatic and galvanodynamic modes. There was a measurable depolarisation of the anode potential and also anode reaction of hydrogen and oxygen ions in the bath to form water vapour was confirmed by the water vapour condensate found at the electrolysis exit gas pipe. Metallic aluminium was found on the spent cathode. The experiments conducted in the galvanodynamic mode suggested that the rate limiter for hydrogen oxidation was the availability of surface hydrogen at the anode/electrolyte interface. The anode surface corroded during electrolysis and impurities were found both in the molten bath and on the cathode.

  7. Stiffness and frictional resistance of a superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wire with low-stress hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Yu M; Lai, Yu-Lin; Lee, Shyh-Yuan

    2007-05-01

    Stress-induced martensite formation with stress hysteresis that changes the elasticity and stiffness of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire influences the sliding mechanics of archwire-guided tooth movement. This in-vitro study investigated the frictional behavior of an improved superelastic Ni-Ti wire with low-stress hysteresis. Improved superelastic Ni-Ti alloy wires (L & H Titan, Tomy International, Tokyo, Japan) with low-stress hysteresis were examined by using 3-point bending and frictional resistance tests with a universal test machine at a constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and compared with the former conventional austenitic-active superelastic Ni-Ti wires (Sentalloy, Tomy International). Wire stiffness levels were derived from differentiation of the polynomial regression of the unloading curves, and values for kinetic friction were measured at constant bending deflection distances of 0, 2, 3, and 4 mm, respectively. Compared with conventional Sentalloy wires, the L & H Titan wire had a narrower stress hysteresis including a lower loading plateau and a higher unloading plateau. In addition, L & H Titan wires were less stiff than the Sentalloy wires during most unloading stages. Values of friction measured at deflections of 0, 2, and 3 mm were significantly (P Sentalloy wires at all bending deflections (P <.05). Stress-induced martensite formation significantly reduced the stiffness and thus could be beneficial to decrease the binding friction of superelastic Ni-Ti wires during sliding with large bending deflections. Austenitic-active alloy wires with low-stress hysteresis and lower stiffness and friction offer significant potential for further investigation.

  8. The influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the elevated temperature mechanical properties of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of composition on the tensile and creep strength of 001-line oriented nickel-base superalloy single crystals at temperatures near 1000 C was investigated. Cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten concentrations were varied according to a matrix of compositions based on the single crystal version of MAR-M247. For alloys with the baseline refractory metal level of 3 wt pct Ta and 10 wt pct W, decreases in Co level from 10 to 0 wt pct resulted in increased tensile and creep strength. Substitution of 2 wt pct W for 3 wt pct Ta resulted in decreased creep life at high stresses, but improved life at low stresses. Substitution of Ni for Ta caused large reductions in tensile strength and creep resistance, and corresponding increases in ductility. For these alloys with low Ta-plus-W totals, strength was independent of Co level. The effects of composition on properties were related to the microstructural features of the alloys. In general, high creep strength was associated with high levels of gamma-prime volume fraction, gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch, and solid solution hardening.

  9. Investigation on nickel ferrite nanowire device exhibiting negative differential resistance — a first-principles investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nagarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electronic property of NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device is investigated through nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF in combination with density functional theory (DFT. The electronic transport properties of NiFe_2O_4 nanowire are studied in terms of density of states, transmission spectrum and I–V characteristics. The density of states gets modified with the applied bias voltage across NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device, the density of charge is observed both in the valence band and in the conduction band on increasing the bias voltage. The transmission spectrum of NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device gives the insights on the transition of electrons at different energy intervals. The findings of the present work suggest that NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device can be used as negative differential resistance (NDR device and its NDR property can be tuned with the bias voltage, which may be used in microwave device, memory devices and in fast switching devices.

  10. Embrittlement of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys by exposure to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Five nickel-base alloys (Inconel 718, Udimet 700, Rene 41, Hastelloy X, and TD-NiCr), one cobalt-base alloy (L-605), and an iron-base alloy (A-286) were exposed in hydrogen at 0.1 MN/sq m (15 psi) at several temperatures in the range from 430 to 980 C for as long as 1000 hours. These alloys were embrittled to varying degrees by such exposures in hydrogen. Embrittlement was found to be: (1) sensitive to strain rate, (2) reversible, (3) caused by large concentrations of absorbed hydrogen, and (4) not associated with any detectable microstructural changes in the alloys. These observations are consistent with a mechanism of internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement.

  11. Microstructure of the Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsperger, Markus; Singer, Robert F.; Körner, Carolin

    2016-03-01

    Powder bed-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes are characterized by very high-temperature gradients and solidification rates. These conditions lead to microstructures orders of magnitude smaller than in conventional casting processes. Especially in the field of high performance alloys, like nickel-base superalloys, this opens new opportunities for homogenization and alloy development. Nevertheless, the high susceptibility to cracking of precipitation-hardenable superalloys is a challenge for AM. In this study, electron beam-based AM is used to fabricate samples from gas-atomized pre-alloyed CMSX-4 powder. The influence of the processing strategy on crack formation is investigated. The samples are characterized by optical and SEM microscopy and analyzed by microprobe analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to demonstrate the effect of the fine microstructure on characteristic temperatures. In addition, in situ heat treatment effects are investigated.

  12. Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar, E-mail: kumar@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF-11.5%NaF-42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850 deg. C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For the purposes of providing a baseline for this study, un-plated Incoloy-800H and a nearly pure Ni-alloy, Ni-201 were also tested. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Incoloy-800H in molten fluoride salts. Diffusion of Cr from the alloy through the Ni-plating does occur and if the Ni-plating is thin enough this Cr eventually dissolves into the molten salt. The post-corrosion test microstructure of the Ni-plating, particularly void formation was also observed to depend on the plating thickness. Diffusion anneals in a helium environment of Ni-plated Incoloy-800H and an Fe-Ni-Cr model alloy were also investigated to understand Cr diffusion through the Ni-plating. Further enhancements in the efficacy of the Ni-plating as a protective barrier against Cr dissolution from the alloy into molten fluoride salts can be achieved by thermally forming a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier film on the surface of the alloy prior to Ni electroplating.

  13. Properties of large Li ion cells using a nickel based mixed oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussely, M.; Blanchard, Ph; Biensan, Ph; Planchat, J. P.; Nechev, K.; Staniewicz, R. J.

    The possible use of LiNiO 2 similar to LiCoO 2, as a positive material in rechargeable lithium batteries was recognized 20 years ago and starting 10 years later, many research studies led to material improvement through substitution of some of the nickel ions by other metallic ions. These modifications improve the thermal stability at high charge level or overcharge, as well as cycling and storage properties. Commercial material is now available at large industrial scale, which allows its use in big "industrial" Li ion batteries. Using low cost raw material (Ni), it is expected to be cost competitive with the manganese based systems usually mentioned as low cost on the total cell $/Wh basis. Providing higher energy density, and demonstrating excellent behavior on storage and extended cycle life, LiNiO 2 has definite advantages over the manganese system. Thanks to their properties, these batteries have demonstrated their ability to be used in lot of applications, either for transportation or standby. Their light weight makes them attractive for powering satellites. Although safety improvements are always desirable for all non-aqueous batteries using flammable organic electrolytes, suitable battery designs allow the systems to reach the acceptable level of safety required by many users. Beside the largely distributed lead acid and nickel cadmium batteries, Li ion will found its place in the "industrial batteries" market, in a proportion directly linked to its future cost reduction.

  14. ADSORPTION PROPERTIES OF NICKEL-BASED MAGNETIC ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED BY PD-FREE ELECTROLESS PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Jia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based magnetic activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The effect of plating solution volume on metallic ratio and adsorption capacity were evaluated. The effect of metallic ratio on specific area, pore volume, and magnetic properties were investigated. The morphologies of activated carbon before and after plating were observed by SEM, and the composition of the layer was analyzed by EDS analysis. The results showed that the metallic ratio was increased with the increase of the plating solution volume. The magnetic activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and a high iodine number. Those values reached 142.5 mg/g and 1035 mg/g, respectively. The specific area and pore volume decreased from 943 m2/g to 859 m2/g and 0.462 ml/g to 0.417 ml/g, respectively. And the layer was more compact and continuous when the metallic ratio reached 16.37 wt.%. In the layer, there was about 97 wt.% nickel and 3 wt.% phosphorus, which indicates that the layer was a low-phosphorus one. At the same time, magnetism was enhanced, making the product suitable for some special applications.

  15. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Negri, R. Martín, E-mail: rmn@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Química Física de Materiales, Ambiente y Energía (INQUIMAE), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, Oscar E. [Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Butera, Alejandro [Centro Atómico Bariloche (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina) and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, Cristiano L. P. [Grupo de Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-12-07

    Nickel (Ni) based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures (referred as needles) oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing. Nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature, under air ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure) and then calcined at 400 °C (in air atmosphere also). The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at (10.0 ± 0.6) nm with polydispersivity given by σ = (8.0 ± 0.2) nm. The SAXS, X-ray powder diffraction, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) experiments are consistent with single crystal nanoparticles of spherical shape (average particle diameter obtained by TEM: (12 ± 1) nm). Nickel-based nanochains (average diameter: 360 nm; average length: 3 μm, obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy; aspect ratio = length/diameter ∼ 10) were obtained at 85 °C and ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure). The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects. Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles. Magnetization curves, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra, and strain-stress curves of low filler's loading composites (2% w/w of fillers) were determined as functions of the relative orientation with respect to the needles. The results indicate that even at low loadings it is

  16. Etude des mecanismes de formation des microstructures lors du brasage isotherme de superalliages a base de nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vargas, Jose

    This thesis reports theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the mechanisms of microstructure formation during isothermal brazing, produced by brazing Inconel 625 and MC2 nickel-based superalloys with filler metal BNi-2. Firstly, studies were made on pure Ni to interpret microstructure's formation with simplified alloy chemistry. Microstructure formation have been studied when varying time at constant temperature (isothermal kinetics), but also when varying temperature for constant hold time (isochronal kinetics). The chemical composition and crystallography of the present phases have been identified, with the following results : (i) the fraction of dissolved base metal has been found proportional to the initial thickness of the brazing alloy, so that the composition of the liquid remains homogeneous with a precise initial equilibrium composition during the whole brazing process, (ii) the melting of the joint occurs in two steps : at lower temperature, it involves only partially melting, and boron diffusion in pure Ni leads to the precipitation of fine Ni3B borides at the interface ; in a second stage, at higher temperature, melting is complete and thermodynamic equilibrium requires significant dissolution of nickel, which also involves the dissolution of part of borides already formed. Secondly, nickel plating technique was used on Inconel 625 nickel-based superalloy. A thin layer of Ni with varying thickness, has been electrodeposited to observe the gradual dissolution of Inconel and microstructural features formation due to the presence of superalloy alloying elements. It has been observed that the nickel coating does not prevent precipitation in the base metal as boron diffuse rapidly through the coating width. In the intermediate nickel plating width, fragile precipitates of nickel borides have been observed, because the contribution of Inconel alloying elements to the melt was very limited. In absence of nickel plating on the

  17. Effect of Pressing Parameters on the Structure of Porous Materials Based on Cobalt and Nickel Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, V. S.; Rubtsov, N. M.; Alymov, M. I.; Ankudinov, A. B.; Evstratov, E. V.; Zelensky, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    Porous materials with a bulk porosity of more than 68% were synthesized by powder metallurgy methods from a cobalt-nickel mixture. The effect of the ratio of nickel and cobalt powders used in the synthesis of this porous material (including cases when either nickel or cobalt alone was applied) and the conditions of their compaction on structural parameters, such as open and closed porosities and pose size, was established.

  18. Nickel-base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi, Hirano; Kenji, Hirano; Masayuki, Watando; Takahiro, Arakawa; Minoru, Maeda

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel-base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions. By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel. Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than 350 HV. (author)

  19. Effect of surface treatments on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneda, Junya; Tamako, Hiroaki; Hato, Hisamitsu; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment on SCC susceptibility of Ni base alloys was investigated. Cracks were observed in all grinding specimens in a creviced bent beam (CBB) test. On the other hand, no cracks occurred in shot peening (SP), water jet peening (WJP) specimens. It was indicated that these surface treatments effectively reduced the SCC susceptibility of nickel-base alloys. As a result of a residual stress test, the surface of specimens with grinding had high tensile residual stress. However, SP and WJP improved surface residual stress to compressive stress. The depth of the compressive effect of WJP was almost the same as that of SP. However, the surface hardness of WJP specimens differed from that of SP and it was found that WJP had less impact on surface hardening. This difference was consistent with their surface microstructures. The surface of SP specimens had clearly the deformation region, but the surface of WJP specimens was localized. (author)

  20. New Mechanistic Models of Long Term Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Evans, T. Matthew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Greaney, P. Alex [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2018-05-15

    The report describes the development of a discrete element method (DEM) based modeling approach to quantitatively predict deformation and failure of typical nickel based superalloys. A series of experimental data, including microstructure and mechanical property characterization at 600°C, was collected for a relatively simple, model solid solution Ni-20Cr alloy (Nimonic 75) to determine inputs for the model and provide data for model validation. Nimonic 75 was considered ideal for this study because it is a certified tensile and creep reference material. A series of new DEM modeling approaches were developed to capture the complexity of metal deformation, including cubic elastic anisotropy and plastic deformation both with and without strain hardening. Our model approaches were implemented into a commercially available DEM code, PFC3D, that is commonly used by engineers. It is envisioned that once further developed, this new DEM modeling approach can be adapted to a wide range of engineering applications.

  1. The microstructure of heat-treated nickel-based superalloy 718Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Lawrence; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Guetaz, Laure; Leitner, Harald; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Stockinger, Martin; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of thermally aged nickel-based 718Plus superalloy is investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Solution annealing at 980 °C for 30 min is followed by either the standard quenching to room temperature or quenching directly to 788 °C, before isothermal aging at 788 °C for four hours. Micro-hardness and yield strength are measured to compare the effects of the two variations. The size and phase fraction of γ′ precipitates are measured using dark-field TEM and related to the hardness and yield strength through a theoretical model based on coherency and antiphase boundary effects. A population of very small sub-precipitates is observed and the larger γ′ precipitates are investigated in detail using high resolution scanning TEM to reveal information about the chemical ordering

  2. Depositing Nickel-based Hardfacing to Join Carbon Steel and Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Fernández-Columbié

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to determine the micro-structural behavior of a joint between cast iron and carbon steel by depositing a nickel-based substrate in the carbon steel. The filler was added through Shielded Metal Arc Welding using Castec 3099 (UTP 8 electrodes while the base materials were joined through Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with ER 70S – A1 bare electrodes. The Schaeffler diagram was used to analyze the chemical composition of the resulting weld beads. The results of the analysis performed on the welded area and the heat influence zone indicated the formation of acicular structures near the welded line when Castec 3099 electrodes are used and the formation of skeletal ferrite on the heat influence zone during the application of this welding process. An austenitic mixture is formed when ER 70S – A1 electrodes are used.

  3. Degradation modes of nickel-base alternate waste package overpack materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, S.G.

    1988-07-01

    The suitability of Ti Grade 12 for waste package overpacks has been questioned because of its observed susceptibility to crevice corrosion and hydrogen-assisted crack growth. For this reason, materials have been selected for evaluation as alternatives to Ti Grade 12 for use as waste package overpacks. These alternative materials, which are based on the nickel-chromium-molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloy system, are Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, and Hastelloy C-22. The degradation modes of the Ni-base alternate materials have been examined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine the suitability of these materials for waste package overpack applications in a salt repository. Degradation modes investigated included general corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting, stress-corrosion cracking, and hydrogen embrittlement

  4. Corrosion of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys in solutions of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, E.M.; Renner, M.

    1992-01-01

    Reactions involving nitric acid may always result in the contamination of this acid with fluorides. In highly concentrted nitric acid, the presence of small amounts of HF will substantially reduce the corrosion of metallic materials. Mixtures consisting of hydrofluoric acid and hypo-azeotropic nitric acid on the other hand will strongly attack: the metal loss will markedly increase with increasing HNO 3 and HF concentrations as well as with rising temperatures. The investigation covered 12 stainless steel grades and nickel-base alloys. With constant HNO 3 content, corrosion rates will rise linearly when increasing the HF concentration. With constant HF concentration (0,25 M), corrosion rates will increase rapidly with increasing nitric acid concentration (from 0.3 M to 14.8 M). This can best be described by superimposing a linear function and a hyperbolic function that is reflecting the change in the HNO 3 content. Alloys containing as much chromium as possible (up to 46 wt.%) will exhibit the best corrosion resistance. Alloy NiCr30FeMo (Hastelloy alloy G-30) proved to be well suitable in this investigation. (orig.) [de

  5. High performance symmetric supercapacitor based on zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets and 3D graphene-nickel foam composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamlich, S.; Abdullaeva, Z.; Kennedy, J.V.; Maaza, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A symmetric supercapacitor device based on NiF-G/ZHCNs composite materials electrodes was successfully fabricated. • The fabricated device exhibited high specific areal capacitance of 222 mF cm"−"2 at 1.0 mA cm"−"2 current density. • Excellent cycling performance with 96% specific capacitance retention after 5000 cycles was achieved. - Abstract: In this work, zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets (ZHCNs) were deposited on 3d graphene-nickel foam (NiF-G) by employing a simple hydrothermal synthesis method to form NiF-G/ZHCNs composite electrode materials. The fabricated NiF-G/ZHCNs electrode revealed a well-developed pore structures with high specific surface area of 119 m"2 g"−"1, and used as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The specific areal capacitance and electron charge transfer resistance (R_c_t) were 222 mF cm"−"2 (at current density of 1.0 mA cm"−"2) and 1.63 Ω, respectively, in a symmetric two-electrode system. After 5000 cycles with galvanostatic charge/discharge, the device can maintain 96% of its initial capacitance under 1.0 mA cm"−"2 and showed low R_c_t of about 9.84 Ω. These results indicate that NiF-G/ZHCNs composite is an excellent electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  6. Analysis of shot-peening and residual stress relaxation in the nickel-based superalloy RR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, B.J.; Gray, S.; Hardy, M.C.; Stekovic, S.; McPhail, D.S.; Shollock, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the residual stress relaxation of the nickel-based alloy RR1000 due to thermal exposure and dwell-fatigue loading. A number of different characterization methods, including X-ray residual stress analysis, electron back-scattered diffraction, microhardness testing and focused ion beam secondary electron imaging, contributed to a detailed study of the shot-peened region. Thermal exposure at 700 °C resulted in a large reduction in the residual stresses and work-hardening effects in the alloy, but the subsurface remained in a beneficial compressive state. Oxidizing environments caused recrystallization in the near surface, but did not affect the residual stress-relaxation behaviour. Dwell-fatigue loading caused the residual stresses to return to approximately zero at nearly all depths. This work forms part of an ongoing investigation to determine the effects of shot-peening in this alloy with the motivation to improve the fatigue and oxidation resistance at 700 °C

  7. Intergranular tellurium cracking of nickel-based alloys in molten Li, Be, Th, U/F salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Gnidoy, Ivan; Kulakov, Alexander; Uglov, Vadim; Vasiliev, Alexander; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    In Russia, R&D on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) are concentrated now on fast/intermediate spectrum concepts which were recognized as long term alternative to solid fueled fast reactors due to their attractive features: strong negative feedback coefficients, easy in-service inspection, and simplified fuel cycle. For high-temperature MSR corrosion of the metallic container alloy in primary circuit is the primary concern. Key problem receiving current attention include surface fissures in Ni-based alloys probably arising from fission product tellurium attack. This paper summarizes results of corrosion tests conducted recently to study effect of oxidation state in selected fuel salt on tellurium attack and to develop means of controlling tellurium cracking in the special Ni-based alloys recently developed for molten salt actinide recycler and tranforming (MOSART) system. Tellurium corrosion of Ni-based alloys was tested at temperatures up to 750 °C in stressed and unloaded conditions in molten LiF-BeF2 salt mixture fueled by about 20 mol% of ThF4 and 2 mol% of UF4 at different [U(IV)]/[U(III)] ratios: 0.7, 4, 20, 100 and 500. Following Ni-based alloys (in mass%): HN80М-VI (Mo—12, Cr—7.6, Nb—1.5), HN80МТY (Mo—13, Cr—6.8, Al—1.1, Ti—0.9), HN80МТW (Mo—9.4, Cr—7.0, Ti—1.7, W—5.5) and ЕМ-721 (W—25.2, Cr—5.7, Ti—0.17) were used for the study in the corrosion facility. If the redox state the fuel salt is characterized by uranium ratio [U(IV)]/[U(III)] uranium intermetallic compounds and alloys with nickel and molybdenum. This leads to spontaneous behavior of alloy formation processes on the specimens' surface and further diffusion of uranium deep into the metallic phase. As consequence of this films of intermetallic compounds and alloys of nickel, molybdenum, tungsten with uranium are formed on the alloys specimens' surface, and intergranular corrosion does not take place. In the fuel salt with [U(IV)]/[U(III)] = 4-20 the potentials of uranium

  8. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-01-01

    Prior to the restructuring of the Prometheus Program, the NRPCT was tasked with delivering a nuclear space reactor. Potential NRPCT nuclear space reactor designs for the Prometheus Project required dissimilar materials to be in contact with each other while operating at extreme temperatures under irradiation. As a result of the high reactor core temperatures, refractory metals were the primary candidates for many of the reactor structural and cladding components. They included the tantalum-base alloys ASTAR-811C and Ta-10W, the niobium-base alloy FS-85, and the molybdenum base alloys Moly 41-47.5 Rhenium. The refractory metals were to be joined to candidate nickel base alloys such as Haynes 230, Alloy 617, or Nimonic PE 16 either within the core if the nickel-base alloys were ultimately selected to form the outer core barrel, or at a location exterior to the core if the nickel-base alloys were limited to components exterior to the core. To support the need for dissimilar metal joints in the Prometheus Project, a co-extrusion experiment was proposed. There are several potential methods for the formation of dissimilar metal joints, including explosive bonding, friction stir welding, plasma spray, inertia welding, HIP, and co-extrusion. Most of these joining methods are not viable options because they result in the immediate formation of brittle intermetallics. Upon cooling, intermetallics form in the weld fusion zone between the joined metals. Because brittle intermetallics do not form during the initial bonding process associated with HIP, co-extrusion, and explosive bonding, these three joining procedures are preferred for forming dissimilar metal joints. In reference to a Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory report done under a NASA sponsored program, joints that were fabricated between similar materials via explosive bonding had strengths that were directly affected by the width of the diffusion barrier. It was determined that the diffusion zone should not exceed

  9. Misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming; Zhuo, Longchao; Liu, Zhanli; Lu, Xiaogang; Shi, Zhenxue; Li, Jiarong; Zhu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloys deteriorate with increasing misorientation, thus the finished product rate of the casting of single crystal turbine airfoils may be reduced due to the formation of grain boundaries especially when the misorientation angle exceeds to some extent. To this day, evolution of the microstructures at the grain boundaries with misorientation and the relationship between the microstructures and the mechanical properties are still unclear. In this work a detailed characterization of the misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in DD6 single crystal superalloy has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques; the elemental distribution at the grain boundaries has been analyzed by energy dispersive (EDS) X-ray mapping; and the effect of precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary on the mechanical property has been evaluated by finite element calculation. It is shown that the proportion of γ phase at the grain boundaries decreases, while the proportion of γ′ phase at the grain boundaries increases with increasing misorientation; the μ phase is precipitated at the grain boundaries when the misorientation angle exceeds about 10° and thus it could lead to a dramatic deterioration of the mechanical properties, as well as that the enrichment of Re and W gradually disappears as the misorientation angle increases. All these factors may result in the degradation of the mechanical properties at the grain boundaries as the misorientation increases. Furthermore, the finite element calculation confirms that precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary is responsible for the significant deterioration of the mechanical properties when the misorientation exceeds about 10°. This work provides a physical imaging of the microstructure for understanding the relationship between the mechanical properties and the misorientation

  10. Transformed model fitting. A straightforward approach to evaluation of anisotropic SANS from nickel-base single-crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Schematic description of a special evaluation procedure for data treatment of anisotropic Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is presented. The use of the discussed procedure is demonstrated on a data taken from investigation of precipitation in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  11. The heat storage material based on paraffin-modified multilayer carbon nanotubes with Nickel-zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolkov, A.; Shchegolkov, A.; Dyachkova, T.; Semenov, A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents an investigation of magnetically controlled heat-storage material based on paraffin, modified with multilayer carbon nanotubes with nickel-zinc ferrite. The technology of obtaining nanomodified material capable of interacting with magnetic field is presented. The study of the heat-exchange processes of charge/discharge with the help of magnetic field are carried out.

  12. Nickel and its alloys as perspective materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers operating on proton conducting solid acids as electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Several stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, Ta-coated stainless steel, niobium, nickel, platinum and gold were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance was measured in molten KH2PO4 as simulated conditions corresponding...

  13. Improved creep strength of nickel-base superalloys by optimized γ/γ′ partitioning behavior of solid solution strengthening elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröbstle, M.; Neumeier, S.; Feldner, P.; Rettig, R.; Helmer, H.E.; Singer, R.F.; Göken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solid solution strengthening of the γ matrix is one key factor for improving the creep strength of single crystal nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. Therefore a strong partitioning of solid solution hardening elements to the matrix is beneficial for high temperature creep strength. Different Rhenium-free alloys which are derived from CMSX-4 are investigated. The alloys have been characterized regarding microstructure, phase compositions as well as creep strength. It is found that increasing the Titanium (Ti) as well as the Tungsten (W) content causes a stronger partitioning of the solid solution strengtheners, in particular W, to the γ phase. As a result the creep resistance is significantly improved. Based on these ideas, a Rhenium-free alloy with an optimized chemistry regarding the partitioning behavior of W is developed and validated in the present study. It shows comparable creep strength to the Rhenium containing second generation alloy CMSX-4 in the high temperature / low stress creep regime and is less prone to the formation of deleterious topologically close packed (TCP) phases. This more effective usage of solid solution strengtheners can enhance the creep properties of nickel-base superalloys while reducing the content of strategic elements like Rhenium.

  14. Interfacial failure in dissimilar weld joint of high boron 9% chromium steel and nickel-based alloy under high-temperature creep condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Tetsuya, E-mail: MATSUNAGA.Tetsuya@nims.go.jp; Hongo, Hiromichi, E-mail: HONGO.Hiromichi@nims.go.jp; Tabuchi, Masaaki, E-mail: TABUCHI.Masaaki@nims.go.jp

    2017-05-17

    The advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) power generation system is expected to become the next-generation base-load power station in Japan. Dissimilar weld joints between high-Cr heat-resistant steels and nickel-based alloys with a nickel-based filler metal (Alloy 82) will need to be adopted for this purpose. However, interfacial failure between the steels and weld metal has been observed under high-temperature creep conditions. Fractography and microstructure observations showed the failure initiated in a brittle manner by an oxide notch at the bottom of the U-groove. The fracture then proceeded along the bond line in a ductile manner with shallow dimples, where micro-Vickers hardness tests showed remarkable softening in the steel next to the bond line. In addition, the steel showed a much larger total elongation and reduction of area than the weld metal at low stresses under long-term creep conditions, leading to mismatch deformation at the interface. According to the results, it can be concluded that the interfacial failure between the 9Cr steels and Alloy 82 weld metal is initiated by an oxide notch and promoted by softening and the difference in the plasticity of the steels and weld metal.

  15. The effects of thermomechanical history on the microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S., E-mail: 485354@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Li, W. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Coleman, M. [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Johnston, R., E-mail: r.johnston@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-21

    The effect of thermo-mechanical history on hot compression behaviour and resulting microstructures of a nickel base superalloy is presented. Hot compression tests were carried out on HAYNES® 282® specimens to varying strains from 0.1 to 0.8. Both single pass and multi-pass tests were completed. 60 min inter-pass times were utilized to accurately replicate industrial forging practices. The effect of dynamic, metadynamic and static recrystallization during inter-pass times on flow stress was investigated. The resulting microstructures were analysed using scanning electron, optical microscopy and EBSD to relate grain size and homogeneity with flow stress data. The study showed a negligible difference between multi-pass and single pass tests for strain increments above 0.2. Therefore, when modelling similar low strain and strain rate forging processes in HAYNES® 282®, previous forging steps can be ignored.

  16. Tensile behavior of nickel-base single-crystal superalloy DD6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xinhong, E-mail: xiongxh@whut.edu.cn [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Quan, Dunmiao; Dai, Pengdan; Wang, Zhiping [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Zhang, Qiaoxin [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yue, Zhufeng [School of Mechanics Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-06-11

    Tensile behavior of the nickel-base single-crystal superalloy DD6 was studied from room temperature to 1020 °C. The plate specimens were along [001] orientation parallel to the loading axis in tension. The microstructures on the surface and fracture morphology were investigated after tensile test to rupture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the present investigation indicate that the yield strength at 650 °C is superior to that at room temperature, 850 °C and 1020 °C. Low ductility and serrated flow in stress–strain curves were also observed at 650 °C. The microstructures on the surface of the plate specimens and fracture morphology observation indicated that localized slip which resulted in glide plane decohesion caused the low ductility of DD6 alloy.

  17. On the microstructural origin of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, M.; Reppich, B.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys is strongly correlated to the different hardening species present in the material. In fine-grained single-phase material the classical assumption of a homogeneous dislocation distribution enables the prediction of the transition from normal via sigmoidal to inverse primary creep with decreasing applied stress σ. In coarse-grained material the back stress σ b of hard subgrain boundaries evolving during plastic deformation must be additionally taken into account. Second-phase particles influence creep in a 2-fold manner via reducing the effective stress σ eff , namely directly by the stress σ p * for particle overcoming, and indirectly by increasing the dislocation density ρ. The proposed approach accounts for the observed pronounced normal primary creep in particle-strengthened superalloys. (orig.)

  18. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnken, N., E-mail: n.warnken@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ma, D. [Foundry Institute of the RWTH-Aachen, Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Drevermann, A. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Reed, R.C. [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fries, S.G. [SGF Consultancy, 52064 Aachen (Germany)] [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Steinbach, I. [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  19. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnken, N.; Ma, D.; Drevermann, A.; Reed, R.C.; Fries, S.G.; Steinbach, I.

    2009-01-01

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  20. High-temperature performance of a new nickel-based filler metal for power generation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, J.; Coleman, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Siefert, J.; Tanzosh, J. [Babcok and Wilcox Research Center, Barberton, OH (United States); Newell, W. [Euroweld, Mooresville, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A new nickel-based weld filler metal, EPRI P87, has been developed as a superior alternative to ERNiCr-3 for use in dissimilar metal welds (DMW) between ferritic and austenitic materials. EPRI P87 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion more closely matching alloys such as Grade 91 and 92 than other available filler metals. Additionally, the size of the carbon denuded region adjacent to the weld in the heat-affected-zone is minimized/eliminated by proper control of weld metal composition. In this work the high-temperature mechanical behavior of DMWs utilizing EPRI P87 (GTAW and GMAW processes) was characterized through tensile and long-term creep-rupture testing. Microstructure analysis was also conducted on tested specimens to evaluate the HAZ regions and failure modes. Performance of the weld metal and welded joints is discussed and compared with ERNiCr-3 and typical 9%Cr-MoV filler metals. (orig.)

  1. Heat affected zone liquation cracking in electron beam welded third generation nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O.A.; Wang, Y.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The weldability of directionally solidified nickel base superalloy TMS-75 and TMS-75+C was investigated by autogenous bead-on-plate electron beam welding. The analysis of microsegregation that occurred during solidification of the as-cast alloys indicated that while W and Re segregated into the γ dendrites of both the alloys, Ta, Hf and C were rejected into the interdendritic liquid in the TMS-75+C. Heat affected zone intergranular liquation cracking was observed in both the materials and was observed to be closely associated with liquated γ-γ' eutectic microconstituent. The TMS-75+C alloy, however, exhibited a reduced extent of HAZ cracking compared to TMS-75. Suppression of terminal solidification reaction involving non-invariant γ-γ' eutectic transformation due to modification of primary solidification path by carbon addition is suggested to be an important factor contributing to reduced susceptibility of TMS-75+C alloy to HAZ liquation cracking relative to the TMS-75 superalloy

  2. Dynamic precipitation of nickel-based superalloys undergoing severe deformation below the solvus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotnik, Andrzej; Rokicki, Pawel; Mrowka-Nowotnik, Grazyna; Sieniawski, Jan [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Material Science

    2015-07-15

    The authors performed uniaxial compression tests of nickel-based superalloys: single crystal CMSX-4, also precipitation hardened; Inconel 718 and X750, at temperatures below the γ' solvus, in order to study the effect of temperature and strain rate on their flow stress and microstructural development. On the basis of the obtained flow stress values, the activation energy of a high-temperature deformation process was estimated. Microstructural observations of the deformed samples at high temperatures, previously solution heat treated and aged CMSX-4 and Inconel alloys revealed non-uniform deformation effects. Distribution of either molybdenum- or niobium-rich carbides was found to be affected by localized flow within the investigated strain range at relatively low deformation temperatures, 720-850 C. Microstructural examination of the alloys also showed that shear banding and cavity growth were responsible for the decrease in flow stress and a specimen fracture at larger strains.

  3. Green Compact Temperature Evolution during Current-Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Morsi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-activated tip-based sintering (CATS is a novel process where spark plasma sintering conditions are applied through an electrically conducting tip on a locally controlled area on a green powder compact/bed. The localization of electric current in CATS allows for unique temporal and spatial current and temperature distributions within the tip and powder compact. In this paper, special experimental setups were used to monitor the temperature profiles in the tip and at multiple locations on the surface of nickel powder compacts. A variation in the initial green density was found to have a significant effect on the maximum temperature in the tip as well as the temperature distribution across the powder compact. In general, the lowest green density specimens displayed the best conditions for localized densification. The concept of effective current density is introduced and results are discussed in relation to the densification parameter.

  4. Recent Advances in Creep Modelling of the Nickel Base Superalloy, Alloy 720Li.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William; Whittaker, Mark; Williams, Steve

    2013-03-20

    Recent work in the creep field has indicated that the traditional methodologies involving power law equations are not sufficient to describe wide ranging creep behaviour. More recent approaches such as the Wilshire equations however, have shown promise in a wide range of materials, particularly in extrapolation of short term results to long term predictions. In the aerospace industry however, long term creep behaviour is not critical and more focus is required on the prediction of times to specific creep strains. The current paper illustrates the capability of the Wilshire equations to recreate full creep curves in a modern nickel superalloy. Furthermore, a finite-element model based on this method has been shown to accurately predict stress relaxation behaviour allowing more accurate component lifing.

  5. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys in PWR primary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerre, C.; Chaumun, E.; Crepin, J.; De Curieres, I.; Duhamel, C.; Heripre, E.; Herms, E.; Laghoutaris, P.; Molins, R.; Sennour, M.; Vaillant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of nickel base alloys and associated weld metals in primary water is one of the major concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWR). Since the 90's, highly cold-worked stainless steels (non-sensitized) were also found to be susceptible to SCC in PWR primary water ([1], [2], [3]). In the context of the life extension of pressurized water reactors, laboratory studies are performed in order to evaluate the SCC behaviour of components made of nickel base alloys and of stainless steels. Some examples of these laboratory studies performed at CEA will be given in the talk. This presentation deals with both initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks. The aims of these studies is, on one hand, to obtain more data regarding initiation time or crack growth rate and, one the other hand, to improve our knowledge of the SCC mechanisms. The aim of these approaches is to model SCC and to predict components life duration. Crack growth rate (CGR) tests on Alloy 82 with and without post weld heat treatment are performed in PWR primary water (Figure 1). The heat treatment seems to be highly beneficial by decreasing the CGR. This result could be explained by the effect of thermal treatment on the grain boundary nano-scopic precipitation in Alloy 82 [4]. The susceptibility to SCC of cold worked austenitic stainless steels is also studied. It is shown that for a given cold-working procedure, SCC susceptibility increases with increasing cold-work ([2], [5]). Despite the fact that the SCC behaviour of Alloy 600 has been widely studied for many years, recent laboratory experiments and analysis ([6], [7], [8]) showed that oxygen diffusion is not a rate-limiting step in the SCC mechanism and that chromium diffusion in the bulk close the crack tip could be a key parameter. (authors)

  6. Internal nitridation of nickel-base alloys; Innere Nitrierung von Nickelbasis-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupp, U.; Christ, H.J. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik

    1998-12-31

    The chromuim concentration is the crucial variable in nitridation processes in nickel-base alloys. Extensive nitridation experiments with various specimen alloys of the system Ni-Cr-Al-Ti have shown that the Cr itself starts to form nitrides as from elevated initial concentrations of about 10 to 20 weight%, (depending on temperature), but that lower concentrations have an earlier effect in that they induce a considerable increase in the N-solubility of the nickel-base alloys. This causes an accelerated nitridation attack on the alloying elements Ti and Al. Apart from experimental detection and analysis, the phenomenon of internal nitridation could be described as well by means of a mathematical model calculating the diffusion with the finite-differences method and determining the precipitation thermodynamics by way of integrated equilibrium calculations. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Verlauf der Hochtemperaturkorrosion von Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen kann durch beanspruchungsbedingte Schaedigungen der Oxiddeckschicht ein Verlust der Schutzwirkung erfolgen und als Konsequenz Stickstoff aus der Atmosphaere in den Werkstoff eindringen. Der eindiffundierende Stickstoff bildet vor allem mit den Legierungselementen Al, Cr und Ti Nitridausscheidungen, die zu einer relativ rasch fortschreitenden Schaedigung fuehren koennen. Eine bedeutende Rolle bei diesen Nitrierungsprozessen in Nickelbasislegierungen spielt die Cr-Konzentration in der Legierung. So ergaben umfangreiche Nitrierungsexperimente an verschiedenen Modellegierungen des Systems Ni-Cr-Al-Ti, dass Cr zwar selbst erst ab Ausgangskonzentrationen von ca. 10-20 Gew.% (abhaengig von der Temperatur) Nitride bildet, allerdings bereits bei geringen Konzentrationen die N-Loeslichkeit von Nickelbasis-Legierungen entscheidend erhoeht. Dies hat zur Folge, dass es zu einem beschleunigten Nitrierungsangriff auf die Legierungselemente Ti und Al kommt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen konnte das Phaenomen der inneren

  7. A probabilistic-based approach to monitoring tool wear state and assessing its effect on workpiece quality in nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Niaki, Farbod

    The objective of this research is first to investigate the applicability and advantage of statistical state estimation methods for predicting tool wear in machining nickel-based superalloys over deterministic methods, and second to study the effects of cutting tool wear on the quality of the part. Nickel-based superalloys are among those classes of materials that are known as hard-to-machine alloys. These materials exhibit a unique combination of maintaining their strength at high temperature and have high resistance to corrosion and creep. These unique characteristics make them an ideal candidate for harsh environments like combustion chambers of gas turbines. However, the same characteristics that make nickel-based alloys suitable for aggressive conditions introduce difficulties when machining them. High strength and low thermal conductivity accelerate the cutting tool wear and increase the possibility of the in-process tool breakage. A blunt tool nominally deteriorates the surface integrity and damages quality of the machined part by inducing high tensile residual stresses, generating micro-cracks, altering the microstructure or leaving a poor roughness profile behind. As a consequence in this case, the expensive superalloy would have to be scrapped. The current dominant solution for industry is to sacrifice the productivity rate by replacing the tool in the early stages of its life or to choose conservative cutting conditions in order to lower the wear rate and preserve workpiece quality. Thus, monitoring the state of the cutting tool and estimating its effects on part quality is a critical task for increasing productivity and profitability in machining superalloys. This work aims to first introduce a probabilistic-based framework for estimating tool wear in milling and turning of superalloys and second to study the detrimental effects of functional state of the cutting tool in terms of wear and wear rate on part quality. In the milling operation, the

  8. Substructure based modeling of nickel single crystals cycled at low plastic strain amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong

    In this dissertation a meso-scale, substructure-based, composite single crystal model is fully developed from the simple uniaxial model to the 3-D finite element method (FEM) model with explicit substructures and further with substructure evolution parameters, to simulate the completely reversed, strain controlled, low plastic strain amplitude cyclic deformation of nickel single crystals. Rate-dependent viscoplasticity and Armstrong-Frederick type kinematic hardening rules are applied to substructures on slip systems in the model to describe the kinematic hardening behavior of crystals. Three explicit substructure components are assumed in the composite single crystal model, namely "loop patches" and "channels" which are aligned in parallel in a "vein matrix," and persistent slip bands (PSBs) connected in series with the vein matrix. A magnetic domain rotation model is presented to describe the reverse magnetostriction of single crystal nickel. Kinematic hardening parameters are obtained by fitting responses to experimental data in the uniaxial model, and the validity of uniaxial assumption is verified in the 3-D FEM model with explicit substructures. With information gathered from experiments, all control parameters in the model including hardening parameters, volume fraction of loop patches and PSBs, and variation of Young's modulus etc. are correlated to cumulative plastic strain and/or plastic strain amplitude; and the whole cyclic deformation history of single crystal nickel at low plastic strain amplitudes is simulated in the uniaxial model. Then these parameters are implanted in the 3-D FEM model to simulate the formation of PSB bands. A resolved shear stress criterion is set to trigger the formation of PSBs, and stress perturbation in the specimen is obtained by several elements assigned with PSB material properties a priori. Displacement increment, plastic strain amplitude control and overall stress-strain monitor and output are carried out in the user

  9. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  10. A new method to predict the metadynamic recrystallization behavior in a typical nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song; Wen, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Ying; He, Dao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behaviors of a typical nickel-based superalloy are investigated by two-pass hot compression tests and four conventional stress-based conventional approaches (offset stress method, back-extrapolation stress method, peak stress method, and mean stress method). It is found that the conventional stress-based methods are not suitable to evaluate the MDRX softening fractions for the studied superalloy. Therefore, a new approach, 'maximum stress method', is proposed to evaluate the MDRX softening fraction. Based on the proposed method, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, initial average grain size, and interpass time on MDRX behaviors are discussed in detail. Results show that MDRX softening fraction is sensitive to deformation parameters. The MDRX softening fraction rapidly increases with the increase of deformation temperature, strain rate, and interpass time. The MDRX softening fraction in the coarse-grain material is lower than that in the fine-grain material. Moreover, the observed microstructures indicate that the initial coarse grains can be effectively refined by MDRX. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations are established and validated to describe the MDRX behaviors of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and dissolution studies of nickel ferrite in PDCA based formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion product in the pipeline surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to nature of the chelant, nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies have been performed. The dissolution is dominated by the adsorption of the complexing agent at the oxide surface, but mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles. This is due to the in situ release of Fe 2+ ions or the generation of Fe 2+ ions by the reduction of Fe 3+ ions by the reductants in the solution. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid state method. The prepared nickel ferrite samples are characterised by XRD to confirm the ferrite formation. The dissolution studies are performed in PDCA formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and LOMI reductants like Fe(II)-PDCA. The dissolution rate of nickel ferrite at 85degC increased with the increase of Fe 2+ ion content in the crystal lattice. Fe(II)-PDCA was found to be better reductants in dissolving the nickel ferrite in comparison with ascorbic acid. (author)

  12. Development and characterization of protective nickel coatings by CVD process for non-ferrous metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of this thesis is the formation of adhesive and corrosion resistant nickel film on aluminum, aluminum-lithium (Li 0.5 %) alloy and copper substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Different surface preparation treatments such as electropolishing, anodizing and pickling are applied to the aforementioned substrates and its effect on the adhesion and corrosion resistance of nickel coating is studied. Nickel coating is deposited on different substrates by using already optimized parameters of 190-200 degree C deposition temperature, 9-8 x 10/sup -1/ Torr pressure during deposition, pure nickel-tetra-carbonyl gas, and induction heating source and 5 minutes deposition time. Substrates subjected to pickling treatment show excellent adhesion of nickel coating with a value of 5B based on ASTM standard while electropolished substrates show valve of 3B. XRD characterization of the nickel film show characteristic peaks of nickel confirming its phase purity. The SEM images show that nickel coating follows the surface features of the substrate. The pickled surface results in film with rough morphology than electropolished or anodized surface. The corrosion resistance of both uncoated and coated substrates is studied by monitoring its open circuit potential in different electrolytes (brine solution, sea and distilled water) at different temperatures. All substrates coated with nickel show 120-400mV potential difference compare with uncoated substrates in different electrolytes. (author)

  13. Combination of Asymmetric Supercapacitor Utilizing Activated Carbon and Nickel Oxide with Cobalt Polypyridyl-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Narjes; Aghaei, Alireza; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Häggman, Leif; Wang, Michael; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Skunik-Nuckowska, Magdalena; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dye Solar Cell and supercapacitor are integrated into a single device capable of generation and storage of energy. • The solar cell part of the device utilizes the Co-based electrolyte and nickel/PEDOT counter electrode. • A cobalt-doped nickel oxide together with activated carbon is used in the capacitor part of the device. • The integrated photocapacitor is characterized by the capacitance of 32 F g −1 and the total efficiency of 0.6%. - Abstract: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the metal-free organic sensitizer and the cobalt (II, III) polypyridyl electrolyte was integrated here within an asymmetric supercapacitor utilizing cobalt-doped nickel oxide and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. A low cost nickel foil served as intermediate (auxiliary) bifunctional electrode separating two parts of the device and permitting the DSC electrolyte regeneration at one side and charge storage within cobalt-doped nickel oxide at the other. The main purpose of the research was to develop an integrated photocapacitor system capable of both energy generation and its further storage. Following irradiation at the 100 mW cm −2 level, the solar cell generated an open-circuit voltage of 0.8 V and short-circuit current of 8 mA cm −2 which corresponds to energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%. It was further shown that upon integration with asymmetric supercapacitor, the photogenerated energy was directly injected into porous charge storage electrodes thus resulting in specific capacitance of 32 F g −1 and energy density of 2.3 Wh kg −1 . The coulumbic and total (energy conversion and charge storage) efficiency of photocapacitor were equal to 54% and 0.6%, respectively

  14. Near-surface residual stresses and microstructural changes after turning of a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlauer, Christian

    2003-07-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are precipitation hardened alloys with complex compositions. They are used in aircraft engines and land-based gas turbines in load bearing structural components that are exposed to high temperatures. Failure mechanisms in this environment are high and low cycle fatigue, creep, and corrosion. During manufacturing, residual stresses are often introduced into the material due to inhomogeneous plastic deformations, both intentionally and unintentionally. One such manufacturing process is metal cutting, which introduces residual stresses in the surface layer. The stress state in the near-surface zone of components is of special interest as the surface often experiences peak loads and cracks have their starting point there. In this thesis, near-surface residual stress distributions and microstructural changes are studied in the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 for two different turning operations, face grooving and facing. Process variables are in both cases cutting speed and feed that have been varied between (10 and 1200) m/min and (0.01 and 0.5) mm, respectively. The first turning technique face grooving, which gives cutting conditions similar to orthogonal cutting, showed a clear dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed. The tensile stress at the surface, the maximum compressive stress below the surface, and the thickness of the affected layer increase with increasing cutting speed. The tensile stresses are constrained to a thin surface layer and compressive residual stresses below the surface dominate the depth profile of the residual stresses. Only at low cutting speed, residual stresses were largely avoided. The second turning technique facing confirmed the dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed and revealed a similar dependency on the feed. Microstructural investigations of near-surface cross-sections by means of transmission electron microscopy showed a zone where the grains had undergone plastic

  15. Clad modified optical fiber gas sensors based on nanocrystalline nickel oxide embedded coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, K.; Renganathan, B.; Ganesan, A. R.; Prakash, T.

    2017-07-01

    A clad modified optical fiber gas sensor for sensing volatile organic compound vapours (VOCs) such as formaldehyde (HCHO), ammonia (NH3), ethanol (C2H5OH) and methanol (CH3OH) up to 500 ppm was studied using nanocrystalline nickel oxide embedded coatings. Prior to the measurements, nickel oxide in two different crystallite sizes such as 24 nm and 76 nm was synthesized by calcination of reverse precipitated nickel hydroxide subsequently at 450 °C and 900 °C for 30 min. Then, samples physical properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Our gas sensing measurement concludes that the lower crystallite size (24 nm) nickel oxide nanocrystals exhibits superior performance to formaldehyde and ethanol vapours as compared with other two VOCs, the observed experimental results were discussed in detail.

  16. Dislocation mechanism of void growth at twin boundary of nanotwinned nickel based on molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to investigate dislocation mechanism of void growth at twin boundary (TB) of nanotwinned nickel. Simulation results show that the deformation of nanotwinned nickel containing a void at TB is dominated by the slip involving both leading and trailing partials, where the trailing partials are the dissociation products of stair-rod dislocations formed by the leading partials. The growth of a void at TB is attributed to the successive emission of the leading partials followed by trailing partials as well as the escape of these partial dislocations from the void surface. - Highlights: • Dislocation mechanism of void growth at TB of nanotwinned nickel is investigated. • Deformation of the nanotwinned nickel is dominated by leading and trailing partials. • Growth of void at TB is caused by successive emission and escape of these partials.

  17. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  18. Morphology Dependent Flow Stress in Nickel-Based Superalloys in the Multi-Scale Crystal Plasticity Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Keshavarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a framework to obtain the flow stress of nickel-based superalloys as a function of γ-γ’ morphology. The yield strength is a major factor in the design of these alloys. This work provides additional effects of γ’ morphology in the design scope that has been adopted for the model developed by authors. In general, the two-phase γ-γ’ morphology in nickel-based superalloys can be divided into three variables including γ’ shape, γ’ volume fraction and γ’ size in the sub-grain microstructure. In order to obtain the flow stress, non-Schmid crystal plasticity constitutive models at two length scales are employed and bridged through a homogenized multi-scale framework. The multi-scale framework includes two sub-grain and homogenized grain scales. For the sub-grain scale, a size-dependent, dislocation-density-based finite element model (FEM of the representative volume element (RVE with explicit depiction of the γ-γ’ morphology is developed as a building block for the homogenization. For the next scale, an activation-energy-based crystal plasticity model is developed for the homogenized single crystal of Ni-based superalloys. The constitutive models address the thermo-mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloys for a large temperature range and include orientation dependencies and tension-compression asymmetry. This homogenized model is used to obtain the morphology dependence on the flow stress in nickel-based superalloys and can significantly expedite crystal plasticity FE simulations in polycrystalline microstructures, as well as higher scale FE models in order to cast and design superalloys.

  19. EIS pitting temperature determination of A182 nickel based alloy in simulated BWR environment containing dilute seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Olivier; Shoji, Tetsuo; Takeda, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable pitting events in function of the temperature are monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. • The pitting temperature for the nickel based alloy A182 in solution containing 450 ppm Cl − is defined as above 160 °C. • The presented method can be applied for others passive alloys as stainless steel in solution containing aggressive anions. - Abstract: A method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to monitor the pitting temperature of passive alloys in a given media is developed in this communication. The pitting corrosion behavior of the nickel based alloy 182 in water containing 450 ppm by weight of chloride is presented in this study. The analysis of the EIS fit parameters from the proposed equivalent electrical circuit allows to determine the temperature from which stable pitting event occurs at open circuit potential. For the A182 sample this temperature is measured above 160 °C

  20. Detoxification of rats subjected to nickel chloride by a biomaterial-based carbonated orthophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, S; El Feki, A; Oudadesse, H; Kallel, C; El Feki, H

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the therapeutic approaches of the detoxification against the metals (nickel) in the body are the use of biomaterials such as carbonated hydroxyapatite. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze the physiological and physicochemical parameters of strain white rats "Wistar" receiving nickel chloride and to study the protective associative of apatite against adverse effects of this metal, and this in comparison with control rats. Our results showed that the nickel induced in rats an oxidative stress objectified by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated dienes associated with inhibition of the activity of the antioxidant defense system such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver, kidney, spleen and erythrocyte. Disorders balances of ferric, phosphocalcic, a renal failure and a liver toxicity were observed in rats exposed to nickel. As well as a significant increase in the rate of nickel in the bones and microcytic anemia was revealed. However, the implantation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in capsule form protects rats intoxicated by the nickel against the toxic effects of this metal by lowering the levels of markers of lipid peroxidation and improving the activities of defense enzymes. Our implantation technique is effective to correct ferric balance and phosphocalcic equilibrium, to protect liver and kidney function, to reduce the rate of bone nickel and to correct anemia. They clearly explain the beneficial and protective of our biomaterial which aims the detoxification of rats receiving nickel by substituting cationic (Ca(2+) by Ni(2+)) and anionic (OH(-) by Cl(-)) confirmed by physicochemical characterization like the IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These techniques have shown on the one hand a duplication of OH(-) bands (IR) and on the other hand the increase of the volume of the apatite cell after these substitutions (X-ray diffraction). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson

  1. Wustite-based photoelectrodes with lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and nickel additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Emily Ann; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    2017-08-15

    A photoelectrode, photovoltaic device and photoelectrochemical cell and methods of making are disclosed. The photoelectrode includes an electrode at least partially formed of FeO combined with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The electrode may be doped with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, and sodium. The electrode may be alloyed with at least one of magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel.

  2. On the thermodynamic efficiency of a nickel-based multiferroic thermomagnetic generator: From bulk to atomic scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Samuel M., E-mail: samuel.m.sandoval@gmail.com; Sepulveda, Abdon E., E-mail: abdon.sepulveda@gmail.com; Keller, Scott M., E-mail: smkeller@ucla.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    A model is developed to correlate the effects of size on the thermodynamic efficiency for a nickel-based multiferroic thermomagnetic generator device. Three existing models are combined in order to estimate this correlation, they are (1) thermodynamic efficiency relations, (2) a model of ferromagnetic transition behavior, and (3) the bond-order length strength correlation. At the smallest size considered, a monolayer of nickel atoms shows a reduction in Curie temperature from its bulk value of T{sub c,Bulk}=630 K to T{sub c,ML}=240 K. This difference is analytically shown to affect the thermodynamic efficiency values when compared to bulk. Various nickel nanofilms are considered as a working body, such that the combined model predicts relative efficiency values that are comparable to the bulk scale, but operating closer to room-temperature when compared to bulk form. This result is unexpected since the absolute efficiency is shown to increase as a function of decreasing size, this discrepancy is explained as a consequence of Curie point suppression. The combined model is also applied to a hypothetical composite made of separated layers of nickel with distinct thicknesses. This composite material is predicted to spread the ferromagnetic transition across a much larger temperature range as compared to bulk nickel, such that this material may be better suited for different applications; for example, as a sensor or thermal switch. Moreover, this combined model is also shown to give a lower-bound estimate for thermodynamic efficiency, since the actual performance depends on material characterizations that have yet to be determined.

  3. Hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristic of Nickel-base electron beam weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: ningke521@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yao, Zekun; Guo, Hongzhen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The Hot deformation behavior of electron beam (EB) Nickel-base weldments was investigated. • The constitutive equation represented by temperature, strain rate and true strain was developed. • Processing map approach was adopted to optimize the hot forging process of EB weldments. • True strain has a great effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). -- Abstract: The electron beam welding (EBW) of Nickel-base superalloys was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam (EB) weldments. The hot deformation behavior of EB weldments was investigated at the temperature of 960–1140 °C and the strain rate of 0.001–1.0 s{sup −1}. The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 400 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling of the hot deformation process of EB weldments. The processing map approach was adopted to investigate the deformation mechanisms during the hot plastic deformation and to optimize the processing parameters of EB weldments. It is found that the true strain has a significant effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). The η value in the safe processing domain (1140 °C, 1.0 s{sup −1}) increases from 0.32 to 0.55. In the unsafe processing domain (1080 °C, 0.001 s{sup −1}), however, the η value greatly decreases with the increase of strain. When the strain is 0.40, the efficiency of power dissipation becomes negative. The flow instability is predicted to occur since the instability parameter ξ(ε) becomes negative. The hot deformation of EB weldments can be carried out safely in the domain with the strain rate range of 0.1–1.0 s{sup −1} and the temperature range of 960–1140 °C. When the height reduction is about 50%, the optimum processing condition is (T{sub opi}: 1140 °C, ε{sub opi}: 1.0 s{sup −1}) with

  4. Hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristic of Nickel-base electron beam weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Yongquan; Yao, Zekun; Guo, Hongzhen; Fu, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Hot deformation behavior of electron beam (EB) Nickel-base weldments was investigated. • The constitutive equation represented by temperature, strain rate and true strain was developed. • Processing map approach was adopted to optimize the hot forging process of EB weldments. • True strain has a great effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). -- Abstract: The electron beam welding (EBW) of Nickel-base superalloys was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam (EB) weldments. The hot deformation behavior of EB weldments was investigated at the temperature of 960–1140 °C and the strain rate of 0.001–1.0 s −1 . The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 400 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling of the hot deformation process of EB weldments. The processing map approach was adopted to investigate the deformation mechanisms during the hot plastic deformation and to optimize the processing parameters of EB weldments. It is found that the true strain has a significant effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). The η value in the safe processing domain (1140 °C, 1.0 s −1 ) increases from 0.32 to 0.55. In the unsafe processing domain (1080 °C, 0.001 s −1 ), however, the η value greatly decreases with the increase of strain. When the strain is 0.40, the efficiency of power dissipation becomes negative. The flow instability is predicted to occur since the instability parameter ξ(ε) becomes negative. The hot deformation of EB weldments can be carried out safely in the domain with the strain rate range of 0.1–1.0 s −1 and the temperature range of 960–1140 °C. When the height reduction is about 50%, the optimum processing condition is (T opi : 1140 °C, ε opi : 1.0 s −1 ) with the peak efficiency of 0

  5. Weldability of neutron-irradiated stainless steel and nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyabu, Ken; Asano, Kyoichi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shohei; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki; Koshiishi, Masato; Kato, Takahiko; Katsura, Ryoei; Nishimura, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    Degradation of of weldability caused by helium, which is generated by nuclear transmutation irradiated material, is an important issue to be addressed in planning of proactive maintenance of light water reactor core internal components. In this work, the weldability of neutron.irradiated stainless steel and nickel-base alloy, which are major constituting materials for components, was practically evaluated. The weldability was first examined by TIG welding in relation to the weld heat input and helium content using various specimens (made of SUS304 and SUS316L) sampled from reactor internal components. The specimens were neutron irradiated in a boiling water reactor to fluences from 4 x 10 24 to 1.4 x 10 26 n/ m 2 (E> l MeV ), and resulting helium generation ranged from 0.1 to 103 appm. The weld defects were characterized by dye penetrant test and cross-sectional metallography. The weldability of neutron-irradiated stainless steel was shown to be better at lower weld heat input and lower helium content. To evaluate mechanical properties of welded joints, thick plates (20 mm) specimens of SUS304 and Alloy 600 were prepared and irradiated in Japan Material Test Reactor (JMTR). The helium content of the specimens was controlled to range from 0.11 to 1.34 appm selected to determine threshold helium content to weld successfully. The welded joints had multiple passes by TIG welding process at 10 and 20 kJ/cm heat input. The welded joints of thick plate were characterized by dye penetrant test, cross-sectional metallography, tensile test, side bend test and root bend test. It was shown that irradiated stainless steel containing below 0.14 appm of helium could be welded with conventional TIG welding process (heat input below 20 kJ/cm). Nickel-base alloy, which contained as much helium as stainless steel could be welded successfully, could also be welded with conventional TIG welding process, These results served as basis to evaluate the applicability of repair welding to

  6. Proposal of fatigue crack growth rate curve in air for nickel-base alloys used in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takuya; Itatani, Masao; Nagase, Hiroshi; Aoike, Satoru; Yoneda, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    When the defects are detected in the nuclear components in Japan, structural integrity assessment should be performed for the technical judgment on continuous service based on the Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Code (JSME FFS Code). Fatigue crack growth analysis is required when the cyclic loading would be applied for the components. Recently, fatigue crack growth rate curve in air environment for Nickel-base alloys weld metal used in BWR was proposed by the authors and it was adopted as a code case of JSME FFS Code to evaluate the embedded flaw. In this study, fatigue crack growth behavior for heat-affected zone (HAZ) of Nickel-base alloys in air was investigated. And a unified fatigue crack growth rate curve in air for HAZ and weld metal of Nickel-base alloys used in BWR was evaluated. As a result, it was found that the curve for weld metal could be applied as a curve for both HAZ and weld metal since moderately conservative assessment of fatigue crack growth rate of HAZ is possible by the curve for weld metal in the Paris region. And the threshold value of stress intensity far range (ΔK th ) is determined to 3.0 MPa√m based on the fatigue crack growth rate of HAZ. (author)

  7. High performance symmetric supercapacitor based on zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets and 3D graphene-nickel foam composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlich, S., E-mail: skhamlich@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Abdullaeva, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 860-8555 (Japan); Kennedy, J.V. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31312, Lower Hutt, 5010 (New Zealand); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • A symmetric supercapacitor device based on NiF-G/ZHCNs composite materials electrodes was successfully fabricated. • The fabricated device exhibited high specific areal capacitance of 222 mF cm{sup −2} at 1.0 mA cm{sup −2} current density. • Excellent cycling performance with 96% specific capacitance retention after 5000 cycles was achieved. - Abstract: In this work, zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets (ZHCNs) were deposited on 3d graphene-nickel foam (NiF-G) by employing a simple hydrothermal synthesis method to form NiF-G/ZHCNs composite electrode materials. The fabricated NiF-G/ZHCNs electrode revealed a well-developed pore structures with high specific surface area of 119 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, and used as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The specific areal capacitance and electron charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) were 222 mF cm{sup −2} (at current density of 1.0 mA cm{sup −2}) and 1.63 Ω, respectively, in a symmetric two-electrode system. After 5000 cycles with galvanostatic charge/discharge, the device can maintain 96% of its initial capacitance under 1.0 mA cm{sup −2} and showed low R{sub ct} of about 9.84 Ω. These results indicate that NiF-G/ZHCNs composite is an excellent electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel-Base Superalloy IN100 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Amrita; Das, Suman

    2018-01-01

    Scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) is a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF)-based additive manufacturing process that uses a high-power laser to consolidate metal powders facilitating the fabrication of three-dimensional objects. In the present study, SLE is used to produce samples of IN100, a high-γ' non-weldable nickel-base superalloy on similar chemistry substrates. A thorough analysis is performed using various advanced material characterization techniques such as high-resolution optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers microhardness measurements to characterize and compare the quality of the SLE-fabricated IN100 deposits with the investment cast IN100 substrates. The results show that the IN100 deposits have a finer γ/γ' microstructure, weaker elemental segregation, and higher microhardness compared with the substrate. Through this study, it is demonstrated that the SLE process has tremendous potential in the repair and manufacture of gas turbine hot-section components.

  9. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Tobias; Rommel, Daniel; Scherm, Florian; Gorywoda, Marek; Glatzel, Uwe

    2017-03-10

    Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co-28Cr-9W-1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  10. Characterization and Modeling of Microstructure Development in Nickel-base Superalloy Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Miller, M.K.; Vitek, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Welding is important for economical reuse and reclamation of used and failed nickel-base superalloy blades, respectively [1]. Solidification and solid state decomposition of {gamma} (Face Centered Cubic, FCC) phase into {gamma}{prime} (L1{sub 2}-ordered) phase control the properties of these welds. In previous publications, the microstructure development in electron beam welds of PWA-1480 alloy [2] and laser beam welds of CMSX-4 alloy [3] were presented. These results showed that the weld cracking in these alloys were associated with low melting point eutectic at the dendrite boundaries [1,2]. The eutectic-{gamma}{prime} precipitation was reduced at rapid weld cooling rates and the partitioning between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} phase was found to be far from equilibrium conditions [3,4]. This observation was related to diffusional growth of {gamma}{prime} precipitate into {gamma} phase. Subsequent to the above work, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} phase from {gamma} phase were evaluated during continuous cooling conditions [5]. The results show that the number density of {gamma} precipitates increased with an increase in cooling rate. However, the details of this decomposition and also the fine-scale elemental partitioning characteristics between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} were not investigated. In this paper, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} from {gamma} during continuous cooling conditions were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe field ion microscopy. In addition, thermodynamic and kinetic models were used to describe microstructure development in Ni-base superalloy welds.

  11. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  12. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  13. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  14. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-F.; Lin, M.-C.; Hsu, M.-L.; Li, U.-M.; Lin, C.-P.; Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F.; Chen, L.-K.; Huang, H.-H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH 3 -containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  15. Effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of dental nickel-titanium files in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.-F. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.-C. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, M.-L. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, U.-M. [Dental Department, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Hsintien, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.-P. [Department of Dentistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, W.-F.; Ai, C.-F. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, L.-K. [Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-H. [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw

    2009-05-05

    This study investigated the effect of nitriding surface treatment on the corrosion resistance of commercial dental alloy, in the form of helical nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files, when treated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution. The surface of dental helical Ni-Ti files was modified using nitriding treatment at 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C and 300 deg. C in an NH{sub 3}-containing environment. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-Ti files were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the Ni-Ti files when treated with a clinical solution of 5.25% NaOCl was evaluated using the linear polarization method and by potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement. The nitriding treatments at different temperatures created titanium nitride (TiN) on the surface of the helical Ni-Ti files. The Ni-Ti files nitrided at 200 deg. C and 250 deg. C showed higher polarization resistance and higher passive film breakdown potential together with a lower passive current than untreated files. The presence of TiN on dental Ni-Ti files significantly increased the corrosion resistance of the files in the presence of 5.25% NaOCl solution.

  16. A comparison of nickel-titanium rotary instruments manufactured using different methods and cross-sectional areas: ability to resist cyclic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, So-Ram; Chang, Seok-Woo; Lee, Yoon; Gu, Yu; Son, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol; Baek, Seung-Ho; Bae, Kwang-Shik; Choi, Gi-Woon; Lim, Sang-Min; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2010-04-01

    This study examined the effect of the manufacturing methods (ground, electropolished, and twisted) and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments on their cyclic fatigue resistance. A total of 80 NiTi rotary instruments (ISO 25/.06 taper) from 4 brands (K3, ProFile, RaCe, and TF) were rotated in a simulated root canal with pecking motion until fracture. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The CSA at 3 mm from the tip of new instruments of each brand was calculated. The correlation between the CSA and NCF was evaluated. All fractured surfaces were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope to determine the fracture mode. The TF instruments were the most resistant to fatigue failure. The resistance to cyclic failure increased with decreasing CSA. All fractured surfaces showed the coexistence of ductile and brittle properties. The CSA had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance of NiTi rotary instruments. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of nickel-based C276 alloy coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on different steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L.S.; Graf, K.; Scheid, A., E-mail: scheid@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Nickel-based coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) for protection of components are widely applied to withstand operations under corrosion in different media. This paper characterized Nickel-based C276 alloy coatings obtained by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on two different substrates, AISI 316L and API 5L X70 steels, correlating their features to hardness. Coatings were deposited utilizing three different intensity current levels, 120, 150 and 180 A and were characterized by optical, Laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness profiles on transversal section were carried out. Produced coatings exhibited a microstructure of austenite (FCC) dendrites with interdendritic regions with carbides. Dilution levels from 4,9 to 41,5 % leaded to hardness ranging from 225 to 283 HV{sub 0,5}, showing coatings dependence on intensity current level and substrate. (author)

  18. On Post-Weld Heat Treatment of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint by Linear Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT, i.e. solution treatment + primary aging + secondary aging (I, secondary aging (II, and primary aging + secondary aging (III, were applied to a single crystal nickel-based superalloy joint made with linear friction welding (LFW. The results show that the grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ coarsen seriously and the primary γ' phase in the TMAZ precipitates unevenly after PWHT I. The primary γ' phase in the TMAZ and weld zone (WZ precipitates insufficiently and fine granular secondary γ' phase is observed in the matrix after PWHT II. After PWHT III, the primary γ' phase precipitates more sufficiently and evenly compared to PWHTs I and II. Moreover, the grains in the TMAZ have not coarsened seriously and fine granular secondary γ' phase is not found after PWHT III. PWHT III seems more suitable to the LFWed single crystal nickel-based superalloy joints when performing PWHT.

  19. Characterization of nickel-based C276 alloy coatings by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on different steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.S.; Graf, K.; Scheid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel-based coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) for protection of components are widely applied to withstand operations under corrosion in different media. This paper characterized Nickel-based C276 alloy coatings obtained by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) on two different substrates, AISI 316L and API 5L X70 steels, correlating their features to hardness. Coatings were deposited utilizing three different intensity current levels, 120, 150 and 180 A and were characterized by optical, Laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness profiles on transversal section were carried out. Produced coatings exhibited a microstructure of austenite (FCC) dendrites with interdendritic regions with carbides. Dilution levels from 4,9 to 41,5 % leaded to hardness ranging from 225 to 283 HV_0_,_5, showing coatings dependence on intensity current level and substrate. (author)

  20. Oxygen-induced intergranular fracture of the nickel-base alloy IN718 during mechanical loading at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a transition in the mechanical-failure behavior of nickel-base superalloys from ductile transgranular crack propagation to time-dependent intergranular fracture when the temperature exceeds about 600 °C. This transition is due to oxygen diffusion into the stress field ahead of the crack tip sufficient to cause brittle decohesion of the grain boundaries. Since very high cracking rates were observed during fixed-displacement loading of IN718, it is not very likely that grain boundary oxidation governs the grain-boundary-separation process, as has been proposed in several studies on the fatigue-damage behavior of the nickel-base superalloy IN718. Further studies on bicrystal and thermomechanically processed specimens of IN718 have shown that this kind of brittle fracture, which has been termed "dynamic embrittlement", depends strongly on the structure of the grain boundaries.

  1. The interaction of reaction-bonded silicon carbide and inconel 600 with a nickel-based brazing alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, J. R.; Pugh, M. D.; Drew, R. A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to join reaction-bonded silicon carbide (RBSC) to INCONEL 600 (a nickel-based superalloy) for use in advanced heat engine applications using either direct brazing or composite interlayer joining. Direct brazing experiments employed American Welding Society (AWS) BNi-5, a commercial nickel-based brazing alloy, as a filler material; composite interlayers consisted of intimate mixtures of α-SiC and BNi-5 powders. Both methods resulted in the liquid filler metal forming a Ni-Si liquid with the free Si in the RBSC, which, in turn, reacted vigorously with the SiC component of the RBSC to form low melting point constituents in both starting materials and Cr carbides at the metal-ceramic interface. Using solution thermodynamics, it was shown that a Ni-Si liquid of greater than 60 at. pct Ni will decompose a-SiC at the experimental brazing temperature of 1200 ‡C; these calculations are consistent with the experimentally observed composition profiles and reaction morphology within the ceramic. It was concluded that the joining of RBSC to INCONEL 600 using a nickel-based brazing alloy is not feasible due to the inevitability of the filler metal reacting with the ceramic, degrading the high-temperature properties of the base materials.

  2. A continuum approach to combined $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ evolution and dislocation plasticity in Nickel-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ronghai; Zaiser, Michael; Sandfeld, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Creep in single crystal Nickel-based superalloys has been a topic of interest since decades, and nowadays simulations are more and more able to complement experiments. In these alloys, the $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ phase microstructure co-evolves with the system of dislocations under load, and understanding the mutual interactions is essential for understanding the resulting creep properties. Predictive modeling thus requires multiphysics frameworks capable of modeling and simulating both the phase an...

  3. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microarray analysis of altered gene expression in murine fibroblasts transformed by nickel(II) to nickel(II)-resistant malignant phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowara, Renata; Karaczyn, Aldona; Cheng, Robert Y.S.; Salnikow, Konstantin; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S.

    2005-01-01

    B200 cells are Ni(II)-transformed mouse BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts displaying a malignant phenotype and increased resistance to Ni(II) toxicity. In an attempt to find genes whose expression has been altered by the transformation, the Atlas Mouse Stress/Toxicology cDNA Expression Array (Clontech Laboratories, Inc., Palo Alto, CA) was used to analyze the levels of gene expression in both parental and Ni(II)-transformed cells. Comparison of the results revealed a significant up- or downregulation of the expression of 62 of the 588 genes present in the array (approximately 10.5%) in B200 cells. These genes were assigned to different functional groups, including transcription factors and oncogenes (9/14; fractions in parentheses denote the number of up-regulated versus the total number of genes assigned to this group), stress and DNA damage response genes (11/12), growth factors and hormone receptors (6/9), metabolism (7/7), cell adhesion (2/7), cell cycle (3/6), apoptosis (3/4), and cell proliferation (2/3). Among those genes, overexpression of beta-catenin and its downstream targets c-myc and cyclin D1, together with upregulated cyclin G, points at the malignant character of B200 cells. While the increased expression of glutathione (GSH) synthetase, glutathione-S-transferase A4 (GSTA4), and glutathione-S-transferase theta (GSTT), together with high level of several genes responding to oxidative stress, suggests the enforcement of antioxidant defenses in Ni-transformed cells

  5. Toxicity Thresholds Based on EDTA Extractable Nickel and Barley Root Elongation in Chinese Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyun Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the risk assessment of trace metal elements in soils when total metal contents are used can be decreased by assessing their availability and/or extractability when the soils have a high background value or different sources of trace metal elements. In this study, the added water-soluble nickel (Ni toxicity to barley root elongation was studied in 17 representative Chinese soil samples with and without artificial rainwater leaching. The extractability of added Ni in soils was estimated by three sequential extractions with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. The results showed that the effective concentration of EDTA extractable Ni (EC50, which caused 50% inhibition of barley root elongation, ranged from 46 to 1019 mg/kg in unleached soils and 24 to 1563 mg/kg in leached soils. Regression models for EDTA extractable Ni and total Ni added to soils against soil properties indicated that EDTA extractable Ni was significantly correlated with the total Ni added to soils and that pH was the most important control factor. Regression models for toxicity thresholds based on EDTA extractable Ni against soil properties showed that soil citrate dithionate extractable Fe was more important than soil pH in predicting Ni toxicity. These results can be used to accurately assess the risk of contaminated soils with high background values and/or different Ni sources.

  6. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes I. Fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    In the first of a two part publication, the effect of fuel utilization (Uf) on carbon deposition rates in solid oxide fuel cell nickel-based anodes was studied. Representative 5-component CH4 reformate compositions (CH4, H2, CO, H2O, & CO2) were selected graphically by plotting the solutions to a system of mass-balance constraint equations. The centroid of the solution space was chosen to represent a typical anode gas mixture for each nominal Uf value. Selected 5-component and 3-component gas mixtures were then delivered to anode-supported cells for 10 h, followed by determination of the resulting deposited carbon mass. The empirical carbon deposition thresholds were affected by atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) fractions of the delivered gas mixtures and temperature. It was also found that CH4-rich gas mixtures caused irreversible damage, whereas atomically equivalent CO-rich compositions did not. The coking threshold predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations employing graphite for the solid carbon phase agreed well with empirical thresholds at 700 °C (Uf ≈ 32%); however, at 600 °C, poor agreement was observed with the empirical threshold of ∼36%. Finally, cell operating temperatures correlated well with the difference in enthalpy between the supplied anode gas mixtures and their resulting thermodynamic equilibrium gas mixtures.

  7. Quality assurance when surface welding nickel-based alloys; Qualitaetssicherung bei der Auftragsschweissung von Nickelbasislackierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metschke, J. [Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cladding of evaporator heat exchanger surfaces in refuse incineration boilers with alloy 625 can effectively protect against the corrosive wear of the basic tube if the described rules concerning the pre-treatment, processing, quality control and after-care are observed. This statement is supported by the positive experience with this alloy at the Schwandorf refuse-fired power plant over a period of eight years now. Since the maximum service temperature is limited to 420 C, alloy 625 is only suitable for protecting superheater pipes subject to certain conditions. Long-term experience with alternative nickel-based alloys (alloy 622, alloy 686 and others) are not yet available. (orig.) [German] Die Schweissplattierung von Verdampferwaermetauscherflaechen in Muellverbrennungskesseln mit Alloy 625 kann einen wirksamen Schutz gegen den korrosiven Verschleiss des Grundrohres darstellen, wenn die vorstehenden Regeln ueber Vorbehandlung, Verarbeitung, Qualitaetskontrolle und laufende Nachsorgearbeiten beachtet werden. Diese Aussage wird durch die positiven Erfahrungen mit dieser Legierung im Muellkraftwerk Schwandorf ueber einen Zeitraum von nunmehr acht Jahren gestuetzt. (orig.)

  8. Ignition characteristics of the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001 in pressurized oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, J. W.; Billiard, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of ignition and combustion in pressurized oxygen atmospheres was studied for the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001. Ignition of the alloy was achieved by heating the top surface of a cylindrical specimen with a continuous-wave CO2 laser. Two heating procedures were used. In the first, laser power was adjusted to maintain an approximately linear increase in surface temperature. In the second, laser power was periodically increased until autoheating (self-heating) was established. It was found that the alloy would autoheat to combustion from temperatures below the solidus temperature. In addition, the alloy had a tendency to develop combustion zones (hot spots) at high oxygen pressures when the incremental (step) heating test mode was used. Unique points on the temperature-time curves that describe certain events are defined and the temperatures at which these events occur are given for the oxygen pressure range of 1.72 to 13.8 MPa (250 to 2000 psia).

  9. Characterization of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell as a power generator based on a nickel electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the fabrication of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell (MFC) using nickel as a novel alternative for conventional electrodes and a non-phatogenic strain of Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The feasibility of a microfluidic MFC as an efficient power generator for production of bioelectricity from glucose and urea as organic substrates in human blood and urine for implantable medical devices (IMDs) was investigated. A maximum open circuit potential of 459 mV was achieved for the batch-fed microfluidic MFC. During continuous mode operation, a maximum power density of 104 Wm(-3) was obtained with nutrient broth. For the glucose-fed microfluidic MFC, the maximum power density of 5.2 μW cm(-2) obtained in this study is significantly greater than the power densities reported previously for microsized MFCs and glucose fuel cells. The maximum power density of 14 Wm(-3) obtained using urea indicates the successful performance of a microfluidic MFC using human excreta. It features high power density, self-regeneration, waste management and a low production cost (microfluidic MFC as a power supply was characterized based on polarization behavior and cell potential in different substrates, operational modes, and concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The structure and properties of a nickel-base superalloy produced by osprey atomization-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Rodger H.

    1986-04-01

    The production of a nickel-base superalloy, René* 80, by the Osprey atomization-deposition process has been investigated. Dense (>99 pct) material with a fine-grained equiaxed microstructure was deposited using either argon or nitrogen as the atomizing gas. Defects present in the material included a chill region at the collector plate interface, entrapped recirculated particles, porosity, and ceramic particles from the melting and dispensing system. In contrast to other rapid solidification techniques, low oxygen pick-ups are noted in the current technique. Tensile strengths above those displayed by castings are found in both nitrogen and argon atomized material, and in both the as-deposited and heat treated conditions. In addition, no profound mid-temperature ductility loss is displayed by this low oxygen material, in contrast to results on other rapidly solidified material with high oxygen contents. These results are explained in terms of oxygen embrittlement. In view of the excellent properties measured, the attractive economics of the process, and the fact that fine control of the gas/metal flow ratio is shown to be unnecessary, it is concluded that atomization-deposition presents an attractive potential production route for advanced alloys.

  11. A phenomenological creep model for nickel-base single crystal superalloys at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siwen; Wollgramm, Philip; Eggeler, Gunther; Ma, Anxin; Schreuer, Jürgen; Hartmaier, Alexander

    2018-07-01

    For the purpose of good reproduction and prediction of creep deformation of nickel-base single crystal superalloys at intermediate temperatures, a phenomenological creep model is developed, which accounts for the typical γ/γ‧ microstructure and the individual thermally activated elementary deformation processes in different phases. The internal stresses from γ/γ‧ lattice mismatch and deformation heterogeneity are introduced through an efficient method. The strain hardening, the Orowan stress, the softening effect due to dislocation climb along γ/γ‧ interfaces and the formation of dislocation ribbons, and the Kear–Wilsdorf-lock effect as key factors in the main flow rules are formulated properly. By taking the cube slip in \\{100\\} slip systems and \\{111\\} twinning mechanisms into account, the creep behavior for [110] and [111] loading directions are well captured. Without specific interaction and evolution of dislocations, the simulations of this model achieve a good agreement with experimental creep results and reproduce temperature, stress and crystallographic orientation dependences. It can also be used as the constitutive relation at material points in finite element calculations with complex boundary conditions in various components of superalloys to predict creep behavior and local stress distributions.

  12. Lattice misfit during ageing of a polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.M.; Yan, L.; Marquis, E.A.; Connor, L.D.; Ciardiello, J.J.; Evans, A.D.; Stone, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the lattice parameters and lattice misfit of an advanced polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy have been studied in situ during an ageing heat treatment using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. During ageing, the γ and γ′ lattice parameters were both observed to decrease, a trend that cannot be attributed to a loss of coherency alone. Phase-extracted γ′ replicated this behaviour. Atom probe tomography was used to measure the compositional changes between the start and end of the ageing heat treatment. Using these data, a thermodynamic assessment was made using the software ThermoCalc of the structural change across the interface between γ and γ′. Subsequently, the unconstrained lattice parameters were estimated and were shown to be in good agreement with the X-ray diffraction measurements. Thus, the observed anomalous lattice misfit behaviour was concluded to be dominated by elemental exchange between the γ and γ′ phases during ageing

  13. Effects of cobalt on creep rupture properties and dislocation structures in nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.Z.; Jin, T.; Jia, J.H.; Liu, J.L.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The influences of cobalt (Co) on creep rupture lives and dislocation structures in nickel base superalloys with and without rhenium (Re) are investigated. The creep rupture test conditions were high temperature low stress (1100 °C/150 MPa), intermediate temperature and stress (982 °C, 1010 °C) and low temperature high stress (850 °C/586 MPa). The results show that increasing Co content could enhance the creep rupture lives at low and intermediate temperature, and does not degrade the creep rupture lives of alloys at high temperature. In Re-containing alloys, at high temperature low stress (1100 °C/150 MPa), the effects of Co on the dislocation structures are negligible, while at low temperature high stress (850 °C/586 MPa), stacking faults are generated in alloy with 12% Co, and in alloy with 3% Co and free of Co, gamma prime particles are sheared by dislocation pairs. In Re-free alloys, at intermediate temperature and stress (1010 °C/248 MPa), large quantities of stacking faults appear in alloy without Co, while in alloy having 12% Co, gamma prime particles are sheared by dislocation pairs coupled by anti-phase boundary (APB). The gamma prime sheared by stacking faults or by dislocation pairs coupled by APB depends on the competition of stacking faults energy and APB energy which is affected by temperature and the interaction of Re and Co

  14. The Formation and Evolution of Shear Bands in Plane Strain Compressed Nickel-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation and evolution of shear bands in Inconel 718 nickel-base superalloy under plane strain compression was investigated in the present work. It is found that the propagation of shear bands under plane strain compression is more intense in comparison with conventional uniaxial compression. The morphology of shear bands was identified to generally fall into two categories: in “S” shape at severe conditions (low temperatures and high strain rates and “X” shape at mild conditions (high temperatures and low strain rates. However, uniform deformation at the mesoscale without shear bands was also obtained by compressing at 1050 °C/0.001 s−1. By using the finite element method (FEM, the formation mechanism of the shear bands in the present study was explored for the special deformation mode of plane strain compression. Furthermore, the effect of processing parameters, i.e., strain rate and temperature, on the morphology and evolution of shear bands was discussed following a phenomenological approach. The plane strain compression attempt in the present work yields important information for processing parameters optimization and failure prediction under plane strain loading conditions of the Inconel 718 superalloy.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Characterization of Aged Nickel-based Alloy 625 Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cleiton Carvalho; de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.; Miná, Emerson Mendonça; Moura, Elineudo P.; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the different phases formed during solidification and after thermal aging of the as-welded 625 nickel-based alloy, as well as the influence of microstructural changes on the mechanical properties. The experiments addressed aging temperatures of 650 and 950 °C for 10, 100, and 200 hours. The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy, microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction in order to identify the secondary phases. Mechanical tests such as hardness, microhardness, and Charpy-V impact test were performed. Nondestructive ultrasonic inspection was also conducted to correlate the acquired signals with mechanical and microstructural properties. The results show that the alloy under study experienced microstructural changes when aged at 650 °C. The aging was responsible by the dissolution of the Laves phase formed during the solidification and the appearance of γ″ phase within interdendritic region and fine carbides along the solidification grain boundaries. However, when it was aged at 950 °C, the Laves phase was continuously dissolved and the excess Nb caused the precipitation of the δ-phase (Ni3Nb), which was intensified at 10 hours of aging, with subsequent dissolution for longer periods such as 200 hours. Even when subjected to significant microstructural changes, the mechanical properties, especially toughness, were not sensitive to the dissolution and/or precipitation of the secondary phases.

  16. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, G.X.; Liu, J.D.; Qiao, H.C.; Zhou, Y.Z.; Jin, T.; Zhao, J.B.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  17. Welding Metallurgy of Nickel-Based Superalloys for Power Plant Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, David C.

    Increasing the steam temperature and pressure in coal-fired power plants is a perpetual goal driven by the pursuit of increasing thermal cycle efficiency and reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The next target steam operating conditions, which are 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi) are known as Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC), and can reduce CO2 emissions up to 13% but this cannot be achieved with traditional power plant construction materials. The use of precipitation-strengthened Nickel-based alloys (superalloys) is required for components which will experience the highest operating temperatures. The leading candidate superalloys for power plant construction are alloys 740H, 282, and 617. Superalloys have excellent elevated temperature properties due to careful microstructural design which is achieved through very specific heat treatments, often requiring solution annealing or homogenization at temperatures of 1100 °C or higher. A series of postweld heat treatments was investigated and it was found that homogenization steps before aging had no noticeable effect on weld metal microhardness, however; there were clear improvements in weld metal homogeneity. The full abstract can be viewed in the document itself.

  18. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.X. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.D., E-mail: jdliu@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiao, H.C. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhou, Y.Z. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jin, T., E-mail: tjin@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhao, J.B. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-02-16

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  19. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes II. Steam:carbon ratio and current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    For the second part of a two part publication, coking thresholds with respect to molar steam:carbon ratio (SC) and current density in nickel-based solid oxide fuel cells were determined. Anode-supported button cell samples were exposed to 2-component and 5-component gas mixtures with 1 ≤ SC ≤ 2 and zero fuel utilization for 10 h, followed by measurement of the resulting carbon mass. The effect of current density was explored by measuring carbon mass under conditions known to be prone to coking while increasing the current density until the cell was carbon-free. The SC coking thresholds were measured to be ∼1.04 and ∼1.18 at 600 and 700 °C, respectively. Current density experiments validated the thresholds measured with respect to fuel utilization and steam:carbon ratio. Coking thresholds at 600 °C could be predicted with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations when the Gibbs free energy of carbon was appropriately modified. Here, the Gibbs free energy of carbon on nickel-based anode support cermets was measured to be -6.91 ± 0.08 kJ mol-1. The results of this two part publication show that thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with appropriate modification to the Gibbs free energy of solid-phase carbon can be used to predict coking thresholds on nickel-based anodes at 600-700 °C.

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of Tetraselmis and Isochrysis microalgae by nickel ceria based catalysts for hydrocarbon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Abd Rahman, Nur Adilah; Sanna, Aimaro

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Tetraselmis sp. and Isochrysis sp. was carried out over ceria based catalysts in a fixed bed reactor. There was a clear effect of the catalysts on the product yields and quality, with the catalysts able to recover a large fraction of the starting microalgae energy (67–77%) in the bio-oils. Bio-oil yield was found to be higher in presence of Ni–Ce/Al_2O_3 and Ni–Ce/ZrO_2 (26 wt.%). The produced bio-oils had HHVs (higher heating values) of 34–35 MJ/kg and suffered strong deoxygenation, with O level decreased from 40–41% in the starting microalgae to 9–15%. Also, 15–20% N removal was obtained using the ceria based catalysts. The oxygen contents in the bio-oils were remarkably lower than those previously obtained using ZSM-5 (25%) and other species without catalyst (17–24%). "1H NMR and GC–MS analysis showed that the bio-oils were enriched in aliphatics and depleted in N-compounds and water using the ceria based catalysts. - Highlights: • Nickel-ceria based catalysts were evaluated for the in-situ conversion of Tetraselmis and Isochrysis microalgae. • Catalysts recovered 72–77% of the starting microalgae energy in bio-oils. • Bio-oils suffered strong deoxygenation, with O level decreased from 40–41% in the starting microalgae to 9–15%. • Bio-oils were enriched in aliphatics and depleted in N-compounds.

  1. Corrosion resisting properties of 90/10 copper-nickel-iron alloy with particular reference to offshore oil and gas applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P T

    1979-01-01

    The use of a copper-nickel-iron alloy for seawater pipeline systems and various other applications on offshore oil and gas platforms is now proving attractive, according to the UK's Yorkshire Imperial Metals Ltd. The alloy has already proved a useful and reliable material in many applications: It has given good results in seawater-cooled condensers and heat exchangers and seawater piping systems, in power stations, ships, desalination plant, and refrigeration service. Its antifouling and corrosion-resistant properties are valuable in these applications. The main limitations that have to be observed in its use are (1) the design, construction, and operation of systems within prescribed velocity and turbulence limits, to avoid the occurrence of impingement attack, and (2) problems that may arise because of badly polluted seawater.

  2. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms; Corrosion generalisee des alliages a base nickel en milieu aqueux a haute temperature: apport a la comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L

    2007-11-15

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale ({approx} 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary

  3. Resistência à torção de dois instrumentos endodônticos rotatórios de níquel-titânio Torsional resistance of two nickel-titanium rotatory endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da COSTA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores compararam a resistência à torção entre os instrumentos rotatórios de níquel-titânio Quantec Series 2000 e Pow-R, valendo-se de quarenta instrumentos para cada marca divididos em oito para cada um dos seguintes tamanhos nº 15, nº 20, nº 25, nº 35 e nº 40 com 21 mm e conicidade .02. Com a ajuda de um troptômetro modificado cada instrumento foi fixado em um madril e preso à 3 mm de sua ponta, previamente marcada com uma caneta de tinta permanente, na base do aparelho por uma morsa. Em seguida ativou-se a manivela que continha a escala em graus até notar-se sinal característico da fratura do instrumento registrando-se o valor da quantidade de movimento até este momento. Após tabulação dos dados procedeu-se a análise estatística de acordo com o teste t de Student com nível de significância de 1%. Os resultados mostraram haver diferença estatisticamente significante ao comparar-se limas de mesmo número confrontadas as duas marcas, favorável para o instrumento Pow-R.The authors compared the torsional resistance between the Quantec Series 2000 and Pow-R nickel-titanium rotatory instruments, using forty instruments of each brand, divided in eight of each one of the following numbers: nº 15, nº 20, nº 25, nº 35 and nº 40 with 21 mm and taper .02. Each instrument was fixed in the mandrel of a modified tropometer and held 3 mm away from its tip, on a spot that had been previously stamped with a permanent ink pen, by apprehension claws localized on the base of the equipment. Then the graduated handle was activated until a characteristic break sign of the instrument was noticed, the quantity of movement up to this moment being recorded. After the values were tabulated, the statistical analysis was carried out according to the Student t test. The results revealed a statistically significant difference when instruments of the same number, from both evaluated brands, were compared, favouring the Pow-R instruments.

  4. Carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning during CO2 electrolysis in nickel-based solid oxide cell electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Blennow, Peter; Hjelm, Johan

    2017-01-01

    is investigated systematically using simple current-potential experiments. Due to variations of local conditions, it is shown that higher current density and lower fuel electrode porosity will cause local carbon formation at the electrochemical reaction sites despite operating with a CO outlet concentration...... outside the thermodynamic carbon formation region. Attempts at mitigating the issue by coating the composite nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode with carbon-inhibiting nanoparticles and by sulfur passivation proved unsuccessful. Increasing the fuel electrode porosity is shown to mitigate......Reduction of CO2 to CO and O2 in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) has the potential to play a crucial role in closing the CO2 loop. Carbon deposition in nickel-based cells is however fatal and must be considered during CO2 electrolysis. Here, the effect of operating parameters...

  5. Comparison of the cyclic fatigue resistance of 5 different rotary pathfinding instruments made of conventional nickel-titanium wire, M-wire, and controlled memory wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capar, Ismail Davut; Kaval, Mehmet Emin; Ertas, Hüseyin; Sen, Bilge Hakan

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the cyclic fatigue resistance of current nickel-titanium rotary path-finding instruments. Five types of nickel-titanium rotary pathfinding instruments were used in steel canals with a 90° curvature and a curvature radius of 3 mm (n = 10) and 5 mm (n = 10). The cyclic fatigue of the following instruments was tested at 4 mm from the tip: PathFile (#16 and a .02 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), G-File (#12 and a .03 taper; Micro-Mega, Besançon Cedex, France), Scout Race (#15 and a .02 taper; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland), HyFlex GPF (#15 and a .02 taper; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and ProGlider (#16 with a mean taper of .04125 and a .02 at the first 4 mm from the tip, Dentsply Maillefer). The length of the fractured parts was measured, and the number of cycles to fracture (NCF) was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α = .05). After Bonferroni correction, the new P value was set as .005. The difference in the cyclic fatigue of all the files at both curvatures was statistically significant (P values from .0035 to less than .0001). The ranking of the instruments from the highest to the lowest NCF was as follows: HyFlex GPF, G files, ProGlider, PathFile, and Scout Race. The length of the fractured part of the instruments was similar in all the groups (P > .05). All the tested instruments had a lower NCF at a curvature radius of 3 mm when compared with a curvature radius of 5 mm (P instrument was the highest, and the curvature radius had a significant effect on the fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metallographic examination of TD-nickel base alloys. [thermal and chemical etching technique evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. D.; Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques are evaluated for chemical, electrochemical, and thermal etching of thoria dispersed (TD) nickel alloys. An electrochemical etch is described which yielded good results only for large grain sizes of TD-nickel. Two types of thermal etches are assessed for TD-nickel: an oxidation etch and vacuum annealing of a polished specimen to produce an etch. It is shown that the first etch was somewhat dependent on sample orientation with respect to the processing direction, the second technique was not sensitive to specimen orientation or grain size, and neither method appear to alter the innate grain structure when the materials were fully annealed prior to etching. An electrochemical etch is described which was used to observe the microstructures in TD-NiCr, and a thermal-oxidation etch is shown to produce better detail of grain boundaries and to have excellent etching behavior over the entire range of grain sizes of the sample.

  7. Chemical formation of palladium-free surface-nickelized polyimide film for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Y.-S.; Whang, W.-T.; Wu, S.-C.; Chuang, Kuen-Ru

    2008-01-01

    Flexible polyimide (PI) films for flexible electronics were surface-nickelized using a fully solution-based process and excellent adhesion between the nickel and polyimide phases was observed. Polyimide substrates were modified by alkaline hydrolysis, ion exchange, reduction and nickel electroless deposition without palladium. Atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to follow the growth of nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) and nickel layers on the polyimide surface. The surface resistances of the Ni-NPs/PI films and Ni/PI films, measured using a four-point probe, were 1.6 x 10 7 and 0.83 Ω/cm 2 , respectively. The thicknesses of Ni-NPs and the Ni layer on the polyimide surface were 82 nm and 382 nm, respectively, as determined by transmission electron microscopy, and the Ni layer adhered well to PI, as determined by the adhesive tape testing method

  8. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and

  9. The French regulatory experience and views on nickel-base alloy PWSCC prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turluer, G.; Cattiaux, G.; Monnot, B.; Emond, D.; Reuchet, J.; Chartier, Ph.

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents the experience feedback and views of the French Regulatory Authority (ASN) and of the technical support institute (IRSN) on PWSCC prevention since the initiation in 1989 of the 'Inconel Zones Review' requested by ASN to Electricite de France (EDF), the national operator of a fleet of 58 PWRs. This proactive requirement, launched before the discovery, in September 1991, of the only CRDM nozzle leak in France, on Bugey unit 3, was then triggered by the recurrence of many alloy 600 rapid degradations and leaks, world wide, and also in France in the late 1980's, particularly on steam generator tubes and on some pressurizer penetrations. Thus, the ASN requested that EDF, perform a comprehensive (generic) proactive assessment on all the nickel-base alloy components and parts of the main primary circuits, which of course included vessel head penetrations and bottom vessel head penetrations, and some other zones as a first priority. This proactive 'review' did, a minima, include the following tasks and actions: - Update and complete, by an extensive R and D program, the understanding and characterization of the Ni base alloys prone to PWSCC, - Analyze the various materials, metallurgical features, mechanical stresses, and physicochemical conditions of the parts exposed to primary water, in order to predict the occurrence of PWSCC initiation and propagation, - Provide a prioritization of the zones to be inspected, - Implement by improved NDE techniques a practical inspection program on the 58 PWRs, - Prepare and implement any needed mitigation actions as a result of the components conditions assessment. The present paper relates the main features of the French regulatory experience over more than 13 years and recalls the main principles of the assessment, which were applied by ASN. These principles, which are formalized in the current regulation rules revised in 1999, are briefly listed hereunder: - It is based on avoiding and preventing any leaking on

  10. Nickel exposure and prevalent albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria: evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Qi; Zhu, Mingjiang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Huaixing; Li, Zi; Chen, Yan; Yin, Huiyong; Lin, Xu

    2016-05-01

    High exposure to nickel could induce renal dysfunction in rodents and occupational workers. However, little is known about the effects of non-occupational exposure to nickel on renal health in the general population. We aimed to examine the associations of urinary nickel concentrations with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese adults. 2115 non-institutionalised Chinese men and women aged 55-76 years from Beijing and Shanghai were included. Urinary nickel concentrations were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Plasma uric acid, urea nitrogen, C reactive protein and urinary albumin, β2-microglobulin and creatinine were measured. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and β2-microglobulinuria was defined as urinary β2-microglobulin ≥200 µg/g creatinine. Median concentration of urinary nickel was 3.95 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 2.57-6.71 μg/g creatinine), and prevalence of albuminuria, β2-microglobulinuria and both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria was 22.1%, 24.5% and 9.7%, respectively. Comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of urinary nickel, the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.99 (1.46 to 2.78) for albuminuria, 1.44 (1.07 to 1.95) for β2-microglobulinuria, and 2.95 (1.74 to 4.97) for both albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria, after adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. The association remained significant when further controlling for inflammatory markers or other heavy metals (all p trend nickel levels were positively associated with albuminuria and β2-microglobulinuria in Chinese men and women, who had relatively low background nickel exposure. More prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L.

    2007-11-01

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale (∼ 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr 2 O 3 nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr 2 O 3 nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary media and to tackle some

  12. A study of graphene films synthesized on nickel substrates: existence and origin of small-base-area peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Choe, Minhyeok; Jo, Gunho; Park, Woojin; Yoon, Jongwon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Byoung Hun; Lee, Takhee; Lee, Sangchul; Cho, Chun Hum

    2011-01-01

    Large-area graphene films, synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, have the potential to be used as electrodes. However, the electrical properties of CVD-synthesized graphene films fall short of the best results obtained for graphene films prepared by other methods. Therefore, it is important to understand the reason why these electrical properties are inferior to improve the applicability of CVD-grown graphene films. Here, we show that CVD-grown graphene films on nickel substrates contain many small-base-area (SBA) peaks that scatter conducting electrons, thereby decreasing the Hall mobility of charges in the films. These SBA peaks were induced by small peaks on the nickel surface and are likely composed of amorphous carbon. The formation of these SBA peaks on graphene films was successfully suppressed by controlling the surface morphology of the nickel substrate. These findings may be useful for the development of a CVD synthesis method that is capable of producing better quality graphene films with large areas.

  13. Nickel(II) and palladium(II) triphenylphosphine complexes incorporating tridentate Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ashraf, Ahmad Raza; Ismail, Hammad; Habib, Anum; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-12-01

    Nickel(II) and palladium(II) triphenylphosphine complexes incorporating tridentate Schiff bases have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR & NMR). The synthesized compounds were assessed to check their potential biocidal activity by using different biological assays (brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor and drug-DNA interaction). Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed that ligand molecules are more bioactive than metal complexes with LD50 as low as 12.4 μg/mL. The prominent antitumor activity was shown by nickel complexes while the palladium complexes exhibited moderate activity. The synthesized compounds have shown high propensity for DNA binding either through intercalation or groove binding which represents the mechanism of antitumor effect of these compounds. Additionally, ligand molecules and nickel metal complexes showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values as low as 3.1 μg/mL and 18.9 μg/mL respectively while palladium complexes exhibited moderate activity. Moreover, in antimicrobial assays H2L1, Ni(L1)PPh3 and H2L3 showed dual inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains while for the rest of the compounds varying degree of activity was recorded against different strains. Overall comparison of results suggests that the synthesized compounds can be promising candidate for drug formulation and development.

  14. Metallurgical and mechanical examinations of steel–copper joints arc welded using bronze and nickel-base superalloy filler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velu, M.; Bhat, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optical and scanning electron microscopy show defect free weld interfaces. ► Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows low dilution level of the weld by Fe. ► XRD studies show no brittle intermetallic phases in the weld interfaces. ► Weld interfaces did not fail during tensile, transverse bending and impact tests. ► The joint exhibits superior strength properties than that of bronze filler. - Abstract: The paper presents metallurgical and mechanical examinations of joints between dissimilar metals viz. copper (UNSC11000) and alloy steel (En31) obtained by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) using two different filler materials, bronze and nickel-base super alloy. The weld bead of the joint with bronze-filler displayed porosity, while that with nickel-filler did not. In tension tests, the weldments with bronze-filler fractured in the centre of the weld, while those with nickel-filler fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of copper. Since the latter exhibited higher strength than the former, all the major tests were undertaken over the joints with nickel-filler alone. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) indicated corrugated weld interfaces and favorable elemental diffusions across them. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies around the weld interfaces did not reveal any detrimental intermetallic compounds. Transverse bending tests showed that flexural strengths of the weldments were higher than the tensile strengths. Transverse side bend tests confirmed good ductility of the joints. Shear strength of the weld-interface (Cu–Ni or Ni–steel) was higher than the yield strength of weaker metal. Microhardness and Charpy impact values were measured at all the important zones across the weldment

  15. Microstructure evolution of a pre-compression nickel-base single crystal superalloy during tensile creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xingfu; Tian Sugui; Du Hongqiang; Yu Huichen; Wang Minggang; Shang Lijuan; Cui Shusen

    2009-01-01

    By pre-compressive creep treatment, the cubical γ' phase in the nickel-base single crystal superalloy is transformed into the P-type rafted structure along the direction parallel to the applied stress axis. And the microstructure evolution of the P-type γ' rafted alloy during tensile creep is investigated by means of the measurement of the creep curve and microstructure observation. Results show that the P-type γ' rafted phase in the alloy is transformed into the N-type structure along the direction perpendicular to the applied stress axis in the initial stage of the tensile creep. In the role of the tensile stress at high temperature, the change of the element's equilibrium concentration in the different regions of P-type γ' rafted phase occurs, which promotes the inhomogeneous coarsening of the P-type γ' phase. And then, the decomposition of the P-type γ' rafted phase in the alloy occurs to form the groove structure. As of result of the directional diffusion of the elements, the fact that the P-type γ' rafted phase is decomposed to transform into the cubical-like structure is attributed to the increment of the solute elements M(Ta, Al) chemical potential in the groove regions. Further, the lattice constriction in the horizontal interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase may repel out the Al and Ta atoms with higher radius due to the role of the shearing stress, and the lattice expanding in the upright interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase, due to the role of the tension stress, may trap the Ta and Al atoms, which promotes the directional growing of γ' phase into the N-type rafted structure. Therefore, the change of the strain energy density in different interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase is thought to be the driving force of the elements diffusing and the directional coarsening of γ' phase

  16. Constitutive modeling of a nickel base superalloy -with a focus on gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almroth, Per

    2003-05-01

    Gas turbines are used where large amounts of energy is needed, typically as engines in aircraft, ferries and power plants. From an efficiency point of view it is desirable to increase the service temperature as much as possible. One of the limiting factors is then the maximum allowable metal temperatures in the turbine stages, primarily in the blades of the first stage, that are exposed to the highest gas temperatures. Specially designed materials are used to cope with these severe conditions, such as the nickel base superalloy IN792. In order to be able to design the components for higher temperatures and tighter tolerances, a detailed understanding and computationel models of the material behaviour is needed. The models presented in this work have been developed with the objective of being physically well motivated, and with the intention of avoiding excessive numbers of parameters. The influence of the parameters should also be as easy as possible to interpret. The models are to describe the behaviour of IN792, under conditions typically found for a gas turbine blade. Specifically the high- and intermediate temperature isothermal modelling of IN792 have been addressed. One main issue when characterising the material and calibrating the models is the use of relevant tests, that are representative of component conditions. Therefore isothermal tests with an eye on the typical environment of a turbine blade have been planned and performed. Using numerical optimization techniques the material parameters for the isothermal behaviour of IN792 at 650 deg and 850 deg have been estimated. The good overall calibration results for these specific temperatures, using the presented modeling concept and nonstandard constitutive tests, suggests that the model can describe the behaviour of IN792 in gas turbine hot part applications.

  17. 1 Molar concentration hydrofluoric acid effect at 400 C in the corrosion resistance of alloys containing nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras P, H.

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion rate for pure nickel, Inconel 600 and Monel alloys in a 1 Molar hydrofluoric acid solution at a 40 0 C temperature were determined. For contrasting purposes both SAE 304 SS and SAE 316 SS were included. As expected these Stainless Steels do not show good corrosion performance in the solution used. Several expressions correlating the weight and thickness loss v/s time were obtained. In the particular case of Monel, up to 2.021 hours, two expressions for the weight loss and three expressions for the thickness loss were obtained with a close to 1,0 correlation coefficient value. The Monel showed the best overall corrosion performance among the tested alloys. (author)

  18. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  19. Fatigue crack initiation in nickel-based superalloys studied by microstructure-based FE modeling and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work stage I crack initiation in polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys is investigated by analyzing anisotropic mechanical properties, local stress concentrations and plastic deformation on the microstructural length scale. The grain structure in the gauge section of fatigue specimens was characterized by EBSD. Based on the measured data, a microstructure-based FE model could be established to simulate the strain and stress distribution in the specimens during the first loading cycle of a fatigue test. The results were in fairly good agreement with experimentally measured local strains. Furthermore, the onset of plastic deformation was predicted by identifying shear stress maxima in the microstructure, presumably leading to activation of slip systems. Measurement of plastic deformation and observation of slip traces in the respective regions of the microstructure confirmed the predicted slip activity. The close relation between micro-plasticity, formation of slip traces and stage I crack initiation was demonstrated by SEM surface analyses of fatigued specimens and an in-situ fatigue test in a large chamber SEM.

  20. Electron transfer behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes electro-decorated with nickel and nickel oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekunle, Abolanle S.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2008-08-01

    The electron transfer behaviour of nickel film-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-Ni) at edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes (EPPGEs) was investigated. The impact of SWCNTs on the redox properties of the nickel film was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From EIS data, obtained using ferrocyanide/ferricyanide as a redox probe, we show that the electrodes based on nickel and nickel oxide films follow electrical equivalent circuit models typical of partial charge transfer or adsorption-controlled kinetics, resembling the 'electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensors (EIS)'. From the models, we prove that EPPGE-SWCNT-Ni exhibits the least resistance to charge transport compared to other electrodes (approximately 30 times faster than the EPPGE-SWCNT-NiO, 25 times faster than EPPGE-SWCNT, and over 300 times faster than the bare EPPGE) suggesting the ability of the SWCNTs to act as efficient conducting species that facilitate electron transport of the integrated nickel and nickel oxide particles. (author)

  1. High temperature corrosion of nickel-base alloys in environments containing alkali sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Rachel; Flyg, Jesper; Caddeo, Sophie [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspong (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This work is directed towards producing data to assist in lifetime assessment of components in gas turbines run in severely polluted industrial environments where the main corrosive species is SO{sub 2}, which can condense to form alkali sulphates. Corrosion rates have been measured for the base materials, in order to assess the worst-case scenario, in which cracks or other damage has occurred to the protective coating. The information is expected to be of value to manufacturers, owners and inspectors of gas turbines. Six nickel-base superalloys were subject to thermal cycles of 160 hours duration, and 0.8mg/cm{sup 2} of 20 mol % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 80mol% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was applied before each cycle. The test temperatures were 850 deg C and 900 deg C, with maximum test durations of 24 cycles and 12 cycles respectively. The metal loss was assessed by metallography of cross sections and the sulphidation attack was found to be very uneven. Mass change data indicated that the corrosion process was largely linear in character, and probability plots and estimations of the propagation rate of corrosion based on the linear growth assumption were produced. The performance of the alloys increased with increasing chromium content. The single crystal materials CMSX4 and MD2 showed such high corrosion rates that their use in severely contaminated industrial environments is considered inadvisable. The best performance was shown by Inconel 939 and Inconel 6203, so that even if cracks occur in the protective coating, a reasonable remaining lifetime can be expected for these materials. Sulphide formation occurred at the reaction front in all cases and mixed sulphides such as Ta-Ni or Ti-Nb sulphides were often present. The work has news value since very little long-term data is currently available for materials performance in severely sulphidising environments. The project goals in terms of exposures and metrology have been fully realised. Contributions have been made to the

  2. Stress corrosion cracking of age-hardenable nickel-base alloys in LWR-conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, T.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    At present it seems that the microstructure most resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in high temperature water is obtained by a solution annealing treatment at a relatively high temperature (appr. 1100 deg C) followed by water quenching and a single aging treatment (appr. 700 deg C/20 h). This should produce a microstructure with a high M 23 Cc 6 :MC ratio, semi-continous coherent M 23 C 6 precipitation, and an evenly distributed gamma prime in the matrix. However, since the actual mechanism of SCC in age-hardenable Ni-base alloys is unclear, the microstructural features resulting in the good resistance to SCC cannot be specified. Furthermore, the possible microstructural changes caused by prolonged use in LWR-conditions are unknown

  3. Friction welding of a nickel free high nitrogen steel: influence of forge force on microstructure, mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel specimens were joined by continuous drive friction welding process by varying the amount of forge (upsetting force and keeping other friction welding parameters such as friction force, burn-off, upset time and speed of rotation as constant at appropriate levels. The joint characterization studies include microstructural examination and evaluation of mechanical (micro-hardness, impact toughness and tensile and pitting corrosion behaviour. The integrity of the joint, as determined by the optical microscopy was very high and no crack and area of incomplete bonding were observed. Welds exhibited poor Charpy impact toughness than the parent material. Toughness for friction weld specimens decreased with increase in forge force. The tensile properties of all the welds were almost the same (irrespective of the value of the applied forge force and inferior to those of the parent material. The joints failed in the weld region for all the weld specimens. Weldments exhibited lower pitting corrosion resistance than the parent material and the corrosion resistance of the weld specimens was found to decrease with increase in forge force.

  4. The effects of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and ProTaper Gold nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), and ProTaper Gold (PTG) and the effects of sterilization by autoclave on the cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments. Eighty PTU, 80 PTN, and 80 PTG were included to the present study. Files were tested in a simulated canal. Each brand of the NiTi files were divided into 4 subgroups: group 1, as received condition; group 2, pre-sterilized instruments exposed to 10 times sterilization by autoclave; group 3, instruments tested were sterilized after being exposed to 25%, 50%, and 75% of the mean cycles to failure, then cycled fatigue test was performed; group 4, instruments exposed to the same experiment with group 3 without sterilization. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The data was statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. PTG showed significantly higher NCF than PTU and PTN in group 1 ( p Autoclaving increased the cyclic fatigue resistances of PTN and PTG.

  5. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quang, K.V.; Da Cunha Belo, M.; Benabed, M.S.; Bourelier, F.; Jallerat, N.; Pari, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 20 0 C and 90 0 C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 90 0 C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  6. Correlation Between the Microstructural Defects and Residual Stress in a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy During Different Creep Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fangjie; Wu, Erdong; Zhang, Changsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhong, Zhengye; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Bo; Hofmann, Michael; Gan, Weimin; Sun, Guangai

    2018-03-01

    The present work attempts to reveal the correlation between the microstructural defects and residual stress in the single crystal nickel-based superalloy, both of which play the significant role on properties and performance. Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the microstructural defects and residual stresses in a single crystal (SC) nickel-based superalloy, which was subjected to creeping under 220 MPa and 1000 °C for different times. The measured superlattice and fundamental lattice reflections confirm that the mismatch and tetragonal distortions with c/a > 1 exist in the SC superalloy. At the initially unstrained state, there exists the angular distortion between γ and γ' phases with small triaxial compressive stresses, ensuring the structural stability of the superalloy. After creeping, the tetragonal distortion for the γ phase is larger than that for the γ' phase. With increasing the creeping time, the mismatch between γ and γ' phases increases to the maximum, then decreases gradually and finally remains unchanged. The macroscopic residual stress shows a similar behavior with the mismatch, indicating the correlation between them. Based on the model of shear and dislocations, the evolution of microstructural defects and residual stress are reasonably explained. The effect of shear is dominant at the primary creep stage, which greatly enlarges the mismatch and the residual stress. The dislocations weaken the effect of shear for the further creep stage, resulting in the decrease of the mismatch and relaxation of the residual stress. Those findings add some helpful understanding into the microstructure-performance relationship in the SC nickel-based superalloy, which might provide the insight to materials design and applications.

  7. Study of the corrosion of nickel base alloys in molten fluorides medium; Etude de la corrosion des alliages base nickel en milieu de fluorures fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, St.; Finne, J.; Noel, D.; Catalette, H. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD), Dept. Materiaux et Mecanique des Composants, Groupe Chimie et Corrosion, 77 - Ecuelles (France); Cabet, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DANS/DPC/SCCME), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P.; Cassayre, L. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Dept. Procedes Electrochimiques, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the corrosion mechanisms of nickel and its alloys in molten fluoride media. In a first part, the behaviour of the pure alloy metals has been studied (Ni, Mo, W, Fe and Cr) in three different salts mixtures: LiF-NaF, LiF-CaF{sub 2} and LiF-AlF{sub 3} in a temperature range of 700-1000 C. An experimental assembly allowing the implementation of electrochemical methods has been fabricated and validated. Linear scanning volt-amperometry has been used for studying the corrosion reactions of metals. It has then been possible to obtain intensity-potential curves and to determine the currents and corrosion potentials by the plotting of Tafel straight lines. These experimental results have finely been interpreted in considering the thermodynamic data accessible in literature (potential-oxo-acidity diagrams of metals in salts built from HSC Chemistry 5.1) and the influence of temperature and the nature of the bath have been estimated. (O.M.)

  8. Laser cladding of nickel base alloy on SS316L for improved wear and corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kushwaha, R.P.; Chandra, Kamlesh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Laser cladding by an Nd:YAG laser was employed to deposit Ni base alloy (Ni-Mo-Cr-Si) on stainless steel-316 L substrate. The resulting defect-free clad with minimum dilution of the substrate was characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness test. Dry sliding wear of the cladding and the substrate was evaluated using a ball-on-plate reciprocating wear tester against different counter bodies (WC and 52100 Cr steel). The reciprocating sliding wear resistance of the coating was evaluated as a function of the normal load, keeping the sliding amplitude and sliding speed constant. Wear mechanisms were analyzed by observation of wear track morphology using SEM-EDS. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of clad layer was studied in reducing environment (HCl) to estimate the general corrosion resistance of the laser clad layer in comparison with the substrate SS-316L. The clad layer showed higher wear resistance under reducing condition than that of the substrate material stainless steel 316L. (author)

  9. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, Alexander; Fedelich, Bernard; Link, Thomas; Feldmann, Titus; Svetlov, Igor L.

    2013-01-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate

  10. Recycling of spent nickel-cadmium batteries based on bioleaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nanwen; Zhang Lehua; Li Chunjie; Cai Chunguang

    2003-01-01

    Only 1-2 percent of discarded dry batteries are recovered in China. It is necessary to find an economic and environmentally friendly process to recycle dry batteries in this developing country. Bioleaching is one of the few techniques applicable for the recovery of the toxic metals from hazardous spent batteries. Its principle is the microbial production of sulphuric acid and simultaneous leaching of metals. In this study, a system consisting of a bioreactor, settling tank and leaching reactor was developed to leach metals from nickel-cadmium batteries. Indigenous thiobacilli, proliferated by using nutritive elements in sewage sludge and elemental sulphur as substrates, was employed in the bioreactor to produce sulphuric acid. The overflow from the bioreactor was conducted into the settling tank. The supernatant in the settling tank was conducted into the leaching reactor, which contained the anode and cathodic electrodes obtained from nickel-cadmium batteries. The results showed that this system was valid to leach metals from nickel-cadmium batteries, and that the sludge drained from the bottom of the settling tank could satisfy the requirements of environmental protection agencies regarding agricultural use

  11. Integrated computational microstructure engineering for single-crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Billie

    A methodology that integrates the phase field model with simpler models was developed to study the early stages of microstructural development in nickel base superalloys under non-isothermal conditions, allowing for faster, more comprehensive examination of the experimental system. Additionally, the parameters required for calibrating a phase field model were examined for uncertainty, and a comprehensive method for linking experimental data to a model was developed. The methodology developed was applied to analyze the formation of bimodal particle size distributions during linear continuous cooling. The dynamic competition for supersaturation by growth of existing precipitates and nucleation of new particles was modeled. The nucleation rate was calculated according to classical nucleation theory as function of local supersaturation and temperature. The depletion of matrix super-saturation by growth of existing particles was calculated from fully diffusion-controlled precipitate growth in an infinite matrix. Phase field simulations of gamma' precipitation in a binary Ni-Al alloy were performed under continuous cooling conditions. Then the average and maximum matrix supersaturations were calculated and plotted onto the contours of nucleation rate and growth rate in concentration and temperature space. These methods were used iteratively to identify the window for bimodal particle size distributions. Combining the models of different complexities produced a much more comprehensive understanding of the competing dynamics involved early in microstructure formation. A systemic method for calibrating a model to experimental alloy systems was developed. Calibrated to isothermal aging data along with literature, database and parametric values, a phase field model reproduced the precipitation kinetics. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques were developed to control the influence of uncertainty in the original data sources for model inputs. Using more data sources than

  12. The effects of a nickel oxide precoat on the gas bubble structures and fish-scaling resistance in vitreous enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.; Jha, A.; Brydson, R.; Cochrane, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a NiO precoat on the interfacial microchemistry and the structure of gas bubbles at the steel-enamel interface were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and image analysis techniques. The experimental evidence demonstrates that nickel oxide applied to the steel substrate as a precoat accelerates the diffusion of Fe from the steel into the enamel and promotes decarburisation of the steel substrate, this latter reaction generating CO and/or CO 2 as gases. The resulting increase in FeO concentration reduces the viscosity of enamel. The apparent decrease in the viscosity of liquid enamel, along with formation of substantial quantities of CO and/or CO 2 gases control the distribution of gas bubbles in the enamel layer. The investigation also explains the reason for the association of large gas bubbles with Fe-Ni metal-rich particles with a dendritic appearance (termed 'dendrites in the following text) at the enamel-steel interface. The role of these Fe-Ni metal-rich 'dendrites' in reducing the tendency for hydrogen flaking or cracking of the enamel layer, generally referred to as fish-scaling, is also elucidated

  13. Experimental study of micro-milling mechanism and surface quality of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Gong, Yadong; Zhou, Yun Guang; Wen, Xue Long [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-01-15

    Micro-milling is widely used as a method for machining of micro-parts with high precision and efficiency. Taking the nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 as the research object, the crystal characteristics of single-crystal materials were analysed, and the removal mechanism of single-crystal micro-milled parts was described. Based on molecular dynamics, a simulation model for nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 micro-milling was established. Based on the response surface method of central composite design, the influences of spindle speed, feed rate, and milling depth on the surface roughness were examined, and a second-order regression model of the DD98 surface roughness was established. Using analysis of variance and the residuals of the model, a significant influence on surface roughness was found in the following order from large to small: Feed rate, spindle speed, and milling depth. Comparisons were conducted between the micro-milling experimental values and the predicted model values for different process parameters. The results show that the model fit is relatively high, and the adaptability is good. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the micro-milling surfaces was performed to verify the slip and the removal mechanism of single-crystal materials. These results offer a theoretical reference and experimental basis for micro-milling of single-crystal materials.

  14. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Gupta, Vipul [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Huang, Shenyan [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Soare, Monica [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Zhao, Pengyang [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Wang, Yunzhi [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The goal of this project is to model long-term creep performance for nickel-base superalloy weldments in high temperature power generation systems. The project uses physics-based modeling methodologies and algorithms for predicting alloy properties in heterogeneous material structures. The modeling methodology will be demonstrated on a gas turbine combustor liner weldment of Haynes 282 precipitate-strengthened nickel-base superalloy. The major developments are: (1) microstructure-property relationships under creep conditions and microstructure characterization (2) modeling inhomogeneous microstructure in superalloy weld (3) modeling mesoscale plastic deformation in superalloy weld and (4) a constitutive creep model that accounts for weld and base metal microstructure and their long term evolution. The developed modeling technology is aimed to provide a more efficient and accurate assessment of a material’s long-term performance compared with current testing and extrapolation methods. This modeling technology will also accelerate development and qualification of new materials in advanced power generation systems. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from October 2014 to December 2016.

  15. Preparation and characterization of porous reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite nanocomposite for adsorption removal of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Choi, Yu-Lim [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Im-Soon [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jae-Kyu [Ingenium College of Liberal Arts, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koduru, Janardhan Reddy, E-mail: reddyjchem@gmail.com [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Young, E-mail: yychang@kw.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Novel porous Ferromagnetic, GONF and Superparamagnetic, rGONF preparation. • The nanosize particles GONF (41.14 nm) and rGONF (32.16 nm) preparation. • Adsorption mechanism and modeling developments for radionuclides. • Zeta potential and surface site density of nanocomposites for comparison. - Abstract: For the removal of uranium(VI) (U(VI)) and thorium(IV) (Th(IV)), graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite (GONF) nanocomposite and reduced graphene oxide based inverse spinel nickel ferrite (rGONF) nanocomposite were prepared by co-precipitation of GO with nickel and iron salts in one pot. The spectral characterization analyses revealed that GONF and rGONF have a porous surface morphology with an average particle size of 41.41 nm and 32.16 nm, respectively. The magnetic property measurement system (MPMS) studies confirmed the formation of ferromagnetic GONF and superparamagnetic rGONF. The adsorption kinetics studies found that the pseudo-second-order kinetics was well tune to the U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption. The results of adsorption isotherms showed that the adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) were due to the monolayer on homogeneous surface of the GONF and rGONF. The adsorptions of both U(VI) and Th(IV) were increased with increasing system temperature from 293 to 333 ± 2 K. The thermodynamic studies reveal that the U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption onto GONF and rGONF was endothermic. GONF and rGONF, which could be separated by external magnetic field, were recycled and re-used for up to five cycles without any significant loss of adsorption capacity.

  16. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  17. Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on flexibility in the ... which is especially essential in the maintenance of functional abilities of the ... the effects of a home- and gymnasium-based resistance training programme ...

  18. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  19. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  20. Storage and characterization of the hydrogen in mixed oxides on base of cerium-nickel and zirconium or the aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeusscher, S.

    2008-12-01

    The mixed oxides based on cerium-nickel and zirconium or aluminium are able to store large quantities of hydrogen, To determine nature, reactivity and properties of hydrogen species (spill-over, direct desorption), the solid were studied by different physicochemical techniques in the dried, calcined and partially reduced states: XRD, porosity, TGA, TPR, TPA, TPD, chemical titration and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Solids are mainly meso-porous with a common pore size at 4 nm, They are constituted of CeO 2 phase, Ce-Ni or Ce-Ni-Zr solid solution and of Ni(OH) 2 in the dried state and NiO in the calcined state. The Ni species are in various environments and the strong interactions between the cations in solid solution and at different particles interface influence their reducibility and the creation of anionic vacancies. Activation in H 2 in temperature is determining for hydrogen storage in the solid while calcination step is not necessary. INS Analyses evidence that the hydrogen species inserted during treatment in H 2 are H + (OH - ), hydride H - and H * (metallic nickel) species, present in various chemical environments, in particular for hydride species. All kinds of hydrogen species participate to the reaction during the chemical titration in agreement with the proposed hydrogenation mechanism. The study of the adsorption of hydrogen shows that this step is fast and in quantity of the same order as that measured by chemical titration. The direct desorption of H 2 is very low, linked to the presence of hydrogen in interaction with metallic nickel (H *- .). Desorption of water is also observed, in parallel, corresponding to the elimination of groups. The hydride species are not desorbed. These various observations allow connecting hydrogen species properties with their localization in the structure and to model active sites. (author)

  1. Influence of multiple clinical use on fatigue resistance of ProTaper rotary nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, E P; França, E C; Martins, R C; Buono, V T L; Bahia, M G A

    2008-02-01

    To examine the influence of clinical use on the occurrence of deformation and fracture and on the fatigue resistance of ProTaper rotary instruments. Root canal treatments were performed on patients using the ProTaper rotary system. Ten sets of instruments were used by an experienced endodontist, each set in five molars. Another 10 sets of instruments were used by the same operator, each set in eight molars. In addition, 10 sets of instruments were used, each set in five molars, by undergraduate students with no clinical experience with the system. After clinical use, S1, S2, F1 and F2 instruments were analysed for damage by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The used sets, along with a control group of 12 sets of new instruments, were then tested in a bench device for fatigue resistance. The use of the ProTaper rotary instruments by an experienced endodontist allowed for the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system of up to eight molars without fracture. During the students work, six instruments fractured. Fatigue resistance decreased upon clinical use for all instruments analysed. Fatigue resistance of used instruments was reduced, but no significant change was observed amongst the instruments used for shaping the canals of five and eight molars. Operator experience affected the occurrence of fracture and plastic deformation during shaping.

  2. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in nickel-base alloys with various chemical modifiers*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-07-01

    The analytical characteristics of copper in nickel-base alloys have been investigated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Deuterium background correction was employed. The effects of various chemical modifiers on the analysis of copper were investigated. Organic modifiers which included 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino-phenol) (Br-PADAP), ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100 were studied. Inorganic modifiers palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate were also applied in this work. In addition, zirconium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide precipitation methods have also been studied. Interference effects were effectively reduced with Br-PADAP modifier. Aqueous standards were used to construct the calibration curves. The detection limit was 1.9 pg. Standard reference materials of nickel-base alloys were used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The copper contents determined with the proposed method agreed closely with the certified values of the reference materials. The recoveries were within the range 90-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Good precision was obtained.

  3. Effect of tensile holds on the deformation behaviour of a nickel base superalloy subjected to low cycle fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrnik, J.; Semenak, J.; Wangyao, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Hornak, P. [Dept. of Materials Science, Technical Univ. of Kosice, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2002-07-01

    The deformation behaviour of the wrought nickel base superalloy EI698 VD has been investigated in conditions of low cycle fatigue. The tensile hold periods, imposing a constant stress into the fatigue loading, have been introduced at the maximum stress value. The individual hold periods were in the range of 1 minute to 10 hours. The fatigue tests were of tension-tension type defined by a stress ratio R = 0.027 and were conducted at temperature of 650 C. The tests were performed until fracture. The time to failure, the time to failure corresponding to total load at peak amplitude and the number of cycles to failure have been criteria to evaluate the deformation behaviour of the alloy subjected to complex cyclic creep loading. In order to predict lifetime of alloy, regarding the respective types cyclic test, the Kitagawa's modified the linear cumulative damage criterion has been considered. The two regression functions for applied hold period interval were proposed time to calculate the time to failure. The formulae can be used to predict the life of nickel base superalloy considering the specific conditions of low cycle fatigue with tensile hold period introduced at stress amplitude peaks. The failure analysis of fracture surfaces contributed to evaluation of the role of repeatedly reduced stress in damage process. (orig.)

  4. Effect of processing on microstructure and physical properties of three nickel-based superalloys with different hardening mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strondl, Annika; Frommeyer, Georg [Department of Materials Technology, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Klement, Uta [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Milenkovic, Srdjan; Schneider, Andre

    2012-07-15

    The nickel-based superalloys Inconel alloy 600, Udimet alloy 720, and Inconel alloy 718 were produced by electron beam melting (EBM), casting, and directional solidification (DS). The distance between dendrites and the size of the precipitates indicated the difference in solidification rates between the three processes. In this study, the solidification rate was fastest with EBM, closely followed by casting, whereas it was much slower with DS. In the directional solidified materials the <100> direction was the fastest and thus, preferred growth direction. The EBM samples show a sharp (001)[100] texture in the building direction and in the two scanning directions of the electron beam. Macrosegregation was observed in some cast and directionally solidified samples, but not in the EBM samples. The melting temperatures are in good agreement with literature and the narrow melting interval of IN600 compare to UD720 and IN718 might reduce the risk of incipient melting during EBM processing. Porosity was observed in the EBM samples and the reasons are discussed. However, EBM seems to be a feasible process route to produce nickel-based superalloys with well-defined texture, no macrosegregation and a rapidly solidified microstructure. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Influence of the alloy composition on the oxidation and internal-nitridation behaviour of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, U.; Christ, H.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Internal nitridation of nickel-base superalloys takes place as a consequence of the failure of protecting oxide scales (Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 , respectively) and leads to a deterioration of the material properties due to near-surface embrittlement caused by the nitrides precipitated (TiN and AlN, respectively) and due to near-surface dissolution of the γ' phase. By using thermogravimetric methods in a temperature range between 800 C and 1100 C supplemented by microstructural examinations, the failure potential due to internal nitridation could be documented. A quantification was carried out by extending the experimental program to thermogravimetric studies in a nearly oxygen-free nitrogen atmosphere which was also applied to various model alloys of the system Ni-Cr-Al-Ti. It could be shown that the nitrogen diffusivity and solubility in nickel-base alloys is influenced particularly by the chromium concentration. An increasing chromium content leads to an enhanced internal-nitridation attack. (orig.)

  6. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  7. Effect of microstructure on high-temperature mechanical behavior of nickel-base superalloys for turbine disc applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Heather Joan

    2007-05-01

    Engineers constantly seek advancements in the performance of aircraft and power generation engines, including, lower costs and emissions, and improved fuel efficiency. Nickel-base superalloys are the material of choice for turbine discs, which experience some of the highest temperatures and stresses in the engine. Engine performance is proportional to operating temperatures. Consequently, the high-temperature capabilities of disc materials limit the performance of gas-turbine engines. Therefore, any improvements to engine performance necessitate improved alloy performance. In order to take advantage of improvements in high-temperature capabilities through tailoring of alloy microstructure, the overall objectives of this work were to establish relationships between alloy processing and microstructure, and between microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, the projected aimed to demonstrate the applicability of neural network modeling to the field of Ni-base disc alloy development and behavior. The first phase of this work addressed the issue of how microstructure varies with heat treatment and by what mechanisms these structures are formed. Further it considered how superalloy composition could account for microstructural variations from the same heat treatment. To study this, four next-generation Ni-base disc alloys were subjected to various controlled heat-treatments and the resulting microstructures were then quantified. These quantitative results were correlated to chemistry and processing, including solution temperature, cooling rate, and intermediate hold temperature. A complex interaction of processing steps and chemistry was found to contribute to all features measured; grain size, precipitate distribution, grain boundary serrations. Solution temperature, above a certain threshold, and cooling rate controlled grain size, while cooling rate and intermediate hold temperature controlled precipitate formation and grain boundary serrations. Diffusion

  8. Microstructural evolutions and mechanical behaviour of the nickel based alloys 617 and 230 at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomette, S.

    2009-11-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR), is one of the innovative nuclear reactor designed to be inherently safer than previous generation and to produce minimal waste. The most critical metallic component in that type of reactor is the Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX). The constraints imposed by the conception and the severe operational conditions (high temperature of 850 C to 950 C, lifetime of 20,000 h) have guided the IHX material selection toward two solid solution nickel base alloys, the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230. Inconel 617 is the primary candidate alloy thanks to its good high temperature mechanical and corrosion properties and the large data base developed in previous programs. However, its high cobalt content has to be considered as an issue (nuclear activation). The more recent alloy Haynes 230, in which most of the cobalt has been replaced by tungsten, present characteristics similar to the 617 alloy. The objective of this thesis is to study the high temperature mechanical behaviour of both alloys in relation with their microstructural evolutions. The as received microstructural observations have revealed primary carbides (M 6 C). Most of this precipitates are evenly distributed in the materials. Few M 23 C 6 secondary carbides are observed in both alloys in the as received state. Thermal ageing treatments at 850 C lead to an important M 23 C 6 precipitation on slip lines and at grain boundaries. The size of this carbides increases and their number decreases with increasing ageing duration. The intragranular precipitation of secondary carbides at 950 C is more limited and the intergranular evolution more important than at 850 C. The microstructural observations and the hardness evolution of both alloys show that the main microstructural evolutions occur before 1,000 h at both studied temperatures. The mechanical properties of the Inconel 617 and the Haynes 230 have been studied using tensile, creep, fatigue and relaxation-fatigue tests. Particularly, the

  9. Theoretical investigation of the mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction using nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Jiamao; Deng, Bing; Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Shuo, E-mail: lishuo@cqut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: tanzhaoyi@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four-step dehydrogenation of CT{sub 4} catalyzed by Ni to form Ni–C by releasing T{sub 2}. • The process of Ni + CT{sub 4} → NiCT{sub 2} + T{sub 2} is more achievable than that of NiCT{sub 2} → NiC + T{sub 2}. • TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC step is the RDS with the rate constant of k = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT). • The hydrogen isotope effect value of k{sub H}/k{sub T} is 2.94, and k{sub D}/k{sub T} is 1.39. • CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} dehydrogenations are likely to occur, accompanied by the CT{sub 4} cracking. - Abstract: The mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by nickel-based catalyst was investigated in detail by density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/[6-311++G(d, p), SDD] level. The computational results indicated that the dehydrogenation of tritiated methane is endothermic. The decomposition of tritiated methane catalyzed by Ni to form Ni-based carbon (Ni–C) after a four-step dehydrogenation companied with releasing tritium. After the first and second dehydrogenation steps, Ni + CT{sub 4} formed NiCT{sub 2}. After the third and fourth dehydrogenation steps, NiCT{sub 2} formed NiC. The first and second steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and triplet states, and the lowest energy route is Ni + CT{sub 4} → {sup 1}COM → {sup 1}TS1 → {sup 3}IM1 → {sup 3}TS2 → {sup 3}IM2. The third and fourth steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and quintet states, and the minimum energy reaction pathway appeared to be IM3 → {sup 1}TS4 → {sup 5}IM4 → {sup 5}TS5 → {sup 5}IM5 → {sup 5}pro + T{sub 2}. The fourth step of dehydrogenation TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC was the rate-determining step of the entire reaction with the rate constant of k{sub 2} = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT) (in cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}), and its activation energy barrier was calculated to be 51.8 kcal/mol. The Ni-catalyzed CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} cracking

  10. Comparison of Heavy-Duty Scuffing Behavior between Chromium-Based Ceramic Composite and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Coated Ring Sliding against Cast Iron Liner under Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A running-in and starved lubrication experiment is designed to investigate the heavy-duty scuffing behavior of piston ring coatings against cast iron (Fe cylinder liner using the piston ring reciprocating liner test rig. The scuffing resistance of the piston ring with the chromium-based ceramic composite coating (CKS, and that with the thermally sprayed nickel-chromium-molybdenum coating (NCM is compared at different nominal pressures (40~100 MPa and temperatures (180~250 °C. With the failure time as a criterion, the rank order is as follows: NCM/Fe > CKS/Fe. Before the scoring occurs at the interface of the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL, the cast iron liner enters into a “polish wear” stage, and iron-based adhesive materials begin to form on the piston ring surface. With the macroscopic adhesion formation, the plastic shearing cycle causes surface damages mainly due to abrasive effects for the CKS/Fe pairs and adhesive effects for the NCM/Fe pairs.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray determination, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of new dinuclear nickel(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes containing double Schiff base ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Ozbakzaei, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, S. Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    A series of new bimetallic complexes of nickel(II) and vanadium(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of the new double bidentate Schiff base ligands with nickel acetate and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 1:1 M ratio. In nickel and also vanadyl complexes the ligands were coordinated to the metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The complexes have been found to possess 1:1 metals to ligands stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The nickel and vanadyl complexes exhibited distorted square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. The emission spectra of the ligands and their complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligands and their metal complexes were also investigated in DMSO solvent at 150 mV s-1 scan rate. The ligands and metal complexes showed both quasi-reversible and irreversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and conductometry. The crystal structure of the nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  12. In vitro resistance to fracture of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments made with different thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Gabriele; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Seracchiani, Marco; Morese, Antonio; Khrenova, Tatyana; Di Nardo, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of different heat treatments in improving Ni-Ti endodontic rotary instruments' resistance to fracture. 24 new NiTi instruments similar in length and shape: 12 M3 instruments, tip size 25 and .06 taper (United Dental, Shanghai, China), and 12 M3 Pro Gold instruments tip size 25 and .06 taper (United Dental, Shanghai, China), were tested in a 60° curved artificial root canal. Each group received a different heat treatment. Cycles to fracture were calculated for each instrument. Differences among groups were evaluated with an analysis of variance test (significance level was set at Pinstruments were significantly more resistant to fatigue (mean values = 1012, SD +/- 77) than M3 instruments (mean values = 748, SD +/- 62). No statistically significant differences were found between fragments' lengths (p>0,05). An increased flexibility and the reduction of internal defects produced by heat treatments during or after manufacturing processes, may be responsible for improving resistance to cyclic fatigue and flexural stresses.

  13. The relationship between diameter and taper of nickel-titanium rotary instruments on the torsional resistance to fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Miranda Souza

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the resistance to fracture of rotary Ni-Ti files of various diameters and tapers after torsional stress simulation. Methods: Profile (Dentsply Maillerfer, Ballaigues, Suíça instruments sizes 15 to 40, taper 0.04 and 0.06 were used. Ten instruments of each size and taper were tested, totaling 120 files. The maximum torque (Tmax until fracture was determined in accordance with the ANSI / ADA Protocol Nº 28 . The maximum force was converted into maximum torque using the formula: Tmax = Loadmax x RadiusResults: The diameter (p<0.001 and taper (p<0.001 influenced the maximum torque to fracture. With the increase in diameter and taperthere was a gradual increase in the maximum torque. Using the multiple regression method an equation relating the maximum torque to the diameter (D and the taper (T was found: Tmax = -1.4 + 0.08D + 10.5T. Conclusion: The increase in diameter and taper promoted an increase in resistance to torsion. The variation of the taper from 0.04 to 0.06 in instruments with the same diameter increased resistance to fracture by torsion by around 25%.

  14. [Resistance to target-based therapy and its circumvention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kazuto

    2004-07-01

    Intrinsic and acquired resistance to molecular target therapy critically limits the outcome of cancer treatments. Target levels including quantitative and gene alteration should be determinants for the resistance. Downstream of the target molecules, drug metabolism, and drug transport influences the tumor sensitivity to molecular target therapy. The mechanisms of resistance to antibody therapy have not been fully clarified. Correlative clinical studies using these biomarkers of resistance are extremely important for circumvention of clinical resistance to target based therapy.

  15. A model for life predictions of nickel-base superalloys in high-temperature low cycle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoski, Glenn R.; Pelloux, Regis M.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive characterization of low-cycle fatigue damage mechanisms was performed on polycrystalline Rene 80 and IN100 tested in the temperature range from 871 to 1000 C. Low-cycle fatigue life was found to be dominated by propagation of microcracks to a critical size governed by the maximum tensile stress. A model was developed which incorporates a threshold stress for crack extension, a stress-based crack growth expression, and a failure criterion. The mathematical equivalence between this mechanistically based model and the strain-life low-cycle fatigue law was demonstrated using cyclic stress-strain relationships. The model was shown to correlate the high-temperature low-cycle fatigue data of the different nickel-base superalloys considered in this study.

  16. A model for strain hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth with applications to forming processes of nickel base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.riedel@iwm.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Materials Mechanics, Wöhlerstr. 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Svoboda, Jiri, E-mail: svobj@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-17

    An ensemble of n spherical grains is considered, each of which is characterized by its radius r{sub i} and by a hardening variable a{sub i}. The hardening variable obeys a Chaboche-type evolution equation with dynamic and static recovery. The grain growth law includes the usual contribution of the grain boundary energy, a term for the stored energy associated with the hardening variable, and the Zener pinning force exerted by particles on the migrating grain boundaries. New grains develop by recrystallization in grains whose stored energy density exceeds a critical value. The growth or shrinkage of the particles, which restrain grain boundary migration, obeys a thermodynamic/kinetic evolution equation. This set of first order differential equations for r{sub i}, a{sub i} and the particle radius is integrated numerically. Fictitious model parameters for a virtual nickel base alloy are used to demonstrate the properties and capabilities of the model. For a real nickel alloy, model parameters are adjusted using measured stress-strain curves, as well as recrystallized volume fractions and grain size distributions. Finally the model with adjusted parameters is applied to a forming process with complex temperature-strain rate histories.

  17. Increase oil recovery of heavy oil in combustion tube using a new catalyst based nickel ionic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Garnica, M.A.; Hernandez-Perez, J.R.; Cabrera-Reves, M.C.; Schacht-Hernandez, P. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Mamora, D.D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    An ionic liquid-based nickel catalyst was used in conjunction with a combustion tube as an in situ process for heavy oil. The experimental system was comprised of a fluid injection system; a combustion tube; a fluid production system; a gas chromatograph; and a data recording system. Injected nitrogen and air was controlled by a mass flow controller. Nitrogen was used to pressurize the combustion tube and flush the system. Air was injected at a rate of 3 L per minute throughout the combustion run. Liquids leaving the combustion tube passed through a 2-stage separation process. Gases passing through the condenser were kept at low temperatures. Fractions of produced gas were analyzed by the chromatograph. Data loggers were used to obtain data at 30 second intervals. Two combustion experiments were conducted to obtain production times, temperature profiles, and the quality of the oil produced by the catalyst. Combustion tests were conducted with and without the catalyst. An analysis of the experimental data showed that use of the nickel catalyst resulted in increases in oil production as well as higher combustion efficiencies. Use of the catalyst also resulted in a faster combustion front and accelerated oil production. It was concluded that the produced oil contained fewer impurities than oil produced during the control experiment. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Structure dependent hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between nickel(II) Schiff base complexes and serum albumins: Spectroscopic and docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley Seth, Banabithi; Ray, Aurkie; Banerjee, Mousumi; Bhattacharyya, Teerna [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay [Computational Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.in [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2016-03-15

    A systematic and comparative binding study between serum-albumins (SA) and a series of monomeric nickel(II)-Schiff-base-complexes (NSCs), which might be imperative to investigate the function of SA behind nickel allergy, has been carried out through docking and different spectroscopic techniques. The initial docking studies indicate structure-dependent selective hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. The pyridine and phenyl containing NSCs, which are more aromatic, show better π–π staking compared to pyrrole one. Again all the NSCs bind with BSA though amino acid residues of IB domain affecting local environment of the Trp-134 surrounded by both hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues instead of the hydrophobically buried Trp-212. In HSA the hydophobically buried Trp-214 is influenced by NSCs. The experimental results nicely support the docking outcomes. The changes in Gibbs free energy, binding affinity and the nature of hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions of NSC–SA systems indicate greater accessibility of N{sub 2}O{sub 2} donor set complex compared to N{sub 4} one towards SA. Quantum chemical structure optimizations support the better planarity of NSC with N{sub 2}O{sub 2} which provides better binding. Therefore the structural variation of N{sub 2}O{sub 2} donor set complexes becomes much more useful compared to N{sub 4} one to search out the most compatible NSC towards SAs.

  19. Carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning during CO2 electrolysis in nickel-based solid oxide cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafte, Theis Løye; Blennow, Peter; Hjelm, Johan; Graves, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 to CO and O2 in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) has the potential to play a crucial role in closing the CO2 loop. Carbon deposition in nickel-based cells is however fatal and must be considered during CO2 electrolysis. Here, the effect of operating parameters is investigated systematically using simple current-potential experiments. Due to variations of local conditions, it is shown that higher current density and lower fuel electrode porosity will cause local carbon formation at the electrochemical reaction sites despite operating with a CO outlet concentration outside the thermodynamic carbon formation region. Attempts at mitigating the issue by coating the composite nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia electrode with carbon-inhibiting nanoparticles and by sulfur passivation proved unsuccessful. Increasing the fuel electrode porosity is shown to mitigate the problem, but only to a certain extent. This work shows that a typical SOEC stack converting CO2 to CO and O2 is limited to as little as 15-45% conversion due to risk of carbon formation. Furthermore, cells operated in CO2-electrolysis mode are poisoned by reactant gases containing ppb-levels of sulfur, in contrast to ppm-levels for operation in fuel cell mode.

  20. Magnetoliposomes based on nickel/silica core/shell nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O.; Gomes, I.T.; Almeida, Bernardo G.; Araújo, J.P.; Castanheira, Elisabete M.S.; Coutinho, Paulo J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, nickel magnetic nanoparticles with diameters lower than 100 nm, with and without silica shell, were synthesized by microheterogeneous templating. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with a coercive field of 80 Oe. Dry magnetoliposomes (DMLs) with diameter between 58 nm and 76 nm were obtained from the synthesis of nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid or surfactant layer, and aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs) were obtained by encapsulation of the nanoparticles in liposomes. FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) experiments were performed to study the non-specific interactions between aqueous magnetoliposomes and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), as models of cell membranes. It was possible to detect membrane fusion between GUVs and AMLs containing both NBD-C 6 -HPC (donor) and the dye Nile Red (acceptor). - Highlights: • Magnetic nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in microheterogeneous media. • The nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell to improve biocompatibility. • Aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes were prepared, the latter with diameter around 70 nm. • Membrane fusion between magnetoliposomes and models of cell membranes was detected by FRET

  1. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  2. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machet, A.; Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P.; Jolivet, P.; Scott, P.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr 2 O 3 oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  3. Nickel-based gadolinium alloy for neutron adsorption application in ram packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robino, C.; McConnell, P.; Mizia, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will outline the results of a metallurgical development program that is investigating the alloying of gadolinium into a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy matrix. Gadolinium has been chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element due to its high thermal neutron absorption cross section and low solubility in the expected U.S. repository environment. The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy family was chosen for its known corrosion performance, mechanical properties, and weldability. The workflow of this program includes chemical composition definition, primary and secondary melting studies, ingot conversion processes, properties testing, and national consensus codes and standards work. The microstructural investigation of these alloys shows that the gadolinium addition is not soluble in the primary austenite metallurgical phase and is present in the alloy as gadolinium-rich second phase. This is similar to what is observed in a stainless steel alloyed with boron. The mechanical strength values are similar to those expected for commercial Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. The alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated Yucca Mountain aqueous chemistries with acceptable results. The initial results of weldability tests have also been acceptable. Neutronic testing in a moderated critical array has generated favorable results. An American Society for Testing and Materials material specification has been issued for the alloy and a Code Case has been submitted to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for code qualification. The ultimate goal is acceptance of the alloy for use at the Yucca Mountain repository

  4. Magnetoliposomes based on nickel/silica core/shell nanoparticles: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O.; Gomes, I.T.; Almeida, Bernardo G. [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Araújo, J.P. [IFIMUP/IN – Instituto de Nanociência e Nanotecnologia, R. Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Castanheira, Elisabete M.S. [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Coutinho, Paulo J.G., E-mail: pcoutinho@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física (CFUM), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    In the present work, nickel magnetic nanoparticles with diameters lower than 100 nm, with and without silica shell, were synthesized by microheterogeneous templating. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles show a typical ferromagnetic behavior with a coercive field of 80 Oe. Dry magnetoliposomes (DMLs) with diameter between 58 nm and 76 nm were obtained from the synthesis of nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid or surfactant layer, and aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs) were obtained by encapsulation of the nanoparticles in liposomes. FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) experiments were performed to study the non-specific interactions between aqueous magnetoliposomes and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), as models of cell membranes. It was possible to detect membrane fusion between GUVs and AMLs containing both NBD-C{sub 6}-HPC (donor) and the dye Nile Red (acceptor). - Highlights: • Magnetic nickel nanoparticles were synthesized in microheterogeneous media. • The nanoparticles were covered with a silica shell to improve biocompatibility. • Aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes were prepared, the latter with diameter around 70 nm. • Membrane fusion between magnetoliposomes and models of cell membranes was detected by FRET.

  5. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  6. Cyclic fatigue resistances of several nickel-titanium glide path rotary and reciprocating instruments at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Gündoğar, M; Özyürek, T; Grande, N M; Plotino, G

    2018-01-31

    To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of the One G, ProGlider, HyFlex EDM and R-Pilot glide path NiTi files at body temperature. Twenty One G (size 14, .03 taper), 20 ProGlider (size 16, .02 taper), 20 HyFlex EDM (size 10, .05 taper) and 20 R-Pilot (size 12.5, .04 taper) instruments were operated in rotation at 300 rpm (One G, ProGlider and HyFlex) or in reciprocation (R-Pilot) at 35 °C in artificial canals that were manufactured by reproducing the size and taper of the instrument until fracture occurred. The time to fracture was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer, and the length of the fractured fragments was registered. Mean data were analysed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey tests via SPSS 21.0 software. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot files was significantly greater than the other instruments, and the One G was significantly lower (P EDM and the ProGlider (P > 0.05). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was evident in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the various instruments. The cyclic fatigue resistance of the R-Pilot reciprocating glide path file was significantly greater than that of the rotary HyFlex EDM, ProGlider and One G glide path files. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-01-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  8. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed, E-mail: bayazeed786@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Jamia Millia Islamia (New Delhi, India) (India); Saini, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirsaini1310@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Sharma, Daya Shankar, E-mail: dssharmanit15@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT, Bhopal, India) (India); Agarwal, Pankaj B., E-mail: agarwalbpankj@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Academy for Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR, Delhi, India) (India)

    2016-04-13

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  9. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  10. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  11. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Theriault

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula papyrifera is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1 develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2 assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3 describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome, binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welded Joints of DZ125L and IN718 Nickel Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Taosha; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the laser welded joint of DZ125L and IN718 nickel base superalloys were investigated. The results show that the fusion zone (FZ) mainly consists of fine dendrite structure with fine γ', Laves phases and MC carbides inhomogeneously distributed. The high welding temperature induces the partial dissolution of γ' in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of DZ125L and liquation of grain boundaries in both of the HAZs. After post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), fine γ″ and γ' phases precipitate in the FZ, IN718 HAZ and IN718 base metal (BM), and fine γ' precipitate in the γ channel of the HAZ and BM of DZ125L. With tensile testing, the joints after PWHT show higher strengths than that of the weaker DZ125L alloy. Plastic deformation mainly concentrates in the weaker DZ125L and the joint finally fails in the DZ125L BM.

  13. Hot isostatic pressing of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys: Mechanism of pore closure and effect on Mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epishin Alexander I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pore annihilation was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4. HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa were interrupted at different times, then the specimens were investigated by TEM, metallography and density measurements. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined. The pore closure mechanism was identified as plastic deformation on the octahedral slip systems. A model describing the kinetics of pore closure has been developed on the base of crystal plasticity and large strain theory. Mechanical tests with the superalloy CMSX-4 and the Ru-containing superalloy VGM4 showed, that HIP significantly increases the fatigue life at low temperatures but has no effect on creep strength.

  14. Effect of Annealing on the Passive Film Stability and Corrosion Resistance of New Families of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the alloy and the range of constituents in the service environment, e.g., seawater. Pourbaix diagrams are created by solving the Nernst equation at...resistance of nickel-based alloys. PREN is calculated using one of two equations : ][%30]%[%3.3][% NWMoCrPREN ×++×+= (1) ( ) ][%][%5.0][%3.3...NkWMoCrPREN ×+×+×+= (2) The second equation was developed because it was recognized that some alloys that performed better in testing had a lower PREN

  15. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J C; Haslam, J J; Wong, F; Ji, X; Day, S D; Branagan, D J; Marshall, M C; Meacham, B E; Buffa, E J; Blue, C A; Rivard, J K; Beardsley, M B; Weaver, D T; Aprigliano, L F; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E J; Wolejsza, T M; Martin, F J; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J H; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A H; Ernst, F; Michal, G M; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E J

    2004-01-01

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an ''integral drip shield'' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent

  16. Synthesis and Crystal Structure Determination of a Nickel(II Complex of an Acyclic Pentadentate (N5 Mono Schiff Base Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Parish

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical tripodal tetraamine ligand N[(CH23NH2]2[(CH22NH2] (ppe was condensed with 2-acetylpyridine in the presence of nickel(II ion. In ethanolwater solution the reaction stops after the first stage of condensation, and a new nickel(II complex of an acyclic pentadentate (N5 mono Schiff base ligand was obtained. X-ray structure analysis of the resulting complex, [Ni(ppe-py(H2O](ClO42, indicates that condensation with 2-acetylpyridine is at the propylene chain of ppe. The geometry around the nickel ion is distorted octahedral in which the sixth co-ordination group is a solvent molecule.

  17. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  18. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  19. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical investigations on nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obigodi-Ndjeng, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    1487 and CMSX 4, but does not show any influence on Rene N5+. Furthermore, the oxidation resistance of the newly developed ASTRA alloys (ASTRA 00, ASTRA 02, ASTRA 20 and ASTRA 22) was studied at 950 and 1050 C. The addition of Ruthenium in the alloy ASTRA 02 increased the mass change, whereas the addition Rhenium in ASTRA 20 showed a better oxidation resistance compared to ASTRA 00. The alloy containing both Re and Ru, ASTRA 22, shows poor oxidation resistance at 950 C, whereas at 1050 C, the scales formed on all alloys show cracks and spalls during oxidation and presented a severe spalling after cooling. Those alloys therefore present a poor adhesion of the oxides mostly due to the absence of active elements such as Yttrium, Hafnium, Lanthanum, etc. in the alloys. A thin alumina layer was formed at the metal/oxide interface - a middle of which is composed of different spinels - that could be detected and the top layer is NiO with a columnar structure. Electrochemical studies were performed on PWA 1483 and the model alloys Ni-Cr-X and Ni-Cr-X-Y (X = Co or Al and Y is Ta) in different electrolytes. The Ni-base superalloy showed good corrosion resistance in borate buffer (pH 8.4) and against pitting. The corrosion behavior depends strongly on the alloying elements as, for example, the alloy Ni-Cr-Al-Ta shows good corrosion behavior in all the electrolytes. The XPS and AES analysis on the formed passive films showed the presence of different oxides and hydroxides (chromia, NiO, NiOOH, and Ni(OH) 2 ). The scales were formed in a structure comparable to the oxides formed at high temperature. High temperature oxides formed at 800 C after 4 and 100 hours were also investigated by using electrochemical analysis. The scales show very good corrosion resistance as they show high impedances (R p ∝ 1 GΩcm 2 ) and more anodic OCP values. The presence of different oxides and defects such as pores could also be proved by using this method.

  20. Nickel foam/polyaniline-based carbon/palladium composite electrodes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, Jan M.; Urbaniak, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The sandwich-like nickel/palladium/carbon electrodes exhibiting ability to absorb hydrogen in alkaline solution are presented. Electrodes were prepared by successive deposition of palladium and polyaniline layers on nickel foam substrate followed by heat treatment to give Ni/Pd/C electrode. It was shown that thermal conversion of polymer into carbon layer and subsequent thermal activation of carbon component bring about the modification of the mechanism of reversible hydrogen sorption. It was proven that carbon layer, interacting with Pd catalyst, plays a considerable role in the process of hydrogen storage. In the other series of experiments, Pd particles were dispersed electrochemically on carbon coating leading to Ni/C/Pd system. The adding of the next carbon layer resulted in Ni/C/Pd/C electrodes. Electrochemical properties of the electrodes depend on both the sequence of Pd and C layers and the preparation/activation of carbon coating. Electrochemical behavior of sandwich-like electrodes in the reaction of hydrogen sorption/desorption was characterized in 6 M KOH using the cyclic voltammetry method and the results obtained were compared to those for Ni/Pd electrode. The anodic desorption of hydrogen from electrodes free and containing carbon layer was considered after the potentiodynamic as well as potentiostatic sorption of hydrogen. The influence of the sorption potential and the time of rest of electrodes at a cut-off circuit on the kinetics of hydrogen recovery were examined. The results obtained for Ni/Pd/C electrodes indicate that the displacement of hydrogen between C and Pd phase takes place during the rest at a cut-off circuit. Electrodes containing carbon layer require longer time for hydrogen electrosorption. On the other hand, the presence of carbon layer in electrodes is advantageous because a considerable longer retention of hydrogen is possible, as compared to Pd/Ni electrode. Hydrogen stored in sandwich-like electrodes can instantly be

  1. Kinetic studies of isooctane partial oxidation over a nickel-based catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Idem, Raphael; Aboudheir, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    The production of hydrogen (H 2 ) for fuel cell applications in mobile vehicles by reforming technologies such as partial oxidation of various fossil fuels has gained much attention recently. In this study, the production of H 2 by the catalytic partial oxidation of isooctane ((C 8 H 18 ) used here as a surrogate for gasoline) was investigated over alumina (AI 2 O 3 )supported nickel (Ni) catalyst. The work investigated the kinetics of the partial oxidation of isooctane over a stable Ni/□-AI 2 O 3 catalyst in the range of 863 to 913 K, at atmospheric pressure, W/F i c8 in the range of 1.97 to 8.58 g h mol - 1, and molar feed ratio in the range of 2.0 to 8.0 experiments to obtain kinetic data were performed in a 12.7 mm diameter Inconel micro-reactor housed in an electrically controlled furnace. The chemical reaction was then modeled using rate models developed from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-hougen-Watson (LHHW) and Eley-Rideal (ER) formulations. The model parameters were estimated using an adaptive Gauss-Newton and Marquardi-Levenberg minimization algorithm. Rival models were screened for their thermodynamic consistency and physicochemical significance of estimated parameters. Langmuir-Hinshelwood-hougen-Watson mechanism requiring the dissociative adsorption of isooctane and oxygen on two different sites appeared to be the most likely pathway for the partial oxidation reaction of isooctane. Reaction order with respect to isooctane indicates the strong coverage of nickel by isooctane. The activation energy of 73±3.1 kJ mol - 1 estimated from the LHHW model is consistent with the trend observed with lower hydrocarbons.(Author)

  2. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of a new tridentate Schiff base ligand and its nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Soleymanpour, Ahmad; Kholghi Oskouei, Nasim; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, Seyyed Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    A new unsymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligand was derived from the 1:1 M condensation of ortho-vanillin with 2-mercaptoethylamine. Nickel and palladium complexes were obtained by the reaction of the tridentate Schiff base ligand with nickel(II) acetate tetrahydrate and palladium(II) acetate in 2:1 M ratio. In nickel and palladium complexes the ligand was coordinated to metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The S groups of Schiff bases were not coordinated to the metals and S-S coupling was occured. The complexes have been found to possess 1:2 Metal:Ligand stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The complexes exhibited octahedral coordination geometry. The emission spectra of the ligand and its complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligand and its metal complexes were investigated in the CH3CN solvent at the 100 mV s-1 scan rate. The ligand and metal complexes showed both reversible and quasi-reversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff base and its complexes have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis, elemental analyses and conductometry. The crystal structure of nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  4. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Nickel-base Superalloy Haynes 282 at 550-750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, K. A.; Kruzic, J. J.; Hawk, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for nickel-based superalloy Haynes 282 were measured at temperatures of 550, 650, and 750 °C using compact tension specimens with a load ratio of 0.1 and cyclic loading frequencies of 25 Hz and 0.25 Hz. Increasing the temperature from 550 to 750 °C caused the fatigue crack growth rates to increase from ~20 to 60% depending upon the applied stress intensity level. The effect of reducing the applied loading frequency increased the fatigue crack growth rates from ~20 to 70%, also depending upon the applied stress intensity range. The crack path was observed to be transgranular for the temperatures and frequencies used during fatigue crack growth rate testing. At 750 °C, there were some indications of limited intergranular cracking excursions at both loading frequencies; however, the extent of intergranular crack growth was limited and the cause is not understood at this time.

  5. dK/da effects on the SCC growth rates of nickel base alloys in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Jiamei; Du, Donghai; Andresen, Peter L.; Zhang, Lefu

    2018-05-01

    The effect of dK/da on crack growth behavior of nickel base alloys has been studied by conducting stress corrosion cracking tests under positive and negative dK/da loading conditions on Alloys 690, 600 and X-750 in high temperature water. Results indicate that positive dK/da accelerates the SCC growth rates, and the accelerating effect increases with dK/da and the initial CGR. The FRI model was found to underestimate the dK/da effect by ∼100X, especially for strain hardening materials, and this underscores the need for improved insight and models for crack tip strain rate. The effect of crack tip strain rate and dK/dt in particular can explain the dK/da accelerating effect.

  6. On the Time-Temperature-Transformation Behavior of a New Dual-Superlattice Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanelli, P. M.; Jones, N. G.; Hardy, M. C.; Stone, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research has identified compositions of nickel-based superalloys with microstructures containing appreciable and comparable volume fractions of γ' and γ″ precipitates. In this work, an alloy capable of forming such a dual-superlattice microstructure was subjected to a range of thermal exposures between 873 K and 1173 K (600 °C and 900 °C) for durations of 1 to 1000 hours. The microstructures and nature of the precipitating phases were characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. These data have enabled the construction of a T-T-T diagram for the precipitating phases. Hardness measurements following each thermal exposure have identified the age-hardening behavior of this alloy and allowed preliminary mechanical properties to be assessed.

  7. Effect of Laser Power on Metallurgical, Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of Hardfaced Surfaces of Nickel-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, S.; Padmanaban, G.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, nickel based alloy was deposited on 316 LN austenitic stainless steel (ASS) by a laser hardfacing technique to investigate the influence of laser power on macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, dilution and wear characteristics. The laser power varied from 1.1 to 1.9 kW. The phase constitution, microstructure and microhardness were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The wear characteristics of the hardfaced surfaces and substrate were evaluated at room temperature (RT) under dry sliding wear condition (pin-on-disc). The outcome demonstrates that as the laser power increases, dilution increases and hardness of the deposit decreases. This is because excess heat melts more volume of substrate material and increases the dilution; subsequently it decreases the hardness of the deposit. The microstructure of the deposit is characterized by Ni-rich carbide, boride and silicide.

  8. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yi, E-mail: zhangyi520love@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Qi Shuhua; Zhang Fan; Yang Yongqing; Duan Guochen [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheets (GNs). Then a novel polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive (acrylate PSA) filled with Ni/GNs were fabricated by solution blend method. The Ni/GNs and acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All results showed that relatively uniform and compact Ni layer is successfully coated onto GNs under the given conditions, furthermore, Ni/GNs are homogeneously dispersed in acrylate PSA. The VSM results showed that the saturation magnetization of acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites increases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs while the coercivity decreases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs. When the content of GNs is 20 wt%, acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites exhibites good mechanical properties.

  9. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Qi Shuhua; Zhang Fan; Yang Yongqing; Duan Guochen

    2011-01-01

    Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheets (GNs). Then a novel polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive (acrylate PSA) filled with Ni/GNs were fabricated by solution blend method. The Ni/GNs and acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All results showed that relatively uniform and compact Ni layer is successfully coated onto GNs under the given conditions, furthermore, Ni/GNs are homogeneously dispersed in acrylate PSA. The VSM results showed that the saturation magnetization of acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites increases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs while the coercivity decreases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs. When the content of GNs is 20 wt%, acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites exhibites good mechanical properties.

  10. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, Luis Norberto; Urbicain Pelayo, Gorka; Fernández-Valdivielso, Asier; Alvarez, Alvaro; González, Haizea

    2017-09-01

    Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation. This paper establishes the cutting force relation between work-piece and tool in the turning of such difficult-to-cut alloys by means of a mechanistic cutting force model that considers the tool wear effect. The cutting force model demonstrates the force sensitivity to the cutting engagement parameters (ap, f) when using ceramic inserts and wear is considered. Wear is introduced through a cutting time factor, being useful in real conditions taking into account that wear quickly appears in alloys machining. A good accuracy in the cutting force model coefficients is the key issue for an accurate prediction of turning forces, which could be used as criteria for tool replacement or as input for chatter or other models.

  11. Modeling the initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking in nickel base alloys 182 and 82 of Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehbi, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    Nickel base welds are widely used to assemble components of the primary circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) plants. International experience shows an increasing number of Stress Corrosion Cracks (SCC) in nickel base welds 182 and 82 which motivates the development of models predicting the time to SCC initiation for these materials. SCC involves several parameters such as materials, mechanics or environment interacting together. The goal of this study is to have a better understanding of the physical mechanisms occurring at grains boundaries involved in SCC. In-situ tensile test carried out on oxidized alloy 182 evidenced dispersion in the susceptibility to corrosion of grain boundaries. Moreover, the correlation between oxidation and cracking coupled with micro-mechanical simulations on synthetic polycrystalline aggregate, allowed to propose a cracking criterion of oxidized grain boundaries which is defined by both critical oxidation depth and local stress level. Due to the key role of intergranular oxidation in SCC and since significant dispersion is observed between grain boundaries, oxidation tests were performed on alloys 182 and 82 in order to model the intergranular oxidation kinetics as a function of chromium carbides precipitation, temperature and dissolved hydrogen content. The model allows statistical analyses and is embedded in a local initiation model. In this model, SCC initiation is defined by the cracking of the intergranular oxide and is followed by slow and fast crack growth until the crack depth reaches a given value. Simplifying assumptions were necessary to identify laws used in the SCC model. However, these laws will be useful to determine experimental conditions of future investigations carried out to improve the calibration used parameters. (author)

  12. TEM characterisation of stress corrosion cracks in nickel based alloys: effect of chromium content and chemistry of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabrouille, F.

    2004-11-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a damaging mode of alloys used in pressurized water reactors, particularly of nickel based alloys constituting the vapour generator tubes. Cracks appear on both primary and secondary sides of the tubes, and more frequently in locations where the environment is not well defined. SCC sensitivity of nickel based alloys depends of their chromium content, which lead to the replacement of alloy 600 (15 % Cr) by alloy 690 (30 % Cr) but this phenomenon is not yet very well understood. The goal of this thesis is two fold: i) observe the effect of chromium content on corrosion and ii) characterize the effect of environment on the damaging process of GV tubes. For this purpose, one industrial tube and several synthetic alloys - with controlled chromium content - have been studied. Various characterisation techniques were used to study the corrosion products on the surface and within the SCC cracks: SIMS; TEM - FEG: thin foil preparation, HAADF, EELS, EDX. The effect of chromium content and surface preparation on the generalised corrosion was evidenced for synthetic alloys. Moreover, we observed the penetration of oxygen along triple junctions of grain boundaries few micrometers under the free surface. SCC tests show the positive effect of chromium for contents varying from 5 to 30 % wt. Plastic deformation induces a modification of the structure, and thus of the protective character, of the internal chromium rich oxide layer. SCC cracks which developed in different chemical environments were characterised by TEM. The oxides which are formed within the cracks are different from what is observed on the free surface, which reveals a modification of medium and electrochemical conditions in the crack. Finally we were able to evidence some structural characteristics of the corrosion products (in the cracks and on the surface) which turn to be a signature of the chemical environment. (author)

  13. Fatigue crack growth behavior of a new single crystal nickel-based superalloy (CMSX-4) at 650 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Putatunda, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    CMSX-4 is a recently developed rhenium containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy. This alloy has potential applications in many critical high-temperature applications such as turbine blades, rotors, nuclear reactors, etc. The fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold data of this material is extremely important for accurate life prediction, as well as failure safe design, at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth behavior of CMSX-4 has been studied at 650 C. The investigation also examined the influence of γ' precipitates (size and distribution) on the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold. The influence of load ratio on the fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold was also examined. Detailed fractographic studies were carried out to determine the crack growth mechanism in fatigue in the threshold region. Compact tension specimens were prepared from the single crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 with [001] orientation as the tensile loading axis direction. These specimens were given three different heat treatments to produce three different γ' precipitate sizes and distributions. Fatigue crack growth behavior of these specimens was studied at 650 C in air. The results of the present investigation indicate that the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate decreases and that the fatigue threshold increases with an increase in the γ' precipitate size at 650 C. The fatigue threshold decreased linearly with an increase in load ratio. Fractographs at 650 C show a stage 2 type of crack growth along {100} type of crystal planes in the threshold region, and along {111} type of crystal planes in the high ΔK region

  14. Synthesis, structure and catalytic activities of nickel(II) complexes bearing N4 tetradentate Schiff base ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Nag, Sanat Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Dey, Kamalendu; Islam, Sk. Manirul; Sarkar, Avijit; Sarkar, Sougata

    2018-05-01

    Two new nickel(II) complexes [Ni(L)Cl2] (1) and [Ni(L)(NCS)2] (2) of a neutral tetradentate mono-condensed Schiff base ligand, 3-(2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylimino)butan-2-one oxime (L) have been synthesized and characterized using different physicochemical techniques e.g. elemental analyses, spectroscopic (IR, Electronic, NMR) methods, conductivity and molecular measurements. The crystal structure of complex (2) has been determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction method and it suggests a distorted octahedral geometry around nickel(II) having a NiN6 coordinating atmosphere. The non-coordinated Osbnd H group on the ligand L remain engaged in H-bonding interactions with the S end of the coordinated thiocyanate moiety. These H-bonding interactions lead to Osbnd S separations of 3.132 Å and play prominent role in crystal packing. It is observed that the mononuclear units are glued together with such Osbnd H…S interactions and finally results in an 1D supramolecular sheet-like arrangement. DFT/TDDFT based theoretical calculations were also performed on the ligand and the complexes aiming at the accomplishment of idea regarding their optimized geometry, electronic transitions and the molecular energy levels. Finally the catalytic behavior of the complexes for oxidation of styrene has also been carried out. A variety of reaction conditions like the effect of solvent, effect of temperature and time as well as the effect of ratio of substrate to oxidant were thoroughly studied to judge the catalytic efficiency of the Ni(II) coordination entity.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium in nickel-base alloys with Arsenazo III after separation by froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, K.; Onishi, H.

    1977-01-01

    0.02-0.1% of zirconium can be determined in nickel alloys by spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III after its separation from the sample solution by means of froth flotation using Arsenazo III and Zephiramine. Nickel, chromium and iron do not interfere. Analysis of standard alloys yielded a standard deviation of 2.2%. (orig.) [de

  16. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  17. Direct formation of reduced graphene oxide and 3D lightweight nickel network composite foam by hydrohalic acids and its application for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifu; Tang, Yanmei; Xu, Lianqiang; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2014-07-09

    Here, a novel graphene composite foam with 3D lightweight continuous and interconnected nickel network was successfully synthesized by hydroiodic (HI) acid using nickel foam as substrate template. The graphene had closely coated on the backbone of the 3D nickel conductive network to form nickel network supported composite foam without any polymeric binder during the HI reduction of GO process, and the nickel conductive network can be maintained even in only a small amount of nickel with 1.1 mg/cm(2) and had replaced the traditional current collector nickel foam (35 mg/cm(2)). In the electrochemical measurement, a supercapacitor device based on the 3D nickel network and graphene composite foam exhibited high rate capability of 100 F/g at 0.5 A/g and 86.7 F/g at 62.5 A/g, good cycle stability with capacitance retention of 95% after 2000 cycles, low internal resistance (1.68 Ω), and excellent flexible properties. Furthermore, the gravimetric capacitance (calculated using the total mass of the electrode) was high up to 40.9 F/g. Our work not only demonstrates high-quality graphene/nickel composite foam, but also provides a universal route for the rational design of high performance of supercapacitors.

  18. "Smart" nickel oxide based core-shell nanoparticles for combined chemo and photodynamic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shazia; Nazir, Samina; Munir, Saeeda; AlAjmi, Mohamed Fahad; Afzal, Muhammad; Mazhar, Kehkashan

    2016-01-01

    We report "smart" nickel oxide nanoparticles (NOPs) as multimodal cancer therapy agent. Water-dispersible and light-sensitive NiO core was synthesized with folic acid (FA) connected bovine serum albumin (BSA) shell on entrapped doxorubicin (DOX). The entrapped drug from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA was released in a sustained way (64 hours, pH=5.5, dark conditions) while a robust release was found under red light exposure (in 1/2 hour under λmax=655 nm, 50 mW/cm(2), at pH=5.5). The cell viability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diphenylisobenzofuran assays conducted under light and dark conditions revealed a high photodynamic therapy potential of our construct. Furthermore, we found that the combined effect of DOX and NOPs from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA resulted in cell death approximately eightfold high compared to free DOX. We propose that NOP-DOX@BSA-FA is a potential photodynamic therapy agent and a collective drug delivery system for the systemic administration of cancer chemotherapeutics resulting in combination therapy.

  19. Stiffness-constant variation in nickel-based alloys: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent measurements of the spin-wave stiffness constant in several nickel alloys at various concentrations are interpreted within a random-phase approximation, coherent-potential approximation (RPA-CPA) band model which uses the Hartree-Fock approximation to treat the intraatomic correlations. We give a theoretical description of the possible impurity states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. This allows the determination of the Hartree-Fock solutions which can account for the stiffness-constant behavior and the magnetic moment on the impurity for all the investigated alloys. For alloys such as NiCr, NiV, NiMo, and NiRu, the magnetizations of which deviate from the Slater-Pauling curve, our determination does not correspond to previous works and is consequently discussed. The limits of the model appear mainly due to local-environment effects; in the case of NiMn, it is found that a ternary-alloy model with some Mn atoms in the antiferromagnetic state can account for both stiffness-constant and magnetization behaviors

  20. TiO{sub 2}-based nanotubes modified with nickel: synthesis, properties, and improved photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M; Ganguli, A K [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Kim, S J, E-mail: sjkim1@sejong.ac.k, E-mail: ashok@chemistry.iitd.ac.i [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Sejong Advanced Institute of Nano Technologies, Sejong University, 98, Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-11

    Titanate nanotubes containing 2.5 wt% Ni were synthesized from TiO{sub 2} sol using alkali hydrothermal treatment followed by a simple ion-exchange process. The changes in phase, shape and morphology, surface area, and photocatalytic activity of these nanotubes have been explored as a function of calcination temperature. The samples were characterized using standard techniques, including x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Brauner-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The study revealed that the titanate phase containing Ni ions can be converted to the anatase phase after certain heat treatments but, at the same time, the tubular morphology was partially lost. Investigation of photocatalytic properties demonstrated that the as-prepared Ni-titanate nanotubes were photocatalytically inactive, but when heated at temperatures below 500 {sup 0}C their activity was significantly enhanced with the change in phase. The calcined nanotube samples carrying nickel ion showed better photocatalytic activity than calcined nanotube samples containing protons. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of these titanates has also been measured, and it was found that Ni-titanate nanotubes can adsorb more hydrogen than its counterpart Na-titanate.

  1. Study of the corrosion of nickel base alloys in molten fluorides medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, St.; Finne, J.; Noel, D.; Catalette, H.; Cabet, C.; Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P.; Cassayre, L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the corrosion mechanisms of nickel and its alloys in molten fluoride media. In a first part, the behaviour of the pure alloy metals has been studied (Ni, Mo, W, Fe and Cr) in three different salts mixtures: LiF-NaF, LiF-CaF 2 and LiF-AlF 3 in a temperature range of 700-1000 C. An experimental assembly allowing the implementation of electrochemical methods has been fabricated and validated. Linear scanning volt-amperometry has been used for studying the corrosion reactions of metals. It has then been possible to obtain intensity-potential curves and to determine the currents and corrosion potentials by the plotting of Tafel straight lines. These experimental results have finely been interpreted in considering the thermodynamic data accessible in literature (potential-oxo-acidity diagrams of metals in salts built from HSC Chemistry 5.1) and the influence of temperature and the nature of the bath have been estimated. (O.M.)

  2. The activity of catalytic systems based on zero-valent nickel complexes in propene dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmidt, F.K.; Mironova, L.V.; Proidakov, A.G.; Kalabin, G.A.; Ratovskii, G.V.; Dmitrieva, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    Catalytic systems consisting of Ni(PPh/sub 3/) or Ni(P(OEt)/sub 3/)/sub 4/, Lewis acids BF/sub 3/ or BF/sub 3/.OEt/sub 2/, and Broensted acids HF, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, EtOH, or H/sub 2/O (even in trace amounts), but not HCl, showed high catalytic activities (i.e., hexene yields of 1200-1600 g-mole per g-atom Ni per hour) with 67-84% methylpentenes. In the absence of Lewis acids, the catalytic activity decreased and linear hexenes were favored (up to 65%). The activity of the systems containing no Broensted additives (i.e., when the solvents were thoroughly dehydrated and evacuated) was very low (50 g-mole hexene per g-atom Ni per hour). Proton, phosphorus-31, and fluorine-19 NMR studies identified nickel hydride complexes (NHC) with PF(OEt)/sub 2/ ligands in the Ni(P(OC/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/)/sub 4// BF/sub 3/(OC/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2//C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH system, and a UV spectroscopic study showed that the catalytic activity was proportional to the concentration of NHC in the system. Tables, spectra, and 16 references.

  3. Cone-based Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R.; Haber, E.

    2005-05-01

    Determining the 3D spatial distribution of subsurface properties is a critical part of managing the clean-up of contaminated sites. Most standard hydrologic methods sample small regions immediately adjacent to wells or testing devices. This provides data which are not representative of the entire region of interest. Furthermore, at many contaminated sites invasive methods are not acceptable, due to the risks associated with contacting and spreading the contaminants. To address these issues, we have developed a minimally invasive technology that provides information about the 3D distribution of electrical conductivity. This new technique, cone-based electrical resistivity tomography (C-bert), involves placing several permanent current electrodes in the subsurface and using electrodes mounted on a cone penetrometer to measure the resultant potential field while advancing the cone into the subsurface. In addition to potential field measurements, we obtain the standard suite of cone-penetration measurements, including high resolution resistivity logs; these data can then be used to constrain the inversion of the potential field data. A major challenge of working with these data is that the cone penetrometer is highly conductive, and thus presents a large local perturbation around the measurement location. As the cone is very small (approximately 30mm in diameter) with respect to the total model space, explicitly modeling the cone is computationally demanding. We developed a method for solving the forward model that reduces computational time by an order of magnitude. This solution method, iteratively determined boundary conditions, makes it possible to correct for the cone effect before inversion of the data. Results from synthetic experiments suggest that the C-bert method of data acquisition can result in high quality electrical conductivity images of the subsurface. We tested the practicality of this technique by performing a field test of the C-bert system to image

  4. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulié, M.; Laucournet, R.; Billy, E.

    2014-02-01

    A hydrometallurgical process is developed to recover valuable metals of the lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Effect of parameters such as type of acid (H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl), acid concentration (1-4 mol L-1), leaching time (3-18 h) and leaching temperature (25-90 °C) with a solid to liquid ratio fixed at 5% (w/v) are investigated to determine the most efficient conditions of dissolution. The preliminary results indicate that HCl provides higher leaching efficiency. In optimum conditions, a complete dissolution is performed for Li, Ni, Co and Al. In the nickel and cobalt recovery process, at first the Co(II) in the leaching liquor is selectively oxidized in Co(III) with NaClO reagent to recover Co2O3, 3H2O by a selective precipitation at pH = 3. Then, the nickel hydroxide is precipitated by a base addition at pH = 11. The recovery efficiency of cobalt and nickel are respectively 100% and 99.99%.

  5. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  6. Oxidation-induced phase transformations and lifetime limits of chromia-forming nickel-base alloy 625

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyrkin, Anton

    2011-12-05

    For its high creep resistance the commercial nickel-base alloy 625 relies on solid solution strengthening in combination with precipitation hardening by formation of δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb and (Ni,Mo,Si){sub 6}C precipitates during high-temperature service. In oxidizing environments the alloy forms a slow growing, continuous chromia layer on the material surface which protects the alloy against rapid oxidation attack. The growth of the chromia base oxide scale results during exposure at 900-1000 C in oxidation-induced chromium depletion in the subsurface zone of the alloy. Microstructural analyses of the cross-sectioned specimens revealed that this process results in formation of a wide subsurface zone in which the mentioned strengthening phases are dissolved, in spite of the fact that both phases do not contain substantial amounts of the scale-forming element chromium. The cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in parallel to the formation of a precipitate depleted zone, a thin, continuous layer of niobium-rich intermetallic precipitates formed in the immediate vicinity of the scale/alloy interface. The Subsurface Phase Enrichment (abbreviated as SPE) was shown to be the result of an uphill-diffusion of niobium, i.e. the element stabilizing the strengthening precipitates δ-Ni{sub 3}Nb, in the chromium activity gradient and is thus a natural consequence of the oxidation-induced chromium depletion beneath the chromia scale. The thermodynamic calculations carried out using the Thermo-Calc/DICTRA software packages revealed that in alloy 625 the chemical activity of niobium decreases with decreasing chromium content. As chromium is being continuously removed from the alloy as the result of the chromia scale growth, the zone of lowest Nb-activity is formed in the location with the lowest chromium concentration, i.e. the scale/alloy interface. This creates a driving force for Nb to diffuse towards the scale/alloy interface against its own concentration gradient, which is known

  7. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on nickel nanoparticle-modified electrodes for phenobarbital determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hui Cheng; Huang, Xue Yi; Lei, Fu Hou; Tan, Xue Cai; Wei, Yi Chun; Li, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform Ni nanoparticles were synthesized. • A Ni nanoparticle-modified imprinted sensor was developed to detect phenobarbital. • The modified sensor exhibited high sensitivity for phenobarbital. • The electrochemical properties of the modified sensor were investigated. • The prepared sensor was applied to detect phenobarbital in fish samples. - Abstract: Uniform nickel nanoparticles were applied to improve the sensitivity of sensors for phenobarbital (PB) determination. A Ni nanoparticle-modified imprinted electrochemical sensor was developed by thermal polymerization with the use of methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol maleic rosinate acrylate as the crosslinking agent. The chemical structures and morphologies of the imprinted films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The success of the fabrication of Ni nanoparticles, as well as the Ni nanoparticle-modified imprinted electrochemical sensor, was confirmed by the analytical results. The electrochemical properties of the modified molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymer sensors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and chronoamperometry. Results showed that the electrochemical properties of the molecularly imprinted sensor were remarkably different from those of the non-imprinted sensor. Linear responses of the imprinted sensor to PB were observed for concentrations ranging from 1.4 × 10 −7 mol L −1 to 1.3 × 10 −4 mol L −1 (r 2 = 0.9976), with a detection limit of 8.2 × 10 −9 mol L −1 (S/N = 3). The imprinted electrochemical sensor was used to determine PB in actual fish samples, in which average recoveries between 95.60% and 104.67% were achieved. The developed Ni nanoparticle-modified electrochemical sensor exhibited high sensitivity, high selectivity, and good recovery

  8. Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on monodisperse palladium nickel/activated carbon nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskun, Yağmur; Şavk, Aysun; Şen, Betül; Şen, Fatih

    2018-06-20

    Glucose enzyme biosensors have been used for a variety of applications such as medical diagnosis, bioprocess engineering, beverage industry and environmental scanning etc. and there is still a growing interest in glucose sensors. For this purpose, addressed herein, as a novel glucose sensor, highly sensitive activated carbon (AC) decorated monodisperse nickel and palladium alloy nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (Ni-Pd@AC/GCE NCs) have been synthesized by in-situ reduction technique. Raman Spectroscopy (RS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) were used for the characterization of the prepared non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The characteristic sensor properties of the Ni-Pd@AC/GCE electrode were compared with Ni-Pd NCs/GCE, Ni@AC/GCE and Pd@AC/GCE and the results demonstrate that the AC is very effective in the enhancement of the electrocatalytic properties of sensor. In addition, the Ni-Pd@AC/GCE nanocomposites showed a very low detection limit of 0.014 μM, a wide linear range of 0.01 mM-1 mM and a very high sensitivity of 90 mA mM -1  cm -2 . Furthermore, the recommended sensor offer the various advantageous such as facile preparation, fast response time, high selectivity and sensitivity. Lastly, monodisperse Ni-Pd@AC/GCE was utilized to detect glucose in real sample species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. "Smart" nickel oxide based core–shell nanoparticles for combined chemo and photodynamic cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Bano,1–3,* Samina Nazir,2,* Saeeda Munir,3 Mohamed Fahad AlAjmi,4 Muhammad Afzal,1 Kehkashan Mazhar3 1Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 2Nanosciences and Technology Department, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad, 3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We report “smart” nickel oxide nanoparticles (NOPs as multimodal cancer therapy agent. Water-dispersible and light-sensitive NiO core was synthesized with folic acid (FA connected bovine serum albumin (BSA shell on entrapped doxorubicin (DOX. The entrapped drug from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA was released in a sustained way (64 hours, pH=5.5, dark conditions while a robust release was found under red light exposure (in 1/2 hour under λmax=655 nm, 50 mW/cm2, at pH=5.5. The cell viability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diphenylisobenzofuran assays conducted under light and dark conditions revealed a high photodynamic therapy potential of our construct. Furthermore, we found that the combined effect of DOX and NOPs from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA resulted in cell death approximately eightfold high compared to free DOX. We propose that NOP-DOX@BSA-FA is a potential photodynamic therapy agent and a collective drug delivery system for the systemic administration of cancer chemotherapeutics resulting in combination therapy. Keywords: light-triggered drug release, cancer, bovine serum albumin, multi-model therapy

  11. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  12. Hydrogen permeation on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based nickel/cobalt composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jihee; Jung, Miewon [Department of Chemistry/Institute of Basic Science, Sungshin Women' s University, Seoul 136-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering/Research Center for Sustainable Eco-Devices and Materials(ReSEM), Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized using the sol-gel process with aluminum isopropoxide as the precursor and primary distilled water as the solvent. Nickel and cobalt metal powders were used to increase the strength of the membranes. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based membranes were prepared using HPS following a mechanical alloying process. The phase transformation, thermal evolution, surface and cross-section morphology of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based membranes were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. The hydrogen permeation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based membranes was examined at 300-473 K under increasing pressure. Hydrogen permeation flux through an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20wt%Co membrane was obtained to 2.36 mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Reaction enthalpy was calculated to 4.5 kJ/mol using a Van't Hoff's plot. (author)

  13. A novel unified dislocation density-based model for hot deformation behavior of a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel unified dislocation density-based model is presented for characterizing hot deformation behaviors in a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization (DRX) conditions. In the Kocks-Mecking model, a new softening item is proposed to represent the impacts of DRX behavior on dislocation density evolution. The grain size evolution and DRX kinetics are incorporated into the developed model. Material parameters of the developed model are calibrated by a derivative-free method of MATLAB software. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results confirm that the developed unified dislocation density-based model can nicely reproduce hot deformation behavior, DRX kinetics, and grain size evolution in wide scope of initial grain size, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Moreover, the developed unified dislocation density-based model is well employed to analyze the time-variant forming processes of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  14. A novel unified dislocation density-based model for hot deformation behavior of a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C. [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); Light Alloy Research Institute of Central South University, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China); Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Min [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); Chen, Ming-Song [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, a novel unified dislocation density-based model is presented for characterizing hot deformation behaviors in a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization (DRX) conditions. In the Kocks-Mecking model, a new softening item is proposed to represent the impacts of DRX behavior on dislocation density evolution. The grain size evolution and DRX kinetics are incorporated into the developed model. Material parameters of the developed model are calibrated by a derivative-free method of MATLAB software. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results confirm that the developed unified dislocation density-based model can nicely reproduce hot deformation behavior, DRX kinetics, and grain size evolution in wide scope of initial grain size, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Moreover, the developed unified dislocation density-based model is well employed to analyze the time-variant forming processes of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  16. Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry Based Study of Nickel-N-Allyl Urea and N-Allyl Thiourea Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eigenvalue, eigenvector and overlap matrix of nickel halide complex of N-allyl urea and N-allyl thiourea have been evaluated. Our results indicate that ligand field parameters (Dq, B’ and β evaluated earlier by electronic spectra are very close to values evaluated with the help of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Eigenvector analysis and population analysis shows that in bonding 4s, 4p, and 3dx2-y2, 3dyz orbitals of nickel are involved but the coefficient values differ in different complexes. Out of 4px, 4py, 4pz the involvement of either 4pz or 4py, is noticeable. The theoretically evaluated positions of infrared bands indicate that N-allyl urea is coordinated to nickel through its oxygen and N-allyl thiourea is coordinated to nickel through its sulphur which is in conformity with the experimental results.

  17. Characterization of wear mechanism by tribo-corrosion of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Some components of nuclear power plants, as steam generator tubes are made from Ni base alloys. These components are exposed to severe environment of high temperature and high pressure and submitted to contact mechanical stresses. These Ni - based alloys properties are determined by their ability to form on their surface an inner protective barrier film mainly composed of Cr 2 O 3 . The steam generator tubes are among the most difficult components to maintain, on the hand, because of their safety importance and secondly, the exchange tubes are subject to various degradation mechanisms, because of the harsh conditions of work. Wear by tribo-corrosion is a physicochemical aging mechanism which occurs in the management of the nuclear power plants life time. Tribo-corrosion is an irreversible process which involves mechanical and chemical / electrochemical interactions between surfaces in relative motion, in the presence of a corrosive environment. The goal of this study was to quantify in terms of quantity and quality the wear generated by tribo-corrosion process on Ni - Cr model alloys. Two model alloys: Ni -15Cr and Ni -30Cr were used to highlight, evaluate and compare the influence of the chromium content on the formation of the protective oxide layer and the role played by the latter one on the kinetics and mechanisms of wear by tribo-corrosion. The tribo-corrosion experiments were performed by using a pin-on-disc tribometer under controlled electrochemical conditions in LiOH - H 3 BO 3 solution. The corrosion - wear degradation of the protective layer during continuous and intermittent unidirectional sliding tests was investigated by a three-stage tribo-corrosion protocol. In the first stage, electrochemical techniques (open circuit potential measurements and electrochemical impedance measurements) were used without applying unidirectional sliding to monitor and evaluate the characteristics of protective oxide layer formed on the surface of the two model alloys

  18. Resistive and Capacitive Based Sensing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winncy Y. Du

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resistive and capacitive (RC sensors are the most commonly used sensors. Their applications span homeland security, industry, environment, space, traffic control, home automation, aviation, and medicine. More than 30% of modern sensors are direct or indirect applications of the RC sensing principles. This paper reviews resistive and capacitive sensing technologies. The physical principles of resistive sensors are governed by several important laws and phenomena such as Ohm’s Law, Wiedemann-Franz Law; Photoconductive-, Piezoresistive-, and Thermoresistive Effects. The applications of these principles are presented through a variety of examples including accelerometers, flame detectors, pressure/flow rate sensors, RTDs, hygristors, chemiresistors, and bio-impedance sensors. The capacitive sensors are described through their three configurations: parallel (flat, cylindrical (coaxial, and spherical (concentric. Each configuration is discussed with respect to its geometric structure, function, and application in various sensor designs. Capacitance sensor arrays are also presented in the paper.

  19. Quantitative analysis of chromium concentration in nickel based alloys by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure using a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Suri, B.M.; Verma, A.; Sundararaman, M.; Unnikrishnan, V.K.; Alti, K.; Kartha, V.B.; Santhosh, C.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been well recognized as a simple, fast and direct analytical technique of elemental analysis of multi-element materials by a number of research groups all over the world. It is based on the focusing of a high-power pulsed laser beam with a power density > 100 MW/cm 2 onto a sample surface followed by optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma produced over the surface. In the present work, they have carried out the quantitative analysis of chromium in nickel-based-alloys using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in air at atmospheric pressure. In the present work the quantitative analysis of chromium in nickel-based-alloys using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) in air at atmospheric pressure has been carried out

  20. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  1. ERT and Well Data Tie for Nickel Laterite Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Sabrianto; Mamela Mais, Difar; Syamsuddin; Wanni

    2018-03-01

    The need of ERT method in nickel latentes exploration can’t be deny. This method have capability to make exploration more effective and efficient. In reality this method still remain ambiguity in its application, especially for geologist and mining expert. These ambiguity related with layer zone determination (limonite, saprolite and bedrock), the same resistivity values in the different zones and determination of bedrock. This paper try to expose interesting fact to overcome this ambiguity by using ERT data and drill data tie. This tie will show characteristic of nickel lateric based on resisitivity value and the contribution of chemistry element for resistivity value. Data ERT was collected by using gradient configuration and well data consist of mayor element and minor element. Tie result showed difference resistivity value in limonite layer influence by Fe, H2O and Ni, where resistivity value from saprolite layer influenced by Fe, H2O, Si02, MgO, Al, Cr, and Ni in certain accumulation. In bedrock layer, almost all drill data did not reach bedrock but only reached the boulder alone, it is supported by the value of the resistivity of rock unserpentinized peridotite which should show a relatively large resistivity value

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjizadeh, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghgoo, S. [Center of Quality Control of Drug, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-31

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode.

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjizadeh, M.; Jabbari, A.; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Haghgoo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode

  4. On the Feasibility of Eddy Current Characterization of the Near-Surface Residual Stress Distribution in Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, Mark P.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in shot-peened specimens. This technique is based on the so-called electroelastic effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of the electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, the relatively small (∼1%) change in electrical conductivity caused by the presence of compressive residual stresses is often distorted, or even completely overshadowed, by the accompanying conductivity loss caused by cold work and surface roughness effects. Recently, it was observed that, in contrast with most other materials, shot-peened Waspaloy and IN100 specimens exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies. This observation by itself indicates that in these materials the measured conductivity change is probably dominated by residual stress effects, since both surface roughness and increased dislocation density are known to decrease rather than increase the conductivity and the presence of crystallographic texture does not affect the electrical conductivity of these materials, which crystallize in cubic symmetry. Our preliminary experiments indicate that probably there exists a unique 'window of opportunity' for eddy current NDE in nickel-base superalloys. We identified five major effects that contribute to this fortunate constellation of material properties, which will be reviewed in this presentation

  5. Improved Plasticity of Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room Temperature by Electroless Thin Nickel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By restricting the dilated deformation, surface modification can stimulate multiple shear banding and improve the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. Aimed at modifying the surface of BMGs by thin layers, a crystalline Ni coating with ultrafine grains was coated on the surface of a Ti-based BMG by electroless plating. With a thickness of about 10 μm, the prepared thin coating could effectively limit the fast propagation of primary shear bands and stimulate the nucleation of multiple shear bands. As a result, the compression plasticity of the coated Ti-based BMG was improved to about 3.7% from near 0% of the non-coated BMG. Except for a small amount of Ni coating was adhered to the BMG substrate after fracture, most of the coatings were peeled off from the surface. It can be attributed to the abnormal growth of some coarse grains/particles in local region of the coating, which induces a large tensile stress at the interface between the coating and the BMG substrate. It is suggested that, for electroless nickel plating, improving the adhesive bonding strength between the coating and the substrate has a better geometric restriction effect than simply increasing the thickness of the coating.

  6. Microstructural Characterization of a Polycrystalline Nickel-Based Superalloy Processed via Tungsten-Intert-Gas-Shaped Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Bache, Martin R.; Whittaker, Mark T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent trials have produced tungsten-inert-gas (TIG)-welded structures of a suitable scale to allow an evaluation of the technique as an economic and commercial process for the manufacture of complex aeroengine components. The employment of TIG welding is shown to have specific advantages over alternative techniques based on metal inert gas (MIG) systems. Investigations using the nickel-based superalloy 718 have shown that TIG induces a smaller weld pool with less compositional segregation. In addition, because the TIG process involves a pulsed power source, a faster cooling rate is achieved, although this rate, in turn, compromises the deposition rate. The microstructures produced by the two techniques differ significantly, with TIG showing an absence of the detrimental delta and Laves phases typically produced by extended periods at a high temperature using MIG. Instead, an anisotropic dendritic microstructure was evident with a preferred orientation relative to the axis of epitaxy. Niobium was segregated to the interdendritic regions. A fine-scale porosity was evident within the microstructure with a maximum diameter of approximately 5 μm. This porosity often was found in clusters and usually was associated with the interdendritic regions. Subsequent postdeposition heat treatment was shown to have no effect on preexisting porosity and to have a minimal effect on the microstructure.

  7. The Role of Cold Work in Eddy Current Residual Stress Measurements in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that eddy current methods can be adapted to residual stress measurement in shot-peened nickel-base superalloys. However, experimental evidence indicates that the piezoresistivity effect is simply not high enough to account for the observed apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) increase. At the same time, X-ray diffraction data indicates that 'cold work' lingers even when the residual stress is fully relaxed and the excess AECC is completely gone. It is impossible to account for both observations with a single coherent explanation unless we assume that instead of a single 'cold work' effect, there are two varieties of cold work; type-A and type-B. Type-A cold work (e.g., changes in the microscopic homogeneity of the material) is not detected by X-ray diffraction as it does not significantly affect the beam width, but causes substantial conductivity change and exhibits strong thermal relaxation. Type-B cold work (e.g., dislocations) is detected by X-ray, but causes little or no conductivity change and exhibits weak thermal relaxation. Based on the assumption of two separate cold-work variables and that X-ray diffraction results indicate the presence of type-B, but not type-A, all observed phenomena can be explained. If this working hypothesis is proven right, the separation of residual stress and type-A cold work is less critical because they both relax much earlier and much faster than type-B cold work

  8. Alloy spreading and filling of gaps in brazing of VDU-2 and KhN50VMTYuB heat resistant nickel alloys with VPr3K and VPr10 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.E.; Podol'skij, B.A.; Lepisko, M.R.; Borzyak, A.G.; Moryakov, V.F.; Rostislavskaya, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on contact interaction of VDU-2 and KhN50VMTYuB alloys with VPr3K and VPr10 alloys at 1325 and 1220 deg C in argon and industrial vacuum. The contact angles and wettability indexes were determined. The solders fill the vertical gaps of up to 0.25 mm width through 80 mm height. Spreading and filling of gaps proceeds better during soldering in argon with boron trifluoride addition as compared to soldering in industrial vacuum. VPr10 alloy is divided into two phases when wetting KhN50VMTYuB alloy: fusible one on the base of nickel-chromium-manganese solution and infusible one on the base of nickel-niobium eutectics. The square of fusible phase spreading is 2.5...3 times larger as compared to infusible one

  9. Influence of Nitinol wire surface treatment on oxide thickness and composition and its subsequent effect on corrosion resistance and nickel ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B; Carroll, W; Rochev, Y; Hynes, M; Bradley, D; Plumley, D

    2006-10-01

    Medical implants and devices are now used successfully in surgical procedures on a daily basis. Alloys of nickel and titanium, and in particular Nitinol are of special interest in the medical device industry, because of their shape memory and superelastic properties. The corrosion behavior of nitinol in the body is also of critical importance because of the known toxicological effects of nickel. The stability of a NiTi alloy in the physiological environment is dependant primarily on the properties of the mostly TiO(2) oxide layer that is present on the surface. For the present study, a range of nitinol wires have been prepared using different drawing processes and a range of surface preparation procedures. It is clear from the results obtained that the wire samples with very thick oxides also contain a high nickel content in the oxide layer. The untreated samples with the thicker oxides show the lowest pitting potential values and greater nickel release in both long and short-term experiments. It was also found that after long-term immersion tests breakdown potentials increased for samples that exhibited lower values initially. From these results it would appear that surface treatment is essential for the optimum bioperformance of nitinol. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  10. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ γ/γ' > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially tungsten

  11. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  12. Synchrotron measurement of the 3D shape of X-ray reflections from the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '}-microstructure of nickel-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epishin, Alexander; Link, Thomas; Ulbricht, Alexander; Bansal, Mamta [Technical Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Material Science and Technology; Zizak, Ivo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy BESSY II, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The 3D shape of X-ray reflections from the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '}-microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy was investigated using synchrotron X-ray radiation and a position sensitive area detector. The measurements were performed on the 4{sup th} generation single-crystal nickel-base superalloy TMS138. The results show that X-ray reflections from non-cubic crystallographic planes have a complex 3D shape which changes during rafting. The 3D intensity distributions contain information about the spacing of the planes and their orientation as well. Whereas h00 reflections show the usual splitting into a {gamma}{sup '} and one {gamma}-subreflection, the hh0 and hhh reflections show two and three {gamma}-peaks respectively, resulting from the different types of {l_brace}100{r_brace} matrix channels. Therefore, these 3D diffraction measurements supply additional information about the spatial distribution of microstrains. (orig.)

  13. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts’ exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1–4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. Spearman correlation (rs) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately-high (weighted kappa range=0.60–0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (rs= -0.37–0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47–78%) than airborne measurements (16–50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately-high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies. PMID:24736099

  14. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-11-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts' exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1-4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. The Spearman correlation (r(s)) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately high (weighted kappa range=0.60-0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (r(s)=-0.37-0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47-78%) than airborne measurements (16-50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies.

  15. Microstructure and properties of nickel base superalloy joints brazed with Ni-Cr-Co-B and BNi-1a filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, H. [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China); Liu, W. [Dalian Railway Inst. (China). Welding Div.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the kind and compositions of brittle phases formed in joints of a nickel-base superalloy brazed with the Ni-Cr-Co-B and BNi-1a (Ni-Cr-B-Si) filler metals were investigated. Their brittle-phase-free maximum brazing clearances (MBC) were characterized in dependence on the brazing conditions. The improvement on joint structures by post-braze heat treatment was also examined. (orig./MM)

  16. Numerical analysis of a polysilicon-based resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates a conductive bridge resistive memory device based on a Cu top electrode, 10-nm polysilicon resistive switching layer and a TiN bottom electrode, by numerical analysis for $$10^{3}$$103 programming and erase simulation cycles

  17. Experimental study on structural, optoelectronic and room temperature sensing performance of Nickel doped ZnO based ethanol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M.; Radha, S.; Kirubaveni, S.; Kiruthika, R.; Govindaraj, R.; Santhosh, N.

    2018-04-01

    Nano crystalline undoped (1Z) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and 5, 10 and 15 Wt. % (1ZN, 2ZN and 3ZN) of Nickel doped ZnO based sensors were fabricated using the hydrothermal approach on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of ZnO. Parametric variations in terms of dislocation density, bond length, lattice parameters and micro strain with respect to dopant concentration were analysed. The prominent variations in the crystallite size, optical band gap and Photoluminescence peak ratio of devices fabricated was observed. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images showed a change in diameter and density of the nanorods. The effect of the operating temperature, concentration of ethanol and the different doping levels of sensitivity, response and recovery time were investigated. It was inferred that 376% of sensitivity with a very quick response and recovery time of <5 s and 10 s respectively at 150 °C of 3ZN sensor has better performance compared to other three sensors. Also 3ZN sensor showed improved sensitivity of 114%, even at room temperature with response and recovery time of 35 s and 45 s respectively.

  18. Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms for Nickel-based Superalloy Haynes 282 at 550-750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Kyle A.; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Sears, John S.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for nickel-based superalloy Haynes 282 were measured at 550, 650, and 750 °C using compact tension specimens with a load ratio of 0.1 and cyclic loading frequencies of 25 and 0.25 Hz. The crack path was observed to be primarily transgranular for all temperatures, and the observed effect of increasing temperature was to increase the fatigue crack growth rates. The activation energy associated with the increasing crack growth rates over these three temperatures was calculated less than 60 kJ/mol, which is significantly lower than typical creep or oxidation mechanisms; therefore, creep and oxidation cannot explain the increase in fatigue crack growth rates. Transmission electron microscopy was done on selected samples removed from the cyclic plastic zone, and a trend of decreasing dislocation density was observed with increasing temperature. Accordingly, the trend of increasing crack growth rates with increasing temperature was attributed to softening associated with thermally assisted cross slip and dislocation annihilation.

  19. Effect of modified mold shell on the microstructure and tensile fracture morphology of single-crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weitai; Zhao, Yutao; Sun, Shaochun; Liu, Manping; Ma, Dexin; Liang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Cunlong; Tao, Ran

    2018-04-01

    The mold shell used for single-crystal turbine blades preparation was modified from conventional process to fiber reinforcement technology. The wall thickness was decreased by 32.3 percent (pct) than the conventional process. Then these two mold shells were used to produce single crystal samples of nickel-base superalloy in a Bridgman furnace. The local temperature curves were recorded in the process. The results show that the modified mold shell can increase the temperature gradient in the mushy zone than the conventional mold shell. The primary and secondary dendrite arm space were reduced by 8 pct and 12 pct, respectively. Moreover, both the area fraction and mean size of the γ‧/γ eutectic were declined, as well as the dendritic segregation tendency. Therefore it contributed to the lower residual eutectic and micro-porosity in the heat-treated microstructure. Further, fracture surface of the samples made by modified mold shell exhibited smaller facets and more uniform dimples in the size and shape.

  20. Application of a multi-component mean field model to the coarsening behaviour of a nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Rowe, A.; Wells, J.; Basoalto, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-component mean field model has been applied to predict the particle evolution of the γ′ particles in the nickel based superalloy IN738LC, capturing the transition from an initial multimodal particle distribution towards a unimodal distribution. Experiments have been performed to measure the coarsening behaviour during isothermal heat treatments using quantitative analysis of micrographs. The three dimensional size of the γ′ particles has been approximated for use in simulation. A coupled thermodynamic/mean field modelling framework is presented and applied to describe the particle size evolution. A robust numerical implementation of the model is detailed that makes use of surrogate models to capture the thermodynamics. Different descriptions of the particle growth rate of non-dilute particle systems have been explored. A numerical investigation of the influence of scatter in chemical composition upon the particle size distribution evolution has been carried out. It is shown how the tolerance in chemical composition of a given alloy can impact particle coarsening behaviour. Such predictive capability is of interest in understanding variation in component performance and the refinement of chemical composition tolerances. It has been found that the inclusion of misfit strain within the current model formulation does not have a significant affect upon predicted long term particle coarsening behaviour. Model predictions show good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the model predicts a reduced growth rate of the mean particle size during the transition from bimodal to unimodal distributions.

  1. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, V.D., E-mail: dv272@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Baker, S.; Illston, T. [Materials Solutions, Unit 8, Great Western Business Park, McKenzie Way, Worcester WR4 9GN (United Kingdom); Stone, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  2. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  3. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divya, V.D.; Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S.; Baker, S.; Illston, T.; Stone, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  4. Evolution of the Annealing Twin Density during δ-Supersolvus Grain Growth in the Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel™ 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth experiments were performed on Inconel™ 718 to investigate the possible correlation of the annealing twin density with grain size and with annealing temperature. Those experiments were conducted at different temperatures in the δ supersolvus domain and under such conditions that only capillarity forces were involved in the grain boundary migration process. In the investigated range, there is a strong inverse correlation of the twin density with the average grain size. On the other hand, the twin density at a given average grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature. Consistent with previous results for pure nickel, the twin density evolution in Inconel™ 718 is likely to be mainly controlled by the propagation of the pre-existing twins of the growing grains; i.e., the largest ones of the initial microstructure. Almost no new twin boundaries are created during the grain growth process itself. Therefore, the twin density at a given average grain size is mainly dependent on the twin density in the largest grains of the initial microstructure and independent of the temperature at which grains grow. Based on the observations, a mean field model is proposed to predict annealing twin density as a function of grain size during grain growth.

  5. The effect of strain distribution on microstructural developments during forging in a newly developed nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.C. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Argyrakis, C.; Hardy, M.C. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Birosca, S., E-mail: 522042@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-27

    In the current study, the effect of strain distribution in a simple forging geometry on the propensity for recrystallization, and its impact on mechanical properties has been investigated in a newly developed experimental nickel-based superalloy. The new alloy was produced via a Powder Metallurgy (PM) route and was subsequently Hot Isostatic Processed (HIP), isothermally forged, and heat treated to produce a coarse grain microstructure with average grain size of 23–32 μm. The alloy was examined by means of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to characterise the microstructural features such as grain orientation and morphology, grain boundary characteristics and the identification of potential Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) throughout each stage of the processing route. Results at the central region of the cross-section plane parallel to the loading direction showed significant microstructural differences across the forging depth. This microstructural variation was found to be highly dependent on the value of local strain imparted during forging such that areas of low effective strain showed partial recrystallisation and a necklace grain structure was observed following heat treatment. Meanwhile, a fully recrystallised microstructure with no PPBs was observed in the areas of high strain values, in the central region of the forging.

  6. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  7. Introduction of a carbon paste electrode based on nickel carbide for investigation of interaction between warfarin and vitamin K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkashvand, Maryam; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Taherpour, Avat Arman; Boochani, Arash; Akhtar, Arsalan

    2017-05-30

    In this paper a novel electrochemical sensor based on nickel carbide (Ni 3 C) nanoparticles as a new modifier was constructed. Ni 3 C nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and first-principles study. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies confirmed the electrode modification. Afterwards, the new electrode for the first time was used for interaction study between vitamin K1 and warfarin as an anticoagulant drug by differential pulse voltammetry. The adduct formation between the drug and vitamin K1 was improved by decreasing in anodic peak current of warfarin in the presence of different amounts of vitamin K1. The binding constant between warfarin and vitamin K1 was obtained by voltammetric and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The molecular modeling method was also performed to explore the structural features and binding mechanism of warfarin to vitamin K1. The different aspects of modeling of vitamin K1 and warfarin and their adduct structures confirmed the adduct formation by hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D DDD modelling of dislocation-precipitate interaction in a nickel-based single crystal superalloy under cyclic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Huang, Minsheng; Zhao, Liguo; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim; Barnard, Nick; Whittaker, Mark; McColvin, Gordon

    2018-06-01

    Strain-controlled cyclic deformation of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy has been modelled using three-dimensional (3D) discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) for both [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] orientations. The work focused on the interaction between dislocations and precipitates during cyclic plastic deformation at elevated temperature, which has not been well studied yet. A representative volume element with cubic γ‧-precipitates was chosen to represent the material, with enforced periodical boundary conditions. In particular, cutting of superdislocations into precipitates was simulated by a back-force method. The global cyclic stress-strain responses were captured well by the DDD model when compared to experimental data, particularly the effects of crystallographic orientation. Dislocation evolution showed that considerably high density of dislocations was produced for [1 1 1] orientation when compared to [0 0 1] orientation. Cutting of dislocations into the precipitates had a significant effect on the plastic deformation, leading to material softening. Contour plots of in-plane shear strain proved the development of heterogeneous strain field, resulting in the formation of shear-band embryos.

  9. Effect of Notches on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of a P/M Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Timothy P.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gayda, John, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine and model the effect of high temperature dwells on notched low cycle fatigue (NLCF) and notch stress rupture behavior of a fine grain LSHR powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy. It was shown that a 90 second dwell applied at the minimum stress (min dwell) was considerably more detrimental to the NLCF lives than similar dwell applied at the maximum stress (max dwell). The short min dwell NLCF lives were shown to be caused by growth of small oxide blisters which caused preferential cracking when coupled with high concentrated notch root stresses. The cyclic max dwell notch tests failed mostly by a creep accumulation, not by fatigue, with the crack origin shifting internally to a substantial distance away from the notch root. The classical von Mises plastic flow model was unable to match the experimental results while the hydrostatic stress profile generated using the Drucker-Prager plasticity flow model was consistent with the experimental findings. The max dwell NLCF and notch stress rupture tests exhibited substantial creep notch strengthening. The triaxial Bridgman effective stress parameter was able to account for the notch strengthening by collapsing the notched and uniform gage geometry test data into a singular grouping.

  10. Corrosion resistance of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, titanium molybdenum alloy, and ion-implanted titanium molybdenum alloy archwires in acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venith Jojee Pulikkottil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (1 To evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different orthodontic archwires and to determine the effect of 0.5% NaF (simulating high fluoride-containing toothpaste of about 2250 ppm on corrosion resistance of these archwires. (2 To assess whether surface roughness (Ra is the primary factor influencing the corrosion resistance of these archwires. Materials and Methods: Four different archwires (stainless steel [SS], nickel-titanium [NiTi], titanium molybdenum alloy [TMA], and ion-implanted TMA were considered for this study. Surface characteristics were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Linear polarization test, a fast electrochemical technique, was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, in terms of polarization resistance of four different archwires in artificial saliva with NaF concentrations of 0% and 0.5%. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance. Results: The potentiostatic study reveals that the corrosion resistance of low-friction TMA (L-TMA > TMA > NiTi > SS. AFM analysis showed the surface Ra of TMA > NiTi > L-TMA > SS. This indicates that the chemical composition of the wire is the primary influential factor to have high corrosion resistance and surface Ra is only secondary. The corrosion resistance of all wires had reduced significantly in 0.5% acidic fluoride-containing artificial saliva due to formation of fluoride complex compound. Conclusion: The presence of 0.5% NaF in artificial saliva was detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the orthodontic archwires. Therefore, complete removal of residual high-fluorinated toothpastes from the crevice between archwire and bracket during tooth brushing is mandatory.

  11. Corrosion behaviour of material no. 1. 4539 and nickel based alloys in gas waters. Korrosionsverhalten des Werkstoffs 1. 4539 und von Nickelbasis-Legierungen in Gaswaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolle, D [Didier Saeurebau GmbH, Koenigswinter (Germany); Buehler, H E [Didier-Werke AG, Anlagentechnik, Wiesbaden (Germany); Kalfa, H

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory tests with synthetic gas waters containing the gases ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen cyanide were carried out in order to examine the influence of medium components on the corrosion of material No. 1.4539 and nickel based alloys Hastelloy C-4, C-22 and C-276. Hydrogen sulfide was identified as the decisive component for corrosion. For stainless steel corrosion rates of about 2 mm.a[sup -1] were already found at 50deg C in a critical pH-range with sulfide concentrations > 2%. As cyanide stimulates corrosion by dissolving sulfide surface layers by complexation of the iron ions, an increased material loss rate per unit area was found in the critical range with increasing cyanide concentration. The much more stable nickel based alloys only revealed considerable weight losses after being exposed in the autoclave at 100deg C. The graduation of the loss rates C-22 > C-4 > C-276 can be explained by the different contents of high grade alloy elements. The testing of nickel based alloys of the Hastelloy type and of material No. 1.4539 and 1.4571 by means of the dynamic tensile test (CERT-method) revealed no risks of stress corrosion cracking in the tested media. (orig.).

  12. Application of ultrasonic inspection technique for crack depth sizing on nickel based alloy weld. Part 3. Establishment of UT procedure for crack depth sizing by phased array UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Okada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) was occurred at the nickel based alloy weld components such as steam generator safe end weld, reactor vessel safe end weld, and so on, in PWR. Defect detection and sizing is important in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. In the reactor vessel safe end weld, it was impossible to measure crack depth of PWSCC. The crack was detected in the axial direction of the safe end weld. Furthermore, the crack had some features such as shallow, large aspect ratio (ratio of crack depth and length), sharp geometry of crack tip, and so on. Therefore, development and improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for ultrasonic testing (UT) is required. Phased array technique was applied to nickel based alloy weld specimen with SCC cracks. From the experimental results, good accuracy of crack depth sizing by phased array UT for the inside inspection was shown. From these results, UT procedure for crack depth sizing was verified. Therefore, effectiveness of phased array UT for crack depth sizing in the nickel based alloy welds was shown. (author)

  13. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  14. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  15. Microstructural, mechanical and weldability assessments of the dissimilar welds between γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naffakh Moosavy, Homam, E-mail: homam_naffakh@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mapelli, Carlo [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Massa 34, Milan 20156 (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys has been investigated to identify the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and weldability characteristics. γ′-Strengthened nickel-base Alloy 500 and γ″-strengthened nickel-base Alloy 718 were used for dissimilar welding. Gas tungsten arc welding operations were utilized for performing the autogenous dissimilar welding. Alloy 500 and Alloy 718 base metals showed various types of phases, carbides, intermetallics and eutectics in their microstructure. The results for Alloy 500 weld metal showed severe segregation of titanium to the interdendritic regions. The Alloy 718 weld metal compositional analysis confirmed the substantial role of Nb in the formation of low-melting eutectic-type morphologies which can reduce the weldability. The microstructure of dissimilar weld metal with dilution level of 65% wt.% displayed semi-developed dendritic structure. The less segregation and less formation of low-melting eutectic structures caused to less susceptibility of the dissimilar weld metal to the solidification cracking. This result was confirmed by analytic modeling achievements. Dissolution of γ″-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitations took place in the Alloy 718 heat-affected zone leading to sharp decline of the microhardness in this region. Remelted and resolidified regions were observed in the partially-melted zone of Alloy 500 and Alloy 718. Nevertheless, no solidification and liquation cracking happened in the dissimilar welds. Finally, this was concluded that dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys can successfully be performed. - Highlights: • Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys is studied. • Microstructural, mechanical and weldability aspects of the welds are assessed. • Microstructure of welds, bases and heat-affected zones is characterized in detail. • The type

  16. Giant Negative Piezoresistive Effect in Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-like Carbon-Based Nickel Nanocomposite Films Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering of Ni Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meškinis, Šaru Nas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Šlapikas, Kęstutis

    2018-01-01

    deposited by either reactive HIPIMS or dc magnetron sputtering of Ni target was explained by possible clustering of the sp2-bonded carbon and/or formation of areas with the decreased hydrogen content. It was suggested that the tensile stress-induced rearrangements of these conglomerations have resulted......Piezoresistive properties of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC-based nickel nanocomposite (DLC:Ni) films were studied in the range of low concentration of nickel nanoparticles. The films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Ni target, and some...... samples were deposited by direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering for comparison purposes. Raman scattering spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the structure and chemical composition of the films. A four...

  17. Physics-based simulation modeling and optimization of microstructural changes induced by machining and selective laser melting processes in titanium and nickel based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Yigit Muzaffer

    Manufacturing processes may significantly affect the quality of resultant surfaces and structural integrity of the metal end products. Controlling manufacturing process induced changes to the product's surface integrity may improve the fatigue life and overall reliability of the end product. The goal of this study is to model the phenomena that result in microstructural alterations and improve the surface integrity of the manufactured parts by utilizing physics-based process simulations and other computational methods. Two different (both conventional and advanced) manufacturing processes; i.e. machining of Titanium and Nickel-based alloys and selective laser melting of Nickel-based powder alloys are studied. 3D Finite Element (FE) process simulations are developed and experimental data that validates these process simulation models are generated to compare against predictions. Computational process modeling and optimization have been performed for machining induced microstructure that includes; i) predicting recrystallization and grain size using FE simulations and the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model, ii) predicting microhardness using non-linear regression models and the Random Forests method, and iii) multi-objective machining optimization for minimizing microstructural changes. Experimental analysis and computational process modeling of selective laser melting have been also conducted including; i) microstructural analysis of grain sizes and growth directions using SEM imaging and machine learning algorithms, ii) analysis of thermal imaging for spattering, heating/cooling rates and meltpool size, iii) predicting thermal field, meltpool size, and growth directions via thermal gradients using 3D FE simulations, iv) predicting localized solidification using the Phase Field method. These computational process models and predictive models, once utilized by industry to optimize process parameters, have the ultimate potential to improve performance of

  18. Nickel Allergy Is a Risk Factor for Endometriosis: An 11-Year Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

    <