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Sample records for resistant hexagonal tight

  1. Critical heat flux in tubes and tight hexagonal rod lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbacher, F.J.; Cheng Xu; Zeggel, W.

    1994-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in small-diameter tubes and in tight hexagonal 7-rod and 37-rod bundles was investigated in the KRISTA test facility, using Freon 12 as the working fluid. The measurements in tubes showed that the influence of the tube diameter on CHF cannot be described as suggested by earlier publications with sufficient accuracy. CHF in bundles is lower than in tubes under comparable conditions. The influence of spacers (grid spacers, wire wraps) on CHF was found to be governed by local steam qualities. A comparison of the test results with some CHF prediction methods showed that the look-up table method reproduces the test results in circular tubes most accurately. Combined with CHF look-up tables, subchannel analysis and Ahmad's fluid-to-fluid scaling law, Freon experiments have proven to be a suitable tool for CHF prediction in water-cooled rod bundles. (orig.) [de

  2. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for Natural Organic Matter Removal-Contribution of Fouling and Concentration Polarization to Filtration Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joerg; Barbeau, Benoit; Bérubé, Pierre

    2017-07-02

    Nanofiltration (NF) and tight ultrafiltration (tight UF) membranes are a viable treatment option for high quality drinking water production from sources with high concentrations of contaminants. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of concentration polarization (CP) and fouling to the increase in resistance during filtration of natural organic matter (NOM) with NF and tight UF. Filtration tests were conducted with NF and tight UF membranes with molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs) of 300, 2000 and 8000 Da, and model raw waters containing different constituents of NOM. When filtering model raw waters containing high concentrations of polysaccharides (i.e., higher molecular weight NOM), the increase in resistance was dominated by fouling. When filtering model raw waters containing humic substances (i.e., lower molecular weight NOM), the increase in filtration resistance was dominated by CP. The results indicate that low MWCO membranes are better suited for NOM removal, because most of the NOM in surface waters consist mainly of humic substances, which were only effectively rejected by the lower MWCO membranes. However, when humic substances are effectively rejected, CP can become extensive, leading to a significant increase in filtration resistance by the formation of a cake/gel layer at the membrane surface. For this reason, cross-flow operation, which reduces CP, is recommended.

  3. Nanofiltration and Tight Ultrafiltration Membranes for Natural Organic Matter Removal—Contribution of Fouling and Concentration Polarization to Filtration Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Winter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiltration (NF and tight ultrafiltration (tight UF membranes are a viable treatment option for high quality drinking water production from sources with high concentrations of contaminants. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the contribution of concentration polarization (CP and fouling to the increase in resistance during filtration of natural organic matter (NOM with NF and tight UF. Filtration tests were conducted with NF and tight UF membranes with molecular weight cut offs (MWCOs of 300, 2000 and 8000 Da, and model raw waters containing different constituents of NOM. When filtering model raw waters containing high concentrations of polysaccharides (i.e., higher molecular weight NOM, the increase in resistance was dominated by fouling. When filtering model raw waters containing humic substances (i.e., lower molecular weight NOM, the increase in filtration resistance was dominated by CP. The results indicate that low MWCO membranes are better suited for NOM removal, because most of the NOM in surface waters consist mainly of humic substances, which were only effectively rejected by the lower MWCO membranes. However, when humic substances are effectively rejected, CP can become extensive, leading to a significant increase in filtration resistance by the formation of a cake/gel layer at the membrane surface. For this reason, cross-flow operation, which reduces CP, is recommended.

  4. Vacuum tight sodium resistant compound between ThO2 ceramic and metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reetz, T.

    A method for evaluating the mechanical tensions for metal/ ceramic joinings was applied to the selection of metal components for a highly vacuum tight, sodium-resistant metal/ThO 2 ceramic solder joining. The metal component selected was the iron--nickel alloy Dilasil which is joined to the ceramic using a nickel-based solder. The wetting of the cearamic could be carried out using the titanium hydride technique or after the formation of a W-cerium layer on the surface of this ceramic. (U.S.)

  5. Preparation of high-content hexagonal boron nitride composite film and characterization of atomic oxygen erosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhuo; Wang, Shaokai, E-mail: wsk@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets can be well exfoliated with the help of nanofibrillated cellulose. • A carpet-like rough surface and distortion in crystal structure of h-BN are found in both h-BN film and h-BN/epoxy film after AO exposure. • H-BN/epoxy film exhibits a higher mass loss and erosion yield, different element content changes and chemical oxidations compared with h-BN film. - Abstract: Space aircrafts circling in low earth orbit are suffered from highly reactive atomic oxygen (AO). To shield AO, a flexible thin film with 80 wt.% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and h-BN/epoxy film were fabricated through vacuum filtration and adding nanofibrillated cellulose fibers. H-BN nanosheets were hydroxylated for enhancing interaction in the films. Mass loss and erosion yield at accumulated AO fluence about 3.04 × 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 2} were adopted to evaluate the AO resistance properties of the films. A carpet-like rough surface, chemical oxidations and change in crystal structure of h-BN were found after AO treatment, and the degrading mechanism was proposed. The mass loss and erosion yield under AO attack were compared between h-BN film and h-BN/epoxy film, and the comparison was also done for various types of shielding AO materials. Excellent AO resistance property of h-BN film is shown, and the reasons are analyzed.

  6. Dirac cones in isogonal hexagonal metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    A honeycomb hexagonal metallic lattice is equivalent to a triangular atomic one and cannot create Dirac cones in its electromagnetic wave spectrum. We study in this work the low-frequency electromagnetic band structures in isogonal hexagonal metallic lattices that are directly related to the honeycomb one and show that such structures can create Dirac cones. The band formation can be described by a tight-binding model that allows investigating, in terms of correlations between local resonance modes, the condition for the Dirac cones and the consequence of the third structure tile sustaining an extra resonance mode in the unit cell that induces band shifts and thus nonlinear deformation of the Dirac cones following the wave vectors departing from the Dirac points. We show further that, under structure deformation, the deformations of the Dirac cones result from two different correlation mechanisms, both reinforced by the lattice's metallic nature, which directly affects the resonance mode correlations. The isogonal structures provide new degrees of freedom for tuning the Dirac cones, allowing adjustment of the cone shape by modulating the structure tiles at the local scale without modifying the lattice periodicity and symmetry.

  7. Local thermal-hydraulic behaviour in tight 7-rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Yu, Y.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced water-cooled reactor concepts with tight lattices have been proposed worldwide to improve the fuel utilization and the economic competitiveness. In the present work, experimental investigations were performed on thermal-hydraulic behaviour in tight hexagonal 7-rod bundles under both single-phase and two-phase conditions. Freon-12 was used as working fluid due to its convenient operating parameters. Tests were carried out under both single-phase and two-phase flow conditions. Rod surface temperatures are measured at a fixed axial elevation and in various circumferential positions. Test data with different radial power distributions are analyzed. Measured surface temperatures of unheated rods are used for the assessment of and comparison with numerical codes. In addition, numerical simulation using sub-channel analysis code MATRA and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS-10 is carried out to understand the experimental data and to assess the validity of these codes in the prediction of flow and heat transfer behaviour in tight rod bundle geometries. Numerical results are compared with experimental data. A good agreement between the measured temperatures on the unheated rod surface and the CFD calculation is obtained. Both sub-channel analysis and CFD calculation indicates that the turbulent mixing in the tight rod bundle is significantly stronger than that computed with a well established correlation.

  8. Tight binding electronic band structure calculation of achiral boron nitride single wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Prapti; Sanyal, Sankar P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report the Tight-Binding method, for the electronic structure calculations of achiral single wall Boron Nitride nanotubes. We have used the contribution of π electron only to define the electronic band structure for the solid. The Zone-folding method is used for the Brillouin Zone definition. Calculation of tight binding model parameters is done by fitting them to available experimental results of two-dimensional hexagonal monolayers of Boron Nitride. It has been found that all the boron nitride nanotubes (both zigzag and armchair) are constant gap semiconductors with a band gap of 5.27eV. All zigzag BNNTs are found to be direct gap semiconductors while all armchair nanotubes are indirect gap semiconductors. (author)

  9. Energy Band Gap Dependence of Valley Polarization of the Hexagonal Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalamkari, Kazu; Tatsumi, Yuki; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    The origin of valley polarization of the hexagonal lattice is analytically discussed by tight binding method as a function of energy band gap. When the energy gap decreases to zero, the intensity of optical absorption becomes sharp as a function of k near the K (or K') point in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, while the peak intensity at the K (or K') point keeps constant with decreasing the energy gap. When the dipole vector as a function of k can have both real and imaginary parts that are perpendicular to each other in the k space, the valley polarization occurs. When the dipole vector has only real values by selecting a proper phase of wave functions, the valley polarization does not occur. The degree of the valley polarization may show a discrete change that can be relaxed to a continuous change of the degree of valley polarization when we consider the life time of photo-excited carrier.

  10. Spin-density wave state in simple hexagonal graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoyan, K. S.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    Simple hexagonal graphite, also known as AA graphite, is a metastable configuration of graphite. Using tight-binding approximation, it is easy to show that AA graphite is a metal with well-defined Fermi surface. The Fermi surface consists of two sheets, each shaped like a rugby ball. One sheet corresponds to electron states, another corresponds to hole states. The Fermi surface demonstrates good nesting: a suitable translation in the reciprocal space superposes one sheet onto another. In the presence of the electron-electron repulsion, a nested Fermi surface is unstable with respect to spin-density-wave ordering. This instability is studied using the mean-field theory at zero temperature, and the spin-density-wave order parameter is evaluated.

  11. Experiments and correlations of pressure loss coefficients for hexagonal arranged rod bundles (P/D > 1.02) with helical wire spacers in laminar and turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Yonekawa, S.; Hoffmann, H.

    1987-05-01

    Advanced pressurized water reactors as well as sodium cooled fast reactors, in their breeding and absorber elements, use tightly packed rod bundles with hexagonally arranged rods. Helical wires or helical fins serve as spacers. The pressure loss coefficients of twelve bundles with helical wires were determined systematically in water experiments. High measuring accuracy was achieved by very precise fabrication of the bundles and the shroud as well as by investigations of the proper measuring techniques. The results show a dependency of the loss coefficients on the Reynolds number and on the P/D and H/D ratios of the bundles. These results together with available systematic experimental results of investigations at P/D > 1.1 were used to develop a correlation to determine the pressure loss coefficients of tightly and widely packed hexagonally arranged rod bundles with helical wire spacers. These correlations were used to recalculate and compare results of pressure loss investigations found in the literature; good agreement was demonstrated. Hence, calculation methods exist for a broad range of applications to determine the pressure loss coefficients of hexagonally arranged rod bundles with helical wires for spacers. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Impregnated Silane Composite Coating for Corrosion Resistance of Magnesium Alloys for Temporary Bioimplant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Saadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys are attractive potential materials for construction of biodegradable temporary implant devices. However, their rapid degradation in human body fluid before the desired service life is reached necessitate the application of suitable coatings. To this end, WZ21 magnesium alloy surface was modified by hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-impregnated silane coating. The coating was chemically characterised by Raman spectroscopy. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS of the coated alloy in Hanks’ solution showed a five-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the alloy due to the composite coating. Post-corrosion analyses corroborated the electrochemical data and provided a mechanistic insight of the improvement provided by the composite coating.

  13. Analysis of Seven NEPTUN-III (Tight-Lattice) Bottom-Flooding Experiments with RELAP5/MOD3.3/BETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.

    2004-01-01

    Seven tight-lattice NEPTUN-III bottom-flooding experiments are analyzed by using the frozen version of RELAP5, RELAP5/MOD3.3/BETA. This work is part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) contribution to the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) European Union project and aims at assessing the capabilities of the code to model the reflooding phenomena in a tight hexagonal lattice (which was one of the core geometries considered at the time for an HPLWR) following a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident scenario. Even though the latest version of the code has as a default the new PSI reflood model developed by the author, which was tested and assessed against reflooding data obtained at standard light water reactor lattices, this work shows that for tight lattices, the code underpredicts the peak clad temperatures measured during a series of reflooding experiments performed at the NEPTUN-III tight-lattice heater rod bundle facility. The reasons for these differences are discussed, and the (possible) changes needed in the framework of RELAP5/MOD3.3 for improving the modeling of reflooding in tight lattices are investigated

  14. Model for multi-filamentary conduction in graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene based resistive switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengbin; Miranda, Enrique; Villena, Marco A.; Xiao, Na; Jing, Xu; Xie, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianru; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Despite the enormous interest raised by graphene and related materials, recent global concern about their real usefulness in industry has raised, as there is a preoccupying lack of 2D materials based electronic devices in the market. Moreover, analytical tools capable of describing and predicting the behavior of the devices (which are necessary before facing mass production) are very scarce. In this work we synthesize a resistive random access memory (RRAM) using graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene (G/h-BN/G) van der Waals structures, and we develop a compact model that accurately describes its functioning. The devices were fabricated using scalable methods (i.e. CVD for material growth and shadow mask for electrode patterning), and they show reproducible resistive switching (RS). The measured characteristics during the forming, set and reset processes were fitted using the model developed. The model is based on the nonlinear Landauer approach for mesoscopic conductors, in this case atomic-sized filaments formed within the 2D materials system. Besides providing excellent overall fitting results (which have been corroborated in log-log, log-linear and linear-linear plots), the model is able to explain the dispersion of the data obtained from cycle-to-cycle in terms of the particular features of the filamentary paths, mainly their confinement potential barrier height.

  15. Comparison of square and hexagonal fuel lattices for high conversion PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyar, D.; Shwageraus, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into fuel design choices of a PWR operating in a self sustainable Th- 233 U fuel cycle. Achieving such self-sustainable with respect to fissile material fuel cycle would practically eliminate concerns over nuclear fuel supply hundreds of years into the future. Moreover, utilization of light water reactor technology and its associated vast experience would allow faster deployment of such fuel cycle without immediate need for development of fast reactor technology, which tends to be more complex and costly. In order to evaluate feasibility of this concept, two types of fuel assembly lattices were considered: square and hexagonal. The hexagonal lattice may offer some advantages over the square one. For example, the fertile blanket fuel can be packed more tightly reducing the blanket volume fraction in the core and potentially allowing to achieve higher core average power density. Furthermore, hexagonal lattice may allow more uniform leakage of neutrons from fissile to fertile regions and therefore more uniform neutron captures in thorium blanket. The calculations were carried out with Monte-Carlo based BGCore system, which includes neutronic, fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic modules. The results were compared to those obtained from Serpent Monte-Carlo code and deterministic fuel assembly transport code BOXER. One of the major design challenges associated with the square seed-blanket concept is high power peaking due to the high concentration of fissile material in the seed region. In order to explore feasibility of the studied designs, the calculations were extended to include 3D fuel assembly analysis with thermal-hydraulic feedback. The coupled neutronic - thermal-hydraulic calculations were performed with BGCore code system. The analysis showed that both hexagonal and square seed-blanket fuel assembly designs have a potential of achieving net breeding. While no major neutronic advantages were observed for either fuel

  16. Tightly sealed facility of excellent in durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirano, Kenji; Chatani, Michio; Ebe, Shinji; Shimizu, Masatoshi; Seguchi, Tadao; Fukushima, Susumu; Hirata, Masaru; Shiosawa, Ken-ichi.

    1992-01-01

    It is found that a cross linked methacryl resin using an appropriate amount of a cross linking monomer also has a useful characteristic of an excellent chemical resistance and excellent γ-ray resistance. Then in the present invention, a cross linked methacryl resin molding product comprising 60 to 98 % by weight of methyl methacrylate units and 2 to 40 % by weight of cross linking monomer units is used as a material for transparent partition walls. A tightly sealed facility having the transparent partition wall materials of excellent radiation resistance in addition to acid resistance can be attained. (T.M.)

  17. The NEPTUN experiments on LOCA thermal-hydraulics for tight-lattice PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Chawla, R.; Rouge, N.; Yanar, S.

    1990-01-01

    The NEPTUN test facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being used to provide a broad data base for the validation of thermal-hydraulics codes used in predicting the reflooding behaviour of a tight-lattice PWR (light water highb conversion reactor, LWHCR). The present paper gives a description of the facility and the matrix to be covered in the experimental program. Results are presented from a number of forced-feed, bottom-reflooding experiments, comparisons being made with (a) measurements carried out earlier for standard-PWR geometry and (b) the results of a calculational benchmark exercise conducted in the framework of a Swiss/German LWHCR-development agreement. Rewetting for the tight, hexagonal-geometry (p/d = 1.13) NEPTUN-III test bundle has been found to occur in all tests carried out to date, in which reasonably LWHCR-representative values for the various thermal-hydraulics parameters are used. Results of the calculational benchmark exercise have confirmed the need for further code development efforts for achieving reliable predictions of LWHCR reflooding behaviour. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  18. The Electronic Structure of Coupled Semiconductor Quantum Dots Arranged as a Graphene Hexagonal Lattice under a Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Juan; Li Shu-Shen

    2012-01-01

    We study the electronic spectrum of coupled quantum dots (QDs) arranged as a graphene hexagonal lattice in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic field. In our tight-binding model, the effect of the magnetic field is included in both the Peierls phase of the Hamiltonian and the tight-binding basis Wannier function. The energy of the system is analyzed when the magnetic flux through the lattice unit cell is a rational fraction of the quantum flux. The calculated spectrum has recursive properties, similar to those of the classical Hofstadter butterfly. However, unlike the ideal Hofstadter butterfly structure, our result is asymmetric since the impacts of the specific material and the magnetic field on the wavefunctions are included, making the results more realistic. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Thermal conductivity of hexagonal Si and hexagonal Si nanowires from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-Moreno, Martí; Aramberri, Hugo; Seijas-Bellido, Juan Antonio; Cartoixà, Xavier; Rurali, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    We calculate the thermal conductivity, κ, of the recently synthesized hexagonal diamond (lonsdaleite) Si using first-principles calculations and solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation. We find values of κ which are around 40% lower than in the common cubic diamond polytype of Si. The trend is similar for [111] Si nanowires, with reductions of the thermal conductivity that are even larger than in the bulk in some diameter range. The Raman active modes are identified, and the role of mid-frequency optical phonons that arise as a consequence of the reduced symmetry of the hexagonal lattice is discussed. We also show briefly that popular classic potentials used in molecular dynamics might not be suited to describe hexagonal polytypes, discussing the case of the Tersoff potential.

  20. Less-tight versus tight control of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Singer, Joel; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G; Moutquin, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-29

    The effects of less-tight versus tight control of hypertension on pregnancy complications are unclear. We performed an open, international, multicenter trial involving women at 14 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who had nonproteinuric preexisting or gestational hypertension, office diastolic blood pressure of 90 to 105 mm Hg (or 85 to 105 mm Hg if the woman was taking antihypertensive medications), and a live fetus. Women were randomly assigned to less-tight control (target diastolic blood pressure, 100 mm Hg) or tight control (target diastolic blood pressure, 85 mm Hg). The composite primary outcome was pregnancy loss or high-level neonatal care for more than 48 hours during the first 28 postnatal days. The secondary outcome was serious maternal complications occurring up to 6 weeks post partum or until hospital discharge, whichever was later. Included in the analysis were 987 women; 74.6% had preexisting hypertension. The primary-outcome rates were similar among 493 women assigned to less-tight control and 488 women assigned to tight control (31.4% and 30.7%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.35), as were the rates of serious maternal complications (3.7% and 2.0%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.79 to 3.84), despite a mean diastolic blood pressure that was higher in the less-tight-control group by 4.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 3.7 to 5.4). Severe hypertension (≥160/110 mm Hg) developed in 40.6% of the women in the less-tight-control group and 27.5% of the women in the tight-control group (Phypertension. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CHIPS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN71416914; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01192412.).

  1. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...

  2. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  3. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc, E-mail: tuoc.vungoc@hust.edu.vn [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huan, Tran Doan [Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Thao, Nguyen Thi [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hong Duc University, 307 Le Lai, Thanh Hoa City (Viet Nam); Tuan, Le Manh [Hong Duc University, 307 Le Lai, Thanh Hoa City (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-14

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamics approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.

  4. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai; Yingjie Tay, Roland; Hon Tsang, Siu; Mallick, Govind; Tong Teo, Edwin Hang

    2014-01-01

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing

  5. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-21

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  6. Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Reshma; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain.

  7. Electrodeposited Silver Nanoparticles Patterned Hexagonally for SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Lee, Sue Yeone; Suh, Jung Sang

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated hexagonally patterned silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by electrodepositing silver on the surface of an aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Even after completely removing the oxide, well-ordered hexagonal patterns, similar to the shape of graphene, remained on the surface of the aluminum plate. The borders of the hexagonal pattern protruded up to form sorts of nano-mountains at both the sides and apexes of the hexagon, with the apexes protruding even more significantly than the sides. The aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide has been used in the preparation of SERS substrates by sputter-coating of gold or silver on it. Instead of sputter-coating, here we have electro-deposited silver on the aluminum plate. When silver was electro-deposited on the plate, silver nanoparticles were made along the hexagonal margins.

  8. Less-Tight versus Tight Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magee, Laura A.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E.; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Singer, Joel; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K.; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G.; Moutquin, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effects of less-tight versus tight control of hypertension on pregnancy complications are unclear. METHODS We performed an open, international, multicenter trial involving women at 14 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days of gestation who had nonproteinuric preexisting or gestational

  9. Crystallization of -type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystallization of -type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically activated mixtures of barium carbonate and goethite ... Abstract. -type hexagonal ferrite precursor was prepared by a soft mechanochemical ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in a hexagonal shaped duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Oana; Obabko, Aleks; Schlatter, Philipp

    2014-11-01

    Flows in hexagonal shapes frequently occur in nuclear reactor applications, and are also present in honeycomb-shaped settling chambers for e.g. wind tunnels. Whereas wall-bounded turbulence has been studied comprehensively in two-dimensional channels, and to a lesser degree also in square and rectangular ducts and triangles, only very limited data for hexagonal ducts is available, including resistance correlations and mean profiles. Here, we use resolved spectral-element simulations to compute velocity and temperature in fully-developed (periodic) hexagonal duct flow. The Reynolds number, based on the fixed flow rate and the hydraulic diameter, ranges between 2000 and 20000. The temperature assumes constant wall flux or constant wall temperature. First DNS results are focused on the mean characteristics such a head loss, Nusselt number, and critical Reynolds number for sustained turbulence. Profiles, both for mean and fluctuating quantities, are extracted and discussed in the context of square ducts and pipes. Comparisons to existing experiments, RANS and empirical correlations are supplied as well. The results show a complicated and fine-scale pattern of the in-plane secondary flow, which clearly affects the momentum and temperature distribution throughout the cross section.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Chunhong; Guo, Ming; Sun, Lingna; Hu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH) 2 nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH) 2 nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes

  12. Hexagonalization of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Thiago [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-30

    We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N. The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.

  13. Hexagonal response matrix using symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A response matrix for use in core calculations for nuclear reactors with hexagonal fuel assemblies is presented. It is based on the incoming currents averaged over the half-surface of a hexagonal node by applying symmetry theory. The boundary conditions of the incoming currents on the half-surface of the node are expressed by a complete set of orthogonal vectors which are constructed from symmetrized functions. The expansion coefficients of the functions are determined by the boundary conditions of incoming currents. (author)

  14. Structural Characterization of Hexagonal Braiding Architecture Aided by 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal braiding method has the advantages of high shape compatibility, interlacing density and high volume fraction. Based on hexagonal braiding method, a hexagonal preform was braided. Then, by following the characteristics of repeatability and concentricity of hexagonal braided preform, the printed geometry structure was got in order to understand and optimize geometric structure to make it more compact like the braided geometric structure. Finally, the unit cells were defined with hexagonal prism to analyze the micro-geometric structure of hexagonal braided preform.

  15. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  16. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal OsB 2 , a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB 2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB 2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB 2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from −225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB 2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB 2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods. - Graphical abstract: High resolution transmission electron micrograph of hexagonal OsB 2 nanocrystallite with corresponding fast Fourier transform and simulated diffraction pattern. - Highlights: • Hexagonal OsB 2 has been synthesized for the first time by mechanochemical method. • Hexagonal OsB 2 crystallizes in P63/mmc space group (No. 194), a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. • The hexagonal structure was confirmed by a transmission electron microscope. • No phase transformation was observed after being annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days. • 20 wt% of h-OsB 2 was transformed to o-OsB 2 after being sintered at 1500 °C for 5 min

  17. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, Desheng, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yushen [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and College of Physics and Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Deng, Xiaohui [Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, G. P. [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  18. Bandgap engineered graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article a double-barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD) has been modelled by taking advantage of single-layer hexagonal lattice of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The DBRTD performance and operation are explored by means of a self-consistent solution inside the non-equilibrium Green's ...

  19. Triazole biotin: a tight-binding biotinidase-resistant conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Anne I; Hanna, Jill R; Karim, Rehana; Kundel, Franziska; Lowther, Jonathan; Neate, Peter G N; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Wear, Martin A; Campopiano, Dominic J; Hulme, Alison N

    2013-11-28

    The natural amide bond found in all biotinylated proteins has been replaced with a triazole through CuAAC reaction of an alkynyl biotin derivative. The resultant triazole-linked adducts are shown to be highly resistant to the ubiquitous hydrolytic enzyme biotinidase and to bind avidin with dissociation constants in the low pM range. Application of this strategy to the production of a series of biotinidase-resistant biotin-Gd-DOTA contrast agents is demonstrated.

  20. Chain hexagonal cacti with the extremal eccentric distance sum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hui; Yu, Guihai

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric distance sum (EDS), which can predict biological and physical properties, is a topological index based on the eccentricity of a graph. In this paper we characterize the chain hexagonal cactus with the minimal and the maximal eccentric distance sum among all chain hexagonal cacti of length n, respectively. Moreover, we present exact formulas for EDS of two types of hexagonal cacti.

  1. The effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on spin-polarized transport in hexagonal graphene nano-rings and flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghaei, M.; Heidari Semiromi, E.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum transport properties and spin polarization in hexagonal graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges and different sizes were investigated in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). The nanostructure was considered as a channel to which two semi-infinite armchair graphene nanoribbons were coupled as input and output leads. Spin transmission and spin polarization in x, y, and z directions were calculated through applying Landauer-Buttiker formalism with tight binding model and the Green's function to the system. In these quantum structures it is shown that changing the size of system, induce and control the spin polarized currents. In short, these graphene systems are typical candidates for electrical spintronic devices as spin filtering.

  2. Coincidence orientations of grains in hexagonal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmer, H.; Warrington, D.H.

    1986-06-01

    The connection between the rotation matrix in hexagonal lattice coordinates and an angle-axis quadruple is given. The multiplication law of quadruples is derived. It corresponds to multiplying two matrices and gives the effect of two successive rotations. The relation is given between two quadruples that describe the same relative orientation of two lattices due to their hexagonal symmetry; a unique standard description of the relative orientation is proposed. The restrictions satisfied by rotations generating coincidence site lattices (CSLs) are derived for any value of the axial ratio rho = c/a. It is shown that the law for cubic lattices, where the multiplicity SIGMA of the CSL was equal to the least common denominator of the elements of the rotation matrix, does not always hold for hexagonal lattices. A generalisation of this law to lattices of arbitrary symmetry is given and another, quicker method to determine SIGMA for hexagonal lattices is derived. Finally, convenient algorithms are described for determining bases of the CSL and the DSC lattice. (author)

  3. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  4. House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402

  5. Tight junctions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki

    2003-09-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.

  6. Formation, properties, and ion irradiation effects of hexagonal structure MoN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Sekula, S.T.; Ellis, J.T.; Lewis, J.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Thin films (100-120 nm) of hexagonal structures MoN have been fabricated by reaction of Mo films in an NH 3 atmosphere. The as-formed films possessed superconducting transition temperatures T/sub c/ ≅ 13 0 K, with resistance ratios r = R(296K)/R(T/sub c/) in the range 5 to 10, low-temperature normal state resistivities rho 0 = 4 to 10 μΩ-cm, and extrapolated upper critical fields H/sub c2/(0) = 4.0 to 5.0 T. Thin film x-ray diffraction patterns revealed no visible second phase, with measured lattice parameters close to literature values. The effects of lattice disorder on the superconducting and electronic properties were investigated by irradiation with nitrogen ions of energy 45 and 340 keV, resulting in a nearly uniform damage profile without the introduction of any new chemical species. The results indicate that ordered hexagonal MoN shows some of the unusual properties characteristic of moderate-to-high T/sub c/ transition metal compounds, but is relatively insensitive to degradation of the superconducting properties by lattice disorder. For ion fluences PHI up to 2 x 10 16 N-ions/cm 2 , T/sub c/ is found to decrease monotonically and saturate at 9.5 0 K, almost 3/4 the initial value, while H/sub c2/(0) undergoes a gradual increase to 11T

  7. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB2 by mechanochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz; Orlovskaya, Nina; Andrew Payzant, E.; Cullen, David A.; Blair, Richard G.

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB2, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB2 begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB2 crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB2 phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from -225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB2 powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB2 at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods.

  8. Bifurcation theory for hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    This book contributes to an understanding of how bifurcation theory adapts to the analysis of economic geography. It is easily accessible not only to mathematicians and economists, but also to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in nonlinear mathematics. The self-organization of hexagonal agglomeration patterns of industrial regions was first predicted by the central place theory in economic geography based on investigations of southern Germany. The emergence of hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography models was envisaged by Krugman. In this book, after a brief introduction of central place theory and new economic geography, the missing link between them is discovered by elucidating the mechanism of the evolution of bifurcating hexagonal patterns. Pattern formation by such bifurcation is a well-studied topic in nonlinear mathematics, and group-theoretic bifurcation analysis is a well-developed theoretical tool. A finite hexagonal lattice is used to express uniformly distri...

  9. Novel high pressure hexagonal OsB{sub 2} by mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin; Graule, Moritz [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: Nina.Orlovskaya@ucf.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Andrew Payzant, E. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Blair, Richard G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Hexagonal OsB{sub 2}, a theoretically predicted high-pressure phase, has been synthesized for the first time by a mechanochemical method, i.e., high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction indicated that formation of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} begins after 2.5 h of milling, and the reaction reaches equilibrium after 18 h of milling. Rietveld refinement of the powder data indicated that hexagonal OsB{sub 2} crystallizes in the P63/mmc space group (No. 194) with lattice parameters of a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the appearance of the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase after high energy ball milling. in situ X-ray diffraction experiments showed that the phase is stable from −225 °C to 1050 °C. The hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days in vacuo to improve crystallinity and remove strain induced during the mechanochemical synthesis. The structure partially converted to the orthorhombic phase (20 wt%) after fast current assisted sintering of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} at 1500 °C for 5 min. Mechanochemical approaches to the synthesis of hard boride materials allow new phases to be produced that cannot be prepared using conventional methods. - Graphical abstract: High resolution transmission electron micrograph of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} nanocrystallite with corresponding fast Fourier transform and simulated diffraction pattern. - Highlights: • Hexagonal OsB{sub 2} has been synthesized for the first time by mechanochemical method. • Hexagonal OsB{sub 2} crystallizes in P63/mmc space group (No. 194), a=2.916 Å and c=7.376 Å. • The hexagonal structure was confirmed by a transmission electron microscope. • No phase transformation was observed after being annealed at 1050 °C for 6 days. • 20 wt% of h-OsB{sub 2} was transformed to o-OsB{sub 2} after being sintered at 1500 °C for 5 min.

  10. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David S

    2017-06-13

    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large T c value is unlikely.

  11. Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.

  12. Conditioned medium from LS 174T goblet cells treated with oxyresveratrol strengthens tight junctions in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dahyun; Jo, HyunA; Hwang, Seonwook; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Kim, In-Ho; Lim, Young-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Strengthening of intestinal tight junctions provides an effective barrier from the external environment. Goblet cell-derived trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) increases transepithelial resistance by upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a hydroxyl-substituted stilbene found in the roots, leaves, stems, and fruit of many plants and known to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the strengthening effect of OXY on intestinal tight junctions through stimulation of TFF production in goblet cells. We prepared conditioned medium from LS 174T goblet cells treated with OXY (GCO-CM) and investigated the effect of GCO-CM on strengthening tight junctions of Caco-2 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of major tight junction components (claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) was measured using an ohm/V meter. Monolayer permeability was evaluated by paracellular transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. OXY showed a strong antioxidant activity. It significantly increased the expression level of TFF3 in LS 174T goblet cells. GCO-CM prepared by treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10μg/ml OXY did not show cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. GCO-CM increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1. It also significantly increased tight junction integrity and reduced permeability in a dose-dependent manner. OXY stimulates the expression of TFF3 in goblet cells, which might increase the integrity of the intestinal tight junction barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Integration of seismic data and a triple porosity model for interpretation of tight gas formations in the Western Canada sedimentary basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Fernando; Aguilera, Roberto; Lawton, Don [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the increased global demand for oil and gas, companies are looking to unconventional methods for exploring, drilling and refining these products. Unconventional reservoirs are found in the form of shale gas, coal bed methane and tight gas. This paper presents a model for evaluating various tight gas reservoirs in the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB) by developing an equation. The proposed method integrates a triple porosity model with sonic, density and resistivity logs. The model uses petrographic data from work in the WCSB to determine the types of pores that are present in the tight rocks. The process also provides information on inter-well formation resistivity, porosity and water saturation to allow estimation of the amount of original gas in place. The results calculated from this study agreed with the actual deep resistivities of the WCSB Nikanassin group. This model can also be applied to other regions of the world that have similar characteristics to those of the WCSB.

  14. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is more beneficial than the one of single honeycomb sample with the same thickness if the two types of honeycomb samples are completely crushed. Then, the applicability of the existing theoretical model for single hexagonal honeycomb is discussed, and an area equivalent method is proposed to calculate the crushing stress for nearly regular hexagonal honeycombs. Furthermore, a semiempirical formula is proposed to calculate the inserting plateau stress of two stack-up CHAH, in which structural parameters and mechanics properties of base material are concerned. The results show that the predicted stresses of three kinds of two stack-up combined honeycombs are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on this study, stress-displacement curve of aluminum honeycombs can be designed in detail, which is very beneficial to optimize the energy-absorbing structures in engineering fields.

  15. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  16. The physic properties of Bi-Zn codoped Y-type hexagonal ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yang; Zhou Ji; Gui Zhilun; L, Longtu; Qiao Lijie

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic and dielectric properties of Bi-Zn codoped Y-type hexagonal ferrite was investigated. The samples with composition of Ba 2-x Bi x Zn 0.8+x Co 0.8 Cu 0.4 Fe 12-x O 22 (x = 0-0.4) were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure was observed via scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic and dielectric properties were measured using an impedance analyzer. Direct current (dc) electrical resistivity was measured using a pA meter/dc voltage source. Minor Bi doping (x = 0.05-0.25) will not destroy the phase formation of Y-type hexagonal ferrite, but lower the phase formation temperature distinctly. Bi substitution can also promote the sintering process. The Bi-containing samples (x > 0.05) can be sintered well under 900 deg. C without any other addition. The sintering temperature is about 200 deg. C lower than that of the Bi-free sample. The Bi-Zn codoped samples exhibit excellent magnetic and dielectric properties in hyper frequency. These materials are suitable for multi-layer chip-inductive components

  17. Relationship between the electronic structure and the glide in the hexagonal close packed metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, B.; Le Hazif, R.

    1983-06-01

    In all hexagonal close-packed metals (HCP), deformation is performed by slip on a mean glide system (MGS) and on several secondary systems. There are no reliable predictions of the MGS choice. In this paper is shown the role played by the electronic structure on the choice of glide system in HCP metals. MGS is basal for all normal metals and is a function of the electron number in HCP transition metals. The different SFE's were calculated using appropriate total energy models, for different metals. Thus pseudopotentials were used (or empirical pair potentials) for normal metals, and a tight-binding model for transition metals. The most important results are the following: prismatic SFE (PSFE) is smaller than basal SFE (BSFE) for Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, Ru and Os; BSFE is smaller than PSFE for Co and all normal metals; BSFE and PSFe and about the same for RE and Tc

  18. Controllable synthesis of hexagonal ZnO–carbon core–shell microrods and the removal of ZnO to form hexagonal carbon microtubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yong, E-mail: xy91007@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); He, Wenqi; Gao, Chuang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zheng, Mingtao; Lie, Bingfu; Liu, Xiaotang [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2013-06-15

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to produce regular and uniform shaped hexagonal ZnO–C core–shell micro-rods and carbon micro-tubes. A single-source raw material, zinc acetate dihydrate, has been used for the in situ generation of the hexagonal ZnO–C micro-rods in a sealed autoclave system at 500 °C for 12 h without a catalyst. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The partial or complete carbon coating on the ZnO surfaces plays an important role in modifying the PL properties. Impacting factors including thermolysis temperature, time and dose of the reactant on the evolution of the hexagonal shape were investigated. A possible formation diagram for the materials has been proposed and discussed based on the features of the reaction system. - Highlights: • Hexagonal ZnO–C core–shell microrods were synthesized by the lower temperature decomposition of zinc acetate. • The novel hexagonal carbon microtubes can gain by simply handling with dilute acid. • The partial or complete carbon coating on the ZnO surfaces plays an important role in modifying the PL properties. • A possible formation diagram for the materials has been proposed.

  19. Characterization of the secondary flow in hexagonal ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, O.; Vinuesa, R.; Obabko, A. V.; Schlatter, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we report the results of DNSs and LESs of the turbulent flow through hexagonal ducts at friction Reynolds numbers based on centerplane wall shear and duct half-height Reτ,c ≃ 180, 360, and 550. The evolution of the Fanning friction factor f with Re is in very good agreement with experimental measurements. A significant disagreement between the DNS and previous RANS simulations was found in the prediction of the in-plane velocity, and is explained through the inability of the RANS model to properly reproduce the secondary flow present in the hexagon. The kinetic energy of the secondary flow integrated over the cross-sectional area yz decreases with Re in the hexagon, whereas it remains constant with Re in square ducts at comparable Reynolds numbers. Close connection between the values of Reynolds stress u w ¯ on the horizontal wall close to the corner and the interaction of bursting events between the horizontal and inclined walls is found. This interaction leads to the formation of the secondary flow, and is less frequent in the hexagon as Re increases due to the 120∘ aperture of its vertex, whereas in the square duct the 90∘ corner leads to the same level of interaction with increasing Re. Analysis of turbulence statistics at the centerplane and the azimuthal variance of the mean flow and the fluctuations shows a close connection between hexagonal ducts and pipe flows, since the hexagon exhibits near-axisymmetric conditions up to a distance of around 0.15DH measured from its center. Spanwise distributions of wall-shear stress show that in square ducts the 90∘ corner sets the location of a high-speed streak at a distance zv+≃50 from it, whereas in hexagons the 120∘ aperture leads to a shorter distance of zv+≃38 . At these locations the root mean square of the wall-shear stresses exhibits an inflection point, which further shows the connections between the near-wall structures and the large-scale motions in the outer flow.

  20. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, David S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-13

    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large Tc value is unlikely.

  1. Electronic Properties of SiNTs Under External Electric and Magnetic Fields Using the Tight-Binding Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the electronic properties of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) under external transverse electric fields and axial magnetic fields using the tight-binding approximation. It was found that, after switching on the electric and magnetic fields, band modifications such as distortion of degeneracy, change in energy dispersion and subband spacing, and bandgap size reduction occur. The bandgap of silicon gear-like nanotubes (Si g-NTs) decreases linearly with increasing electric field strength, but the bandgap for silicon hexagonal nanotubes (Si h-NTs) first increases and then decreases (metallic) or first remains constant and then decreases (semiconducting). Our results show that the bandgap of Si h-NTs is very sensitive to both electric and magnetic fields, unlike Si g-NTs, which are more sensitive to electric than magnetic fields.

  2. Glider-based computing in reaction-diffusion hexagonal cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Wuensche, Andrew; De Lacy Costello, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    A three-state hexagonal cellular automaton, discovered in [Wuensche A. Glider dynamics in 3-value hexagonal cellular automata: the beehive rule. Int J Unconvention Comput, in press], presents a conceptual discrete model of a reaction-diffusion system with inhibitor and activator reagents. The automaton model of reaction-diffusion exhibits mobile localized patterns (gliders) in its space-time dynamics. We show how to implement the basic computational operations with these mobile localizations, and thus demonstrate collision-based logical universality of the hexagonal reaction-diffusion cellular automaton

  3. Resistance to alveolar shape change limits range of force propagation in lung parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Smith, Bradford J; Bates, Jason H T

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that if the lung parenchyma is modeled in 2 dimensions as a network of springs arranged in a pattern of repeating hexagonal cells, the distortional forces around a contracting airway propagate much further from the airway wall than classic continuum theory predicts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this occurs because of the negligible shear modulus of a hexagonal spring network. We simulated the narrowing of an airway embedded in a hexagonal network of elastic alveolar walls when the hexagonal cells of the network offered some resistance to a change in shape. We found that as the forces resisting shape change approach about 10% of the forces resisting length change of an individual spring the range of distortional force propagation in the spring network fell of rapidly as in an elastic continuum. We repeated these investigations in a 3-dimensional spring network composed of space-filling polyhedral cells and found similar results. This suggests that force propagation away from a point of local parenchymal distortion also falls off rapidly in real lung tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2015-12-22

    Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is demonstrated on InN NWs. In-polarity InN NWs form typical hexagonal structure with pyramidal growth front, whereas N-polarity InN NWs slowly turn to the shape of hexagonal pyramid and then convert to an inverted pyramid growth, forming diagonal pyramids with flat surfaces and finally coalescence with each other. This contrary growth behavior driven by lattice-polarity is most likely due to the relatively lower growth rate of the (0001 ̅) plane, which results from the fact that the diffusion barriers of In and N adatoms on the (0001) plane (0.18 and 1.0 eV, respectively) are about two-fold larger in magnitude than those on the (0001 ̅) plane (0.07 and 0.52 eV), as calculated by first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The formation of diagonal pyramids for the N-polarity hexagonal NWs affords a novel way to locate quantum dot in the kink position, suggesting a new recipe for the fabrication of dot-based devices.

  5. DUMA - a program to display distributions in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Quoc Dung; Makai, M.

    1987-09-01

    DUMA program displays hexagonal structures applied in WWER-440 reactors or one or two distributions in them. It helps users to display either integer, literal or real arrays in an arbitrary hexagonal structure. Possible applications: displaying reactor core layout, power distribution or activity measurements. (author)

  6. Loading pattern optimization in hexagonal geometry using PANTHER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.T.; Knight, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The extension of the loading pattern optimization capability of Nuclear Electric's reactor physics code PANTHER to hexagonal geometry cores is described. The variety of search methods available and the code's performance are illustrated by an example in which three search different methods are used in turn in order to find an optimal reload design for a sample hexagonal geometry problem. (author)

  7. Are tight gas resources overstated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2004-11-01

    According to conventional wisdom, North America's tight gas resources are continuous, regional accumulations of water-free methane, trapped in low-permeability rock, and involving very little exploration risk. Backing up conventional wisdom, EnCana Corporation is investing heavily in technology-intensive and capital-intensive tight gas plays in Western Canada and the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. On the other hand, a recent study in the Greater Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming says that tight gas resources have been significantly overestimated, by as much as three to five times too high, and the risks of exploration are every bit as high as those for conventional exploration. This study essentially dismisses the whole idea of tight gas, or basin-centred gas as a myth, the authors being firmly convinced that tight gas formations should be viewed as conventional hydrocarbon systems, with the usual risks of exploration. This paper discusses the controversy created by this recent study and the implications for natural gas reserves on a basin and individual company level, and the risks associated with exploration. The views of EnCana Corporation, being the company most heavily involved in tight gas and coalbed methane, and those of John Masters, co-founder of Canadian Hunter Exploration Ltd., and discoverer of the blockbuster Elsmworth tight gas deposit in northeastern Alberta in the mid-1970s, are explained in considerable detail, in an effort to dismiss the doubters. EnCana officials and Masters argue that the points raised by the authors of the Greater Green River study do not hold water: Tight gas or basin gas is a distinct hydrocarbon formation, characterized by low permeability, therefore it is to be expected that the gas will take longer to come out of the ground. Neither is the role of water in basin-centred gas systems the major problem as claimed by the doubters. They also characterize it as imprudent to claim to know what the

  8. Identification of MarvelD3 as a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein of the occludin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balda Maria S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight junctions are an intercellular adhesion complex of epithelial and endothelial cells, and form a paracellular barrier that restricts the diffusion of solutes on the basis of size and charge. Tight junctions are formed by multiprotein complexes containing cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. How these components work together to form functional tight junctions is still not well understood and will require a complete understanding of the molecular composition of the junction. Results Here we identify a new transmembrane component of tight junctions: MarvelD3, a four-span transmembrane protein. Its predicted transmembrane helices form a Marvel (MAL and related proteins for vesicle traffic and membrane link domain, a structural motif originally discovered in proteins involved in membrane apposition and fusion events, such as the tight junction proteins occludin and tricellulin. In mammals, MarvelD3 is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms. Both isoforms exhibit a broad tissue distribution and are expressed by different types of epithelial as well as endothelial cells. MarvelD3 co-localises with occludin at tight junctions in intestinal and corneal epithelial cells. RNA interference experiments in Caco-2 cells indicate that normal MarvelD3 expression is not required for the formation of functional tight junctions but depletion results in monolayers with increased transepithelial electrical resistance. Conclusions Our data indicate that MarvelD3 is a third member of the tight junction-associated occludin family of transmembrane proteins. Similar to occludin, normal expression of MarvelD3 is not essential for the formation of functional tight junctions. However, MarvelD3 functions as a determinant of epithelial paracellular permeability properties.

  9. A co-ordinate system for reactor physics calculations in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burte, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    A method for generating all the geometric information concerning typical reactor physics calculations for a basically hexagonal reactor core or its sector involving any of the possible symmetries is presented. The geometrically allowed symmetries for regular hexagons are discussed. The approach is based on the choice of a suitable co-ordinate system, viz. one using three coplanar (including one redundant) axes, each at 120 0 with its cyclically preceding one. A code named KEKULE' is developed for a 2-D, finite difference, one-group diffusion analysis of a hexagonal core using the approach. It can cater to a full hexagonal core as well as to any symmetric sectorial part of it. The main feature of the code is that the input concerning geometry is a bare minimum. It is hoped that the approach presented will be useful even for the calculations for hexagonal fuel assemblies. (author)

  10. From TER to trans- and paracellular resistance: lessons from impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günzel, Dorothee; Zakrzewski, Silke S; Schmid, Thomas; Pangalos, Maria; Wiedenhoeft, John; Blasse, Corinna; Ozboda, Christopher; Krug, Susanne M

    2012-06-01

    In epithelia and endothelia, overall resistance (TER) is determined by all ion-conductive structures, such as membrane channels, tight junctions, and the intercellular space, whereas the epithelial capacitance is due to the hydrophobic phase of the plasma membrane. Impedance means alternating current resistance and, in contrast to ohmic resistance, takes into account that, e.g., capacitors become increasingly conductive with increasing frequency. Impedance spectroscopy uses the association of the capacitance with the transcellular pathway to distinguish between this capacitive pathway and purely conductive components (tight junctions, subepithelium). In detail, one-path impedance spectroscopy distinguishes the resistance of the epithelium from the resistance of subepithelial tissues. Beyond that, two-path impedance spectroscopy allows for the separation of paracellular resistance (governed by tight junctional properties) from transcellular resistance (determined by conductive structures residing in the cell membranes). The present paper reviews the basic principles of these techniques, some historic milestones, as well as recent developments in epithelial physiology. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride graphene-like few layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Toury, B.; Journet, C.; Brioude, A.

    2014-06-01

    Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction.Self-standing highly crystallized hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) mono-, bi- and few-layers have been obtained for the first time via the Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route by adding lithium nitride (Li3N) micropowders to liquid-state polyborazylene (PBN). Incorporation of Li3N as a crystallization promoter allows the onset of crystallization of h-BN at a lower temperature (1200 °C) than under classical conditions (1800 °C). The hexagonal structure was confirmed by both electron and X-ray diffraction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01017e

  12. Anomalous lattice compressibility of hexagonal Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, K.A.; Chandra Shekar, N.V., E-mail: chandru@igcar.gov.in

    2017-07-01

    Monoclinic Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using angle dispersive x-ray diffraction up to a pressure of 26 GPa. Pressure induced structural phase transition from monoclinic to hexagonal phase was observed at 4.3 GPa with 2% volume collapse. Birch –Murnaghan equation of state fit to the pressure volume data yielded a bulk modulus of 159(9) GPa and 165(6) GPa for the monoclinic and hexagonal phases respectively. Equation of state fitting to the structural parameters yielded an axial compressibility of β{sub a} > β{sub c} > β{sub b} for the parent monoclinic phase, showing the least compressibility along b axis. Contrary to the available reports, an anomalous lattice compressibility behavior is observed for the high pressure hexagonal phase, characterized by pronounced hardening of a axis above 15 GPa. The observed incompressible nature of the hexagonal a axis in the pressure range 15–25 GPa is found to be compensated by doubling the compressibility along the c axis. - Highlights: • Structural phase transition in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from monoclinic to hexagonal phase. • Anomalous lattice compressibility in the hexagonal phase has reported first time. • Quantitative analysis of lattice compressibility.

  13. β-Conglycinin Reduces the Tight Junction Occludin and ZO-1 Expression in IPEC-J2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean allergy presents a health threat to humans and animals. The mechanism by which food/feed allergen β-conglycinin injures the intestinal barrier has not been well understood. In this study, the changes of epithelial permeability, integrity, metabolic activity, the tight junction (TJ distribution and expression induced by β-conglycinin were evaluated using IPEC-J2 model. The results showed a significant decrease of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER (p < 0.001 and metabolic activity (p < 0.001 and a remarkable increase of alkaline phosphatase (AP activity (p < 0.001 in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of tight junction occludin and ZO-1 were decreased (p < 0.05. The reduced fluorescence of targets and change of cellular morphology were recorded. The tight junction occludin and ZO-1 mRNA expression linearly declined with increasing β-conglycinin (p < 0.001.

  14. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob; Mueller, Martin; Gao, Huili; Radovic, Miladin; Cullen, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ReB 2 -type hexagonal OsB 2 powder has been densified by spark plasma sintering. • The sintered OsB 2 contains ∼80 wt.% hexagonal and ∼20 wt.% orthorhombic phases. • The average grain size of the sintered OsB 2 sample was 0.56 ± 0.26 μm. • H = 31 ± 9 GPa and E = 574 ± 112 GPa measured by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The metastable high pressure ReB 2 -type hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB 2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (∼80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (∼20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; however, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB 2 bulk ceramics

  15. Numerical investigation on practicability of reducing MCST by using grid spacer in a tight rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaojing; Morooka, Shinichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard grid spacer design causes decreased heat transfer in a tight rod bundle. • Heat transfer is greatly enhanced by flow-enhancing features. • Swirling flow adversely affects the heat transfer downstream of grid spacer. • Enhanced heat transfer by existing grid spacer is limited in a short region. • Improved grid spacer can effectively reduce MCST. - Abstract: The numerical investigation was carried out to reveal the practicability of reducing the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) within the inner sub-channel of a tight, hexagon rod bundle using commercial CFD code STAR CCM+ 6.04. The special heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics caused by four existing grid spacer designs were discussed in detail by analyzing the effects of grid strap length, different flow enhancing features and different Reynolds numbers. It was found that the local heat transfer within the grid strap is greatly enhanced due to the raised flow velocity. Both the standard grid spacer and the grid spacer with split-vanes cause decreased heat transfer in the downstream region. The friction drag is very influential in the tight rod bundle and can eliminate the positive effect of flow blockage on the heat transfer performance. The grid spacer with flow blockage discs induces relatively good heat transfer performance and higher pressure drop within sub-channels, indicating a tradeoff between the heat transfer augmentation and the pressure drop. The combination of multiple existing grid spacers can reduce the MCST to a certain level, but the corresponding disadvantages cannot be ignored. The improved grid spacer design was proposed based on the overall considerations of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics and has been proved more suitable to widely reduce MCST for SCWR than any other grid spacer designs involved in present study

  16. Study the Postbuckling of Hexagonal Piezoelectric Nanowires with Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanobeams having circular, rectangular and hexagonal cross-sections are synthesized and used in various Nano structures; however, piezoelectric nanobeams with hexagonal cross-sections have not been studied in detail. In particular, the physical mechanisms of the surface effect and the role of surface stress, surface elasticity and surface piezoelectricity have not been discussed thoroughly. The present study investigated post-buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams by examining surface effects. The energy method was applied to post-buckling of hexagonal nanobeams and the critical buckling voltage and amplitude are derived analytically from bulk and surface material properties and geometric factors.

  17. A nodal expansion method using conformal mapping for hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.; Shatilla, Y.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hexagonal nodal methods adopting the same transverse integration process used for square nodal methods face the subtle theoretical problem that this process leads to highly singular nonphysical terms in the diffusion equation. Lawrence, in developing the DIF3D-N code, tried to approximate the singular terms with relatively simple polynomials. In the HEX-NOD code, Wagner ignored the singularities to simplify the diffusion equation and introduced compensating terms in the nodal equations to restore the nodal balance relation. More recently developed hexagonal nodal codes, such as HEXPE-DITE and the hexagonal version of PANTHER, used methods similar to Wagner's. It will be shown that for light water reactor applications, these two different approximations significantly degraded the accuracy of the respective method as compared to the established square nodal methods. Alternatively, the method of conformal mapping was suggested to map a hexagon to a rectangle, with the unique feature of leaving the diffusion operator invariant, thereby fundamentally resolving the problems associated with transverse integration. This method is now implemented in the Westinghouse hexagonal nodal code ANC-H. In this paper we report on the results of comparing the three methods for a variety of problems via benchmarking against the fine-mesh finite difference code

  18. Steady squares and hexagons on a subcritical ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Steady squares and hexagons on a subcritical ramp are studied, both analytically and numerically, within the framework of the lowest-order amplitude equations. On the subcritical ramp, the external stress or control parameter varies continuously in space from subcritical to supercritical values. At the subcritical end of the ramp, pattern formation is suppressed, and patterns fade away into the conduction solution. It is shown that three-dimensional patterns may change shape on a subcritical ramp. A square pattern becomes a pattern of rolls as it fades, with the roll axes aligned in the direction orthogonal to that in which the control parameter varies. Hexagons in systems with horizontal midplane symmetry become a pattern of rectangles before reaching the conduction solution. There is a suggestion that hexagons in systems which lack this symmetry might fade away through a roll pattern. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate these phenomena

  19. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2017-05-12

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  20. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry....... Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  1. Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M

    2012-01-25

    "Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to -225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2→2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276-426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  3. Comparison of PANTHER nodal solutions in hexagonal-z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.; Hutt, P.; Lewis, I.

    1995-01-01

    The reactor physics code PANTHER has been extended to hexagonal geometries. Steady-state, depletion, and transient calculations with feedback can all be performed. Two hexagonal nodal flux solutions have been developed. In the first method, transverse integration is performed exactly as in the rectangular case. The resulting transverse integrated equation has singular terms, which are simply ignored. The second approach applies a conformal mapping that transforms the hexagon onto a rectangle. Pin power reconstruction has also been developed with both methods. For a benchmark VVER-1000 reactor depletion problem, both methods give accurate results for standard depletion calculations. In the more extreme situation with all rods inserted, the simpler method breaks down. However, the accuracy of the conformal solution was found to be excellent in all cases studied

  4. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  5. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  6. Scattering phase functions of horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2006-01-01

    Finite-difference time domain (FDTD) solutions are first compared with the corresponding T-matrix results for light scattering by circular cylinders with specific orientations. The FDTD method is then utilized to study the scattering properties of horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates at two wavelengths, 0.55 and 12 μm. The phase functions of horizontally oriented ice plates deviate substantially from their counterparts obtained for randomly oriented particles. Furthermore, we compute the phase functions of horizontally oriented ice crystal columns by using the FDTD method along with two schemes for averaging over the particle orientations. It is shown that the phase functions of hexagonal ice columns with horizontal orientations are not sensitive to the rotation about the principal axes of the particles. Moreover, hexagonal ice crystals and circular cylindrical ice particles have similar optical properties, particularly, at a strongly absorbing wavelength, if the two particle geometries have the same length and aspect ratio defined as the ratio of the radius or semi-width of the cross section of a particle to its length. The phase functions for the two particle geometries are slightly different in the case of weakly absorbing plates with large aspect ratios. However, the solutions for circular cylinders agree well with their counterparts for hexagonal columns

  7. CMFD and GPU acceleration on method of characteristics for hexagonal cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yu; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A merged hex-mesh CMFD method solved via tri-diagonal matrix inversion. • Alternative hardware acceleration of using inexpensive GPU. • A hex-core benchmark with solution to confirm two acceleration methods. - Abstract: Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) has been widely adopted as an effective way to accelerate the source iteration of transport calculation. However in a core with hexagonal assemblies there are non-hexagonal meshes around the edges of assemblies, causing a problem for CMFD if the CMFD equations are still to be solved via tri-diagonal matrix inversion by simply scanning the whole core meshes in different directions. To solve this problem, we propose an unequal mesh CMFD formulation that combines the non-hexagonal cells on the boundary of neighboring assemblies into non-regular hexagonal cells. We also investigated the alternative hardware acceleration of using graphics processing units (GPU) with graphics card in a personal computer. The tool CUDA is employed, which is a parallel computing platform and programming model invented by the company NVIDIA for harnessing the power of GPU. To investigate and implement these two acceleration methods, a 2-D hexagonal core transport code using the method of characteristics (MOC) is developed. A hexagonal mini-core benchmark problem is established to confirm the accuracy of the MOC code and to assess the effectiveness of CMFD and GPU parallel acceleration. For this benchmark problem, the CMFD acceleration increases the speed 16 times while the GPU acceleration speeds it up 25 times. When used simultaneously, they provide a speed gain of 292 times

  8. CMFD and GPU acceleration on method of characteristics for hexagonal cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yu, E-mail: hanyu1203@gmail.com [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jiang, Xiaofeng [Shanghai NuStar Nuclear Power Technology Co., Ltd., No. 81 South Qinzhou Road, XuJiaHui District, Shanghai 200000 (China); Wang, Dezhong [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A merged hex-mesh CMFD method solved via tri-diagonal matrix inversion. • Alternative hardware acceleration of using inexpensive GPU. • A hex-core benchmark with solution to confirm two acceleration methods. - Abstract: Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) has been widely adopted as an effective way to accelerate the source iteration of transport calculation. However in a core with hexagonal assemblies there are non-hexagonal meshes around the edges of assemblies, causing a problem for CMFD if the CMFD equations are still to be solved via tri-diagonal matrix inversion by simply scanning the whole core meshes in different directions. To solve this problem, we propose an unequal mesh CMFD formulation that combines the non-hexagonal cells on the boundary of neighboring assemblies into non-regular hexagonal cells. We also investigated the alternative hardware acceleration of using graphics processing units (GPU) with graphics card in a personal computer. The tool CUDA is employed, which is a parallel computing platform and programming model invented by the company NVIDIA for harnessing the power of GPU. To investigate and implement these two acceleration methods, a 2-D hexagonal core transport code using the method of characteristics (MOC) is developed. A hexagonal mini-core benchmark problem is established to confirm the accuracy of the MOC code and to assess the effectiveness of CMFD and GPU parallel acceleration. For this benchmark problem, the CMFD acceleration increases the speed 16 times while the GPU acceleration speeds it up 25 times. When used simultaneously, they provide a speed gain of 292 times.

  9. Highly Stable, Dual-Gated MoS2 Transistors Encapsulated by Hexagonal Boron Nitride with Gate-Controllable Contact, Resistance, and Threshold Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Cui, Xu; Kim, Young Duck; Arefe, Ghidewon; Zhang, Xian; Lee, Chul-Ho; Ye, Fan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Philip; Hone, James

    2015-07-28

    Emerging two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have been intensively studied because of their novel properties for advanced electronics and optoelectronics. However, 2D materials are by nature sensitive to environmental influences, such as temperature, humidity, adsorbates, and trapped charges in neighboring dielectrics. Therefore, it is crucial to develop device architectures that provide both high performance and long-term stability. Here we report high performance of dual-gated van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure devices in which MoS2 layers are fully encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and contacts are formed using graphene. The hBN-encapsulation provides excellent protection from environmental factors, resulting in highly stable device performance, even at elevated temperatures. Our measurements also reveal high-quality electrical contacts and reduced hysteresis, leading to high two-terminal carrier mobility (33-151 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and low subthreshold swing (80 mV/dec) at room temperature. Furthermore, adjustment of graphene Fermi level and use of dual gates enable us to separately control contact resistance and threshold voltage. This novel vdW heterostructure device opens up a new way toward fabrication of stable, high-performance devices based on 2D materials.

  10. Hexagonal OsB{sub 2}: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Lugovy, Mykola [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 3 Krzhizhanivskii Str., Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: Nina.Orlovskaya@ucf.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland); Mueller, Martin [Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gao, Huili [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Radovic, Miladin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • ReB{sub 2}-type hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder has been densified by spark plasma sintering. • The sintered OsB{sub 2} contains ∼80 wt.% hexagonal and ∼20 wt.% orthorhombic phases. • The average grain size of the sintered OsB{sub 2} sample was 0.56 ± 0.26 μm. • H = 31 ± 9 GPa and E = 574 ± 112 GPa measured by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The metastable high pressure ReB{sub 2}-type hexagonal OsB{sub 2} bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB{sub 2} were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (∼80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (∼20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; however, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB{sub 2} bulk ceramics.

  11. Hexagonal undersampling for faster MRI near metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Bragi; Worters, Pauline W; Gold, Garry E; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Slice encoding for metal artifact correction acquires a three-dimensional image of each excited slice with view-angle tilting to reduce slice and readout direction artifacts respectively, but requires additional imaging time. The purpose of this study was to provide a technique for faster imaging around metallic implants by undersampling k-space. Assuming that areas of slice distortion are localized, hexagonal sampling can reduce imaging time by 50% compared with conventional scans. This work demonstrates this technique by comparisons of fully sampled images with undersampled images, either from simulations from fully acquired data or from data actually undersampled during acquisition, in patients and phantoms. Hexagonal sampling is also shown to be compatible with parallel imaging and partial Fourier acquisitions. Image quality was evaluated using a structural similarity (SSIM) index. Images acquired with hexagonal undersampling had no visible difference in artifact suppression from fully sampled images. The SSIM index indicated high similarity to fully sampled images in all cases. The study demonstrates the ability to reduce scan time by undersampling without compromising image quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New approach for direct chemical synthesis of hexagonal Co nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Frank M., E-mail: fabel@udel.edu [Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware (United States); Tzitzios, Vasilis [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR, Demokritos (Greece); Hadjipanayis, George C. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware (United States)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of producing hexagonal Cobalt nanoparticles, with high saturation magnetization by direct chemical synthesis. The nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of anhydrous cobalt (II) chloride by NaBH{sub 4} in tetraglyme at temperatures in the range of 200–270 °C under a nitrogen–hydrogen atmosphere. The reactions were done at high temperatures to allow for the formation of as-made hexagonal cobalt. The size of the particles was controlled by the addition of different surfactants. The best magnetic properties so far were obtained on spherical hexagonal Co nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm, a saturation magnetization of 143 emu/g and coercivity of 500 Oe. the saturation magnetization and coercivity were further improved by annealing the Co nanoparticles leading to saturation magnetization of 160 emu/g and coercivity of 540 Oe. - Highlights: • We synthesized hexagonal cobalt nanoparticles by a new wet chemical method. • We considered the effects of different surfactants on particles magnetic properties. • The as-made Co nanoparticles had magnetic properties of 143 emu/g and 500 Oe. • After annealing magnetic properties of 160 emu/g and 540 Oe were obtained.

  13. Protective Effect of 1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 on Pepsin-Trypsin-Resistant Gliadin-Induced Tight Junction Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shouquan; Singh, Tikka Prabhjot; Wei, Xin; Yao, Huang; Wang, Hongling

    2018-01-01

    Tight junction (TJ) injuries induced by pepsin-trypsin-resistant gliadin (PT-G) play an important role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Previously, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VD3) was reported to be a TJ regulator that attenuates lipopolysaccharide- and alcohol-induced TJ injuries. However, whether VD3 can attenuate PT-G-induced TJ injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of VD3 on PT-G-induced TJ injuries. Caco-2 monolayers were used as in vitro models. After being cultured for 21 days, the monolayers were treated with PT-G plus different concentrations of VD3. Then, the changes in trans-epithelial electrical resistance and FITC-dextran 4000 (FD-4) flux were determined to evaluate the monolayer barrier function. TJ protein levels were measured to assess TJ injury severity, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression and zonulin release levels were determined to estimate zonulin release signaling pathway activity. Additionally, a gluten-sensitized mouse model was established as an in vivo model. After the mice were treated with VD3 for 7 days, we measured serum FD-4 concentrations, TJ protein levels, MyD88 expression, and zonulin release levels to confirm the effect of VD3. Both in vitro and in vivo, VD3 significantly attenuated the TJ injury-related increase in intestinal mucosa barrier permeability. Moreover, VD3 treatment up-regulated TJ protein expression levels and significantly decreased MyD88 expression and zonulin release levels. VD3 has protective effects against PT-G-induced TJ injuries both in vitro and in vivo, which may correlate with the disturbance of the MyD88-dependent zonulin release signaling pathway.

  14. Optical study on neutron irradiation effect on hexagonal SiC single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Moritami; Kimura, Itsurou; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kanno, Ikuo; Kamiya, Koji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Nakata, Toshitake; Watanabe, Masanori; Nakagawa, Masuo; Atobe, Kozo

    1996-04-01

    It is well known that SiC is a higher radiation resistant semiconductor on comparison with Si and Ge. Recently, on accompanying with advancement of developing program on nuclear fission reactor on space, development of electronic element workable effectively under severe radiation environment is desired. SiC is expected as one of such elements. Therefore, because of considering importance of understanding the effect on fundamental properties of SiC electronic element under radiation environment before its development, some studies on it was executed. In this paper, according to find out induction of interesting defect center in hexagonal 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystals irradiated with reactor neutron on light absorption and SER test, outlines of these experimental results were reported. (G.K.)

  15. Hexagon OPE resummation and multi-Regge kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.M. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); LAPTh, CNRS, Université de Savoie,9 Chemin de Bellevue, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Papathanasiou, G. [LAPTh, CNRS, Université de Savoie,9 Chemin de Bellevue, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2016-02-29

    We analyse the OPE contribution of gluon bound states in the double scaling limit of the hexagonal Wilson loop in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We provide a systematic procedure for perturbatively resumming the contributions from single-particle bound states of gluons and expressing the result order by order in terms of two-variable polylogarithms. We also analyse certain contributions from two-particle gluon bound states and find that, after analytic continuation to the 2→4 Mandelstam region and passing to multi-Regge kinematics (MRK), only the single-particle gluon bound states contribute. From this double-scaled version of MRK we are able to reconstruct the full hexagon remainder function in MRK up to five loops by invoking single-valuedness of the results.

  16. Influence of rare earth Ce3+ on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Sr2+ based W-type hexagonal ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Imran; Khan, Imran; Aen, Faiza; Islam, M.U.; Rana, M.U.

    2012-01-01

    A series of single phase W-type Sr 3-x Ce x Fe 16 O 27 (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10) hexagonal ferrites prepared by the Sol-Gel method was sintered at 1050 °C for 5 h. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that all the samples belong to the family of W-type hexagonal ferrites. The c/a ratio falls in the range of W-type hexagonal ferrites. The grain size was measured by SEM varies from 0.7684 to 0.4366 μm which shows that the Ce 3+ substituted samples have smaller grain size than pure ferrite Sr 3 Fe 16 O 27 which results from the difference in ionic radii of Ce 3+ (1.034 Å) and Sr 2+ (1.12 Å). The room temperature resistivity of the present samples varies from 6.5×10 8 to 272×10 8 Ω-cm. The coercivity increases from 1370 to 1993 Oe which is consistent with the decrease in grain size. The coercivity values indicate that the present samples fall in the range of hard ferrites. The large value of H c may be due to domain wall pinning at the grain boundaries.

  17. Tight connection between fission gas discharge channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.; Peehs, M.; Rau, P.; Krug, W.; Stechemesser, H.

    1978-01-01

    The invention is concerned with the tight connection between the fission gas discharge channel, leading away from the support plate of a gas-cooled reactor, and the top of the fuel element suspended from this support plate. The closure is designed to be gas-tight for the suspended as well as for the released fuel element. The tight connection has got an annular body resting on the core support plate in the mouth region of the fission gas discharge channel. This body is connected with the fission gas discharge channel in the fuel element top fitting via a gas-tight part and supported by a compression spring. Care is taken for sealing if the fuel element is removal. (RW) [de

  18. On the conductive properties of MgO films grown on ultrathin hexagonal close-packed Co(0001) layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladczuk, L.; Aleszkiewicz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a scanning tunneling microscopy study of electrical conductivity of (110)-oriented MgO ultrathin films grown on hexagonal close-packed Co(0001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy, being a good candidate for tunneling barrier for future-generation spintronic devices. Three-dimensional growth of the tunneling barrier, expected for compressive strains emerging at the Co/MgO interface, is demonstrated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The 5 eV height of the full barrier of MgO is reached at a layer thickness of 4 nm. Thinner MgO layers exhibit randomly distributed spots of the high conductance on the tunneling current map. The current–voltage curves indicate the existence of vacancies in MgO crystal lattice, lowering the resistivity of the tunneling barrier. - Highlights: • Conductivity of MgO barrier in MgO/hexagonal close-packed-Co bilayer • Conductivity strongly varies with MgO thickness • MgO barrier exhibits randomly distributed spots of particularly high conductance • Tunneling current–voltage curves indicate the existence of vacancies in MgO lattice

  19. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  20. New results for loop integrals. AMBRE, CSectors, hexagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluza, Janusz; Kajda, Krzysztof

    2009-03-01

    We report on the three Mathematica packages hexagon, CSectors, AMBRE. They are useful for the evaluation of one- and two-loop Feynman integrals with a dependence on several kinematical scales. These integrals are typically needed for LHC and ILC applications, but also for higher order corrections at meson factories. hexagon is a new package for the tensor reduction of one-loop 5-point and 6-point functions with rank R=3 and R=4, respectively; AMBRE is a tool for derivations of Mellin-Barnes representations; CSectors is an interface for the package sectordecomposition and allows a convenient, direct evaluation of tensor Feynman integrals. (orig.)

  1. Tight junction proteins contribute to barrier properties in human pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Alexander G; Voronkova, Maria A; Volgin, George N; Yablonsky, Piotr K; Fromm, Michael; Amasheh, Salah

    2011-03-15

    The permeability of pleural mesothelium helps to control the volume and composition of the liquid lubricating pleural surfaces. Information on pleural barrier function in health and disease, however, is scarce. Tissue specimens of human pleura were mounted in Ussing chambers for measurement of transmesothelial resistance. Expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins was studied by Western blots and immune fluorescence confocal microscopy. Both visceral and parietal pleura showed barrier properties represented by transmesothelial resistance. Occludin, claudin-1, -3, -5, and -7, were detected in visceral pleura. In parietal pleura, the same TJ proteins were detected, except claudin-7. In tissues from patients with pleural inflammation these tightening claudins were decreased and in visceral pleura claudin-2, a paracellular channel former, became apparent. We report that barrier function in human pleura coincides with expression of claudins known to be key determinants of epithelial barrier properties. In inflamed tissue, claudin expression indicates a reduced barrier function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design considerations for quasi-phase-matching in doubly resonant lithium niobate hexagonal microresonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sono, Tleyane J

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication capabilities of high optical quality hexagonal superstructures by chemical etching of inverted ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate platform suggests a route for efficient implementation of compact hexagonal microcavities...

  3. Diamagnetic response in zigzag hexagonal silicene rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Qiao; Tian, Hongyu; Ding, Jianwen; Liu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal silicene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise along the rings. • The large diamagnetic moment is the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons. - Abstract: Hexagonal silicene rings with unusually large diamagnetic moments have been found in a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties. In the presence of effective spin–orbit coupling, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise exhibiting colossal diamagnetic moments, while the spin-down electrons flow clockwise exhibiting colossal paramagnetic moments along the rings. The large diamagnetic moment is thus the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can be modulated by spin–orbit coupling strength and exchange field.

  4. Diamagnetic response in zigzag hexagonal silicene rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: nxu@ycit.cn [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Tian, Hongyu [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Ding, Jianwen [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Liu, Junfeng, E-mail: liu.jf@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • Hexagonal silicene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise along the rings. • The large diamagnetic moment is the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons. - Abstract: Hexagonal silicene rings with unusually large diamagnetic moments have been found in a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties. In the presence of effective spin–orbit coupling, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise exhibiting colossal diamagnetic moments, while the spin-down electrons flow clockwise exhibiting colossal paramagnetic moments along the rings. The large diamagnetic moment is thus the result of competition of spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can be modulated by spin–orbit coupling strength and exchange field.

  5. Tightness Entropic Uncertainty Relation in Quantum Markovian-Davies Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Liang; Han, Yan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tightness of entropic uncertainty relation in the absence (presence) of the quantum memory which the memory particle being weakly coupled to a decohering Davies-type Markovian environment. The results show that the tightness of the quantum uncertainty relation can be controlled by the energy relaxation time F, the dephasing time G and the rescaled temperature p, the perfect tightness can be arrived by dephasing and energy relaxation satisfying F = 2G and p = 1/2. In addition, the tightness of the memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation and the entropic uncertainty relation can be influenced mainly by the purity. While in memory-assisted model, the purity and quantum correlation can also influence the tightness actively while the quantum entanglement can influence the tightness slightly.

  6. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Thermal conductivity of hexagonal Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex alloys from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaokun; Zhao, C. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal Si and Ge with a lonsdaleite crystal structure are allotropes of silicon and germanium that have recently been synthesized. These materials as well as their alloys are promising candidates for novel applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we systematically study the phonon transport and thermal conductivity of hexagonal Si, Ge, and their alloys by using the first-principle-based Peierls-Boltzmann transport equation approach. Both three-phonon and four-phonon scatterings are taken into account in the calculations as the phonon scattering mechanisms. The thermal conductivity anisotropy of these materials is identified. While the thermal conductivity parallel to the hexagonal plane for hexagonal Si and Ge is found to be larger than that perpendicular to the hexagonal plane, alloying effectively tunes the thermal conductivity anisotropy by suppressing the thermal conductivity contributions from the middle-frequency phonons. The importance of four-phonon scatterings is assessed by comparing the results with the calculations without including four-phonon scatterings. We find that four-phonon scatterings cannot be ignored in hexagonal Si and Ge as the thermal conductivity would be overestimated by around 10% (40%) at 300 K (900) K. In addition, the phonon mean free path distribution of hexagonal Si, Ge, and their alloys is also discussed.

  8. On the buckling of hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons via structural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios I.

    2018-03-01

    Monolayer hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons have similar crystal structure as graphene nanoribbons, have excellent mechanical, thermal insulating and dielectric properties and additionally present chemical stability. These allotropes of boron nitride can be used in novel applications, in which graphene is not compatible, to achieve remarkable performance. The purpose of the present work is to provide theoretical estimations regarding the buckling response of hexagonal boron nitride monolayer under compressive axial loadings. For this reason, a structural mechanics method is formulated which employs the exact equilibrium atomistic structure of the specific two-dimensional nanomaterial. In order to represent the interatomic interactions appearing between boron and nitrogen atoms, the Dreiding potential model is adopted which is realized by the use of three-dimensional, two-noded, spring-like finite elements of appropriate stiffness matrices. The critical compressive loads that cause the buckling of hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons are computed with respect to their size and chirality while some indicative buckled shapes of them are illustrated. Important conclusions arise regarding the effect of the size and chirality on the structural stability of the hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. An analytical buckling formula, which provides good fitting of the numerical outcome, is proposed.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and magneto-optical properties of Ni-doped ZnO hexagonal columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao

    2015-01-01

    Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route. The hexagonal columns of the products are about 3 μm in diameter and about 2 μm in thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ni K-edge XANES spectra and TEM indicate that the as-prepared samples are single-crystalline wurtzite structure and no metallic Ni or other secondary phases are found in the hexagonal columns. Optical absorption and Raman results further confirm the incorporation of Ni 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Magnetic measurements indicate that the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns exhibited obvious ferromagnetic characteristic at room temperature. The coercive fields (H c ) were obtained to be 135.3, 327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. The ferromagnetism was assumed to originate from the exchange interaction between free carriers (holes or electrons) from the valence band and the localized d spins on the Ni ions. - Highlights: • Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • The layer-by-layer growth manner of the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns was proposed. • Obvious room-temperature ferromagnetic characteristic of Zn 1−x Ni x O are observed and the coercivity (H c ) are 135.3,327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. • The exchange interaction between local-spin polarized electrons and conduction electrons is responsible for the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns

  10. Spintronics with graphene-hexagonal boron nitride van der Waals heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalakar, M. Venkata; Dankert, André; Bergsten, Johan; Ive, Tommy; Dash, Saroj P.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a large bandgap insulating isomorph of graphene, ideal for atomically thin tunnel barrier applications. In this letter, we demonstrate large area chemical vapor deposited (CVD) h-BN as a promising spin tunnel barrier in graphene spin transport devices. In such structures, the ferromagnetic tunnel contacts with h-BN barrier are found to show robust tunneling characteristics over a large scale with resistances in the favorable range for efficient spin injection into graphene. The non-local spin transport and precession experiments reveal spin lifetime ≈500 ps and spin diffusion length ≈1.6 μm in graphene with tunnel spin polarization ≈11% at 100 K. The electrical and spin transport measurements at different injection bias current and gate voltages confirm tunnel spin injection through h-BN barrier. These results open up possibilities for implementation of large area CVD h-BN in spintronic technologies

  11. Efficient Offline Waveform Design Using Quincunx/Hexagonal Time-Frequency Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouia Ayadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM may turn to be inappropriate for future wireless cellular systems services, because of extreme natural and artificial impairments they are expected to generate. Natural impairments result from higher Doppler and delay spreads, while artificial impairments result from multisource transmissions and synchronization relaxation for closed-loop signaling overhead reduction. These severe impairments induce a dramatic loss in orthogonality between subcarriers and OFDM symbols and lead to a strong increase in intercarrier interference (ICI and intersymbol interference (ISI. To fight against these impairments, we propose here an optimization of the transmit/receive waveforms for filter-bank multicarrier (FBMC systems, with hexagonal time-frequency (TF lattices, operating over severe doubly dispersive channels. For this, we exploit the Ping-pong Optimized Pulse Shaping (POPS paradigm, recently applied to rectangular TF lattices, to design waveforms maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR for hexagonal TF lattices. We show that FBMC, with hexagonal lattices, offers a strong improvement in SINR with respect to conventional OFDM and an improvement of around 1 dB with respect to POPS-FBMC, with rectangular lattices. Furthermore, we show that hexagonal POPS-FBMC brings more robustness to frequency synchronization errors and offers a 10 dB reduction in out-of-band (OOB emissions, with respect to rectangular POPS-FBMC.

  12. Adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Moumita; Ghosh, Asim Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Exact analytic expressions of eigenvalues of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagon in the presence of uniform magnetic field have been obtained. Magnetization process, nature of isentrops and properties of magneto caloric effect in terms of adiabatic demagnetization have been investigated. Theoretical results have been used to study the magneto caloric effect of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal compound Cu_3WO_6.

  13. Preparation of triangular and hexagonal silver nanoplates on the surface of quartz substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Huiying; Zeng Jianbo; An Jing; Song Wei; Xu Weiqing; Zhao Bing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, triangular and hexagonal silver nanoplates were prepared on the surface of quartz substrate using photoreduction of silver ions in the presence of silver seeds. The obtained silver nanoplates were characterized by atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the silver seeds played an important role in the formation of triangular and hexagonal silver nanoplates. By varying the irradiation time, nanoplates with different sizes and shapes could be obtained. The growth mechanism for triangular and hexagonal nanoplates prepared on quartz substrate was discussed

  14. Epitaxial Garnets and Hexagonal Ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-20

    guide growth of the epitaxial YIG films. Aluminum or gallium substitu- tions for iron were used in combination with lanthanum substitutions for yttrium... gallate spinel sub- strates. There was no difficulty with nucleation in the melt and film quality appeared to be similar to that observed previously...hexagonal ferrites. We succeeded in growing the M-type lead hexaferrite (magnetoplumbite) on gallate spinel substrates. We found that the PbO-based

  15. Electronic properties of Mn-decorated silicene on hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Jones, Burton; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Singh, Nirpendra

    2013-01-01

    We study silicene on hexagonal boron nitride, using first-principles calculations. Since hexagonal boron nitride is semiconducting, the interaction with silicene is weaker than for metallic substrates. It therefore is possible to open a 50 meV band gap in the silicene. We further address the effect of Mn decoration by determining the onsite Hubbard interaction parameter, which turns out to differ significantly for decoration at the top and hollow sites. The induced magnetism in the system is analyzed in detail.

  16. Electronic properties of Mn-decorated silicene on hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-12-17

    We study silicene on hexagonal boron nitride, using first-principles calculations. Since hexagonal boron nitride is semiconducting, the interaction with silicene is weaker than for metallic substrates. It therefore is possible to open a 50 meV band gap in the silicene. We further address the effect of Mn decoration by determining the onsite Hubbard interaction parameter, which turns out to differ significantly for decoration at the top and hollow sites. The induced magnetism in the system is analyzed in detail.

  17. No Change in Bicarbonate Transport but Tight-Junction Formation Is Delayed by Fluoride in a Novel Ameloblast Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Rácz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have recently developed a novel in vitro model using HAT-7 rat ameloblast cells to functionally study epithelial ion transport during amelogenesis. Our present aims were to identify key transporters of bicarbonate in HAT-7 cells and also to examine the effects of fluoride exposure on vectorial bicarbonate transport, cell viability, and the development of transepithelial resistance. To obtain monolayers, the HAT-7 cells were cultured on Transwell permeable filters. We monitored transepithelial resistance (TER as an indicator of tight junction formation and polarization. We evaluated intracellular pH changes by microfluorometry using the fluorescent indicator BCECF. Activities of ion transporters were tested by withdrawal of various ions from the bathing medium, by using transporter specific inhibitors, and by activation of transporters with forskolin and ATP. Cell survival was estimated by alamarBlue assay. Changes in gene expression were monitored by qPCR. We identified the activity of several ion transporters, NBCe1, NHE1, NKCC1, and AE2, which are involved in intracellular pH regulation and vectorial bicarbonate and chloride transport. Bicarbonate secretion by HAT-7 cells was not affected by acute fluoride exposure over a wide range of concentrations. However, tight-junction formation was inhibited by 1 mM fluoride, a concentration which did not substantially reduce cell viability, suggesting an effect of fluoride on paracellular permeability and tight-junction formation. Cell viability was only reduced by prolonged exposure to fluoride concentrations greater than 1 mM. In conclusion, cultured HAT-7 cells are functionally polarized and are able to transport bicarbonate ions from the basolateral to the apical fluid spaces. Exposure to 1 mM fluoride has little effect on bicarbonate secretion or cell viability but delays tight-junction formation, suggesting a novel mechanism that may contribute to dental fluorosis.

  18. Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kojima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions.

  19. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB 2 -type OsB 2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10 B and 11 B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11 B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB 2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os 2 B 3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11 B powder was used as a raw material, only Os 2 B 3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB 2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB 2 +3O 2 →2Os+2B 2 O 3 took place due to presence of O 2 /water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B 2 O 3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB 2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB 2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB 2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O 2 , the hexagonal OsB 2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling. - Graphical abstract: The in situ high temperature XRD

  20. Vibrational effects on surface energies and band gaps in hexagonal and cubic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Edgar A.; Needs, Richard J.; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    Surface energies of hexagonal and cubic water ice are calculated using first-principles quantum mechanical methods, including an accurate description of anharmonic nuclear vibrations. We consider two proton-orderings of the hexagonal and cubic ice basal surfaces and three proton-orderings of hexagonal ice prism surfaces, finding that vibrations reduce the surface energies by more than 10%. We compare our vibrational densities of states to recent sum frequency generation absorption measurements and identify surface proton-orderings of experimental ice samples and the origins of characteristic absorption peaks. We also calculate zero point quantum vibrational corrections to the surface electronic band gaps, which range from −1.2 eV for the cubic ice basal surface up to −1.4 eV for the hexagonal ice prism surface. The vibrational corrections to the surface band gaps are up to 12% smaller than for bulk ice.

  1. Pressure-induced structural change from hexagonal to fcc metal lattice in scandium trihydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, A.; Machida, A.; Watanuki, T.; Aoki, K.; Nakano, S.; Takemura, K.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized scandium hydrides by hydrogenation of a scandium foil with hydrogen fluid under high pressure at ambient temperature. Scandium dihydride (ScH 2 ) and trihydride (ScH 3 ) were prepared near 4 and 5 GPa, respectively. The hydrogenation process and pressure-induced structural changes in ScH 3 were investigated by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements up to 54.7 GPa. A structural transition from hexagonal to the fcc lattice began at 30 GPa and was completed at 46 GPa via an intermediate state similar to those reported for other hexagonal trihydrides. The intermediate state was not interpreted in terms of a coexisting state for the low-pressure hexagonal and the high-pressure fcc structures. The onset transition pressure of ScH 3 supported the previously proposed relation that the hexagonal-fcc transition pressure is inversely proportional to the ionic radius of the trihydride

  2. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cross-Coupling Filter with Multilayer Hexagonal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal cavities and their applications to multilayer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW filters are presented. The hexagonal SIW cavity which can combine flexibility of rectangular one and performance of circular one is convenient for bandpass filter’s design. Three types of experimental configuration with the same central frequency of 10 GHz and bandwidth of 6%, including three-order and four-order cross-coupling topologies, are constructed and fabricated based on low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC technology. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  3. Micromolding in inverted polymer opals (MIPO): synthesis of hexagonal mesoporous silica opals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Sanming; Coombs, N.; Ozin, G.A. [Toronto Univ., Ont. (Canada). Materials Chemistry Research Group

    2000-12-15

    Regular arrays of hexagonal mesoporous silica spheres are crucial for a number of applications, but until now control of the diameter, dispersity, and packing of the spheres has not proved possible. These authors report a new method-micromolding in inverted polymer opals-that allows the synthesis of such hexagonal mesoporous silica opals for the first time. (orig.)

  4. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  5. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  6. Survival and failure modes: platform-switching for internal and external hexagon cemented fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Machado, Lucas S; Hirata, Ronaldo; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the probability of survival (reliability) of platform-switched fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) cemented on different implant-abutment connection designs. Eighty-four-three-unit FDPs (molar pontic) were cemented on abutments connected to two implants of external or internal hexagon connection. Four groups (n = 21 each) were established: external hexagon connection and regular platform (ERC); external hexagon connection and switched platform (ESC); internal hexagon and regular platform (IRC); and internal hexagon and switched platform (ISC). Prostheses were subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing in water. Weibull curves and probability of survival for a mission of 100,000 cycles at 400 N (two-sided 90% CI) were calculated. The beta values of 0.22, 0.48, 0.50, and 1.25 for groups ERC, ESC, IRC, and ISC, respectively, indicated a limited role of fatigue in damage accumulation, except for group ISC. Survival decreased for both platform-switched groups (ESC: 74%, and ISC: 59%) compared with the regular matching platform counterparts (ERC: 95%, and IRC: 98%). Characteristic strength was higher only for ERC compared with ESC, but not different between internal connections. Failures chiefly involved the abutment screw. Platform switching decreased the probability of survival of FDPs on both external and internal connections. The absence in loss of characteristic strength observed in internal hexagon connections favor their use compared with platform-switched external hexagon connections. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Steam and electroheating remediation of tight soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.; Dablow, J.F. III; Pearce, J.A.; Johnson, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    In the past few decades the need for soil remediation has become urgent, even more necessary--innovative, cost effective methods. Steam and Electroheating Remediation of Tight Soils presents the results of a field study testing the cleanup of semi-volatile fuels from tight soils using combination of hydraulic fracturing and soil heating technologies.

  8. Chemical reaction of hexagonal boron nitride and graphite nanoclusters in mechanical milling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Grush, M.; Callcott, T.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Synthesis of boron-carbon-nitride (BCN) hybrid alloys has been attempted extensively by many researchers because the BCN alloys are considered an extremely hard material called {open_quotes}super diamond,{close_quotes} and the industrial application for wear-resistant materials is promising. A mechanical alloying (MA) method of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with graphite has recently been studied to explore the industrial synthesis of the BCN alloys. To develop the MA method for the BCN alloy synthesis, it is necessary to confirm the chemical reaction processes in the mechanical milling systems and to identify the reaction products. Therefore, the authors have attempted to confirm the chemical reaction process of the h-BN and graphite in mechanical milling systems using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) methods.

  9. Chemical reaction of hexagonal boron nitride and graphite nanoclusters in mechanical milling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Grush, M.; Callcott, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Synthesis of boron-carbon-nitride (BCN) hybrid alloys has been attempted extensively by many researchers because the BCN alloys are considered an extremely hard material called open-quotes super diamond,close quotes and the industrial application for wear-resistant materials is promising. A mechanical alloying (MA) method of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with graphite has recently been studied to explore the industrial synthesis of the BCN alloys. To develop the MA method for the BCN alloy synthesis, it is necessary to confirm the chemical reaction processes in the mechanical milling systems and to identify the reaction products. Therefore, the authors have attempted to confirm the chemical reaction process of the h-BN and graphite in mechanical milling systems using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) methods

  10. An introduction to finite tight frames

    CERN Document Server

    Waldron, Shayne F D

    2018-01-01

    This textbook is an introduction to the theory and applications of finite tight frames, an area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. Stimulating much of this growth are the applications of finite frames to diverse fields such as signal processing, quantum information theory, multivariate orthogonal polynomials, and remote sensing. Key features and topics: * First book entirely devoted to finite frames * Extensive exercises and MATLAB examples for classroom use * Important examples, such as harmonic and Heisenberg frames, are presented in preliminary chapters, encouraging readers to explore and develop an intuitive feeling for tight frames * Later chapters delve into general theory details and recent research results * Many illustrations showing the special aspects of the geometry of finite frames * Provides an overview of the field of finite tight frames * Discusses future research directions in the field Featuring exercises and MATLAB examples in each chapter, the book is well suited as a textbook ...

  11. Tight or sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P; Shanmuganadan, S [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India). Dept. of Geography; Uma, A [Madurai Medical Coll. (India). Dept. of Medicine and Microbiology

    1991-01-01

    Modern buildings are designed with the usual heating, air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. In most of these buildings, air is continuously recirculated and, as a result, workers suffer from tight or sick building syndrome. This syndrome is discussed with reference to symptoms of air contamination, ventilation system standards and research needs. The most common symptoms of tight building syndrome are eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, fatigue, sneezing, difficulty in wearing contact lenses, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness and dermatitis. Symptoms experienced by 50 doctors and 50 paramedical personnel working in an air-conditioned intensive care unit and operating theatres of the Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai in India were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. In the present study, respiratory and ocular symptoms were observed more in those working in operating theatres and were believed to be due to excessive use of formaldehyde used for sterilization. Various suggestions were made to prevent sick building syndrome. Moreover, the physicians treating sick individuals should be aware of the symptoms caused by indoor air pollutants as sufferers invariably require a change of environment rather than drugs. (orig.).

  12. Design of a broadband hexagonal-shaped zeroth-order resonance antenna with metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Dong Sik; Kim, Kang Wook; Choi, Hyun Chul [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A broadband hexagonal-shaped metamaterials (MTMs)-based zeroth-order resonant (ZOR) antenna was designed and fabricated. The hexagonal shape of a top patch on a mushroom structure makes not only direct-current paths between the two ends of the patch but also round-current paths along the outside of the patch, thereby widening the resonance frequency of the mushroom MTM antenna. According to the shape of the hexagon patch, the presented antenna achieved impedance bandwidth of 58.6% corresponding to ultra-wideband technology. The proposed ZOR antenna was modeled by utilizing a composite right- and left-handed (CRLH) transmission line and provided 4 to 9.3 dBi of the antenna gain with reduced size as compared to conventional microstrip antennas at Ku- to K-band frequencies.

  13. Grain-Boundary Resistance in Copper Interconnects: From an Atomistic Model to a Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Daniel; Wilson, Evan; Jiang, Zhengping; Valencia-Zapata, Gustavo A.; Wang, Kuang-Chung; Klimeck, Gerhard; Povolotskyi, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Orientation effects on the specific resistance of copper grain boundaries are studied systematically with two different atomistic tight-binding methods. A methodology is developed to model the specific resistance of grain boundaries in the ballistic limit using the embedded atom model, tight- binding methods, and nonequilibrium Green's functions. The methodology is validated against first-principles calculations for thin films with a single coincident grain boundary, with 6.4% deviation in the specific resistance. A statistical ensemble of 600 large, random structures with grains is studied. For structures with three grains, it is found that the distribution of specific resistances is close to normal. Finally, a compact model for grain-boundary-specific resistance is constructed based on a neural network.

  14. Van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of hexagonal tellurium nanoplates on flexible mica sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qisheng; Safdar, Muhammad; Xu, Kai; Mirza, Misbah; Wang, Zhenxing; He, Jun

    2014-07-22

    Van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) is of great interest due to its extensive applications in the synthesis of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. However, vdWE of nonlayered functional materials is still not very well documented. Here, although tellurium has a strong tendency to grow into one-dimensional nanoarchitecture due to its chain-like structure, we successfully realize 2D hexagonal tellurium nanoplates on flexible mica sheets via vdWE. Chemically inert mica surface is found to be crucial for the lateral growth of hexagonal tellurium nanoplates since it (1) facilitates the migration of tellurium adatoms along mica surface and (2) allows a large lattice mismatch. Furthermore, 2D tellurium hexagonal nanoplates-based photodetectors are in situ fabricated on flexible mica sheets. Efficient photoresponse is obtained even after bending the device for 100 times, indicating 2D tellurium hexagonal nanoplates-based photodetectors on mica sheets have a great application potential in flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices. We believe the fundamental understanding of vdWE effect on the growth of 2D tellurium hexagonal nanoplate can pave the way toward leveraging vdWE as a useful channel to realize the 2D geometry of other nonlayered materials.

  15. Thermal performance analysis of optimized hexagonal finned heat sinks in impinging air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, Kenan, E-mail: kyakut@atauni.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Atatürk University, 25100, Erzurum (Turkey); Yeşildal, Faruk, E-mail: fayesildal@agri.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Patnos Sultan Alparslan Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, 04100, Ağrı (Turkey); Karabey, Altuğ, E-mail: akarabey@yyu.edu.tr [Department of Machinery and Metal Technology, Erciş Vocational High School, Yüzüncü Yıl University, 65400, Van (Turkey); Yakut, Rıdvan, E-mail: ryakut@kafkas.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kafkas University, 36100, Kars (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study, thermal performance analysis of hexagonal finned heat sinks which optimized according to the experimental design and optimization method of Taguchi were investigated. Experiments of air jet impingement on heated hexagonal finned heat sinks were carried out adhering to the L{sub 18}(2{sup 1*}3{sup 6}) orthogonal array test plan. Optimum geometries were determined and named OH-1, OH-2. Enhancement efficiency with the first law of thermodynamics was analyzed for optimized heat sinks with 100, 150, 200 mm heights of hexagonal fin. Nusselt correlations were found out and variations of enhancement efficiency with Reynolds number presented in η–Re graphics.

  16. Magnetic ground state of the multiferroic hexagonal LuFe O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Pittala; Vijaya Laxmi, K.; Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Chittari, Bheema Lingam; Jung, Jeil; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electric, and magnetic properties of bulk hexagonal LuFe O3 are investigated. Single phase hexagonal LuFe O3 has been successfully stabilized in the bulk form without any doping by sol-gel method. The hexagonal crystal structure with P 63c m space group has been confirmed by x-ray-diffraction, neutron-diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy study at room temperature. Neutron diffraction confirms the hexagonal phase of LuFe O3 persists down to 6 K. Further, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy established the 3+ oxidation state of Fe ions. The temperature-dependent magnetic dc susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron-diffraction studies confirm an antiferromagnetic ordering below the Néel temperature (TN)˜130 K . Analysis of magnetic neutron-diffraction patterns reveals an in-plane (a b -plane) 120∘ antiferromagnetic structure, characterized by a propagation vector k =(0 0 0 ) with an ordered moment of 2.84 μB/F e3 + at 6 K. The 120∘ antifferomagnetic ordering is further confirmed by spin-orbit coupling density functional theory calculations. The on-site coulomb interaction (U ) and Hund's parameter (JH) on Fe atoms reproduced the neutron-diffraction Γ1 spin pattern among the Fe atoms. P -E loop measurements at room temperature confirm an intrinsic ferroelectricity of the sample with remnant polarization Pr˜0.18 μ C /c m2 . A clear anomaly in the dielectric data is observed at ˜TN revealing the presence of magnetoelectric coupling. A change in the lattice constants at TN has also been found, indicating the presence of a strong magnetoelastic coupling. Thus a coupling between lattice, electric, and magnetic degrees of freedom is established in bulk hexagonal LuFe O3 .

  17. Facile synthesis and characterization of hexagonal NbSe2 nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xianghua; Zhang, Du; Tang, Hua; Ji, Xiaorui; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Guogang; Li, Changsheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform hexagonal NbSe 2 nanoplates were prepared by a simple solid state reaction. • The possible formation mechanism of the NbSe 2 nanoplates was discussed. • The formation of NbSe 2 nanoplates undergoes a series of phase transition. - Abstract: The NbSe 2 nanoplates with hexagonal morphology have been successfully prepared by a facile, environmentally friendly reaction in closed reactor at moderate temperature. The thermal (750 °C) solid-state reaction between the ball-milled mixture of micro-sized Nb and Se yielded a high yield of NbSe 2 nanoplates. The as-prepared products were characterized by XRD, EDS, and SEM. The results showed that the as-prepared products were hexagonal phase NbSe 2 nanoplates with uniform sizes and the formation of NbSe 2 nanoplates underwent a series of phase transition. On the basis of experimental results obtained at different temperatures, a reasonable reaction process and a formation mechanism were proposed. Moreover, the ball milling time played a crucial role in acquiring the homogeneous distribution nanoplates

  18. Uniform hexagonal graphene flakes and films grown on liquid copper surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dechao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Huang, Liping; Xue, Yunzhou; Chen, Jianyi; Yu, Gui; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping; Liu, Yunqi

    2012-05-22

    Unresolved problems associated with the production of graphene materials include the need for greater control over layer number, crystallinity, size, edge structure and spatial orientation, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here we report a chemical vapor deposition approach that allows the direct synthesis of uniform single-layered, large-size (up to 10,000 μm(2)), spatially self-aligned, and single-crystalline hexagonal graphene flakes (HGFs) and their continuous films on liquid Cu surfaces. Employing a liquid Cu surface completely eliminates the grain boundaries in solid polycrystalline Cu, resulting in a uniform nucleation distribution and low graphene nucleation density, but also enables self-assembly of HGFs into compact and ordered structures. These HGFs show an average two-dimensional resistivity of 609 ± 200 Ω and saturation current density of 0.96 ± 0.15 mA/μm, demonstrating their good conductivity and capability for carrying high current density.

  19. On the perfect hexagonal packing of rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, E L

    2006-01-01

    In most cases the hexagonal packing of fibrous structures or rods extremizes the energy of interaction between strands. If the strands are not straight, then it is still possible to form a perfect hexatic bundle. Conditions under which the perfect hexagonal packing of curved tubular structures may exist are formulated. Particular attention is given to closed or cycled arrangements of the rods like in the DNA toroids and spools. The closure or return constraints of the bundle result in an allowable group of automorphisms of the cross-sectional hexagonal lattice. The structure of this group is explored. Examples of open helical-like and closed toroidal-like bundles are presented. An expression for the elastic energy of a perfectly packed bundle of thin elastic rods is derived. The energy accounts for both the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the rods. It is shown that equilibria of the bundle correspond to solutions of a variational problem formulated for the curve representing the axis of the bundle. The functional involves a function of the squared curvature under the constraints on the total torsion and the length. The Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained in terms of curvature and torsion and due to the existence of the first integrals the problem is reduced to the quadrature. The three-dimensional shape of the bundle may be readily reconstructed by integration of the Ilyukhin-type equations in special cylindrical coordinates. The results are of universal nature and are applicable to various fibrous structures, in particular, to intramolecular liquid crystals formed by DNA condensed in toroids or packed inside the viral capsids

  20. Laboratory testing of joints between windows and highly insulated cavity walls. Investigations of tightness against rain and wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, A

    1983-10-01

    In the Danish energy research programme, 1EFP 80, a number of laboratory tests have been carried out on models of highly insulated cavity brick walls in order to study rain- and wind tightness of the joints between windows and such walls. Tests have been carried out with joints tightened only with a rain barrier as well as with joints according to the two stage joint principle. In the exterior part of the joint has in both cases been used a mortar, and expanding gasket, an EPDM-profile and wooden battens. Further an experiment has been carried out on a plastic window, where mastic was used as well in the exterior as the interior part of the joint. The findings were that a two-stage joint gives the best performance as well regarding air tightness as rain tightness. Further the experiments have shown that a window frame should have a depth of at least 90 mm in order to design a joint between window and wall, which is satisfactory as well regarding thermal insulation as resistance to rain and wind.

  1. Electronic structure of nanoparticles of substoichometric hexagonal tungsten oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhun, O Y; Solonin, Y M

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods were used to study the electronic structure of hexagonal h-WO 3 and h-WO 2.8 nanoparticles. For comparison, nanopowder substoichiometric monoclinic tungsten oxides with close content of oxygen atoms, namely m-WO 3 and m-WO 2.77 compounds, were also investigated. For the mentioned oxides, XPS valence-band and corelevel spectra, XES O Kα bands and XAS W L III and O 1s edges were derived. The XPS valence-band spectra and O Kα emission bands in the mentioned hexagonal and monoclinic tungsten oxides were compared on a common energy scale. Both the O Kα bands and XPS valence-band spectra broaden somewhat in the sequences h-WO 3 → h-WO 2.8 and m-WO 3 → m-WO 2.77 , with the half-widths of the spectra being somewhat higher for the hexagonal oxides as compared with those for the monoclinic compounds. The effective positive charge state of tungsten atoms in h-WO 2.8 is very close to that in m-WO 2.77 , but the negative charge states of oxygen atoms are close to each other for all the tungsten oxides under consideration

  2. Simulate-HEX - The multi-group diffusion equation in hexagonal-z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S. O.

    2013-01-01

    The multigroup diffusion equation is solved for the hexagonal-z geometry by dividing each hexagon into 6 triangles. In each triangle, the Fourier solution of the wave equation is approximated by 8 plane waves to describe the intra-nodal flux accurately. In the end an efficient Finite Difference like equation is obtained. The coefficients of this equation depend on the flux solution itself and they are updated once per power/void iteration. A numerical example demonstrates the high accuracy of the method. (authors)

  3. Room-temperature synthesis and photoluminescence of hexagonal CePO4 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, K.; Zhao, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal CePO4 nanorods were synthesized via a simple chemical precipitation route at room-temperature without the presence of surfactants and then characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Hexagonal CePO4 nanorods exhibit strong ultraviolet absorption and ultraviolet luminescence, which correspond to the electronic transitions between 4f and 5d state of Ce3+ ions.

  4. Communication: Water on hexagonal boron nitride from diffusion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Ma, Ming; Michaelides, Angelos, E-mail: angelos.michaelides@ucl.ac.uk [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Alfè, Dario [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratories, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Despite a recent flurry of experimental and simulation studies, an accurate estimate of the interaction strength of water molecules with hexagonal boron nitride is lacking. Here, we report quantum Monte Carlo results for the adsorption of a water monomer on a periodic hexagonal boron nitride sheet, which yield a water monomer interaction energy of −84 ± 5 meV. We use the results to evaluate the performance of several widely used density functional theory (DFT) exchange correlation functionals and find that they all deviate substantially. Differences in interaction energies between different adsorption sites are however better reproduced by DFT.

  5. Dielectric response of molecules in empirical tight-binding theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Vogl, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we generalize our previous approach to electromagnetic interactions within empirical tight-binding theory to encompass molecular solids and isolated molecules. In order to guarantee physically meaningful results, we rederive the expressions for relevant observables using commutation relations appropriate to the finite tight-binding Hilbert space. In carrying out this generalization, we examine in detail the consequences of various prescriptions for the position and momentum operators in tight binding. We show that attempting to fit parameters of the momentum matrix directly generally results in a momentum operator which is incompatible with the underlying tight-binding model, while adding extra position parameters results in numerous difficulties, including the loss of gauge invariance. We have applied our scheme, which we term the Peierls-coupling tight-binding method, to the optical dielectric function of the molecular solid PPP, showing that this approach successfully predicts its known optical properties even in the limit of isolated molecules.

  6. Phase stabilisation of hexagonal barium titanate doped with transition metals: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.A.; Freeman, C.L.; Harding, J.H.; Sinclair, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Interatomic potentials recently developed for the modelling of BaTiO 3 have been used to explore the stabilisation of the hexagonal polymorph of BaTiO 3 by doping with transition metals (namely Mn, Co, Fe and Ni) at the Ti-site. Classical simulations have been completed on both the cubic and hexagonal polymorphs to investigate the energetic consequences of transition metal doping on each polymorph. Ti-site charge compensation mechanisms have been used for the multi-valent transition metal ions and cluster binding energies have been considered. Simulations show a significant energetic gain when doping occurs at Ti sites in the face sharing dimers (Ti 2 sites) of the hexagonal polymorph compared with the doping of the cubic polymorph. This energetic difference between the two polymorphs is true for all transition metals tested and all charge states and in the case of tri- and tetra-valent dopants negative solution energies are found for the hexagonal polymorph suggesting actual polymorph stabilisation occurs with the incorporation of these ions as observed experimentally. Oxidation during incorporation of Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ ions has also been considered. - Graphical abstract: The representation of the strongest binding energy clusters for tri-valent dopants—(a) Ti 2 /O 1 cluster and (b) Ti 2 /O 2 cluster. Highlights: ► Classical simulations show a significant energetic gain when doping occurs at Ti sites in the face sharing dimers (Ti2 sites) of the hexagonal polymorph compared with the doping of the cubic polymorph. ► This energetic difference between the two polymorphs is true for all transition metals tested and all charge states. ► In the case of tri- and tetra- valent dopants negative solution energies are found for the hexagonal polymorph suggesting actual polymorph stabilisation occurs with the incorporation of these ions

  7. Tensile Behaviour of Welded Wire Mesh and Hexagonal Metal Mesh for Ferrocement Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanawade, A. G.; Modhera, C. D.

    2017-08-01

    Tension tests were conducted on welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. Welded Mesh is available in the market in different sizes. The two types are analysed viz. Ø 2.3 mm and Ø 2.7 mm welded mesh, having opening size 31.75 mm × 31.75 mm and 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm respectively. Tensile strength test was performed on samples of welded mesh in three different orientations namely 0°, 30° and 45° degrees with the loading axis and hexagonal Metal mesh of Ø 0.7 mm, having opening 19.05 × 19.05 mm. Experimental tests were conducted on samples of these meshes. The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of the welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. The result shows that the tension load carrying capacity of welded mesh of Ø 2.7 mm of 0° orientation is good as compared to Ø2.3 mm mesh and ductility of hexagonal Metal mesh is good in behaviour.

  8. Thermal transport across graphene and single layer hexagonal boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingchao; Hong, Yang; Yue, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    As the dimensions of nanocircuits and nanoelectronics shrink, thermal energies are being generated in more confined spaces, making it extremely important and urgent to explore for efficient heat dissipation pathways. In this work, the phonon energy transport across graphene and hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) interface is studied using classic molecular dynamics simulations. Effects of temperature, interatomic bond strength, heat flux direction, and functionalization on interfacial thermal transport are investigated. It is found out that by hydrogenating graphene in the hybrid structure, the interfacial thermal resistance (R) between graphene and h-BN can be reduced by 76.3%, indicating an effective approach to manipulate the interfacial thermal transport. Improved in-plane/out-of-plane phonon couplings and broadened phonon channels are observed in the hydrogenated graphene system by analyzing its phonon power spectra. The reported R results monotonically decrease with temperature and interatomic bond strengths. No thermal rectification phenomenon is observed in this interfacial thermal transport. Results reported in this work give the fundamental knowledge on graphene and h-BN thermal transport and provide rational guidelines for next generation thermal interface material designs

  9. Moving antiplane shear crack in hexagonal piezoelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupholme, G.

    1998-01-01

    Closed form solutions are obtained and discussed for the stress and electric displacement fields around a loaded Griffith-type antiplane shear strip crack moving in hexagonal piezoelectric crystals. Representative numerical results are presented for ZnO and PZT-5H. (author)

  10. Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping; Yuan, Ying; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xinqiang; Zheng, Xiantong; Rong, Xin; Wang, Tao; Sheng, Bowen; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Bian, Lifeng; Yang, Xue-Lin; Xu, Fu-Jun; Qin, Zhixin; Li, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    by first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The formation of diagonal pyramids for the N-polarity hexagonal NWs affords a novel way to locate quantum dot in the kink position, suggesting a new recipe for the fabrication of dot-based devices.

  11. Comparison of Olympic and Hexagonal Barbells With Midthigh Pull, Deadlift, and Countermovement Jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyszek, Kylie K; Harmon, RoQue A; Dunnick, Dustin D; Costa, Pablo B; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Malyszek, KK, Harmon, RA, Dunnick, DD, Costa, PB, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Comparison of olympic and hexagonal barbells with midthigh pull, deadlift, and countermovement jump. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 140-145, 2017-Those training for strength and power commonly use different bars and different lifts. The hexagonal barbell (HBar) and Olympic barbell (OBar) are frequently used training implements, and the midthigh pull (MTP) and deadlift (DL) are 2 popular exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare force between an HBar and OBar for a MTP, DL, and countermovement jump (CMJ). Twenty resistance-trained men (age = 24.05 ± 2.09 years, ht = 178.07 ± 7.05 cm, mass = 91.42 ± 14.44 kg) volunteered to participate and performed MTP and DL using both bars and a CMJ. Joint angles were recorded for all pulls and the bottom position of the CMJ. Peak ground reaction force (PGRF) was greater in the MTP (3,186.88 ± 543.53 N) than DL (2,501.15 ± 404.04 N) but not different between bars. Midthigh pull joint angles were more extended than DL, and the strongest correlations between isometric and dynamic performance were seen between DL PGRF and CMJ impulse (OBar r = 0.85; HBar r = 0.84). These findings are likely because of the different anatomical characteristics between the MTP and DL and the similarity in joint angles between the DL and CMJ. Therefore, the DL may be an optimal choice for athletes in jump-dependent sports, regardless of bar.

  12. Thermodynamics of the hexagonal close-packed iron-nitrogen system from first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten Bjørn

    to hexagonal systems and a numerically tractable extended equation of state is developed to describe thermody-namic equilibrium properties at finite temperature.The model is applied to ε-Fe3N specifically. Through the versatility of the model, equi-librium lattice parameters, the bulk modulus, and the thermal......First-principles thermodynamic models are developed for the hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe-N system. The system can be considered as a hexagonal close-packed host lattice of iron atoms and with the nitrogen atoms residing on a sublattice formed by the octahedral interstices. The iron host lattice...... is assumed fixed.The models are developed entirely from first-principles calculations based on fundamen-tal quantum mechanical calculation through the density functional theory approach with the atomic numbers and crystal structures as the only input parameters. A complete thermody-namic description should...

  13. Intrinsic Dirac half-metal and quantum anomalous Hall phase in a hexagonal metal-oxide lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-juan; Zhang, Chang-wen; Zhang, Shu-feng; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-shi; Yan, Shi-shen

    2017-11-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has attracted extensive attention due to time-reversal symmetry broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and spin-orbit coupling. However, the experimental observations of the QAH effect are still challenging due to its small nontrivial bulk gap. Here, based on density functional theory and Berry curvature calculations, we propose the realization of intrinsic QAH effect in two-dimensional hexagonal metal-oxide lattice, N b2O3 , which is characterized by the nonzero Chern number (C =1 ) and chiral edge states. Spin-polarized calculations indicate that it exhibits a Dirac half-metal feature with temperature as large as TC=392 K using spin-wave theory. When the spin-orbit coupling is switched on, N b2O3 becomes a QAH insulator. Notably, the nontrivial topology is robust against biaxial strain with its band gap reaching up to Eg=75 meV , which is far beyond room temperature. A tight-binding model is further constructed to understand the origin of nontrivially electronic properties. Our findings on the Dirac half-metal and room-temperature QAH effect in the N b2O3 lattice can serve as an ideal platform for developing future topotronics devices.

  14. Group of Hexagonal Search Patterns for Motion Estimation and Object Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elazm, A.A.; Mahmoud, I.I; Hashima, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a group of fast block matching algorithms based on the hexagon pattern search .A new predicted one point hexagon (POPHEX) algorithm is proposed and compared with other well known algorithms. The comparison of these algorithms and our proposed one is performed for both motion estimation and object tracking. Test video sequences are used to demonstrate the behavior of studied algorithms. All algorithms are implemented in MATLAB environment .Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm posses less number of search points however its computational overhead is little increased due to prediction procedure.

  15. Eu3+-doped Y2O3 hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Errui; Li, Guangshe; Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xinsong; Xu, Wen; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu 3+ concentration in Y 2 O 3 , an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y 2 O 3 is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) to Y 2 O 3 was discussed. • Aspect ratio of prisms was tailored by the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. • Luminescence properties were

  16. Improved Density Functional Tight Binding Potentials for Metalloid Aluminum Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    unlimited IMPROVED DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL TIGHT BINDING POTENTIALS FOR METALLOID ALUMINUM CLUSTERS by Joon H. Kim June 2016 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPROVED DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL TIGHT BINDING POTENTIALS FOR METALLOID ALUMINUM CLUSTERS 5. FUNDING...repulsive potentials for use in density-functional tight binding (DFTB) simulations of low-valence aluminum metalloid clusters . These systems are under

  17. Research on the comparison of extension mechanism of cellular automaton based on hexagon grid and rectangular grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xinyan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Weng, Jie

    2009-10-01

    Historically, cellular automata (CA) is a discrete dynamical mathematical structure defined on spatial grid. Research on cellular automata system (CAS) has focused on rule sets and initial condition and has not discussed its adjacency. Thus, the main focus of our study is the effect of adjacency on CA behavior. This paper is to compare rectangular grids with hexagonal grids on their characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. They have great influence on modeling effects and other applications including the role of nearest neighborhood in experimental design. Our researches present that rectangular and hexagonal grids have different characteristics. They are adapted to distinct aspects, and the regular rectangular or square grid is used more often than the hexagonal grid. But their relative merits have not been widely discussed. The rectangular grid is generally preferred because of its symmetry, especially in orthogonal co-ordinate system and the frequent use of raster from Geographic Information System (GIS). However, in terms of complex terrain, uncertain and multidirectional region, we have preferred hexagonal grids and methods to facilitate and simplify the problem. Hexagonal grids can overcome directional warp and have some unique characteristics. For example, hexagonal grids have a simpler and more symmetric nearest neighborhood, which avoids the ambiguities of the rectangular grids. Movement paths or connectivity, the most compact arrangement of pixels, make hexagonal appear great dominance in the process of modeling and analysis. The selection of an appropriate grid should be based on the requirements and objectives of the application. We use rectangular and hexagonal grids respectively for developing city model. At the same time we make use of remote sensing images and acquire 2002 and 2005 land state of Wuhan. On the base of city land state in 2002, we make use of CA to simulate reasonable form of city in 2005. Hereby, these results provide a proof of

  18. Preparation and properties of hexagonal boron nitride fibers used as high temperature membrane filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xinmei, E-mail: houxinmei@ustb.edu.cn; Yu, Ziyou; Li, Yang; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • h-BN fibers were successfully fabricated using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6} as raw materials. • The obtained BN fibers were polycrystalline and uniform in morphology. • It exhibited good oxidation resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride fibers were synthesized via polymeric precursor method using boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) and melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) as raw materials. The precursor fibers were synthesized by water bath and BN fibers were prepared from the precursor at 1873 K for 3 h in flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The crystalline phase and microstructures of BN fibers were examined by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The results showed that h-BN fibers with uniform morphology were successfully fabricated. The well-synthesized BN fibers were polycrystalline with 0.4–1.5 μm in diameter and 200–500 μm in length. The as-prepared samples exhibited good oxidation resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient at high temperature.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha increases epithelial barrier permeability by disrupting tight junctions in Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α on intestinal epithelial cell permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins. Caco-2 cells were plated onto Transwell® microporous filters and treated with TNF-α (10 or 100 ng/mL for 0, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h. The transepithelial electrical resistance and the mucosal-to-serosal flux rates of the established paracellular marker Lucifer yellow were measured in filter-grown monolayers of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The localization and expression of the tight junction protein occludin were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis, respectively. SYBR-Green-based real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of occludin mRNA. TNF-α treatment produced concentration- and time-dependent decreases in Caco-2 transepithelial resistance and increases in transepithelial permeability to the paracellular marker Lucifer yellow. Western blot results indicated that TNF-α decreased the expression of phosphorylated occludin in detergent-insoluble fractions but did not affect the expression of non-phosphorylated occludin protein. Real-time RT-PCR data showed that TNF-α did not affect the expression of occludin mRNA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TNF-α increases Caco-2 monolayer permeability, decreases occludin protein expression and disturbs intercellular junctions.

  20. Humidity effects on the electrical properties of hexagonal boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, A. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie/CNRS UMR 8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)]. E-mail: ali.soltani@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Thevenin, P. [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques Photonique et Systemes/CNRS FRE 2304, Universite de Metz and Supelec, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Bakhtiar, H. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Technology University of Malaysia, Karung Berkunci 791, 80990, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bath, A. [Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques Photonique et Systemes/CNRS FRE 2304, Universite de Metz and Supelec, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz (France)]. E-mail: bath@metz.supelec.fr

    2005-01-03

    Thin films of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were grown by a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The quality of the films was assessed by infrared spectroscopy, microRaman spectroscopy as a function of annealing temperature and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The films proved to be thermally stable up to 1370 K. Current-voltage measurements were performed, as a function of humidity, using metal-insulator-semiconductor and metal-insulator-metal structures. Typical resistivities were found in the range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} {omega} cm in dry air and exhibit high sensitivity against humidity. The influence of the mean orientation of the c-axis of the BN films was considered. Sawtooth voltage pulse trains were also applied. Threshold switching phenomena were observed, but only in atmosphere containing humidity. The values of the switching voltages depend strongly on the relative humidity (RH), on the characteristics of the applied sawtooth voltage pulse trains, as well as on the nature of the metallic electrode.

  1. Ferromagnetism in a hexagonal PrRh3 with 4f2 configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. B.; Yamane, Y.; Onimaru, T.; Umeo, K.; Takabatake, T.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical resistivity ρ , magnetization M and specific heat C are reported for polycrystalline samples of the hexagonal system PrRh3. The magnetic susceptibility M/B obeys the Curie-Weiss law with the effective magnetic moment μeff = 3.88 μB/Pr and the paramagnetic Curie temperature θp = +2.9 K, which indicates ferro-type magnetic interaction between the trivalent Pr ions. A cusp in C(T) at 3.0 K coincides with a bend in ρ (T). Applying magnetic fields, the peak broadens and shifts to higher temperatures. The field dependence indicates a ferro-type magnetic order. The magnetic entropy Sm is (1/3)Rln2 at TC = 3.0 K, suggesting that part of the Pr ions take part in the magnetic order. A broad tail of the magnetic specific heat Cm observed above TC may result from short-range correlations and/or fluctuations of the active magnetic dipole and quadrupoles in the ground state doublet.

  2. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  3. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-12-05

    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  4. The response-matrix based AFEN method for the hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jae Man; Kim, Keung Koo; Zee, Sung Quun; Joo, Hyung Kook; Cho, Byng Oh; Jeong, Hyung Guk; Cho, Jin Young

    1998-03-01

    The analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method, developed to overcome the limitations caused by the transverse integration, has been successfully to predict the neutron behavior in the hexagonal core as well as rectangular core. In the hexagonal node, the transverse leakage resulted from the transverse integration has some singular terms such as delta-function and step-functions near the node center line. In most nodal methods using the transverse integration, the accuracy of nodal method is degraded because the transverse leakage is approximated as a smooth function across the node center line by ignoring singular terms. However, the AFEN method in which there is no transverse leakage term in deriving nodal coupling equations keeps good accuracy for hexagonal node. In this study, the AFEN method which shows excellent accuracy in the hexagonal core analyses is reformulated as a response matrix form. This form of the AFEN method can be implemented easily to nodal codes based on the response matrix method. Therefore, the Coarse Mesh Rebalance (CMR) acceleration technique which is one of main advantages of the response matrix method can be utilized for the AFEN method. The response matrix based AFEN method has been successfully implemented into the MASTER code and its accuracy and computational efficiency were examined by analyzing the two- and three- dimensional benchmark problem of VVER-440. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the newly formulated AFEN method predicts accurately the assembly powers (within 0.2% average error) as well as the effective multiplication factor (within 0.2% average error) as well as the effective multiplication factor (within 20 pcm error). In addition, the CMR acceleration technique is quite efficient in reducing the computation time of the AFEN method by 8 to 10 times. (author). 22 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Goldblum, S E; Fasano, A

    2000-12-01

    Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability. We postulated that this toxin may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of intestinal tight junctions. Affinity-purified anti-zonula occludens toxin antibodies and the Ussing chamber assay were used to screen for one or more mammalian zonula occludens toxin analogues in both fetal and adult human intestine. A novel protein, zonulin, was identified that induces tight junction disassembly in non-human primate intestinal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Comparison of amino acids in the active zonula occludens toxin fragment and zonulin permitted the identification of the putative receptor binding domain within the N-terminal region of the two proteins. Zonulin likely plays a pivotal role in tight junction regulation during developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including tissue morphogenesis, movement of fluid, macromolecules and leukocytes between the intestinal lumen and the interstitium, and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders.

  6. Solution of 2D and 3D hexagonal geometry benchmark problems by using the finite element diffusion code DIFGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, J.

    1986-02-01

    The four group, 2D and 3D hexagonal geometry HTGR benchmark problems and a 2D hexagonal geometry PWR (WWER) benchmark problem have been solved by using the finite element diffusion code DIFGEN. The hexagons (or hexagonal prisms) were subdivided into first order or second order triangles or quadrilaterals (or triangular or quadrilateral prisms). In the 2D HTGR case of the number of the inserted absorber rods was also varied (7, 6, 0 or 37 rods). The calculational results are in a good agreement with the results of other calculations. The larger systematic series of DIFGEN calculations have given a quantitative picture on the convergence properties of various finite element modellings of hexagonal grids in DIFGEN. (orig.)

  7. Control rod effects on reaction rate distributions in tight pitched PuO2-UO2 fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Choong-Sup; Okumura, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Yukio

    1991-11-01

    Investigations were made for the heterogeneity effects caused by insertion or withdrawal of a B 4 C control rod on fine structure of reaction rates distributions in a tight pitched PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel assembly. Analysis was carried out by using the VIM and SRAC codes with the libraries based on JENDL-2 for the hexagonal fuel assembly basically corresponding to the PROTEUS-LWHCR experimental core. The reaction rates are affected more remarkably by the withdrawal of the control rod rather than its insertion. The changes of the reaction rates were decomposed into three terms of spectrum shifts, the changes of effective cross sections with fine groups, and their higher order components. From the analysis, it is concluded that most changes of reaction rates are caused by spectral shifts. The SRAC code with fine group constants can predict the distribution of reaction rates and their ratios with the accuracy of about 5 % except for the values related to Pu-242 capture rate, as compared with the VIM results. To increase the accuracy, it is necessary to generate the effective cross sections of the fuel near control rods with consideration of the heterogeneities in the fuel assembly. (author)

  8. Density functional simulations of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5 at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, Sebastiano; Sosso, Gabriele C.; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the structural transformations of the hexagonal phase of Ge2Sb2Te5 under pressure by means of ab initio molecular dynamics with a variable simulation cell. To overcome the enthalpy barriers between the different phases we used metadynamics techniques. We reproduced the hexagonal-to-bcc transformation under pressure found experimentally. The bcc phase retains a partial chemical order, as opposed to a second bcc phase we generated by pressuring the amorphous phase. This structural difference is suggested to be responsible for the memory effect uncovered experimentally, the bcc phase reverting to the amorphous or to the hexagonal phase upon decompression, depending on the type of precursor phase it originates from.

  9. Switching behavior and novel stable states of magnetic hexagonal nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasir Rafique, M., E-mail: myasir.rafique@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Pan, Liqing; Guo, Zhengang [College of Science and Research Institute for New Energy, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Micromagnetic simulations for Cobalt hexagonal shape nanorings show onion (O) and vortex state (V) along with new state named “tri-domain state”. The tri-domain state is observed in sufficiently large width of ring. The magnetic reversible mechanism and transition of states are explained with help of vector field display. The transitions from one state to other occur by propagation of domain wall. The vertical parts of hexagonal rings play important role in developing the new “tri-domain” state. The behaviors of switching fields from onion to tri-domain (HO-Tr), tri-domain to vortex state (HTr-V) and vortex to onion state and “states size” are discussed in term of geometrical parameter of ring.

  10. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  11. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Blair, Richard G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: Nina.Orlovskaya@ucf.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Andrew Payzant, E. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  12. Growth and Brilliant Photo-Emission of Crystalline Hexagonal Column of Alq3 Microwires

    OpenAIRE

    Seokho Kim; Do Hyoung Kim; Jinho Choi; Hojin Lee; Sun-Young Kim; Jung Woon Park; Dong Hyuk Park

    2018-01-01

    We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3) with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq3 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq3 were grown by using a surfactant-assisted self-assembly technique as an adjunct to the aforementioned reprecipitation method. The formation and structural properties of the crystalline and non-crystalline Alq3 NPs were...

  13. Tight fitting garter springs-MODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Annulus spacers are used in CANDU reactors to maintain the annular gap between two tubes - an inner pressure tube (PT) and the outer calandria tube (CT). Typically four annulus spacers are used in one fuel channel assembly, each at a specified axial position. Bruce Unit 8 and many other CANDU units were constructed with tight-fitting garter springs (TFGS). The TFGS were not designed to be detected or relocated by the conventional tool, Spacer Location And Repositioning (SLAR) processes. Due to non-optimal 'As Left' construction locations for the Bruce Unit 8 TFGS, PT/CT contact has been predicted to occur well prior to its End of Life (EOL). Bruce Power entered a Project with AECL-CRL to design, manufacture and test and implement a new tooling system that would detect and reposition tight fitting annulus spacers. (author)

  14. The Formation and Characterization of GaN Hexagonal Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Ying; Xiu, Xiang-Qian; Lin, Zeng-Qin; Hua, Xue-Mei; Xie, Zi-Li; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Dou

    2013-05-01

    GaN with hexagonal pyramids is fabricated using the photo-assisted electroless chemical etching method. Defective areas of the GaN substrate are selectively etched in a mixed solution of KOH and K2S2O8 under ultraviolet illumination, producing submicron-sized pyramids. Hexagonal pyramids on the etched GaN with well-defined {101¯1¯} facets and very sharp tips are formed. High-resolution x-ray diffraction shows that etched GaN with pyramids has a higher crystal quality, and micro-Raman spectra reveal a tensile stress relaxation in GaN with pyramids compared with normal GaN. The cathodoluminescence intensity of GaN after etching is significantly increased by three times, which is attributed to the reduction in the internal reflection, high-quality GaN with pyramids and the Bragg effect.

  15. Three-dimensional measurement of a tightly focused laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Xie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a tightly focused light field is measured with a double knife-edge scanning method. The measurement method is based on the use of a high-quality double knife-edge fabricated from a right-angled silicon fragment mounted on a photodetector. The reconstruction of the three-dimensional structures of tightly focused spots is carried out with both uniform and partially obstructed linearly polarized incident light beams. The optical field distribution is found to deviate substantially from the input beam profile in the tightly focused region, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.

  16. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  17. Hexagonal tube behaviour in fuel assemblies under neutron flux in a French fast neutron reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Ammann, P.

    This paper presents what is obtained in the field of the interpretation by calculation of the post irradiation examination of hexagonal tubes, and in the field of prevision by calculation of the behaviour of hexagonal tubes under fast flux [fr

  18. Fabrication of nickel hydroxide electrodes with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays for high capacitance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Huang, Kuo-Chih

    2011-11-28

    A nickel hydroxide electrode with open-ended hexagonal nanotube arrays, prepared by hydrolysis of nickel chloride in the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanorods, shows a very high capacitance of 1328 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) due to the significantly improved ion transport.

  19. Tracking algorithms for multi-hexagonal assemblies (2D and 3D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabha, Hem; Marleau, Guy; Hébert, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the method of computations of 2D and 3D fluxes in hexagonal assemblies. • Computation of fluxes requires computation of track lengths. • Equations are developed (in 2D and 3D) and are implemented in a program HX7. • The program HX7 is implemented in the NXT module of the code DRAGON. • The tracks are plotted and fluxes are compared with the EXCELT module of DRAGON. - Abstract: Background: There has been a continuous effort to design new reactors and study these reactors under different conditions. Some of these reactors have fuel pins arranged in hexagonal pitch. To study these reactors, development of computational methods and computer codes is required. For this purpose, we have developed algorithms to track two dimensional and three dimensional cluster geometries. These algorithms have been implemented in a subprogram HX7, that is implemented in the code DRAGON (Version 3.06F) to compute neutron flux distributions in these systems. Methods: Computation of the neutron flux distribution requires solution of neutron transport equation. While solving this equation, by using Carlvik’s method of collision probabilities, computation of tracks in the hexagonal geometries is required. In this paper we present equations that we have developed for the computation of tracks in two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) multi-hexagonal assemblies (with two rotational orientations). These equations have been implemented in a subprogram HX7, to compute tracks in seven hexagonal assemblies. The subprogram HX7 has been implemented in the NXT module of the DRAGON code, where tracks in the pins are computed. Results: The results of our algorithms NXT(+HX7) have been compared with the results obtained by the EXCELT module of DRAGON (Version 3.06F). Conclusions: We find that all the fluxes in 2D and fluxes in the outer pin (3D) are converging to their 3rd decimal places, in both the modules EXCELT and NXT(+HX7). For other regions 3D fluxes

  20. Identification of a rice gene (Bph 1) conferring resistance to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal) using STS markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Man; Sohn, Jae-Keun

    2005-08-31

    This study was carried out to identify a high-resolution marker for a gene conferring resistance to brown planthopper (BPH) biotype 1, using japonica type resistant lines. Bulked segregant analyses were conducted using 520 RAPD primers to identify RAPD fragments linked to the BPH resistance gene. Eleven RAPDs were shown to be polymorphic amplicons between resistant and susceptible progeny. One of these primers, OPE 18, which amplified a 923 bp band tightly linked to resistance, was converted into a sequence-tagged-site (STS) marker. The STS marker, BpE18-3, was easily detectable as a dominant band with tight linkage (3.9cM) to Bph1. It promises to be useful as a marker for assisted selection of resistant progeny in backcross breeding programs to introgress the resistance gene into elite japonica cultivars.

  1. Crystallographic Orientation Determination of Hexagonal Structure Crystals by Laser Ultrasonic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W; Coulson, J; Marrow, P; Smith, R J; Clark, M; Sharples, S D; Lainé, S J

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved acoustic spectroscopy (SRAS) is a laser ultrasonic technique that shows qualitative contrast between grains of different orientation, illustrating the sensitivity of acoustic waves to the material structure. The technique has been improved significantly on determining the full orientation of multigrain cubic metals, by comparing the measured surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity to a pre-calculated model. In this paper we demonstrate the ability of this technique to determine the orientation of hexagonal structure crystals, such as magnesium and titanium based alloys. Because of the isotropy of the SAW velocity on the basal plane (0001) of hexagonal crystals, the slowness surface is shown as a circle. As the plane moves from (0001) towards (112-bar0) or towards (101-bar0), the slowness surface gradually turns into an oval. These acoustic properties increase the difficulty in orientation determination. The orientation results of a grade 1 commercially pure titanium by SRAS is presented, with comparison with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results. Due to the nature of SAWs on hexagonal structure crystals, only the results of Euler angles 1 and 2 are discussed. The error between SRAS and EBSD is also investigated. (paper)

  2. Hexagonally ordered nanoparticles templated using a block copolymer film through Coulombic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Lee, Seung Yong; Zhang Xin; Rabin, Oded; Briber, R M

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel and simple method for forming hexagonal gold nanoparticle arrays that uses Coulombic interactions between negatively charged gold nanoparticles on positively charged vertically oriented poly(4-vinylpyridine) cylinders formed in a spin cast polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer film. Exposure of the block copolymer film to dibromobutane vapor quaternizes and crosslinks the poly(4-vinylpyridine) domains which allows for the templated deposition of gold nanoparticles into a self-assembled hexagonal array through electrostatic interactions. These systems can form the basis for sensors or next generation nanoparticle based electronics. (paper)

  3. Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2013-11-12

    We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized in this superlattice. In particular, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved. Due to the wide band gap of hexagonal boron nitride, the superlattice realizes the characteristic physical phenomena of free-standing silicene. In particular, we address by model calculations the combined effect of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and an external electric field, which induces a transition from a semimetal to a topological insulator and further to a band insulator.

  4. Non-linear triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal method for hexagonal core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Cho, Byung Oh; Joo, Han Gyu; Zee, Sung Qunn; Park, Sang Yong

    2000-09-01

    This report is for the implementation of triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal (TPEN) method to MASTER code in conjunction with the coarse mesh finite difference(CMFD) framework for hexagonal core design and analysis. The TPEN method is a variation of the higher order polynomial expansion nodal (HOPEN) method that solves the multi-group neutron diffusion equation in the hexagonal-z geometry. In contrast with the HOPEN method, only two-dimensional intranodal expansion is considered in the TPEN method for a triangular domain. The axial dependence of the intranodal flux is incorporated separately here and it is determined by the nodal expansion method (NEM) for a hexagonal node. For the consistency of node geometry of the MASTER code which is based on hexagon, TPEN solver is coded to solve one hexagonal node which is composed of 6 triangular nodes directly with Gauss elimination scheme. To solve the CMFD linear system efficiently, stabilized bi-conjugate gradient(BiCG) algorithm and Wielandt eigenvalue shift method are adopted. And for the construction of the efficient preconditioner of BiCG algorithm, the incomplete LU(ILU) factorization scheme which has been widely used in two-dimensional problems is used. To apply the ILU factorization scheme to three-dimensional problem, a symmetric Gauss-Seidel Factorization scheme is used. In order to examine the accuracy of the TPEN solution, several eigenvalue benchmark problems and two transient problems, i.e., a realistic VVER1000 and VVER440 rod ejection benchmark problems, were solved and compared with respective references. The results of eigenvalue benchmark problems indicate that non-linear TPEN method is very accurate showing less than 15 pcm of eigenvalue errors and 1% of maximum power errors, and fast enough to solve the three-dimensional VVER-440 problem within 5 seconds on 733MHz PENTIUM-III. In the case of the transient problems, the non-linear TPEN method also shows good results within a few minute of

  5. Scanning tunneling microscopy of hexagonal BN grown on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, H.; Hamada, T.; Endo, T.; Osaka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The microscopic surface topography of thin BN x films grown on graphite by electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition have been imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy in air. The scanning tunneling microscope has generated images of hexagonal BN with atomic resolution

  6. Comparative testing of women's tights, which are realized in the Ukrainian market

    OpenAIRE

    Мартосенко, Марина Григорьевна; Браилко, Анна Сергеевна

    2015-01-01

    Assortment of women's tights represented on the Ukrainian market is diverse: medical and corrective tights, classic thin and warm, simple and exclusive, ornamental and sports, for pregnant women and moisturizing effect. The size, density, pattern, material composition, visual appearance, matching fashion trends, colors, pricing policy – all these are criteria for the selection of women's tights.With such huge and diverse range of women's tights in the Ukrainian market, the problem of quality ...

  7. Hexagon functions and the three-loop remainder function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar NN = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of hexagon functions which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematic limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operator product expansion and multi-Regge factorization directly at the function level, and thereby to fix uniquely a set of Riemann ζ valued constants that could not be fixed at the level of the symbol. The near-collinear limits agree precisely with recent predictions by Basso, Sever and Vieira based on integrability. The multi-Regge limits agree with the factorization formula of Fadin and Lipatov, and determine three constants entering the impact factor at this order. We plot the three-loop remainder function for various slices of the Euclidean region of positive cross ratios, and compare it to the two-loop one. For large ranges of the cross ratios, the ratio of the three-loop to the two-loop remainder function is relatively constant, and close to -7.

  8. FAINT LUMINESCENT RING OVER SATURN’S POLAR HEXAGON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, Alberto; D’Aversa, Emiliano; Oliva, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico [Institute of Space Astrophysics and Planetology of INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, Maria Luisa, E-mail: alberto.adriani@iaps.inaf.it [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2015-07-20

    Springtime insolation is presently advancing across Saturn's north polar region. Early solar radiation scattered through the gaseous giant's atmosphere gives a unique opportunity to sound the atmospheric structure at its upper troposphere/lower stratosphere at high latitudes. Here, we report the detection of a tenuous bright structure in Saturn's northern polar cap corresponding to the hexagon equatorward boundary, observed by Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on 2013 June. The structure is spectrally characterized by an anomalously enhanced intensity in the 3610–3730 nm wavelength range and near 2500 nm, pertaining to relatively low opacity windows between strong methane absorption bands. Our first results suggest that a strong forward scattering by tropospheric clouds, higher in respect to the surrounding cloud deck, can be responsible for the enhanced intensity of the feature. This can be consistent with the atmospheric dynamics associated with the jet stream embedded in the polar hexagon. Further investigations at higher spectral resolution are needed to better assess the vertical distribution and microphysics of the clouds in this interesting region.

  9. Manifestations of Kitaev physics in thermodynamic properties of hexagonal iridates and α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Alexander

    Kitaev model is hard to achieve in real materials. Best candidates available so far are hexagonal iridates M2IrO3 (M = Li and Na) and the recently discovered α-RuCl3 featuring hexagonal layers coupled by weak van der Waals bonding. I will review recent progress in crystal growth of these materials and compare their thermodynamic properties. Both hexagonal iridates and α-RuCl3 feature highly anisotropic Curie-Weiss temperatures that not only differ in magnitude but also change sign depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field. Néel temperatures are largely suppressed compared to the energy scale of the Curie-Weiss temperatures. These experimental observations will be linked to features of the electronic structure and to structural peculiarities associated with deviations from the ideal hexagonal symmetry. I will also discuss how the different nature of ligand atoms affects electronic structure and magnetic superexchange. This work has been done in collaboration with M. Majumder, M. Schmidt, M. Baenitz, F. Freund, and P. Gegenwart.

  10. Face recognition via sparse representation of SIFT feature on hexagonal-sampling image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daming; Zhang, Xueyong; Li, Lu; Liu, Huayong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates a face recognition approach based on Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature and sparse representation. The approach takes advantage of SIFT which is local feature other than holistic feature in classical Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC) algorithm and possesses strong robustness to expression, pose and illumination variations. Since hexagonal image has more inherit merits than square image to make recognition process more efficient, we extract SIFT keypoint in hexagonal-sampling image. Instead of matching SIFT feature, firstly the sparse representation of each SIFT keypoint is given according the constructed dictionary; secondly these sparse vectors are quantized according dictionary; finally each face image is represented by a histogram and these so-called Bag-of-Words vectors are classified by SVM. Due to use of local feature, the proposed method achieves better result even when the number of training sample is small. In the experiments, the proposed method gave higher face recognition rather than other methods in ORL and Yale B face databases; also, the effectiveness of the hexagonal-sampling in the proposed method is verified.

  11. Achieving a multi-band metamaterial perfect absorber via a hexagonal ring dielectric resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Yang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Fu; Qu, Shao-Bo

    2015-06-01

    A multi-band absorber composed of high-permittivity hexagonal ring dielectric resonators and a metallic ground plate is designed in the microwave band. Near-unity absorptions around 9.785 GHz, 11.525 GHz, and 12.37 GHz are observed for this metamaterial absorber. The dielectric hexagonal ring resonator is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. The mechanism for the near-unity absorption is investigated via the dielectric resonator theory. It is found that the absorption results from electric and magnetic resonances where enhanced electromagnetic fields are excited inside the dielectric resonator. In addition, the resonance modes of the hexagonal resonator are similar to those of standard rectangle resonators and can be used for analyzing hexagonal absorbers. Our work provides a new research method as well as a solid foundation for designing and analyzing dielectric metamaterial absorbers with complex shapes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331005, 11204378, 11274389, 11304393, and 61302023), the Aviation Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20132796018 and 20123196015), the Natural Science Foundation for Post-Doctoral Scientists of China (Grant Nos. 2013M532131 and 2013M532221), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JM6005), and the Special Funds for Authors of Annual Excellent Doctoral Degree Dissertations of China (Grant No. 201242).

  12. Air tightness measurements in older Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    of the building envelope of older buildings despite the fact that the air tightness has a major influence on the energy use. In connection with renovation of the Danish building stock, the coming years will see increased focus on the air tightness of the building envelope like in other countries. This paper...

  13. A two-phase flow regime map for a MAPLE-type nuclear research reactor fuel channel: Effect of hexagonal finned bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A two-phase flow regime map is developed experimentally and theoretically for a vertical hexagonal flow channel with and without a 36-finned rod hexagonal bundle. This type of flow channel is of interest to MAPLE-type nuclear research reactors. The flow regime maps are determined by visual observations and observation of waveforms shown by a capacitance-type void fraction meter. The experimental results show that the inclusion of the finned hexagonal bundle shifts the flow regime transition boundaries toward higher water flow rates. Existing flow regime maps based on pipe flow require slight modifications when applied to the hexagonal flow channel with and without a MAPLE-type finned hexagonal bundle. The proposed theoretical model agrees well with experimental results

  14. Coherent memory functions for finite systems: hexagonal photosynthetic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1990-10-01

    Coherent memory functions entering the Generalized Master Equation are presented for an hexagonal model of a photosynthetic unit. Influence of an energy heterogeneity on an exciton transfer is an antenna system as well as to a reaction center is investigated. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  15. Large scale graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure for tunable plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kai; Yap, Fungling; Li, Kun; Ng, Changtai; Li, Linjun; Loh, Kianping

    2013-01-01

    Vertical integration of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene for the fabrication of vertical field-effect transistors or tunneling diodes has stimulated intense interest recently due to the enhanced performance offered by combining

  16. Hamstring tightness and Scheuermann's disease a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J W; Baigent, M L

    1981-06-01

    The lateral radiographs of the dorsal spines of 20 patients presenting with mainly low back pain are studied. These patients had clinically evident loss of flexion in the low dorsal spine and very tight hamstring muscles. 85% of them showed definite evidence of previous Scheuermann's Disease. The possibility that tight hamstrings may be an important factor in the aetiology of this disease is discussed, and a further large scale study is proposed.

  17. Probing topological relations between high-density and low-density regions of 2MASS with hexagon cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yongfeng [American Physical Society, San Diego, CA (United States); Xiao, Weike, E-mail: yongfeng.wu@maine.edu [Department of Astronautics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 345, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China)

    2014-02-01

    We introduced a new two-dimensional (2D) hexagon technique for probing the topological structure of the universe in which we mapped regions of the sky with high and low galaxy densities onto a 2D lattice of hexagonal unit cells. We defined filled cells as corresponding to high-density regions and empty cells as corresponding to low-density regions. The numbers of filled cells and empty cells were kept the same by controlling the size of the cells. By analyzing the six sides of each hexagon, we could obtain and compare the statistical topological properties of high-density and low-density regions of the universe in order to have a better understanding of the evolution of the universe. We applied this hexagonal method to Two Micron All Sky Survey data and discovered significant topological differences between the high-density and low-density regions. Both regions had significant (>5σ) topological shifts from both the binomial distribution and the random distribution.

  18. 7-Hexagon Multifocal Electroretinography for an Objective Functional Assessment of the Macula in 14 Seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, Etienne M; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Annam, Rachel; McDonnell, Emma C; Wolfson, Yulia; Fletcher, Emily; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-01-01

    We present the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) with a 7-hexagon array as an objective test of macular function that can be recorded in 14 s. We provide normal values and investigate its reproducibility and validity. Healthy participants underwent mfERG testing according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards using the Espion Profile/D310 multifocal ERG system (Diagnosys, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA). One standard recording of a 61-hexagon array and 2 repeated recordings of a custom 7-hexagon array were obtained. A total of 13 subjects (mean age 46.9 years) were included. The median response densities were 12.5 nV/deg2 in the center and 5.2 nV/deg2 in the periphery. Intereye correlations were strong in both the center (ρCenter = 0.821; p < 0.0001) and the periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.862; p < 0.0001). Intraeye correlations were even stronger: ρCenter = 0.904 with p < 0.0001 and ρPeriphery = 0.955 with p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an acceptable retest mean difference in both the center and periphery, and narrow limits of agreement. We found strong correlations of the center (ρCenter = 0.826; p < 0.0001) and periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.848; p < 0.0001), with recordings obtained by the 61-hexagon method. The 7-hexagon mfERG provides reproducible results in agreement with results obtained according to the ISCEV standard. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Measurement of plasma parameters in cluster hexagon pattern discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Shen, Zhong-Kai; Li, Xin-Chun; Liu, Liang; Lu, Ning; Shang, Jie

    2012-09-01

    The cluster hexagon pattern was obtained in a dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon for the first time. Three plasma parameters, i. e. the molecular vibrational temperature, the molecular rotational temperature and the average electron energy of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern discharge, were studied by changing the air content. The molecular vibrational temperature and the molecular rotational temperature were calculated using the second positive band system of nitrogen molecules (C 3IIu --> B 3IIg) and the first negative band system of nitrogen molecular ions (B 2Sigma(u)+ --> Chi2 Sigma(g)+). The relative intensities of the first negative system of nitrogen molecular ions (391. 4 nm) and nitrogen molecules emission spectrum line (337.1 nm) were analyzed for studying the variations of the electron energy. It was found that the three plasma parameters of individual cluster in cluster hexagon pattern increase with air content increasing from 16% to 24%.

  20. Higher order polynomial expansion nodal method for hexagonal core neutronics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Young Cho; Chang, Hyo Kim

    1998-01-01

    A higher-order polynomial expansion nodal(PEN) method is newly formulated as a means to improve the accuracy of the conventional PEN method solutions to multi-group diffusion equations in hexagonal core geometry. The new method is applied to solving various hexagonal core neutronics benchmark problems. The computational accuracy of the higher order PEN method is then compared with that of the conventional PEN method, the analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method, and the ANC-H method. It is demonstrated that the higher order PEN method improves the accuracy of the conventional PEN method and that it compares very well with the other nodal methods like the AFEN and ANC-H methods in accuracy

  1. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-06-21

    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  2. The physical-optics approximation and its application to light backscattering by hexagonal ice crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoi, A.; Konoshonkin, A.; Kustova, N.

    2014-01-01

    The physical-optics approximation in the problem of light scattering by large particles is so defined that it includes the classical physical optics concerning the problem of light penetration through a large aperture in an opaque screen. In the second part of the paper, the problem of light backscattering by quasi-horizontally oriented atmospheric ice crystals is considered where conformity between the physical-optics and geometric-optics approximations is discussed. The differential scattering cross section as well as the polarization elements of the Mueller matrix for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates has been calculated in the physical-optics approximation for the case of vertically pointing lidars. - Highlights: • The physical-optics Mueller matrix is a smoothed geometric-optics counterpart. • Backscatter by partially oriented hexagonal ice plates has been calculated. • Depolarization ratio for partially oriented hexagonal ice plates is negligible

  3. Preparation and properties of low resistivity molybdenum silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddies, G.; Hofmann, K.; Bretschneider, W.; Zscheile, H.D.; Bogdanowa, P.; Helms, H.; Wickleder, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Using different sputtering methods and target variants Mo/Si mixed films are prepared. After the deposition these thin films are amorphous. Isothermal annealing in vacuum leads to the formation of crystalline phases. The crystallization of the hexagonal phase of MoSi 2 is connected with an increase in stress. The formation of the tetragonal phase causes a great decrease of the specific resistance

  4. Unconventional Tight Reservoirs Characterization with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C. J. S.; Solatpour, R.; Kantzas, A.

    2017-12-01

    The increase in tight reservoir exploitation projects causes producing many papers each year on new, modern, and modified methods and techniques on estimating characteristics of these reservoirs. The most ambiguous of all basic reservoir property estimations deals with permeability. One of the logging methods that is advertised to predict permeability but is always met by skepticism is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The ability of NMR to differentiate between bound and movable fluids and providing porosity increased the capability of NMR as a permeability prediction technique. This leads to a multitude of publications and the motivation of a review paper on this subject by Babadagli et al. (2002). The first part of this presentation is dedicated to an extensive review of the existing correlation models for NMR based estimates of tight reservoir permeability to update this topic. On the second part, the collected literature information is used to analyze new experimental data. The data are collected from tight reservoirs from Canada, the Middle East, and China. A case study is created to apply NMR measurement in the prediction of reservoir characterization parameters such as porosity, permeability, cut-offs, irreducible saturations etc. Moreover, permeability correlations are utilized to predict permeability. NMR experiments were conducted on water saturated cores. NMR T2 relaxation times were measured. NMR porosity, the geometric mean relaxation time (T2gm), Irreducible Bulk Volume (BVI), and Movable Bulk Volume (BVM) were calculated. The correlation coefficients were computed based on multiple regression analysis. Results are cross plots of NMR permeability versus the independently measured Klinkenberg corrected permeability. More complicated equations are discussed. Error analysis of models is presented and compared. This presentation is beneficial in understanding existing tight reservoir permeability models. The results can be used as a guide for choosing

  5. 3D-fibroblast tissues constructed by a cell-coat technology enhance tight-junction formation of human colon epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Hikimoto, Daichi; Nishiguchi, Akihiro; Kadowaki, Koji; Ohura, Kayoko; Imai, Teruko; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-02-13

    Caco-2, human colon carcinoma cell line, has been widely used as a model system for intestinal epithelial permeability because Caco-2 cells express tight-junctions, microvilli, and a number of enzymes and transporters characteristic of enterocytes. However, the functional differentiation and polarization of Caco-2 cells to express sufficient tight-junctions (a barrier) usually takes over 21 days in culture. This may be due to the cell culture environment, for example inflammation induced by plastic petri dishes. Three-dimensional (3D) sufficient cell microenvironments similar to in vivo natural conditions (proteins and cells), will promote rapid differentiation and higher functional expression of tight junctions. Herein we report for the first time an enhancement in tight-junction formation by 3D-cultures of Caco-2 cells on monolayered (1L) and eight layered (8L) normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Trans epithelial electric resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells was enhanced in the 3D-cultures, especially 8L-NHDF tissues, depending on culture times and only 10 days was enough to reach the same TEER value of Caco-2 monolayers after a 21 day incubation. Relative mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins of Caco-2 cells on 3D-cultures showed higher values than those in monolayer structures. Transporter gene expression patterns of Caco-2 cells on 3D-constructs were almost the same as those of Caco-2 monolayers, suggesting that there was no effect of 3D-cultures on transporter protein expression. The expression correlation between carboxylesterase 1 and 2 in 3D-cultures represented similar trends with human small intestines. The results of this study clearly represent a valuable application of 3D-Caco-2 tissues for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole core transport calculation for the VHTR hexagonal core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Joo, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the DeCART code which performs the whole core calculation by coupling the radial MOC transport kernel with the axial nodal kernel has equipped a kernel to deal with the hexagonal geometry and applied to the VHTR hexagonal core to examine the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the implemented kernel. The implementation includes a modular ray tracing module based on the hexagonal assembly and a multi-group CMFD module to perform an efficient transport calculation. The requirements for the modular ray are: (1) the assembly based path linking and (2) the complete reflection capabilities. The first requirement is met by adjusting the azimuthal angle and the ray spacing for the modular ray to construct a core ray by the path linking. The second requirement is met by expanding the constructed azimuthal angle in the range of [0,30 degree] to the remained range to reflect completely at the core boundaries. The considered reflecting surface angles for the complete reflection are 30n's (n=1,2,1,12). The CMFD module performs the equivalent diffusion calculation to the radial MOC transport calculation based on the homogenized structure units. The structure units include the hexagonal pin cells and gap cells appearing at the assembly boundary. Therefore, the CMFD module is programmed to deal with the unstructured cells such as the gap cells. The CMFD equation consists of the two parts of (1) the conventional FDM and (2) the current corrective parts. Since the second part of the CMFD equation guarantees the reproducibility of the radial MOC transport solutions for the cell averaged reaction rate and the net current at the cell surfaces, how to build the first part of the CMFD equation is not important. Therefore, the first part of the CMFD equation is roughly built by using the normal distance from the gravity center to the surface. The VHTR core uses helium as a coolant which is realized as a void hole in a neutronics calculation. This void hole which

  7. Anisotropic Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanomaterials - Synthesis and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han,W.Q.

    2008-08-01

    Boron nitride (BN) is a synthetic binary compound located between III and V group elements in the Periodic Table. However, its properties, in terms of polymorphism and mechanical characteristics, are rather close to those of carbon compared with other III-V compounds, such as gallium nitride. BN crystallizes into a layered or a tetrahedrally linked structure, like those of graphite and diamond, respectively, depending on the conditions of its preparation, especially the pressure applied. Such correspondence between BN and carbon readily can be understood from their isoelectronic structures [1, 2]. On the other hand, in contrast to graphite, layered BN is transparent and is an insulator. This material has attracted great interest because, similar to carbon, it exists in various polymorphic forms exhibiting very different properties; however, these forms do not correspond strictly to those of carbon. Crystallographically, BN is classified into four polymorphic forms: Hexagonal BN (h-BN) (Figure 1(b)); rhombohedral BN (r-BN); cubic BN (c-BN); and wurtzite BN (w-BN). BN does not occur in nature. In 1842, Balmain [3] obtained BN as a reaction product between molten boric oxide and potassium cyanide under atmospheric pressure. Thereafter, many methods for its synthesis were reported. h-BN and r-BN are formed under ambient pressure. c-BN is synthesized from h-BN under high pressure at high temperature while w-BN is prepared from h-BN under high pressure at room temperature [1]. Each BN layer consists of stacks of hexagonal plate-like units of boron and nitrogen atoms linked by SP{sup 2} hybridized orbits and held together mainly by Van der Waals force (Fig 1(b)). The hexagonal polymorph has two-layered repeating units: AA'AA'... that differ from those in graphite: ABAB... (Figure 1(a)). Within the layers of h-BN there is coincidence between the same phases of the hexagons, although the boron atoms and nitrogen atoms are alternatively located along the c

  8. Hexagon and stripe patterns in dielectric barrier streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; He Yafeng; Yin Zengqian; Chai Zhifang

    2004-01-01

    We present a specially designed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system for the study of pattern formation. Hexagon and stripe patterns have been observed in a streamer discharge in a DBD for the first time. The phase diagram of pattern types as a function of applied voltage is given

  9. Extension of the comet method to 2-D hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Kevin John; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2011-01-01

    The capability of the heterogeneous coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech has been expanded. COMET is now able to treat hexagonal geometry in two dimensions, allowing reactor problems to be solved for those next-generation reactors which utilize prismatic block structure and hexagonal lattice geometry in their designs. The COMET method is used to solve whole core reactor analysis problems without resorting to homogenization or low-order transport approximations. The eigenvalue and fission density distribution of the reactor are determined iteratively using response functions. The method has previously proven accurate in solving PWR, BWR, and CANDU eigenvalue problems. In this paper, three simple test cases inspired by high temperature test reactor material cross sections and fuel block geometry are presented. These cases are given not in an attempt to model realistic nuclear power systems, but in order to test the ability of the improved method. Solutions determined by the new hexagonal version of COMET, COMET-Hex, are compared with solutions determined by MCNP5, and the results show the accuracy and efficiency of the improved COMET-Hex method in calculating the eigenvalue and fuel pin fission density in sample full-core problems. COMETHex determines the eigenvalues of these simple problems to an order of within 50 pcm of the reference solutions and all pin fission densities to an average error of 0.2%, and it requires fewer than three minutes to produce these results. (author)

  10. Solution of the Neutron transport equation in hexagonal geometry using strongly discontinuous nodal schemes; Solucion de la Ecuacion de transporte de neutrones en geometria hexagonal usando esquemas nodales fuertemente discontinuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica R, C.A.; Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmugica@ipn.mx

    2005-07-01

    In 2002, E. del Valle and Ernest H. Mund developed a technique to solve numerically the Neutron transport equations in discrete ordinates and hexagonal geometry using two nodal schemes type finite element weakly discontinuous denominated WD{sub 5,3} and WD{sub 12,8} (of their initials in english Weakly Discontinuous). The technique consists on representing each hexagon in the union of three rhombuses each one of which it is transformed in a square in the one that the methods WD{sub 5,3} and WD{sub 12,8} were applied. In this work they are solved the mentioned equations of transport using the same discretization technique by hexagon but using two nodal schemes type finite element strongly discontinuous denominated SD{sub 3} and SD{sub 8} (of their initials in english Strongly Discontinuous). The application in each case as well as a reference problem for those that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described. It is carried out a comparison with the obtained results by del Valle and Mund for different discretization meshes so much angular as spatial. (Author)

  11. Numerical Study on the Projectile Impact Resistance of Multi-Layer Sandwich Panels with Cellular Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Chen

    Full Text Available Abstract The projectile impact resistance of sandwich panels with cellular cores with different layer numbers has been numerically investigated by perpendicular impact of rigid blunt projectile in ABAQUS/Explicit. These panels with corrugation, hexagonal honeycomb and pyramidal truss cores are impacted at velocities between 50 m/s and 202 m/s while the relative density ranges from 0.001 to 0.15 The effects of core configuration and layer number on projectile impact resistance of sandwich panels with cellular cores are studied. At low impact velocity, sandwich panels with cellular cores outperform the corresponding solid ones and non-montonicity between relative density and projectile resistance of sandwich panels is found and analyzed. Multiplying layer can reduce the maximum central deflection of back face sheet of the above three sandwich panels except pyramidal truss ones in high relative density. Hexagonal honeycomb sandwich panel is beneficial to increasing layer numbers in lowering the contact force and prolonging the interaction time. At high impact velocity, though corrugation and honeycomb sandwich panels are inferior to the equal-weighted solid panels, pyramidal truss ones with high relative density outperform the corresponding solid panels. Multiplying layer is not the desirable way to improve high-velocity projectile resistance.

  12. Domain wall kinetics of lithium niobate single crystals near the hexagonal corner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Won [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Do-Kyeong [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Nan Ei, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ro, Jung Hoon, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    A mesospheric approach based on a simple microscopic 2D Ising model in a hexagonal lattice plane is proposed to explain macroscopic “asymmetric in-out domain wall motion” observation in the (0001) plane of MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium niobate. Under application of an electric field that was higher than the conventional coercive field (E{sub c}) to the ferroelectric crystal, a natural hexagonal domain was obtained with walls that were parallel to the Y-axis of the crystal. When a fraction of the coercive field of around 0.1E{sub c} is applied in the reverse direction, this hexagonal domain is shrunk (moved inward) from the corner site into a shape with a corner angle of around 150° and 15° wall slopes to the Y-axis. A flipped electric field of 0.15E{sub c} is then applied to recover the natural hexagonal shape, and the 150° corner shape changes into a flat wall with 30° slope (moved outward). The differences in corner domain shapes between inward and outward domain motion were analyzed theoretically in terms of corner and wall site energies, which are described using the domain corner angle and wall slope with respect to the crystal Y-axis, respectively. In the inward domain wall motion case, the energy levels of the evolving 150° domain corner and 15° slope walls are most competitive, and could co-exist. In the outward case, the energy levels of corners with angles >180° are highly stable when compared with the possible domain walls; only a flat wall with 30° slope to the Y-axis is possible during outward motion.

  13. Neutron noise calculations in a hexagonal geometry and comparison with analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H. N.; Demaziere, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a neutronic and kinetic solver for hexagonal geometries. The tool is developed based on the diffusion theory with multi-energy groups and multi-groups of delayed neutron precursors allowing the solutions of forward and adjoint problems of static and dynamic states, and is applicable to both thermal and fast systems with hexagonal geometries. In the dynamic problems, the small stationary fluctuations of macroscopic cross sections are considered as noise sources, and then the induced first order noise is calculated fully in the frequency domain. Numerical algorithms for solving the static and noise equations are implemented with a spatial discretization based on finite differences and a power iterative solution. A coarse mesh finite difference method has been adopted for speeding up the convergence. Since no other numerical tool could calculate frequency-dependent noise in hexagonal geometry, validation calculations have been performed and benchmarked to analytical solutions based on a 2-D homogeneous system with two-energy groups and one-group of delayed neutron precursor, in which point-like perturbations of thermal absorption cross section at central and non-central positions are considered as noise sources. (authors)

  14. Model for lattice dynamics of hexagonal close packed metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Kumar, S [Meerut Coll. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-11-19

    A lattice dynamical model, which satisfies the requirements of translational invariance as well as the static equilibrium of hexagonal close packed lattice, has been proposed and applied to study the phonon dispersion relations in magnesium. The results revealed by this model have been claimed to be better than earlier ones.

  15. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A.; Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10 nm and 20 nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100 ± 10 W m −1 K −1 , is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390 W m −1 K −1 ) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics

  16. Comparison of turbulent flow through hexagram and hexagon orifices in circular pipes using large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Nicolleau, Franck C G A; Qin, Ning, E-mail: n.qin@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular, a hexagon and a hexagram orifice with the same flow area in circular pipes are investigated using wall-modelled large-eddy simulation. Good agreements to available experimental data were obtained in both the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. The hexagram orifice with alternating convex and concave corners introduces outwards radial velocity around the concave corners downstream of the orifice plate stronger than the hexagon orifice. The stronger outwards radial velocity transfers high momentum from the pipe centre towards the pipe wall to energize the orifice-forced vortex sheet rolling-up and leads to a delayed vortex break-down. Correspondingly, the hexagram has a more gradual flow recovery to a pipe flow and a reduced pressure drop than the hexagon orifice. Both the hexagon and hexagram orifices show an axis-switching phenomenon, which is observed from both the streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy contours. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first comparison of orifice-forced turbulence development, mixing and flow dynamics between a regular and a fractal-based polygonal orifice. (paper)

  17. Tolerance measurements on internal- and external-hexagon implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braian, Michael; De Bruyn, Hugo; Fransson, Håkan; Christersson, Cecilia; Wennerberg, Ann

    2014-01-01

    To measure the horizontal machining tolerances of the interface between internal- and external-hexagon implants and analogs with corresponding components after delivery from the manufacturer. These values may be a valuable tool for evaluating increasing misfit caused by fabrication, processing, and wear. Seven implants and seven analogs with external- and internal-hexagon connections (Biomet 3i) with corresponding prefabricated gold cylinders and gold screws, prefabricated cylindric plastic cylinders, and laboratory screws were studied. One set of components from the external and internal groups was measured manually and digitally. Measurements from the test subjects were compared with identical measurements from the virtual model to obtain threshold values. The virtual model was then used to obtain optimally oriented cuts. The horizontal machining tolerances for castable plastic abutments on external implants were 12 ± 89 μm, and for internal implants they were 86 ± 47 μm. Tolerance measurements on prefabricated gold abutments for external implants were 44 ± 9 μm, and for internal implants they were 58 ± 28 μm. The groups with metallic components showed the smallest tolerance at external group and internal group. The prefabricated plastic cylinder groups ranged from external and internal connection.

  18. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2011-01-01

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy on incommensurate long-period superstructures of hexagonal-close-packed Cu-Sb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, T.; Kakehashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Hirabayashi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Hexagonal incommensurate long-period superstructures of the Cu-Sb alloys containing 18-20 at.% Sb have been investigated by means of superstructure imaging using a high-resolution electron microscope. Honeycomb-type distributions of hexagonal domains consisting of the commensurate superstructure of type 7a 0 -2H are observed. The incommensurabilities of superstructure can be interpreted well with a hexagonal model composed of the 7a 0 -2H domains surrounded by domain walls which contain higher Sb content than the domain interior. The observed image contrast is reproduced well with multislice computer simulations based on the structure models proposed for the 7a 0 -2H domain and the domain wall. (orig.)

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy on incommensurate long-period superstructures of hexagonal-close-packed Cu-Sb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, T.; Kakehashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Hirabayashi, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research)

    1989-06-01

    Hexagonal incommensurate long-period superstructures of the Cu-Sb alloys containing 18-20 at.% Sb have been investigated by means of superstructure imaging using a high-resolution electron microscope. Honeycomb-type distributions of hexagonal domains consisting of the commensurate superstructure of type 7a{sub 0}-2H are observed. The incommensurabilities of superstructure can be interpreted well with a hexagonal model composed of the 7a{sub 0}-2H domains surrounded by domain walls which contain higher Sb content than the domain interior. The observed image contrast is reproduced well with multislice computer simulations based on the structure models proposed for the 7a{sub 0}-2H domain and the domain wall. (orig.).

  1. Surface charge conductivity of a topological insulator in a magnetic field: The effect of hexagonal warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akzyanov, R. S.; Rakhmanov, A. L.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the influence of hexagonal warping on the transport properties of topological insulators. We study the charge conductivity within Kubo formalism in the first Born approximation using low-energy expansion of the Hamiltonian near the Dirac point. The effects of disorder, magnetic field, and chemical-potential value are analyzed in detail. We find that the presence of hexagonal warping significantly affects the conductivity of the topological insulator. In particular, it gives rise to the growth of the longitudinal conductivity with the increase of the disorder and anisotropic anomalous in-plane magnetoresistance. Hexagonal warping also affects the quantum anomalous Hall effect and anomalous out-of-plane magnetoresistance. The obtained results are consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unipolar, nonvolatile resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and sandwiched between Au top and Ti/Pt bottom electrodes. The ratio of the resistance in the OFF and ON state is larger than 103. The observed phenomena can be attributed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments within the multiferroic YMnO3 film. The generation of conductive paths under applied electric field is discussed in terms of the presence of grain boundaries and charged domain walls inherently formed in hexagonal YMnO3. Our findings suggest that engineering of the ferroelectric domains might be a promising route for designing and fabrication of novel resistive switching devices.

  3. Fabrication Improvement of Cold Forging Hexagonal Nuts by Computational Analysis and Experiment Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products so that cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine parts, such as hexagonal nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyze the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the differences between the experimental results and the equation that is built into the computer simulation software. At the same time, the metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging characteristics of hexagonal nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses to realize the forging load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hexagonal nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.

  4. Tight Money, Real Interest Rates, and Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Buffie

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of tight monetary policy are analyzed in an optimizing currency-substitution model of a small, open economy that operates under an open capital account and a flexible exchange rate. There is a reasonably good fit between the dynamics generated by the model and the stylized facts in the tight-money episodes that occurred in Kenya in 1993 and Nigeria in 1989-91. The study's results shed light on two issues: why tight money has provoked stupendous increases in inflation and the ...

  5. Using SNP genetic markers to elucidate the linkage of the Co-34/Phg-3 anthracnose and angular leaf spot resistance gene cluster with the Ur-14 resistance gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ouro Negro common bean cultivar contains the Co-34/Phg-3 gene cluster that confers resistance to the anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) pathogens. These genes are tightly linked on chromosome 4. Ouro Negro also has the Ur-14 rust resistance gene, reportedly in the vicinity of Co- 34; ...

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis and formation mechanism of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Li; Sun, QiLiang; Zhao, RuiNi; He, HuiLin; Xue, JianRong; Lin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The formation of yttrium hydroxide fluorides nanobundles can be expressed as a precipitation transformation from cubic NaYF 4 to hexagonal NaYF 4 and to hexagonal Y(OH) 2.02 F 0.98 owing to ion exchange. - Highlights: • Novel Y(OH) 2.02 F 0.98 nanobundles have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The branched nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles has been studied. • The growth mechanism is proposed to be ion exchange and precipitation transformation. - Abstract: This article presents the fabrication of hexagonal yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles via one-pot hydrothermal process, using yttrium nitrate, sodium hydroxide and ammonia fluoride as raw materials to react in propanetriol solvent. The X-ray diffraction pattern clearly reveals that the grown product is pure yttrium hydroxide fluoride, namely Y(OH) 2.02 F 0.98 . The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized product is testified to be nanobundles composed of numerous oriented-attached nanoparticles as observed from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The chemical composition was analyzed by the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), confirming the phase transformation of the products which was clearly consistent with the result of XRD analysis. It is proposed that the growth of yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanobundles be attributed to ion exchange and precipitation transformation

  7. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  8. SENP3 grants tight junction integrity and cytoskeleton architecture in mouse Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Huang, Chun-Jie; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Brohi, Rahim Dad; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-08-29

    Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation. SENP3 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus of Sertoli and spermatocyte cells in adult mouse testis, and knockdown of SENP3 compromises tight junction in Sertoli cells by destructing the permeability function with a concomitant decline in trans-epithelial electrical resistance in primary Sertoli cells, which could attribute to the conspicuous dysfunction of tight junction (TJ) proteins (e.g., ZO-1, occludin) at the cell-cell interface due to the inactivation of STAT3. Moreover, SENP3 knockdown disrupts F-actin architecture in Sertoli cells through intervening Rac1/CDC42-N-WASP-Arp2/3 signaling pathway and Profilin-1 abundance. Our study pinpoints SENP3 might be a novel determinant of multiple pathways governing BTB dynamics in testis to support germ cells development in mammals.

  9. Response of hexagonal fuel assembly coupled with internal hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Julke, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    For safety considerations of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors the mechanistic accident-initiating conditions must be studied. In previous investigations of such initiating accidents the models assumed axisymmetric configurations and in general neglected the coupling effects with the subassembly boundary. This paper presents a more precise treatment of the subassembly boundary and also provides feedback of the boundary response to the pressure source. This is accomplished by marking use of two computer codes: REXCO-HT and SADCAT. The internal hydrodynamics of the fuel subassembly is simulated by the REXCO-HT code which possesses certain models of fuel-coolant interactions (MFCI) to be used as a pressure source. The hexagonal boundary of the fuel subassembly is modeled by the SADCAT code. Since both codes involve explicit time integration, coupling between the two is effected at each time step. The pressure at the outside boundary of the REXCO-HT model provides the loading on the SADCAT model. Given the load, the SADCAT model yields the three-dimensional deformation of the hexagonal boundary. With the deformation known, the outside REXCO-HT model boundary is adjusted and the computation cycle of the coupling is completed. In effect, the coupling of the two codes substitutes a cylindrical vessel of the REXCO-HT code by a hexagonal duct. It is shown by the use of this procedure that the assumption of a cylindrical vessel of the same thickness as that of the hexcan is quite erroneous. The maximum deformation of the flat of the hexcan in the illustrative examples is larger by as much as one order of magnitude. The maximum strains at the inside CORNER of the hexcan are also underestimated by a similar amount

  10. Delamination of hexagonal boron nitride in a stirred media mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.; Körner, J.; Peukert, W.

    2013-01-01

    A scalable process for delamination of hexagonal boron nitride in an aqueous solution of the non-ionic surfactant TWEEN85 using a stirred media mill is presented. The size of the ZrO 2 beads used as grinding media governs the dimensions of the ground boron nitride particles as atomic force microscopic investigations (AFM) reveal: the mean flakes thickness decreases from 3.5 to 1.5 nm and the ratio between mean flake area and mean flake thickness increases from 2,200 to 5,800 nm if the grinding media size is reduced from 0.8 to 0.1 mm. This result shows that a high number of stress events in combination with low stress energy (small grinding media) facilitate delamination of the layered material whereas at high stress energies in combination with a low number of stress events (large grinding media) breakage of the layers dominates over delamination. The results of particle height analyses by AFM show that few-layer structures have been formed by stirred media milling. This result is in agreement with the layer thickness dependence of the delamination energy for hexagonal boron nitride. The concentration of nanoparticles remaining dispersed after centrifugation of the ground suspension increases with grinding time and with decreasing grinding media size. After 5 h of grinding using 0.1 mm ZrO 2 grinding media the yield of nanoparticle formation is about 5 wt%. The nanoparticles exhibit the typical Raman peak for hexagonal boron nitride at 1,366 cm −1 showing that the in-plane order in the milled platelets is remained.

  11. Computational study of packing a collagen-like molecule: quasi-hexagonal vs "Smith" collagen microfibril model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Scheraga, H A; Rackovsky, S

    1996-01-01

    The lateral packing of a collagen-like molecule, CH3CO-(Gly-L-Pro-L-Pro)4-NHCH3, has been examined by energy minimization with the ECEPP/3 force field. Two current packing models, the Smith collagen microfibril twisted equilateral pentagonal model and the quasi-hexagonal packing model, have been extensively investigated. In treating the Smith microfibril model, energy minimization was carried out on various conformations including those with the symmetry of equivalent packing, i.e., in which the triple helices were arranged equivalently with respect to each other. Both models are based on the experimental observation of the characteristic axial periodicity, D = 67 nm, of light and dark bands, indicating that, if any superstructure exists, it should consist of five triple helices. The quasi-hexagonal packing structure is found to be energetically more favorable than the Smith microfibril model by as much as 31.2 kcal/mol of five triple helices. This is because the quasi-hexagonal packing geometry provides more nonbonded interaction possibilities between triple helices than does the Smith microfibril geometry. Our results are consistent with recent x-ray studies with synthetic collagen-like molecules and rat tail tendon, in which the data were interpreted as being consistent with either a quasi-hexagonal or a square-triangular structure.

  12. Effect of Hexagonal Phase Content on Wear Behaviour of AlTiN Arc PVD Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Kohlscheen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of increasing aluminum content and magnetic steering field strength on the structure and wear behavior of arc PVD AlTiN coatings is discussed. Deposition was done by means of an industrial-scale PVD unit for tool coating. The aluminium content in the AlTi source material was increased from 67 to 73 at.%. We applied two settings of the magnetic field that steers the arc across the cathode surface thereby evaporating the AlTi alloy differently. The resulting coating thickness ranged from 3.5 to about 7 µm. Cemented tungsten carbide was used as substrate material. Coating properties like hardness, adhesion, and crystal phases were analyzed by indentation and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The wear behaviour of the different AlTiN hard coatings were investigated in two ways. In a first idealized test, cyclic impacting was done applying a constant force. The resulting wear pattern was quantified by an Alicona multi-focus microscope. A second wear test was done by metal cutting under realistic conditions. Fly milling of ductile cast iron (EN-GJS-700 was performed with regular interruptions in order to measure the increasing wear mark. As expected, aluminium contents above 67 at.% (in the metal fraction of the coating lead to a decreased wear resistance as the soft hexagonal phase exceeds values of a few vol.%. However, it was found that the formation of the hexagonal phase can be effectively influenced and delayed by increasing the magnetic steering field at the cathode. The wear behavior observed in cyclic impact testing corresponds well to results obtained with the more complex loading situation encountered in milling.

  13. Experimental investigation of the coolability of blocked hexagonal bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hózer, Zoltán, E-mail: zoltan.hozer@energia.mta.hu; Nagy, Imre; Kunstár, Mihály; Szabó, Péter; Vér, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Trosztel, István; Vimi, András

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Experiments were performed with electrically heated hexagonal fuel bundles. • Coolability of ballooned VVER-440 type bundle was confirmed up to high blockage rate. • Pellet relocation effect causes delay in the cool-down of the bundle. • The bypass line does not prevent the reflood of ballooned fuel rods. - Abstract: The CODEX-COOL experimental series was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of ballooning and pellet relocation in hexagonal bundles on the coolability of fuel rods after a LOCA event. The effects of blockage geometry, coolant flowrate, initial temperature and axial profile were investigated. The experimental results confirmed that a VVER bundle up to 80% blockage rate remains coolable after a LOCA event under design basis conditions. The ballooned section creates some obstacles for the cooling water during reflood of the bundle, but this effect causes only a short delay in the cooling down of the hot fuel rods. The accumulation of fuel pellet debris in the ballooned volume results in a local power peak, which leads to further slowing down of quench front.

  14. Evidence for graphite-like hexagonal AlN nanosheets epitaxially grown on single crystal Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipas, P.; Kassavetis, S.; Tsoutsou, D.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Golias, E.; Giamini, S. A.; Dimoulas, A. [National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Grazianetti, C.; Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, I-20864, Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, I-20126, Milano (Italy); Chiappe, D.; Molle, A. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, I-20864, Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    Ultrathin (sub-monolayer to 12 monolayers) AlN nanosheets are grown epitaxially by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Ag(111) single crystals. Electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy provide evidence that AlN on Ag adopts a graphite-like hexagonal structure with a larger lattice constant compared to bulk-like wurtzite AlN. This claim is further supported by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy indicating a reduced energy bandgap as expected for hexagonal AlN.

  15. Ketamine alleviates bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell-constructed tight junction barrier via a calcium-mediated redistribution of occludin polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jui-Tai; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ketamine could suppress bradykinin-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. • Ketamine induced B1R protein and mRNA expressions but did not change B2R protein levels. • Ketamine attenuated bradykinin-induced redistribution of occludin tight junctions. • Ketamine prevented bradykinin-induced breakage of the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. - Abstract: Following brain injury, a sequence of mechanisms leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent cerebral edema, which is thought to begin with activation of bradykinin. Our previous studies showed that ketamine, a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent, can suppress bradykinin-induced cell dysfunction. This study further aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ketamine against bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell (MCEC)-constructed tight junction barrier and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of MCECs to bradykinin increased intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentrations in a time-dependent manner. However, pretreatment of MCECs with ketamine time- and concentration-dependently lowered the bradykinin-induced calcium influx. As to the mechanisms, although exposure of MCECs to ketamine induced bradykinin R1 receptor protein and mRNA expression, this anesthetic did not change levels of the bradykinin R2 receptor, a major receptor that responds to bradykinin stimulation. Bradykinin increased amounts of soluble occludin in MCECs, but pretreatment with ketamine alleviated this disturbance in occludin polymerization. Consequently, exposure to bradykinin decreased the transendothelial electronic resistance in the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. However, pretreatment with ketamine attenuated the bradykinin-induced disruption of the tight junction barrier. Taken together, this study shows that ketamine at a therapeutic concentration can protect against bradykinin-induced breakage of the BBB via suppressing calcium

  16. Synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires with diameters below 5 nm for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huidan; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Mengying; Yan, Yi; Liu, Yongping; Li, Ming; Yang, Zhishu; Geng, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Semiconductor with one dimension (1D) ultrathin nanostructure has been proved to be a promising nanomaterial in photocatalytic field. Great efforts were made on preparation of monoclinic ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires. However, non-monoclinic phase tungsten oxides with 1D ultrathin structure, especially less than 5 nm width, have not been reported. Herein, we report the synthesis of hexagonal ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires (U-WOx NW) by modified hydrothermal method. Microstructure characterization showed that U-WOx NW have the diameters of 1-3 nm below 5 nm and are hexagonal phase sub-stoichiometric WOx. U-WOx NW show absorption tail in the visible and near infrared region due to oxygen vacancies. For improving further photocatalytic performance, Ag co-catalyst was grown directly onto U-WOx NW surface by in situ redox reaction. Photocatalytic measurements revealed hexagonal U-WOx NW have better photodegradation activity, compared with commercial WO3(C-WO3) and oxidized U-WOx NW, ascribe to larger surface area, short diffusion length of photo-generated charge carriers and visible absorption of oxygen-vacancy-rich hexagonal ultrathin nanostructures. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity and stability of U-WOx NW using Ag co-catalyst were further improved.

  17. Selection Of Drought Resistant Mutants In Rice Using DNA Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Thanh; Le Thi Bich Thuy; Dang Thi Minh Lua

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the marker - assisted selection (MAS) strategy have been used for selection of traits that are difficult and costly performed measurement and score. Selection for a well-developed root system could improve the drought resistance of rice as the plant would avoid water stress by absorbing water from the soil. There were several reports on map construction and identification of the markers tightly linked to morphological and physiological traits related to drought resistance in rice, in particular, root traits in upland and lowland rice (Champoux et al., 1995; Ray et al., 1996; Price et al., 1997, 2000; Yadav et al., 1997). In this report, we present the results on selection of drought resistance mutants in rice using the DNA markers tightly linked to root traits favorable for drought resistance. The mutant rice lines were obtained from irradiated seeds and calluses by gamma ray. The selection was performed at M2 mutants using the DNA markers linked to maximum root length (MRL), root weight to shoot weight ratio (RW/SR), and weight of deep root to shoot weight ratio (DRW/SR). The obtained results showed that there were many lines possessed drought resistant markers. In addition, there is a number of lines have altered genome. Several lines having drought markers proved to be more resistant to drought in green-house test. These lines could be useful for further test and development of drought resistant varieties. (author)

  18. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  19. Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.; Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized

  20. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of the hexagonal ferrites MFeO3 (M=Y, Yb, In)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downie, Lewis J.; Goff, Richard J.; Kockelmann, Winfried; Forder, Sue D.; Parker, Julia E.; Morrison, Finlay D.; Lightfoot, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The hexagonal ferrites MFeO 3 (M=Y, Yb, In) have been studied using a combination of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, dielectric measurements and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. This study confirms the previously reported crystal structure of InFeO 3 (YAlO 3 structure type, space group P6 3 /mmc), but YFeO 3 and YbFeO 3 both show a lowering of symmetry to at most P6 3 cm (ferrielectric YMnO 3 structure type). However, Mössbauer spectroscopy shows at least two distinct Fe sites for both YFeO 3 and YbFeO 3 and we suggest that the best model to rationalise this involves phase separation into more than one similar hexagonal YMnO 3 -like phase. Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data was carried out using two hexagonal phases as a simplest case scenario. In both YFeO 3 and YbFeO 3 , distinct dielectric anomalies are observed near 130 K and 150 K, respectively. These are tentatively correlated with weak anomalies in magnetic susceptibility and lattice parameters, for YFeO 3 and YbFeO 3 , respectively, which may suggest a weak magnetoelectric effect. Comparison of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction shows evidence of long-range magnetic order in both YFeO 3 and YbFeO 3 at low temperatures. Due to poor sample crystallinity, the compositional and structural effects underlying the phase separation and possible magnetoelectric phenomena cannot be ascertained. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal MFeO 3 (M=Y, Yb) exhibit phase separation into two YMnO 3 -like phases. Variable temperature crystallographic, electrical and magnetic studies suggest weak correlations between electrical and magnetic responses and long-range magnetic order at low temperature. Highlights: ► Multi-technique study of multiferroic hexagonal MFeO 3 . ► Phase separation into two similar hexagonal phases. ► Weak coupling of electrical and magnetic responses. ► Long-range magnetic order at low T.

  1. Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Errui [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Guangshe [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Xinsong [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Wen [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Liping, E-mail: lipingli@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-25

    In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of hexagonal Y(Mn,Cu)O3 multiferroic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeuvrey, L.; Peña, O.; Moure, A.; Moure, C.

    2012-01-01

    Single-phase hexagonal-type solid solutions based on the multiferroic YMnO 3 material were synthesized by a modified Pechini process. Copper doping at the B-site (YMn 1−x Cu x O 3 ; x 1+y MnO 3 ; y 3+ two-dimensional lattice. The magnetic transition at T N decreases from 70 K down to 49 K, when x(Cu) goes from 0 to 15 at%. Weak ferromagnetic Mn 3+ –Mn 4+ interactions created by the substitution of Mn 3+ by Cu 2+ , are visible through the coercive field and spontaneous magnetization but do not modify the overall magnetic frustration. Presence of Mn 3+ –Mn 4+ pairs leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity due to thermally-activated small-polaron hopping mechanisms. Results show that local ferromagnetic interactions can coexist within the frustrated state in the hexagonal polar structure. - Highlights: ► Hexagonal-type solid solutions of Y(Mn,Cu)O 3 synthesized by Pechini process. ► Chemical substitution at B site inhibits geometrical magnetic frustration. ► Magnetic transition decreases with Cu-doping. ► Local ferromagnetic Mn–Mn interactions coexist with the frustrated state.

  3. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  4. Polymer- and salt-induced toroids of hexagonal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbink, J; Odijk, T

    1995-01-01

    A model is proposed for polymer- and salt-induced toroidal condensates of DNA, based on a recent theory of the undulation enhancement of the electrostatic interaction in the bulk hexagonal phase of semiflexible polyions. In a continuum approximation, the thermodynamic potential of a monomolecular toroid may be split up in bulk, surface, and curvature contributions. With the help of an approximate analytical minimization procedure, the optimal torus dimensions are calculated as a function of t...

  5. Extension of the analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES to triangular-Z geometry and coupling with COBRA-IIIc for hexagonal core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, Juan-Andres; Jimenez, Javier; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Aragones, Jose-Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the extension of the multigroup nodal diffusion code ANDES, based on the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD) method, from Cartesian to hexagonal geometry is presented, as well as its coupling with the thermal-hydraulic (TH) code COBRA-IIIc for hexagonal core analysis. In extending the ACMFD method to hexagonal assemblies, triangular-Z nodes are used. In the radial plane, a direct transverse integration procedure is applied along the three directions that are orthogonal to the triangle interfaces. The triangular nodalization avoids the singularities, that appear when applying transverse integration to hexagonal nodes, and allows the advantage of the mesh subdivision capabilities implicit within that geometry. As for the thermal-hydraulics, the extension of the coupling scheme to hexagonal geometry has been performed with the capability to model the core using either assembly-wise channels (hexagonal mesh) or a higher refinement with six channels per fuel assembly (triangular mesh). Achieving this level of TH mesh refinement with COBRA-IIIc code provides a better estimation of the in-core 3D flow distribution, improving the TH core modelling. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled code, ANDES/COBRA-IIIc, previously verified in Cartesian geometry core analysis, can also be applied now to full three-dimensional VVER core problems, as well as to other thermal and fast hexagonal core designs. Verification results are provided, corresponding to the different cases of the OECD/NEA-NSC VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmarks.

  6. Bronze-mean hexagonal quasicrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Bekku, Shinichi; Ziherl, Primož

    2017-10-01

    The most striking feature of conventional quasicrystals is their non-traditional symmetry characterized by icosahedral, dodecagonal, decagonal or octagonal axes. The symmetry and the aperiodicity of these materials stem from an irrational ratio of two or more length scales controlling their structure, the best-known examples being the Penrose and the Ammann-Beenker tiling as two-dimensional models related to the golden and the silver mean, respectively. Surprisingly, no other metallic-mean tilings have been discovered so far. Here we propose a self-similar bronze-mean hexagonal pattern, which may be viewed as a projection of a higher-dimensional periodic lattice with a Koch-like snowflake projection window. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate that a disordered variant of this quasicrystal can be materialized in soft polymeric colloidal particles with a core-shell architecture. Moreover, by varying the geometry of the pattern we generate a continuous sequence of structures, which provide an alternative interpretation of quasicrystalline approximants observed in several metal-silicon alloys.

  7. Tightness of M-estimators for multiple linear regression in time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Bent

    We show tightness of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semi-continuous and sufficiently large for large argument: Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Tightness requires...

  8. The phenomenon of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium nanothin crystals grate around [001] within the framework of asymmetrical theory of resiliency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, V.B.; Agalakov, S.P.; Malkov, A.V.; Malkov, O.V.; Pushin, V.G.; Shul'gin, B.V.

    2008-01-01

    The research of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium nanothin (80-100 nm) crystals grate the method of translucent electronic microscopy. In view of the fact that reasons of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium nanothin crystals grate around [001] remained not found out, the analysis of models of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium crystals grate is conducted.

  9. Sodium-Doped Mesoporous Ni2P2O7 Hexagonal Tablets for High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Jindi; Pang, Huan

    2015-08-01

    A simple hydrothermal method has been developed to prepare hexagonal tablet precursors, which are then transformed into porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets by a simple calcination method. The obtained samples were evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrode based on the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets exhibits a specific capacitance of 557.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1.2 A g(-1) . Furthermore, the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2O7 hexagonal tablets were successfully used to construct flexible solid-state hybrid supercapacitors. The device is highly flexible and achieves a maximum energy density of 23.4 Wh kg(-1) and a good cycling stability after 5000 cycles, which confirms that the porous sodium-doped Ni2P2 O7 hexagonal tablets are promising active materials for flexible supercapacitors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 2D of hexagonal plasmonic necklaces for enhanced second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Tornero, Alejandro; Tserkezis, Christos; Mateos, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Hexagonal plasmonic necklaces of silver nanoparticles organized in 2D superlattices on functional ferroelectric templates are fabricated in large-scale spatial regions by using a surfactant-free photo-deposition process. The plasmonic necklaces support broad radiative plasmonic resonances allowing...

  11. Diagonal form factors and hexagon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yunfeng; Petrovskii, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We study the heavy-heavy-light (HHL) three-point functions in the planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory using the recently proposed hexagon bootstrap program http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.06745. We prove the conjecture of Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)050 on the polynomial L-dependence of HHL structure constant up to the leading finite-size corrections, where L is the length of the heavy operators. The proof is presented for a specific set-up but the method can be applied to more general situations.

  12. Diagonal form factors and hexagon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yunfeng [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,Honggerberg, Zürich, 8093 (Switzerland); Petrovskii, Andrei [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, URA 2306 CNRS Saclay,Gif-sur-Yvette, F91191 (France)

    2016-07-25

    We study the heavy-heavy-light (HHL) three-point functions in the planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory using the recently proposed hexagon bootstrap program http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.06745. We prove the conjecture of Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2014)050 on the polynomial L-dependence of HHL structure constant up to the leading finite-size corrections, where L is the length of the heavy operators. The proof is presented for a specific set-up but the method can be applied to more general situations.

  13. Direct quantification of transendothelial electrical resistance in organs-on-chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Marieke Willemijn; Odijk, Mathieu; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; van der Meer, Andries Dirk; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Measuring transendothelial or transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is a widely used method to monitor cellular barrier tightness in organs-on-chips. Unfortunately, integrated electrodes close to the cellular barrier hamper visual inspection of the cells or require specialized cleanroom

  14. Solution of the Neutron transport equation in hexagonal geometry using strongly discontinuous nodal schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica R, C.A.; Valle G, E. del

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, E. del Valle and Ernest H. Mund developed a technique to solve numerically the Neutron transport equations in discrete ordinates and hexagonal geometry using two nodal schemes type finite element weakly discontinuous denominated WD 5,3 and WD 12,8 (of their initials in english Weakly Discontinuous). The technique consists on representing each hexagon in the union of three rhombuses each one of which it is transformed in a square in the one that the methods WD 5,3 and WD 12,8 were applied. In this work they are solved the mentioned equations of transport using the same discretization technique by hexagon but using two nodal schemes type finite element strongly discontinuous denominated SD 3 and SD 8 (of their initials in english Strongly Discontinuous). The application in each case as well as a reference problem for those that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described. It is carried out a comparison with the obtained results by del Valle and Mund for different discretization meshes so much angular as spatial. (Author)

  15. Experimental study on reflooding in advanced tight lattice PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, K.; Kodama, J.; Teramae, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is related to the experimental study on the feasibility of core cooling by re-flooding in a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for the advanced tight lattice pressurized water reactor (PWR). The tight lattice core design should be adopted to improve the conversion ratio. Major one of the key questions of such tight lattice core is the cooling capability under the re-flood condition in a large break LOCA. Forced feed bottom re-flooding experiments have been performed by use of a 4x4 triangular array rod bundle. The rod gap is 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, or 1.5 mm. The measured peak temperature is below around 1273 K even in case of 1.0/0.5 mm rod gap. And, the evaluation based on the experimental results of rod temperatures and core pressure drop also shows that the core cooling under re-flooding condition is feasible. (author)

  16. Transferable tight-binding model for strained group IV and III-V materials and heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy B.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to capture the effect due to strain and material interface for device level transistor modeling. We introduce a transferable s p3d5s* tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions for arbitrarily strained group IV and III-V materials. The tight-binding model is parametrized with respect to hybrid functional (HSE06) calculations for varieties of strained systems. The tight-binding calculations of ultrasmall superlattices formed by group IV and group III-V materials show good agreement with the corresponding HSE06 calculations. The application of the tight-binding model to superlattices demonstrates that the transferable tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor interactions can be obtained for group IV and III-V materials.

  17. Defect mediated van der Waals epitaxy of hexagonal boron nitride on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, M.; Bashouti, M.; Riechert, H.; Lopes, J. M. J.

    2018-04-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures comprising of hexagonal boron nitride and graphene are promising building blocks for novel two-dimensional devices such as atomically thin transistors or capacitors. However, demonstrators of those devices have been so far mostly fabricated by mechanical assembly, a non-scalable and time-consuming method, where transfer processes can contaminate the surfaces. Here, we investigate a direct growth process for the fabrication of insulating hexagonal boron nitride on high quality epitaxial graphene using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Samples were grown at varying temperatures and times and studied using atomic force microscopy, revealing a growth process limited by desorption at high temperatures. Nucleation was mostly commencing from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, such as step edges or wrinkles. Raman spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron measurements confirm the formation of hexagonal boron nitride and prove the resilience of graphene against the nitrogen plasma used during the growth process. The electrical properties and defects in the heterostructures were studied with high lateral resolution by tunneling current and Kelvin probe force measurements. This correlated approach revealed a nucleation apart from morphological defects in epitaxial graphene, which is mediated by point defects. The presented results help understanding the nucleation and growth behavior during van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials, and point out a route for a scalable production of van der Waals heterostructures.

  18. Computation of 3D neutron fluxes in one pin hexagonal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabha, Hem; Marleau, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Computations of 3D neutron fluxes in one pin hexagonal cell is performed by Carlvik’s method of collision probability. ► Carlvik’s method requires computation of track lengths in the geometry. ► Equations are developed to compute tracks, in 2D and 3D, in hexagons and are implemented in a program HX7. ► The program HX7 is implemented in NXT module of the code DRAGON, where tracks in pins are computed. ► The tracks are plotted and fluxes are compared with the EXCELT module of the code DRAGON. - Abstract: In this paper we are presenting the method of computation of three dimensional (3D) neutron fluxes in one pin hexagonal cell. Carlvik’s collision probability method of solving neutron transport equation for computing fluxes has been used here. This method can consider exact geometrical details of the given geometry. While using this method, track length computations are required to be done. We have described here the method of computing tracks in one 3D hexagon. A program HX7 has been developed for this purpose. This program has been implemented in the NXT module of the code DRAGON, where tracks in the pins are computed. For computing tracks in 3D, first we use the tracks computed in the two dimensions (2D) and then we project them in the third dimension. We have developed equations for this purpose. In both the regions, fuel pin as well as in the moderator surrounding the pin the fluxes are assumed to be uniform. A uniform source is assumed in the moderator region. Reflecting boundary conditions are applied on all the sides as well as on the top and bottom surfaces. One group 2D and 3D fluxes are compared with the respective results obtained by the EXCELT module of DRAGON. To check the computations, tracks are plotted and errors in the computations are obtained. It is observed by using both the modules EXCELT and NXT that the fluxes in the pins converge faster and in the moderator region fluxes converge very slowly

  19. Tightness of voter model interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 165-174 ISSN 1083-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/1323; GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long range voter model * swapping voter model * interface tightness * exclusion process Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2008 http://www.emis.de/journals/EJP-ECP/_ejpecp/index.html

  20. Solution of two-dimensional diffusion equation for hexagonal cells by the finite Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    1975-01-01

    A method of solution is presented for a monoenergetic diffusion equation in two-dimensional hexagonal cells by a finite Fourier transformation. Up to the present, the solution by the finite Fourier transformation has been developed for x-y, r-z and x-y-z geometries, and the flux and current at the boundary are obtained in terms of Fourier series. It is shown here that the method can be applied to hexagonal cells and the expansion of boundary values in a Legendre polynomials gives numerically a higher accuracy than is obtained by a Fourier series. (orig.) [de

  1. Acoustic phonons in the hexagonal perovskite CsNiCl3 around the Gamma-point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, D.; Monteith, A.R.; Rønnow, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic phonon dispersion curves of the hexagonal perovskite CsNiCl3 were measured at room temperature in the vicinity of the Gamma-point along the [0 0 1] and [1 1 0] directions. The derived velocity of sound values for the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons are compared with the ......The acoustic phonon dispersion curves of the hexagonal perovskite CsNiCl3 were measured at room temperature in the vicinity of the Gamma-point along the [0 0 1] and [1 1 0] directions. The derived velocity of sound values for the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons are compared...

  2. Tight turns

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) has successfully tested the first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet. This is great news for CERN, which sees the advance as holding potential for the future of the SPS.   The first model of a new fast-ramping curved dipole magnet being prepared for cryogenic testing at the LASA laboratory (INFN Milano, Italy). On 16 July INFN introduced an innovative dipole magnet. With a length of some 4 metres, it can produce a 4.5 Tesla magnetic field and achieve a tighter bend than ever before (the bending radius has been squeezed to a remarkable 66.7 metres). This new magnet was designed in the first instance for GSI’s SIS300 synchrotron (in Germany), which will require 60 dipoles of this type. "Achieving such a tight bend demanded a major R&D effort," stressed Pasquale Fabbricatore, the spokesman of the INFN collaboration responsible for the magnet’s development. "We had to not o...

  3. Radiation resistant ducted superconductive coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-resistant ducted superconductive coil consists of a helically wound electrical conductor constituted by an electrically conductive core of superconductive material provided with a longitudinally extending cooling duct. The core is covered with a layer of inorganic insulating material and the duct is covered by an electrically conductive metallic gas-tight sheath. The metallic sheaths on adjacent turns of the coil are secured together. 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

  4. First-principles calculations on double-walled inorganic nanotubes with hexagonal chiralities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskii, Yuri F; Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Losev, Maxim V

    2011-01-01

    The two sets of commensurate double-walled boron nitride and titania hexagonally-structured nanotubes (DW BN and TiO 2 NTs) possessing either armchair- or zigzag-type chiralities have been considered, i.e., (n 1 ,n 1 )-(n 2 ,n 2 ) or (n 1 ,0)-(n 2 ,0), respectively. For symmetry analysis of these nanotubes, the line symmetry groups for one-periodic (1D) nanostructures with rotohelical symmetry have been applied. To analyze the structural and electronic properties of hexagonal DW NTs, a series of large-scale ab initio DFT-LCAO calculations have been performed using the hybrid Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functional PBE0 (as implemented in CRYSTAL-09 code). To establish the optimal inter-shell distances within DW NTs corresponding to the minima of calculated total energy, the chiral indices n 1 and n 2 of the constituent single-walled (SW) nanotubes have been successively varied.

  5. Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Šadauskienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1; herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations.

  6. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah N; Moseley, Pope L

    2016-01-01

    A single layer of enterocytes and tight junctions (intercellular multiprotein complexes) form the intestinal epithelial barrier that controls transport of molecules through transcellular and paracellular pathways. A dysfunctional or "leaky" intestinal tight junction barrier allows augmented perme...

  7. RTk/SN Solutions of the Two-Dimensional Multigroup Transport Equations in Hexagonal Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, Edmundo del; Mund, Ernest H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an extension to the hexagonal geometry of some weakly discontinuous nodal finite element schemes developed by Hennart and del Valle for the two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport equation in quadrangular geometry. The extension is carried out in a way similar to the extension to the hexagonal geometry of nodal element schemes for the diffusion equation using a composite mapping technique suggested by Hennart, Mund, and del Valle. The combination of the weakly discontinuous nodal transport scheme and the composite mapping is new and is detailed in the main section of the paper. The algorithm efficiency is shown numerically through some benchmark calculations on classical problems widely referred to in the literature

  8. Stress-Induced Cubic-to-Hexagonal Phase Transformation in Perovskite Nanothin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi-Gu; Li, Yunsong; Wu, Hong-Hui; Wang, Jie; Huang, Baoling; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2017-08-09

    The strong coupling between crystal structure and mechanical deformation can stabilize low-symmetry phases from high-symmetry phases or induce novel phase transformation in oxide thin films. Stress-induced structural phase transformation in oxide thin films has drawn more and more attention due to its significant influence on the functionalities of the materials. Here, we discovered experimentally a novel stress-induced cubic-to-hexagonal phase transformation in the perovskite nanothin films of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) with a special thermomechanical treatment (TMT), where BaTiO 3 nanothin films under various stresses are annealed at temperature of 575 °C. Both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show a higher density of hexagonal phase in the perovskite thin film under higher tensile stress. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy does not detect any change in the valence state of Ti atoms, thereby excluding the mechanism of oxygen vacancy induced cubic-to-hexagonal (c-to-h) phase transformation. First-principles calculations show that the c-to-h phase transformation can be completed by lattice shear at elevated temperature, which is consistent with the experimental observation. The applied bending plus the residual tensile stress produces shear stress in the nanothin film. The thermal energy at the elevated temperature assists the shear stress to overcome the energy barriers during the c-to-h phase transformation. The stress-induced phase transformation in perovskite nanothin films with TMT provides materials scientists and engineers a novel approach to tailor nano/microstructures and properties of ferroelectric materials.

  9. Evaluation of the hexagonal and spherical model of vocational interests in the young people in Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate Holland’s hexagonal and Tracey’s spherical model of vocational interests in young adults in Serbia and Bulgaria. To this end, 1250 participants, 560 from Serbia and 690 from Bulgaria, filled in Serbian and Bulgarian versions of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, Tracey, 2002. Hubert and Arabie’s randomization test of hypothetical orders, multidimensional scaling with fixed coordinates, Myors test and exploratory factor analysis were used. The results showed that the hexagonal and spherical models well explained the structure of vocational interests in both samples. The level of fit of the hexagonal model to the data obtained by using the PGI was generally higher than those established in the studies that used other Holland-based instruments. Furthermore, the levels of fit of both hexagonal and spherical model were in the same range like those obtained in previous studies in other countries. The results also pointed out a remarkable similarity in the structure of vocational interests in the Bulgarian and Serbian samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  10. Gas leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke, E-mail: hayasaka@oasis.muroran-it.ac.jp [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-Soo. [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • NITE-SiC/SiC has extremely densified microstructure compared with other SiC/SiC composite like CVI. • Excellent helium and hydrogen gas-leak tightness of SiC/SiC composites by DEMO-NITE method from prototype industrialization production line was presented. • The excellence against stainless steel and Zircaloy at elevated temperature, together with generic excellent properties of SiC will be inevitable for innovative blanket and divertors for DEMO- and power- fusion reactors. - Abstract: SiC/SiC composite materials are attractive candidates for high heat flux components and blanket of fusion reactor, mainly due to their high temperature properties, radiation damage tolerance and low induced radioactivity. One of the challenges for SiC/SiC application in fusion reactors is to satisfy sufficient gas leak tightness of hydrogen and helium isotopes. Although many efforts have been carried-out, SiC/SiC composites by conventional processes have not been successful to satisfy the requirements, except SiC/SiC composites by NITE-methods. Toward the early realization of SiC/SiC components into fusion reactor systems process development of NITE-process has been continued. Followed to the brief introduction of recently developed DEMO-NITE process, baseline properties and hydrogen and helium gas leak tightness is presented. SiC/SiC claddings with 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in wall thickness are tested by gas leak tightness system developed. The leak tightness measurements are done room temperature to 400 °C. Excellent gas leak tightness equivalent or superior to Zircaloy claddings for light water fission reactors is confirmed. The excellent gas leak tightness suggests nearly perfect suppression of large gas leak path in DEMO-NITE SiC/SiC.

  11. Structural domain walls in polar hexagonal manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The domain structure in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites is currently intensely investigated, motivated by the observation of intriguing sixfold topological defects at their meeting points [Choi, T. et al,. Nature Mater. 9, 253 (2010).] and nanoscale electrical conductivity at the domain walls [Wu, W. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 077203 (2012).; Meier, D. et al., Nature Mater. 11, 284 (2012).], as well as reports of coupling between ferroelectricity, magnetism and structural antiphase domains [Geng, Y. et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6055 (2012).]. The detailed structure of the domain walls, as well as the origin of such couplings, however, was previously not fully understood. In the present study, we have used first-principles density functional theory to calculate the structure and properties of the low-energy structural domain walls in the hexagonal manganites [Kumagai, Y. and Spaldin, N. A., Nature Commun. 4, 1540 (2013).]. We find that the lowest energy domain walls are atomically sharp, with {210}orientation, explaining the orientation of recently observed stripe domains and suggesting their topological protection [Chae, S. C. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 167603 (2012).]. We also explain why ferroelectric domain walls are always simultaneously antiphase walls, propose a mechanism for ferroelectric switching through domain-wall motion, and suggest an atomistic structure for the cores of the sixfold topological defects. This work was supported by ETH Zurich, the European Research Council FP7 Advanced Grants program me (grant number 291151), the JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad, and the MEXT Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Research Center TIES.

  12. Vortex solitons at the interface separating square and hexagonal lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jović Savić, Dragana, E-mail: jovic@ipb.ac.rs; Piper, Aleksandra; Žikić, Radomir; Timotijević, Dejan

    2015-06-19

    Vortex solitons at the interface separating two different photonic lattices – square and hexagonal – are demonstrated numerically. We consider the conditions for the existence of discrete vortex states at such interfaces and develop a concise picture of different scenarios of the vortex solutions behavior. Various vortices with different size and topological charges are considered, as well as various lattice interfaces. A novel type of discrete vortex surface solitons in a form of five-lobe solution is observed. Besides stable three-lobe and six-lobe discrete surface modes propagating for long distances, we observe various oscillatory vortex surface solitons, as well as dynamical instabilities of different kinds of solutions and study their angular momentum. Dynamical instabilities occur for higher values of the propagation constant, or at higher beam powers. - Highlights: • We demonstrate vortex solitons at the square–hexagonal photonic lattice interface. • A novel type of five-lobe surface vortex solitons is observed. • Different phase structures of surface solutions are studied. • Orbital angular momentum transfer of such solutions is investigated.

  13. Microwave emulations and tight-binding calculations of transport in polyacetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, Thomas, E-mail: stegmann@icf.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Franco-Villafañe, John A., E-mail: jofravil@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Ortiz, Yenni P. [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Kuhl, Ulrich [Université de Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de la Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Mortessagne, Fabrice, E-mail: fabrice.mortessagne@unice.fr [Université de Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de la Physique de la Matière Condensée, CNRS, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice (France); Seligman, Thomas H. [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Centro Internacional de Ciencias, 62210 Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2017-01-05

    A novel approach to investigate the electron transport of cis- and trans-polyacetylene chains in the single-electron approximation is presented by using microwave emulation measurements and tight-binding calculations. In the emulation we take into account the different electronic couplings due to the double bonds leading to coupled dimer chains. The relative coupling constants are adjusted by DFT calculations. For sufficiently long chains a transport band gap is observed if the double bonds are present, whereas for identical couplings no band gap opens. The band gap can be observed also in relatively short chains, if additional edge atoms are absent, which cause strong resonance peaks within the band gap. The experimental results are in agreement with our tight-binding calculations using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The tight-binding calculations show that it is crucial to include third nearest neighbor couplings to obtain the gap in the cis-polyacetylene. - Highlights: • Electronic transport in individual polyacetylene chains is studied. • Microwave emulation experiments and tight-binding calculations agree well. • In long chains a band-gap opens due the dimerization of the chain. • In short chains edge atoms cause strong resonance peaks in the center of the band-gap.

  14. Microwave emulations and tight-binding calculations of transport in polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, Thomas; Franco-Villafañe, John A.; Ortiz, Yenni P.; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach to investigate the electron transport of cis- and trans-polyacetylene chains in the single-electron approximation is presented by using microwave emulation measurements and tight-binding calculations. In the emulation we take into account the different electronic couplings due to the double bonds leading to coupled dimer chains. The relative coupling constants are adjusted by DFT calculations. For sufficiently long chains a transport band gap is observed if the double bonds are present, whereas for identical couplings no band gap opens. The band gap can be observed also in relatively short chains, if additional edge atoms are absent, which cause strong resonance peaks within the band gap. The experimental results are in agreement with our tight-binding calculations using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The tight-binding calculations show that it is crucial to include third nearest neighbor couplings to obtain the gap in the cis-polyacetylene. - Highlights: • Electronic transport in individual polyacetylene chains is studied. • Microwave emulation experiments and tight-binding calculations agree well. • In long chains a band-gap opens due the dimerization of the chain. • In short chains edge atoms cause strong resonance peaks in the center of the band-gap.

  15. Raman scattering investigation of Bi2Te3 hexagonal nanoplates prepared by a solvothermal process in the absence of NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yujie; Wang Wenzhong; Zeng Baoqing; Zhang Guling; Huang Jing; Li Jin; Li Te; Song Yangyang; Zhang Xiuyu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hexagonal Bi 2 Te 3 thin nanoplates were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. → Optical properties of the nanoplates were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. → Infrared (IR) active mode (A 1u ) is greatly activated in Raman scattering spectrum. → Infrared (IR) active mode (A 1u ) shows up in Raman spectrum of hexagonal nanoplates. → Raman spectrum clearly shows crystal symmetry breaking of hexagonal nanoplates. - Abstract: Hexagonal Bi 2 Te 3 nanoplates were synthesized by a simple solvothermal process in the absence of NaOH. The composition, morphology and size of the as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman scattering optical properties of the as-prepared Bi 2 Te 3 nanoplates were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectrum shows that infrared (IR) active mode (A 1u ), which must be odd parity and is Raman forbidden for bulk crystal due to its inversion symmetry, is greatly activated and shown up clearly in Raman scattering spectrum. We attribute the appearance of infrared active (A 1u ) in Raman spectrum to crystal symmetry breaking of Bi 2 Te 3 hexagonal nanoplates. The as-grown Bi 2 Te 3 hexagonal nanoplates, exhibiting novel Raman optical properties compared with bulk crystals, may find potential applications in thermoelectric devices.

  16. LDA+U and tight-binding electronic structure of InN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Sánchez, A.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Terentjevs, A.; Cicero, G.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we employ a combined ab initio and tight-binding approach to obtain the electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated Indium nitride (InN) nanowires. We first discuss InN band structure for the wurtzite structure calculated at the LDA+U level and use this information to extract the parameters needed for an empirical tight-binging implementation. These parameters are then employed to calculate the electronic and optical properties of InN nanowires in a diameter range that would not be affordable by ab initio techniques. The reliability of the large nanowires results is assessed by explicitly comparing the electronic structure of a small diameter wire studied both at LDA+U and tight-binding level.

  17. Active stretching for lower extremity muscle tightness in pediatric patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    It was reported that hamstring muscle tightness may increase mechanical loading on the lumbar spine. Therefore, we attempt to decrease tightness in the leg muscles in pediatric patients. Forty-six pediatric patients with spondylolysis underwent rehabilitation. We applied active stretching to the hamstrings, quadriceps, and triceps surae. Tightness in each muscle was graded as good, fair, or poor. We educated each patient on how to perform active stretching at home. They were re-evaluated for muscle tightness 2 months later. Tightness at baseline and after 2 months was as follows: for the hamstrings, good in 3 patients, fair in 9, and poor in 34 and significant improved after 2 months (p<0.05), with improvement by least 1 grade seen in 86% of patients with fair or poor at baseline; for the quadriceps, 7, 3, and 30 patients had good, fair and poor, with significant improvements in 72% (p<0.05). For the triceps surae, 6, 3 and 10 patients had good, fair and poor, which improved significantly (p<0.05). Home-based active stretching was effective for relieving muscle tightness in the leg in a pediatric population. Adolescent athletes should perform such exercise to maintain flexibility and prevent lumbar disorders. J. Med. Invest. 64: 136-139, February, 2017.

  18. Performance Improvement of Receivers Based on Ultra-Tight Integration in GNSS-Challenged Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-tight integration was first proposed by Abbott in 2003 with the purpose of integrating a global navigation satellite system (GNSS and an inertial navigation system (INS. This technology can improve the tracking performances of a receiver by reconfiguring the tracking loops in GNSS-challenged environments. In this paper, the models of all error sources known to date in the phase lock loops (PLLs of a standard receiver and an ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver are built, respectively. Based on these models, the tracking performances of the two receivers are compared to verify the improvement due to the ultra-tight integration. Meanwhile, the PLL error distributions of the two receivers are also depicted to analyze the error changes of the tracking loops. These results show that the tracking error is significantly reduced in the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver since the receiver’s dynamics are estimated and compensated by an INS. Moreover, the mathematical relationship between the tracking performances of the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver and the quality of the selected inertial measurement unit (IMU is derived from the error models and proved by the error comparisons of four ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receivers aided by different grade IMUs.

  19. Synthesis and magnetic properties of hexagonal Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} multiferroic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeuvrey, L., E-mail: laurent.jeuvrey@univ-rennes1.fr [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Pena, O. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Moure, A.; Moure, C. [Electroceramics Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Single-phase hexagonal-type solid solutions based on the multiferroic YMnO{sub 3} material were synthesized by a modified Pechini process. Copper doping at the B-site (YMn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}; x<0.15) and self-doping at the A-site (Y{sub 1+y}MnO{sub 3}; y<0.10) successfully maintained the hexagonal structure. Self-doping was limited to y(Y)=2 at% and confirmed that excess yttrium avoids formation of ferromagnetic manganese oxide impurities but creates vacancies at the Mn site. Chemical substitution at the B-site inhibits the geometrical frustration of the Mn{sup 3+} two-dimensional lattice. The magnetic transition at T{sub N} decreases from 70 K down to 49 K, when x(Cu) goes from 0 to 15 at%. Weak ferromagnetic Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions created by the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} by Cu{sup 2+}, are visible through the coercive field and spontaneous magnetization but do not modify the overall magnetic frustration. Presence of Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} pairs leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity due to thermally-activated small-polaron hopping mechanisms. Results show that local ferromagnetic interactions can coexist within the frustrated state in the hexagonal polar structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal-type solid solutions of Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} synthesized by Pechini process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical substitution at B site inhibits geometrical magnetic frustration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic transition decreases with Cu-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local ferromagnetic Mn-Mn interactions coexist with the frustrated state.

  20. The expression of antibiotic resistance genes in antibiotic-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Stefanie; Xu, Ye; Nodwell, Justin R

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria encode antibiotic resistance genes that protect them from the biologically active molecules that they produce. The expression of these genes needs to occur in a timely manner: either in advance of or concomitantly with biosynthesis. It appears that there have been at least two general solutions to this problem. In many cases, the expression of resistance genes is tightly linked to that of antibiotic biosynthetic genes. In others, the resistance genes can be induced by their cognate antibiotics or by intermediate molecules from their biosynthetic pathways. The regulatory mechanisms that couple resistance to antibiotic biosynthesis are mechanistically diverse and potentially relevant to the origins of clinical antibiotic resistance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mixed dual finite element methods for the numerical treatment of the diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    2001-01-01

    The nodal method Minos has been developed to offer a powerful method for the calculation of nuclear reactor cores in rectangular geometry. This method solves the mixed dual form of the diffusion equation and, also of the simplified P N approximation. The discretization is based on Raviart-Thomas' mixed dual finite elements and the iterative algorithm is an alternating direction method, which uses the current as unknown. The subject of this work is to adapt this method to hexagonal geometry. The guiding idea is to construct and test different methods based on the division of a hexagon into trapeze or rhombi with appropriate mapping of these quadrilaterals onto squares in order to take into advantage what is already available in the Minos solver. The document begins with a review of the neutron diffusion equation. Then we discuss its mixed dual variational formulation from a functional as well as from a numerical point of view. We study conformal and bilinear mappings for the two possible meshing of the hexagon. Thus, four different methods are proposed and are completely described in this work. Because of theoretical and numerical difficulties, a particular treatment has been necessary for methods based on the conformal mapping. Finally, numerical results are presented for a hexagonal benchmark to validate and compare the four methods with respect to pre-defined criteria. (authors)

  2. DFT study of the hexagonal high-entropy alloy fission product system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.J.M., E-mail: daniel.miks@live.com [School of Electrical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, 2052, NSW (Australia); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Burr, P.A.; Obbard, E.G. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, 2052, NSW (Australia); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Middleburgh, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63, Västerås (Sweden); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Reactor Physics, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-05-15

    The metallic phase fission product containing Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc can be described as a hexagonal high-entropy alloy (HEA) and is thus investigated using atomic scale simulation techniques relevant to HEAs. Contrary to previous assumptions, the removal of Tc from the system to form the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru analog is predicted to reduce the stability of the solid solution to the point that σ-Mo{sub 5}Ru{sub 3} may precipitate out at typical fuel operating temperatures. The drive for segregation is attributed to the increased stability of the solid solution with the ejection of Mo and Ru. When Tc is included in the system, a single phase hexagonal solid solution is expected to form for a wider range of compositions. Furthermore, when cooled below 700 °C, this single phase solid solution is predicted to transition to a partially ordered structure. Future studies using the Tc-absent analogue will need to take these structural and chemical deliberations into consideration.

  3. First-principles calculations on double-walled inorganic nanotubes with hexagonal chiralities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovskii, Yuri F [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063, Riga (Latvia); Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Losev, Maxim V, E-mail: quantzh@latnet.lv [Department of Quantum Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, 26 Universitetsky Ave., 198504, Petrodvorets (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-23

    The two sets of commensurate double-walled boron nitride and titania hexagonally-structured nanotubes (DW BN and TiO{sub 2} NTs) possessing either armchair- or zigzag-type chiralities have been considered, i.e., (n{sub 1},n{sub 1})-(n{sub 2},n{sub 2}) or (n{sub 1},0)-(n{sub 2},0), respectively. For symmetry analysis of these nanotubes, the line symmetry groups for one-periodic (1D) nanostructures with rotohelical symmetry have been applied. To analyze the structural and electronic properties of hexagonal DW NTs, a series of large-scale ab initio DFT-LCAO calculations have been performed using the hybrid Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functional PBE0 (as implemented in CRYSTAL-09 code). To establish the optimal inter-shell distances within DW NTs corresponding to the minima of calculated total energy, the chiral indices n{sub 1} and n{sub 2} of the constituent single-walled (SW) nanotubes have been successively varied.

  4. The structure and electronic properties of hexagonal Fe{sub 2}Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chi Pui; Tam, Kuan Vai; Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: xpzhang@must.edu.mo [Lunar and Planetary Science Laboratory, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau (Macao); Xiong, Shi Jie [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cao, Jie [College of Science, Hohai University, Nanjing 211171 (China)

    2016-06-15

    On the basis of first principle calculations, we show that a hexagonal structure of Fe{sub 2}Si is a ferromagnetic crystal. The result of the phonon spectra indicates that it is a stable structure. Such material exhibits a spin-polarized and half-metal-like band structure. From the calculations of generalized gradient approximation, metallic and semiconducting behaviors are observed with a direct and nearly 0 eV band gap in various spin channels. The densities of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level is mainly contributed from the d-electrons of Fe. We calculate the reflection spectrum of Fe{sub 2}Si, which has minima at 275 nm and 3300 nm with reflectance of 0.27 and 0.49, respectively. Such results may provide a reference for the search of hexagonal Fe{sub 2}Si in experiments. With this band characteristic, the material may be applied in the field of novel spintronics devices.

  5. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  6. Effects of adenine nucleotide and sterol depletion on tight junction structure and function in MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladino, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The antitumor agent Hadacidin (H), N-formyl-hydroxyamino-acetic acid, reversibly inhibited the multiplication of clone 4 Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at a 4 mM concentration within 24-48 hours. Treated cells were arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. Accompanying this action was a 16-fold increase in the area occupied b the cells and a refractoriness to trypsin treatment. To test whether this effect was due to an increase in tight junction integrity, electrical resistance (TER) was measured across H-treated monolayers. Addition of H at the onset of junction formation reversibly prevented the development of TER. ATP and cAMP levels were decreased by H, as well as the rate of [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation into protein. When 1 mM dibutyryl-cAMP (d.cAMP) and theophylline were added, H had no effect on cell division or protein synthesis, and TER was partially restored. The addition of 1 mM d.cAMP and 1 mM theophylline to control cultures decreased TER, indicating a biphasic effect on TER development/maintenance. In a separate study, the effect of sterol depletion on tight junctions formation/maintenance in wild-type MDCK cells was investigated

  7. Thermochemistry of selected trivalent lanthanide and americium compounds: orthorhombic and hexagonal hydroxycarbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorif, F.; Fuger, J.; Desreux, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The molar enthalpies of dissolution of a number of well-characterized hexagonal hydroxycarbonates Ln(OH)CO 3 (hex) (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu) in 6.00 mol dm -3 HCl were measured at 298.15K. A new sealed solution micro-calorimeter was developed for this purpose. It was made of an 18-carat gold alloy in order to improve the performances of a calorimeter previously built in our laboratory. The following standard molar enthalpies of formation, Δ f H m [Ln(OH)CO 3 , hex], in kJ mol -1 , were calculated: -(1627.8±1.6), -(1614.8±1.9), -(1613.4±1.6), and -(1523.0±3.0), for the La, Nd, Sm, and Eu compounds, respectively. These results allowed an extrapolation to Δ f H m [Eu(OH)CO 3 .0.5H 2 O, orth] = -(1653.4±3.6) kJ mol -1 and to Δ f H m [Am(OH)CO 3 , hex] = -(1552.5±3.3) kJ mol -1 . Using auxiliary data and estimated entropies, the solubility products of the hexagonal hydroxycarbonates were calculated. They are compared here with values deduced from solubility and calorimetric measurements for the corresponding orthorhombic hydroxycarbonates. Our approach generally leads to values similar to those deduced from solubility studies. The orthorhombic form is found to be metastable with respect to the hexagonal form. (orig.)

  8. Contraption and Prediction of Exhalation Tight Brownstone in Exhalation Cistern

    OpenAIRE

    XhingZhiwang, -; Xuchao, -

    2012-01-01

    The reservoir connate water saturation is high and gas wells generally produce water which seriously affects the productivity of gas wells in Xujiahe tight sandstone gas reservoirs in Sichuan Basin. Take the sixth formation for example, there are 39 wells producing water unequally in the 42 commissioning wells, and the excessive water production leads to the production of the gas well declining rapidly. Studying of the mechanism of water production in tight sandstone gas reservoirs and predic...

  9. HEXNOD23, 2-D, 3-D Coarse Mesh Solution of Steady State Diffusion Equation in Hexagonal Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Ulrich

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Two- or three dimensional coarse mesh solution of steady state two group neutron diffusion equation in arrays of regular hexagons or hexagonal subassemblies. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron flux in a hexagonal node is expanded in a series of Bessel functions in the hexagonal plane. Polynomials up to the 4. order are used for the approximation of neutron flux in axial direction of three dimensional cases. Resulting relations between node averaged fluxes and mean partial currents of node faces in connection with the neutron balance of nodes are used to calculate the eigenvalue Keff, mean fluxes and mean powers of nodes. The iterations process is divided into inner and outer iterations. The iterations are accelerated by Ljusternik and Tschebyscheff extrapolation schemes. The power densities in the nodes and subassembly powers are computed for given reactor power in three dimensional cases. 30 degree reflectional, 60 and 120 degree rotational core symmetry and the whole core can be treated. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: If the problem size designated by LIAR and LRAR exceeds 3000 and 50000 respectively, the lengths of the working array MIAR and MRAR in the main program can be increased. External sources are not permitted

  10. Study on water leak-tightness of small leaks on a 1 inch cylinder valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, T.; Kasai, Y.; Inabe, N.; Aritomi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Practical thresholds for water leak-tightness of small leaks were determined by experimentation. Measurements for small leak samples were taken of air leakage rates and water leakage rates for identical leak samples in order to identify parameters that influence water leak-tightness threshold. Four types of leaks were evaluated: a fine wire inserted in an O-ring seal, a glass capillary tube, a stainless steel orifice, and a scratched valve stem on a 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve. Experimental results demonstrated that the key parameter for water leak-tightness is the opening size of the leak hole. The maximum allowable hole size to achieve water leak-tightness ranged from 10 to 20 μm in diameter in this study. Experimental results with 1 inch UF 6 cylinder valve samples demonstrated that the acceptance criteria for preshipment leakage test, 1x10 -3 ref-cm 3 .s -1 , as prescribed in ANSI N14.5 is an appropriate value from the point of view of water leak-tightness for enriched UF 6 packages. The mechanism of water leak-tightness is plugging by tiny particles existing in water. The water used in experiments in this study contained far fewer particles than in water assumed to be encountered under accident conditions of transport. Therefore, the water leak-tightness threshold determined in this study is a conservative value in a practical evaluation. (author)

  11. Geometric Hyperplanes of the Near Hexagon L-3 x GQ(2,2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saniga, M.; Levay, P.; Planat, M.; Pracna, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2010), s. 93-104 ISSN 0377-9017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : near hexagons * geometric hyperplanes * Veldkamp spaces Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010

  12. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  13. Empirical tight-binding parameters for solid C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Kumar, V.

    1993-01-01

    We present a tight-binding model for the electronic structure of C 60 using four (1s and 3p) orbitals per carbon atom. The model has been developed by fitting the tight-binding parameters to the ab-initio pseudopotential calculation of Troullier and Martins (Phys. Rev. B46, 1754 (1992)) in the face-centered cubic (Fm3-bar) phase. Following this, calculations of the energy bands and the density of electronic states have been carried out as a function of the lattice constant. Good agreement has been obtained with the observed lattice-constant dependence of T c using McMillan's formula. Furthermore, calculations of the electronic structure are presented in the simple cubic (Pa3-bar) phase. (author). 43 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  14. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); DuBois, L.J. [Commonwealth Edison, Zion, IL (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corporation, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  15. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher r...

  16. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice using anodized aluminum oxide nanotemplates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallet, X.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Michotte, S.

    2009-01-01

    The bottom barrier layer of well-ordered nanoporous alumina membranes reveals a previously unexploited nanostructured template surface consisting of a triangular lattice of hemispherical nanoscale bumps. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice arrays are created in superconducting Nb films deposited...... onto this template (see image). Matching effects are preserved at higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures when compared to holes on the top face....

  17. Third nearest neighbor parameterized tight binding model for graphene nano-ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Truong Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing tight binding models can very well reproduce the ab initio band structure of a 2D graphene sheet. For graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs, the current sets of tight binding parameters can successfully describe the semi-conducting behavior of all armchair GNRs. However, they are still failing in reproducing accurately the slope of the bands that is directly associated with the group velocity and the effective mass of electrons. In this work, both density functional theory and tight binding calculations were performed and a new set of tight binding parameters up to the third nearest neighbors including overlap terms is introduced. The results obtained with this model offer excellent agreement with the predictions of the density functional theory in most cases of ribbon structures, even in the high-energy region. Moreover, this set can induce electron-hole asymmetry as manifested in results from density functional theory. Relevant outcomes are also achieved for armchair ribbons of various widths as well as for zigzag structures, thus opening a route for multi-scale atomistic simulation of large systems that cannot be considered using density functional theory.

  18. Growth of potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets with monoclinic phase and its excellent piezoelectric property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Huang, Jingyun; Wang, Ye; Yang, Yefeng; Wu, Yongjun; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-09-01

    Potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets were synthesized through hydrothermal reaction with KOH, H2O and Nb2O5 as source materials by using a polycrystalline Al2O3 as substrate. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and selected area electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the tablets exhibit monoclinic phase structure and are highly crystallized. Meanwhile, piezoelectric property of the micro-hexagonal tablets was investigated. The as-synthesized tablets exhibit excellent piezoactivities in the experiments, and an effective piezoelectric coefficient of around 80 pm/V was obtained. The tablets have huge potential applications in micro/nano-integrated piezoelectric and optical devices.

  19. Shear induced hexagonal ordering observed in an ionic viscoelastic fluid in flow past a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, W.A.; Butler, P.D.; Baker, S.M.; Smith, G.S.; Hayter, J.B.; Magid, L.J.; Pynn, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first clear evidence of a shear induced hexagonal phase in a polyionic fluid in flow past a plane quartz surface. The dilute surfactant solution studied is viscoelastic due to the formation and entanglement of highly extended charged threadlike micelles many thousands of A long, which are known to align along the flow direction under shear. Small-angle neutron diffraction data show that in the high shear region within a few tens of microns of the surface these micelles not only align, but form a remarkably well ordered hexagonal array separated by 370 A, 8 times their 46 A diameter

  20. Leak tight sealants and joint details for concrete structure in RAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha Roy, P.K.; Baste, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Leak tightness may pertain to either air or water and in extreme cases each will require separate consideration based on general basic requirements. Leak-tight sealants against air pressure are required in the construction joints and around penetrations in the concrete containment structures. The containment structures should be able to withstand the maximum anticipated design pressure during the incident of a MCA with only minimal leakage (0.1% of bldg. volume per day in RAPP) which is mostly through these joints. Apart from proper joint design and preparation the sealant itself must have superb adhesion to the concrete surface and integrify throughout its service life to prevent any rupture or micro-cracks at any section of the joint. Leak tightness pertains to water tightness as well. A critical water-tight joint at the bottom dome of the prestressed concrete dousing tank at its junction with the 36 inches dia dousing water pipes constructed in RAPP-2, which should be able to withstand the water pressure, continuous submergence in the water of the tank and the longitudinal and lateral movement of the water pipes during opening and closure of the dousing valves, has been made and hydrostatically tested when not even the slight sweating was found. The construction and materials of the above joints and the sealant along with the properties and performance observed during testing/use are described. As the sealant used is an imported poly-sulphide caulking compound suggestions have also been made, which may be kept in mind while developing an Indian substitute. (author)

  1. Self-aligned nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons by facile solid-state and co-precipitation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, J. H.; Kanade, K. G.; Nikam, L. K.; Chaudhari, P. D.; Panmand, R. P.; Kale, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of well-aligned nanocrystalline hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by facile solid-state and co-precipitation method. The co-precipitation reactions were performed using aqueous and ethylene glycol (EG) medium using zinc acetate and adipic acid to obtain zinc adipate and further decomposition at 450 °C to confer nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons. XRD shows the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO. Thermal study reveals complete formation of ZnO at 430 °C in case of solid-state method, whereas in case of co-precipitation method complete formation was observed at 400 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscope shows spherical morphology for ZnO synthesized by solid-state method. The aqueous-mediated ZnO by co-precipitation method shows rod-like morphology. These rods are formed via self assembling of spherical nanoparticles, however, uniformly dispersed spherical crystallites were seen in EG-mediated ZnO. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations clearly show well aligned and highly crystalline transparent and thin hexagonal ZnO. The particle size was measured using TEM and was observed to be 50–60 nm in case of solid-state method and aqueous-mediated co-precipitation method, while 25–50 nm in case of EG-mediated co-precipitation method. UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for EG-mediated ZnO, which demonstrate the mono-dispersed lower particle size. The band gap of the ZnO was observed to be 3.4 eV which is higher than the bulk, implies nanocrystalline nature of the ZnO. The photoluminescence studies clearly indicate the strong violet and weak blue emission in ZnO nanoparticles which is quite unique. The process investigated may be useful to synthesize other oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides.

  2. Self-aligned nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons by facile solid-state and co-precipitation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, J. H. [Mahatma Phule College, Department of Chemistry (India); Kanade, K. G. [Annasaheb Awate College (India); Nikam, L. K. [B.G. College (India); Chaudhari, P. D.; Panmand, R. P.; Kale, B. B., E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com [Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET) (India)

    2012-02-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis of well-aligned nanocrystalline hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by facile solid-state and co-precipitation method. The co-precipitation reactions were performed using aqueous and ethylene glycol (EG) medium using zinc acetate and adipic acid to obtain zinc adipate and further decomposition at 450 Degree-Sign C to confer nanocrystalline ZnO hexagons. XRD shows the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO. Thermal study reveals complete formation of ZnO at 430 Degree-Sign C in case of solid-state method, whereas in case of co-precipitation method complete formation was observed at 400 Degree-Sign C. Field emission scanning electron microscope shows spherical morphology for ZnO synthesized by solid-state method. The aqueous-mediated ZnO by co-precipitation method shows rod-like morphology. These rods are formed via self assembling of spherical nanoparticles, however, uniformly dispersed spherical crystallites were seen in EG-mediated ZnO. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigations clearly show well aligned and highly crystalline transparent and thin hexagonal ZnO. The particle size was measured using TEM and was observed to be 50-60 nm in case of solid-state method and aqueous-mediated co-precipitation method, while 25-50 nm in case of EG-mediated co-precipitation method. UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for EG-mediated ZnO, which demonstrate the mono-dispersed lower particle size. The band gap of the ZnO was observed to be 3.4 eV which is higher than the bulk, implies nanocrystalline nature of the ZnO. The photoluminescence studies clearly indicate the strong violet and weak blue emission in ZnO nanoparticles which is quite unique. The process investigated may be useful to synthesize other oxide semiconductors and transition metal oxides.

  3. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. An Examination of Muscle Activation and Power Characteristics While Performing the Deadlift Exercise With Straight and Hexagonal Barbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Kevin D; Coburn, Jared W; Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Galpin, Andrew J; Costa, Pablo B

    2016-05-01

    The deadlift exercise is commonly performed to develop strength and power, and to train the lower-body and erector spinae muscle groups. However, little is known about the acute training effects of a hexagonal barbell vs. a straight barbell when performing deadlifts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the hexagonal barbell in comparison with the straight barbell by analyzing electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and erector spinae, as well as peak force, peak power, and peak velocity using a force plate. Twenty men with deadlifting experience volunteered to participate in the study. All participants completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test with each barbell on 2 separate occasions. Three repetitions at 65 and 85% 1RM were performed with each barbell on a third visit. The results revealed that there was no significant difference for 1RM values between the straight and hexagonal barbells (mean ± SD in kg = 181.4 ± 27.3 vs. 181.1 ± 27.6, respectively) (p > 0.05). Significantly greater normalized EMG values were found from the vastus lateralis for both the concentric (1.199 ± 0.22) and eccentric (0.879 ± 0.31) phases of the hexagonal-barbell deadlift than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (0.968 ± 0.22 and 0.559 ± 1.26), whereas the straight-barbell deadlift led to significantly greater EMG values from the bicep femoris during the concentric phase (0.835 ± 0.19) and the erector spinae (0.753 ± 0.28) during the eccentric phase than the corresponding values for the hexagonal-barbell deadlift (0.723 ± 0.20 and 0.614 ± 0.21) (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the hexagonal-barbell deadlift demonstrated significantly greater peak force (2,553.20 ± 371.52 N), peak power (1,871.15 ± 451.61 W), and peak velocity (0.805 ± 0.165) values than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (2,509.90 ± 364.95 N, 1,639.70 ± 361.94 W, and 0.725 ± 0.138 m·s, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that the barbells led

  5. Inter-layer potential for hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, Itai; Azuri, Ido; Kronik, Leeor; Hod, Oded

    2014-03-01

    A new interlayer force-field for layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) based structures is presented. The force-field contains three terms representing the interlayer attraction due to dispersive interactions, repulsion due to anisotropic overlaps of electron clouds, and monopolar electrostatic interactions. With appropriate parameterization, the potential is able to simultaneously capture well the binding and lateral sliding energies of planar h-BN based dimer systems as well as the interlayer telescoping and rotation of double walled boron-nitride nanotubes of different crystallographic orientations. The new potential thus allows for the accurate and efficient modeling and simulation of large-scale h-BN based layered structures.

  6. Inter-layer potential for hexagonal boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leven, Itai; Hod, Oded, E-mail: odedhod@tau.ac.il [Department of Chemical Physics, School of Chemistry, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Azuri, Ido; Kronik, Leeor [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth 76100 (Israel)

    2014-03-14

    A new interlayer force-field for layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) based structures is presented. The force-field contains three terms representing the interlayer attraction due to dispersive interactions, repulsion due to anisotropic overlaps of electron clouds, and monopolar electrostatic interactions. With appropriate parameterization, the potential is able to simultaneously capture well the binding and lateral sliding energies of planar h-BN based dimer systems as well as the interlayer telescoping and rotation of double walled boron-nitride nanotubes of different crystallographic orientations. The new potential thus allows for the accurate and efficient modeling and simulation of large-scale h-BN based layered structures.

  7. Inter-layer potential for hexagonal boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leven, Itai; Hod, Oded; Azuri, Ido; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-01-01

    A new interlayer force-field for layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) based structures is presented. The force-field contains three terms representing the interlayer attraction due to dispersive interactions, repulsion due to anisotropic overlaps of electron clouds, and monopolar electrostatic interactions. With appropriate parameterization, the potential is able to simultaneously capture well the binding and lateral sliding energies of planar h-BN based dimer systems as well as the interlayer telescoping and rotation of double walled boron-nitride nanotubes of different crystallographic orientations. The new potential thus allows for the accurate and efficient modeling and simulation of large-scale h-BN based layered structures

  8. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Yang; Lingfeng Kong; Min Du; Chenhui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short). For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas productio...

  9. Synthesis and adsorption performance of Mg(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mengdi; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Ho, Wingkei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheets with various mass of GO were prepared. • Mg(OH) 2 –GO composite showed enhanced adsorption capacity to congo red. • Zeta potential was used to explain preparation and adsorption mechanism. - Abstract: A series of Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide (GO) composites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method using magnesium nitrate and GO as precursors, sodium nitrate and sodium oxalate as additives, and sodium hydroxide and ammonia as precipitants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption affinity of the as-prepared samples toward congo red (CR) in water was analyzed and investigated. Results indicated that GO addition influenced the thickness, morphology, and adsorption performance of Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheets. As GO concentration increased, the thickness decreased. Especially at high GO concentration (1 wt%), Mg(OH) 2 hexagonal nanosheets changed into aggregated flower-like spheres. Addition of small amounts of GO also increased the adsorption capacity of Mg(OH) 2 . The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on the composite were further investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich models, indicating that the Langmuir model was much more suitable for the experimental data. The sample prepared with 0.5 wt% GO showed the highest adsorption capacity with 118 mg g −1 . The experimental data were then fitted using pseudo-second order kinetics, suggesting that pseudo-second order kinetics could well describe the adsorption of CR on composites. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis showed that the adsorption activation energy was 29.2 kJ mol −1 , suggesting that the adsorption of CR onto the samples was physical adsorption. Adsorption between the samples and CR was mainly due to the strong electrostatic attraction

  10. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  11. Tight multilattices calculated by extended-cell cylindrization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segev, M; Carmona, S

    1983-01-01

    Among the common features of advanced LWR concepts are the tightness of lattices and the symbiotic setting of different fuels. Such symbioses often come in the form of multilattices, whose numerically-repeated unit is a configuration of several pins, typically with one pin type at the center and pins of a second type surrounding the center pin. If this extended-cell (EC) unit is cylindricized, then a simple transport calculation of the unit will be possible. If the lattice of such units is tight, there is further an a priori reason to expect the cylindrization to introduce only a small distortion of the true neutron fluxes in the lattice. A strict numerical validation of the EC cylindrization approximation is impractical, but similar validations can be carried out for regular lattices, viewed as being made up of multicell units whose centers are moderators and whose peripheries are fuel pins. In these comparisons the EC cylindrization approximation gives good results.

  12. Hexagon POPE: effective particles and tree level resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Lucía [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy & Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-01-12

    We present the resummation of the full Pentagon Operator Product Expansion series of the hexagon Wilson loop in planar N=4 SYM at tree level. We do so by considering the one effective particle states formed by a fundamental flux tube excitation and an arbitrary number of the so called small fermions which are then integrated out. We derive the one effective particle measures at finite coupling. By evaluating these measures at tree level and summing over all one effective particle states we reproduce the full 6 point tree level amplitude.

  13. Toward achieving flexible and high sensitivity hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, A.; Grenadier, S. J.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2017-07-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) detectors have demonstrated the highest thermal neutron detection efficiency to date among solid-state neutron detectors at about 51%. We report here the realization of h-BN neutron detectors possessing one order of magnitude enhancement in the detection area but maintaining an equal level of detection efficiency of previous achievement. These 3 mm × 3 mm detectors were fabricated from 50 μm thick freestanding and flexible 10B enriched h-BN (h-10BN) films, grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition followed by mechanical separation from sapphire substrates. Mobility-lifetime results suggested that holes are the majority carriers in unintentionally doped h-BN. The detectors were tested under thermal neutron irradiation from californium-252 (252Cf) moderated by a high density polyethylene moderator. A thermal neutron detection efficiency of ˜53% was achieved at a bias voltage of 200 V. Conforming to traditional solid-state detectors, the realization of h-BN epilayers with enhanced electrical transport properties is the key to enable scaling up the device sizes. More specifically, the present results revealed that achieving an electrical resistivity of greater than 1014 Ωṡcm and a leakage current density of below 3 × 10-10 A/cm2 is needed to fabricate large area h-BN detectors and provided guidance for achieving high sensitivity solid state neutron detectors based on h-BN.

  14. Superstructure of self-aligned hexagonal GaN nanorods formed on nitrided Si(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen; Tuteja, Mohit; Kesaria, Manoj; Waghmare, U. V.; Shivaprasad, S. M. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064 (India)

    2012-09-24

    We present here the spontaneous formation of catalyst-free, self-aligned crystalline (wurtzite) nanorods on Si(111) surfaces modified by surface nitridation. Nanorods grown by molecular beam epitaxy on bare Si(111) and non-stoichiometric silicon nitride interface are found to be single crystalline but disoriented. Those grown on single crystalline Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} intermediate layer are highly dense c-oriented hexagonal shaped nanorods. The morphology and the self-assembly of the nanorods shows an ordered epitaxial hexagonal superstructure, suggesting that they are nucleated at screw dislocations at the interface and grow spirally in the c-direction. The aligned nanorod assembly shows high-quality structural and optical emission properties.

  15. Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. → It altered Ca 2+ distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. → Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca 2+ gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca 2+ distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca 2+ gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca 2+ gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca 2+ flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca 2+ gradient.

  16. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  17. Recovery of hexagonal Si-IV nanowires from extreme GPa pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Bennett E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Zhou, Xuezhe; Roder, Paden B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Abramson, Evan H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pauzauskie, Peter J., E-mail: peterpz@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    We use Raman spectroscopy in tandem with transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory simulations to show that extreme (GPa) pressure converts the phase of silicon nanowires from cubic (Si-I) to hexagonal (Si-IV) while preserving the nanowire's cylindrical morphology. In situ Raman scattering of the longitudinal transverse optical (LTO) mode demonstrates the high-pressure Si-I to Si-II phase transition near 9 GPa. Raman signal of the LTO phonon shows a decrease in intensity in the range of 9–14 GPa. Then, at 17 GPa, it is no longer detectable, indicating a second phase change (Si-II to Si-V) in the 14–17 GPa range. Recovery of exotic phases in individual silicon nanowires from diamond anvil cell experiments reaching 17 GPa is also shown. Raman measurements indicate Si-IV as the dominant phase in pressurized nanowires after decompression. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction confirm crystalline Si-IV domains in individual nanowires. Computational electromagnetic simulations suggest that heating from the Raman laser probe is negligible and that near-hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force for the formation of hexagonal silicon nanowires.

  18. Domain wall conductivity in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D J; Gruverman, A; Connell, J G; Seo, S S A

    2016-01-01

    Although enhanced conductivity of ferroelectric domain boundaries has been found in BiFeO 3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 films as well as hexagonal rare-earth manganite single crystals, the mechanism of the domain wall conductivity is still under debate. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe enhanced conductance at the electrically-neutral domain walls in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO 3 thin films where the structure and polarization direction are strongly constrained along the c-axis. This result indicates that domain wall conductivity in ferroelectric rare-earth manganites is not limited to charged domain walls. We show that the observed conductivity in the TbMnO 3 films is governed by a single conduction mechanism, namely, the back-to-back Schottky diodes tuned by the segregation of defects. (paper)

  19. Microstructure and Pinning Properties of Hexagonal Disc Shaped Single Crystalline MgB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J. R.

    2003-04-30

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB{sub 2} single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from X-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB{sub 2}. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c-axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the (10-10) and the (0001) directions of the MgB{sub 2} phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  20. Microstructure and pinning properties of hexagonal-disc shaped single crystalline MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. U.; Kim, J. Y.; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kijoon H.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Koh, D. S.; Tamura, N.; Caldwell, W. A.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB2 single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from x-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB2. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the [101¯0] and the [0001] directions of the MgB2 phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis curve for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  1. Glycolthermal synthesis and characterization of hexagonal CdS round microparticles in flower-like clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CdS as one of II-VI semiconducting materials. → Lab-made Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves enable us to form hexagonal CdS. → By 100-200 deg. C processing, round microparticles in flower clusters were synthesized. → A promising material for multiple potential applications. - Abstract: Hexagonal CdS round microparticles in flower-like clusters were synthesized by glycolthermal reactions of CdCl 2 and thiourea as cadmium and sulphur sources in 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) at 100-200 deg. C for 10-30 h. Phase and morphology were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The products were pure phase of hexagonal wurtzite CdS. The quantitative elemental analysis of Cd:S ratio was detected using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer. Raman spectrometer revealed the presence of fundamental and overtone modes at 296 and 595 cm -1 , corresponding to the strong 1LO and weak 2LO modes, respectively. Photonic properties were investigated using UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. They showed the same absorption at 493-498 nm, and emission at 431 nm due to the excitonic recombination process. A possible formation mechanism was also proposed, according to experimental results.

  2. Glycolthermal synthesis and characterization of hexagonal CdS round microparticles in flower-like clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuruangrat, Anukorn, E-mail: phuruangrat@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > CdS as one of II-VI semiconducting materials. > Lab-made Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclaves enable us to form hexagonal CdS. > By 100-200 deg. C processing, round microparticles in flower clusters were synthesized. > A promising material for multiple potential applications. - Abstract: Hexagonal CdS round microparticles in flower-like clusters were synthesized by glycolthermal reactions of CdCl{sub 2} and thiourea as cadmium and sulphur sources in 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) at 100-200 deg. C for 10-30 h. Phase and morphology were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The products were pure phase of hexagonal wurtzite CdS. The quantitative elemental analysis of Cd:S ratio was detected using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer. Raman spectrometer revealed the presence of fundamental and overtone modes at 296 and 595 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the strong 1LO and weak 2LO modes, respectively. Photonic properties were investigated using UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. They showed the same absorption at 493-498 nm, and emission at 431 nm due to the excitonic recombination process. A possible formation mechanism was also proposed, according to experimental results.

  3. Bulk Concentration Dependence of Electrolyte Resistance Within Mesopores of Carbon Electrodes in Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Kim, Daeun; Lee, Ilbok; Son, Hyungbin; Lee, Donghyun; Yoon, Songhun [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyewon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinwoo [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hexagonally ordered mesoporous carbon materials were prepared and used as electrode materials in an electric double-layer capacitor. Using this electrode, the change of electrolyte resistance within the mesopores was investigated according to the bulk electrolyte concentration. Using three different electrochemical transient experiments-imaginary capacitance analysis, chronoamperometry, and hronopotentiometry-the time constant associated with electrolyte transport was determined, which was then used to obtain the electrolyte resistance within the mesopores. With decreasing electrolyte concentration, the increase in electrolyte resistance was smaller than the increase in the resistivity of the bulk electrolyte, which is indicative of a different environment for ionic transport within the mesopores. On using the confinement effect within the mesopores, the predicted higher concentration within mesopore probably results in lower electrolyte resistance, especially under low bulk concentrations.

  4. Comparison of rod-ejection transient calculations in hexagonal-Z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.P.; Brohan, P.; Finnemann, H.; Huesken, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a set of 3-dimensional benchmark rod ejection problems for a VVER reactor, based on the well-known NEACRP PWR rod-ejection problems defined by Siemens/KWU. Predictions for these benchmarks derived using three hexagonal-z nodal transient codes, the PANTHER code of Nuclear Electric, the HEXTIME code of Siemens/KWU, and the DYN3D code of FZ-Rossendorf are presented and compared

  5. On the tensor reduction of one-loop pentagons and hexagons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakonidis, T.; Riemann, T.; Tausk, J.B.; Fleischer, J.; Bielefeld Univ.; Gluza, J.; Kajda, K.

    2008-07-01

    We perform analytical reductions of one-loop tensor integrals with 5 and 6 legs to scalar master integrals. They are based on the use of recurrence relations connecting integrals in different space-time dimensions. The reductions are expressed in a compact form in terms of signed minors, and have been implemented in a mathematica package called hexagon.m. We present several numerical examples. (orig.)

  6. Injuries and disorders among young ice skaters: relationship with generalized joint laxity and tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinobu Okamura,1 Naoki Wada,1 Masayuki Tazawa,1 Makoto Sohmiya,1 Yoko Ibe,1 Toru Shimizu,1 Shigeru Usuda,2 Kenji Shirakura1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Gunma University School of Health Science, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan Abstract: This study retrospectively investigated 192 teenage speed and figure skaters with prior injuries documented by an athletes’ questionnaire, who underwent a physical examination to assess their muscle tightness and generalized joint laxity. In all athletes, the degree of muscle tightness and joint laxity were measured by a standardized physical examination. A descriptive report of the types of injuries showed a predominance of fractures, ligament injuries, enthesitis, and lower back pain. Approximately 5% of all skaters tested positive for tightness, while 25.8% of figure skaters and 15.2% of speed skaters had generalized ligamentous laxity. Statistical testing showed an association between ankle sprains and muscle tightness, and an association between knee enthesitis and muscle tightness in skating athletes. There was also an association between lower back pain and generalized joint laxity, which held true only for the male skaters. Keywords: sports injury, skating, junior athlete, tightness, joint laxity, medical checkup

  7. On the energy benefit of compute-and-forward on the hexagonal lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Zhijie; Goseling, Jasper; Weber, Jos; Gastpar, Michael; Skoric, B.; Ignatenko, T.

    2014-01-01

    We study the energy benefit of applying compute-and-forward on a wireless hexagonal lattice network with multiple unicast sessions with a specific session placement. Two compute-and-forward based transmission schemes are proposed, which allow the relays to exploit both the broadcast and

  8. Adaptive tight frame based medical image reconstruction: a proof-of-concept study for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weifeng; Cai, Jian-Feng; Gao, Hao

    2013-01-01

    A popular approach for medical image reconstruction has been through the sparsity regularization, assuming the targeted image can be well approximated by sparse coefficients under some properly designed system. The wavelet tight frame is such a widely used system due to its capability for sparsely approximating piecewise-smooth functions, such as medical images. However, using a fixed system may not always be optimal for reconstructing a variety of diversified images. Recently, the method based on the adaptive over-complete dictionary that is specific to structures of the targeted images has demonstrated its superiority for image processing. This work is to develop the adaptive wavelet tight frame method image reconstruction. The proposed scheme first constructs the adaptive wavelet tight frame that is task specific, and then reconstructs the image of interest by solving an l 1 -regularized minimization problem using the constructed adaptive tight frame system. The proof-of-concept study is performed for computed tomography (CT), and the simulation results suggest that the adaptive tight frame method improves the reconstructed CT image quality from the traditional tight frame method. (paper)

  9. Hexagonal wavelet processing of digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Andrew F.; Schuler, Sergio; Huda, Walter; Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Steinbach, Barbara G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through overcomplete multiresolution representations. We show that efficient representations may be identified from digital mammograms and used to enhance features of importance to mammography within a continuum of scale-space. We present a method of contrast enhancement based on an overcomplete, non-separable multiscale representation: the hexagonal wavelet transform. Mammograms are reconstructed from transform coefficients modified at one or more levels by local and global non-linear operators. Multiscale edges identified within distinct levels of transform space provide local support for enhancement. We demonstrate that features extracted from multiresolution representations can provide an adaptive mechanism for accomplishing local contrast enhancement. We suggest that multiscale detection and local enhancement of singularities may be effectively employed for the visualization of breast pathology without excessive noise amplification.

  10. Desain Antena Hexagonal Patch Array Berbasis Sistem Transfer Daya Wireless pada Frekuensi 2,4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herma Nugroho R. A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah didesain antena hexagonal patch array yang dapat digunakan sebagai perangkat catu daya wireless. Antena hexagonal patch array ini didesain untuk menangkap gelombang radio (RF pada frekuensi 2,4 GHz yang dapat diaplikasikan sebagai antena pada Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN. Desain antena dilakukan menggunakan software CST Microwave studio, kemudian dilakukan pabrikasi dan pengukuran secara riil. Parameter pengujian antena hexagonal patch array meliputi return loss, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR, gain, bandwidth, dan daya. Metode yang digunakan adalah pemodelan transmission line dan corporate feed line untuk pengaturan perubahan jarak antar patch antena. Perubahan variabel juga diteliti pengaruhnya terhadap parameter antena khususnya daya terima antena yang kemudian ditransmisikan ke rangkaian power harvester. Nilai parameter antena hasil simulasi menunjukkan nilai return loss adalah -33,38 dB, VSWR sebesar 1,041, gain sebesar 8,81 dBi, bandwidth adalah 0,084 GHz, daya sebesar 0,499 W (-3 dBm. Sedangkan parameter hasil pengukuran dari antena yang telah dipabrikasi adalah nilai return loss sebesar -33,21 dB, VSWR sebesar 1,048, gain sebesar 5 dBi, bandwidth adalah 0,145 GHz, daya sebesar -33 dBm.

  11. Nonlinear Filtering with IMM Algorithm for Ultra-Tight GPS/INS Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Jing Jwo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper conducts a performance evaluation for the ultra-tight integration of a Global positioning system (GPS and an inertial navigation system (INS, using nonlinear filtering approaches with an interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm. An ultra-tight GPS/INS architecture involves the integration of in-phase and quadrature components from the correlator of a GPS receiver with INS data. An unscented Kalman filter (UKF, which employs a set of sigma points by deterministic sampling, avoids the error caused by linearization as in an extended Kalman filter (EKF. Based on the filter structural adaptation for describing various dynamic behaviours, the IMM nonlinear filtering provides an alternative for designing the adaptive filter in the ultra-tight GPS/INS integration. The use of IMM enables tuning of an appropriate value for the process of noise covariance so as to maintain good estimation accuracy and tracking capability. Two examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the design and demonstrate the effective improvement in navigation estimation accuracy. A performance comparison among various filtering methods for ultra-tight integration of GPS and INS is also presented. The IMM based nonlinear filtering approach demonstrates the effectiveness of the algorithm for improved positioning performance.

  12. Impact vibration analysis of group of hexagonal bars immersed in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Toshihiko

    1994-01-01

    A simulation method was studied to calculate the vibration response during seismic excitation of a group of hexagonal bars installed in a restraint immersed in liquid. In this study, the influence of fluid force on structural motion was modeled using an added mass matrix. The added mass matrix was then transferred into the space composed of the eigen modes of hexagonal bars without the added mass and introduced into eigenvalue analysis of the whole bar group structure. By means of this method, the computational time of the added mass matrix calculation and the eigenvalue analysis can be reduced. It was shown that the proposed method yielded almost the same eigenvalues as the conventional method in the physical space. Using the proposed method, added mass models to be used in the impact vibration analysis were investigated. Comparing the calculated results by the proposed method with those using a concentrated added mass, which is a simplified model, showed that the concentrated added mass can be used for a rough response calculation, although the precise calculation requires the added mass matrix. (author)

  13. Raman studies of hexagonal MoO{sub 3} at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, Z.M.; Dai, R.C.; Zhang, J.W.; Ding, Z.J. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, L. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Z.P. [The Centre for Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The transition-metal oxide MoO{sub 3} is an important semiconductor and has various technological applications in catalysts, electrochromic and photochromic devices, gas sensors, and battery electrodes. In this study, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3} prepared by a hydrothermal method is in morphology of microrod with diameter of 0.8-1.2 {mu}m and length of 2.0-4.3 {mu}m. Its structural stability was investigated by an in situ Raman scattering method in a diamond anvil cell up to 28.7 GPa at room temperature. The new Raman peak around 1000 cm{sup -1} implies that a phase transition from hexagonal to amorphous starts at 5.6 GPa, and the evolution of the Raman spectra indicates that the structural transition is completed at about 13.2 GPa. After releasing pressure to ambient condition, the Raman spectrum pattern of the high pressure phase was retained, revealing that the phase transition is irreversible. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Isotope engineering of van der Waals interactions in hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Liu, S.; van der Lee, A.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Michel, T.; Valvin, P.; Edgar, J. H.; Cassabois, G.; Gil, B.

    2018-02-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride is a model lamellar compound where weak, non-local van der Waals interactions ensure the vertical stacking of two-dimensional honeycomb lattices made of strongly bound boron and nitrogen atoms. We study the isotope engineering of lamellar compounds by synthesizing hexagonal boron nitride crystals with nearly pure boron isotopes (10B and 11B) compared to those with the natural distribution of boron (20 at% 10B and 80 at% 11B). On the one hand, as with standard semiconductors, both the phonon energy and electronic bandgap varied with the boron isotope mass, the latter due to the quantum effect of zero-point renormalization. On the other hand, temperature-dependent experiments focusing on the shear and breathing motions of adjacent layers revealed the specificity of isotope engineering in a layered material, with a modification of the van der Waals interactions upon isotope purification. The electron density distribution is more diffuse between adjacent layers in 10BN than in 11BN crystals. Our results open perspectives in understanding and controlling van der Waals bonding in layered materials.

  15. Thermodynamic and elastic properties of hexagonal ZnO under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Jinghe; Xia, Chuanhui; Hu, Chenghua; Hu, Chunlian; Zhou, Ping; Shi, Lingna; Ji, Yanling; Zheng, Zhou; Liu, Xiankun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method is applied to predict crystal constants of hexagonal crystal under high temperature. • Elastic properties of ZnO under high temperature are obtained exactly. • Thermodynamic properties of ZnO under high temperature are attained too. - Abstract: Studies on thermodynamic and elastic properties of hexagonal ZnO (wurtzite structure) under high temperature have not been reported usually from no matter experimental or theoretic methods. In this work, we study these properties by ab-initio together with quasi-harmonic Debye model. The value of C v tends to the Petit and Dulong limit at high temperature under any pressure, 49.73 J/mol K. And C v is greatly limited by pressure at intermediate temperatures. Nevertheless, the limit effect on C v caused by pressure is not obvious under low as well as very high temperature. The thermal expansions along a or c axis are almost same under temperature, which increase with temperature like a parabola. C 11 , C 33 , C 12 and C 13 decrease with temperature a little, which means that mechanics properties are weakened respectively

  16. WPG-Controlled Quantum BDD Circuits with BDD Architecture on GaAs-Based Hexagonal Nanowire Network Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Quan ZHao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional nanowire quantum devices and basic quantum logic AND and OR unit on hexagonal nanowire units controlled by wrap gate (WPG were designed and fabricated on GaAs-based one-dimensional electron gas (1-DEG regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology. These basic quantum logic units worked correctly at 35 K, and clear quantum conductance was achieved on the node device, logic AND circuit unit, and logic OR circuit unit. Binary-decision-diagram- (BDD- based arithmetic logic unit (ALU is realized on GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology by the same fabrication method as that of the quantum devices and basic circuits. This BDD-based ALU circuit worked correctly at room temperature. Since these quantum devices and circuits are basic units of the BDD ALU combinational circuit, the possibility of integrating these quantum devices and basic quantum circuits into the BDD-based quantum circuit with more complicated structures was discussed. We are prospecting the realization of quantum BDD combinational circuitries with very small of energy consumption and very high density of integration.

  17. Defect sensitive etching of hexagonal boron nitride single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. H.; Liu, S.; Hoffman, T.; Zhang, Yichao; Twigg, M. E.; Bassim, Nabil D.; Liang, Shenglong; Khan, Neelam

    2017-12-01

    Defect sensitive etching (DSE) was developed to estimate the density of non-basal plane dislocations in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) single crystals. The crystals employed in this study were precipitated by slowly cooling (2-4 °C/h) a nickel-chromium flux saturated with hBN from 1500 °C under 1 bar of flowing nitrogen. On the (0001) planes, hexagonal-shaped etch pits were formed by etching the crystals in a eutectic mixture of NaOH and KOH between 450 °C and 525 °C for 1-2 min. There were three types of pits: pointed bottom, flat bottom, and mixed shape pits. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pointed bottom etch pits examined were associated with threading dislocations. All of these dislocations had an a-type burgers vector (i.e., they were edge dislocations, since the line direction is perpendicular to the [ 2 11 ¯ 0 ]-type direction). The pit widths were much wider than the pit depths as measured by atomic force microscopy, indicating the lateral etch rate was much faster than the vertical etch rate. From an Arrhenius plot of the log of the etch rate versus the inverse temperature, the activation energy was approximately 60 kJ/mol. This work demonstrates that DSE is an effective method for locating threading dislocations in hBN and estimating their densities.

  18. Application of hexagonal element scheme in finite element method to three-dimensional diffusion problem of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Misako; Higuchi, Kenji

    1983-01-01

    The finite element method is applied in Galerkin-type approximation to three-dimensional neutron diffusion equations of fast reactors. A hexagonal element scheme is adopted for treating the hexagonal lattice which is typical for fast reactors. The validity of the scheme is verified by applying the scheme as well as alternative schemes to the neutron diffusion calculation of a gas-cooled fast reactor of actual scale. The computed results are compared with corresponding values obtained using the currently applied triangular-element and also with conventional finite difference schemes. The hexagonal finite element scheme is found to yield a reasonable solution to the problem taken up here, with some merit in terms of saving in computing time, but the resulting multiplication factor differs by 1% and the flux by 9% compared with the triangular mesh finite difference scheme. The finite element method, even in triangular element scheme, would appear to incur error in inadmissible amount and which could not be easily eliminated by refining the nodes. (author)

  19. Low-temperature synthesis of hexagonal transition metal ion doped ZnS nanoparticles by a simple colloidal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Huang, Shungang; Sun, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    A general route to synthesize transition metal ions doped ZnS nanoparticles with hexagonal phase by means of a conventional reverse micelle at a low temperature is developed. The synthesis involves N,N-dimethylformamide, Zn(AC) 2 solution, thiourea, ammonia, mercaptoacetic acid, as oil phase, water phase, sulfide source, pH regulator, and surfactant, respectively. Thiourea, ammonia and mercaptoacetic acid are demonstrated crucial factors, whose effects have been studied in detail. In addition, the FT-IR spectra suggest that mercaptoacetic acid may form complex chelates with Zn 2+ in the preparation. In the case of Cu 2+ as a doped ion, hexagonal ZnS:Cu 2+ nanoparticles were synthesized at 95 °C for the first time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements show that the ZnS:Cu 2+ nanoparticles are polycrystalline and possess uniform particle size. The possible formation mechanism of the hexagonal doped ZnS is discussed.

  20. Co_3V_2O_8 Hexagonal Pyramid with Tunable Inner Structure as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Pei, Jian; Chen, Gang; Bie, Changfeng; Chen, Dahong; Jiao, Yang; Rao, Jiancun

    2017-01-01

    Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid was successfully fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process and subsequent heat treatment. The inner structure of the hexagonal pyramid was further adjusted by controlling the size of Co_7V_4O_1_6(OH)_2(H_2O) precursors. Hierarchical Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid with height of 1 μm were orderly constructed from 60–80 nm inter-connected particles, showing numerous interval voids. Benefiting from its unique structure, the as-prepared sample showed higher electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries than that of another bulk sample with height of 5 μm and adhesive inner structure. When tested at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, the hierarchical Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid exhibited good rate capacity, high cycling stability, and excellent discharge capacity up to 712 mA h g"−"1, making it promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016

  2. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  3. Estimating Regional Mass Balance of Himalayan Glaciers Using Hexagon Imagery: An Automated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J. M.; Rupper, S.

    2013-12-01

    Currently there is much uncertainty regarding the present and future state of Himalayan glaciers, which supply meltwater for river systems vital to more than 1.4 billion people living throughout Asia. Previous assessments of regional glacier mass balance in the Himalayas using various remote sensing and field-based methods give inconsistent results, and most assessments are over relatively short (e.g., single decade) timescales. This study aims to quantify multi-decadal changes in volume and extent of Himalayan glaciers through efficient use of the large database of declassified 1970-80s era Hexagon stereo imagery. Automation of the DEM extraction process provides an effective workflow for many images to be processed and glacier elevation changes quantified with minimal user input. The tedious procedure of manual ground control point selection necessary for block-bundle adjustment (as ephemeral data is not available for the declassified images) is automated using the Maximally Stable Extremal Regions algorithm, which matches image elements between raw Hexagon images and georeferenced Landsat 15 meter panchromatic images. Additional automated Hexagon DEM processing, co-registration, and bias correction allow for direct comparison with modern ASTER and SRTM elevation data, thus quantifying glacier elevation and area changes over several decades across largely inaccessible mountainous regions. As consistent methodology is used for all glaciers, results will likely reveal significant spatial and temporal patterns in regional ice mass balance. Ultimately, these findings could have important implications for future water resource management in light of environmental change.

  4. On tight multiparty Bell inequalities for many settings

    OpenAIRE

    Zukowski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    A derivation method is given which leads to a series of tight Bell inequalities for experiments involving N parties, with binary observables, and three possible local settings. The approach can be generalized to more settings. Ramifications are presented.

  5. Application of radiotracer method for tightness control and leakage localization in industrial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kras, J; Walis, L.; Myczkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    Application of 82 Br in the form of gaseous CH 3 Br for tightness control and leakage localization in large industrial apparatus as chemical reactors, columns, vessels, pipelines etc. has been presented. The tracer has been prepared at the place of measurements in a specially designed mobile chemical reactor. The paper presents different variants of the method convenient for: tightness control of underground pipelines, leakage control of technological objects working in chemical and petrochemical industry, tightness control of large metal vessels localized underground and on surface. The radiometric devices used in mentioned variants have ben performed as well

  6. Extended Lagrangian formulation of charge-constrained tight-binding molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkwell, M J; Coe, J D; Yadav, S K; Liu, X-Y; Niklasson, A M N

    2015-06-09

    The extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics formalism [Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2008, 100, 123004] has been applied to a tight-binding model under the constraint of local charge neutrality to yield microcanonical trajectories with both precise, long-term energy conservation and a reduced number of self-consistent field optimizations at each time step. The extended Lagrangian molecular dynamics formalism restores time reversal symmetry in the propagation of the electronic degrees of freedom, and it enables the efficient and accurate self-consistent optimization of the chemical potential and atomwise potential energy shifts in the on-site elements of the tight-binding Hamiltonian that are required when enforcing local charge neutrality. These capabilities are illustrated with microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations of a small metallic cluster using an sd-valent tight-binding model for titanium. The effects of weak dissipation on the propagation of the auxiliary degrees of freedom for the chemical potential and on-site Hamiltonian matrix elements that is used to counteract the accumulation of numerical noise during trajectories was also investigated.

  7. Leakage detecting method and device for water tight vessel of wet-type container apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshimi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for detecting leakage of a water tight vessel of a wet-type container apparatus for containing a reactor pressure vessel while immersing it water in a reactor container. Namely, in the wet-type container apparatus, the periphery of the pressure vessel is coated with a heat insulation material and the periphery of the heat insulation material is coated with a water tight vessel. The water tight vessel is immersed under water in the reactor container. As a method of detecting leakage of the wet-type container apparatus, gases mixed with helium are supplied into the water tight vessel at a pressure higher than the inner pressure of the reactor container at a lowest position of the reactor pressure vessel. A water level in the reactor container is determined so as to form a space at the top portion of the inside of the reactor container. The helium at the top portion is detected to monitor the leakage of the water tight vessel. With such procedures, even if the water tight vessel is ruptured at any position, helium mixed to the gases is released to water in the reactor container and rise up to the top space and detected by a helium leakage detection device. (I.S.)

  8. Parameter studies on the effect of pulse shape on the dynamic plastic deformation of a hexagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.

    1973-10-01

    Results of a parameter study on the dynamic plastic response of a hexagonal subassembly duct subjected to an internal pressure pulse of arbitrary shape are presented. Plastic distortion of the cross section and large-deformation geometric effects that result in redistribution of the internal forces between bending and membrane stresses in the hexagon wall are included in the analytical model. Correlation procedures are established for relating permanent plastic deformation to simple properties of the pressure pulse, for both the small- and large-deformation ranges. Characteristic response times are determined, and the dynamic load factor for large-deformation plastic response is computed

  9. Effects of Sr-substitution on the structural and magnetic behavior of Ba-based Y-type hexagonal ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Ali, Qasim; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Azhar Khan, M.; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Murtaza, G.; Rana, M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Sr-substituted Y-type hexaferrites synthesized by sol–gel method have been investigated. •Platelet grains with well defined hexagonal shape are suitable for microwave absorbers. •Saturation magnetization values were calculated by the law of approach to saturation. •Coercivity of a few hundred oersteds found for all samples is suitable for EM materials. -- Abstract: Sr-substituted samples of Y-type hexagonal ferrites with chemical formula Ba 2−x Sr x Ni 2 Fe 12 O 22 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were synthesized using the sol–gel autocombustion method and were sintered at 1150 °C for 3 h. The samples were investigated by differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that single phase samples can be achieved by substituting Sr 2+ ions at Ba 2+ sites in Y-type hexagonal ferrites. X-ray density and bulk density were observed to decrease whereas porosity increased with increasing Sr-concentration. All the samples show well defined hexagonal shape which is favorable for microwave absorbing purposes. The saturation magnetization values were calculated from M–H loops by the law of approach to saturation. The loops show low values of coercivity of a few hundred oersteds which is one of the necessary conditions for electromagnetic (EM) materials and is suitable for security, switching, sensing and high frequency applications

  10. The hexagon hypothesis: Six disruptive scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtles, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to bring a simple but effective and comprehensive approach to the development, delivery and monitoring of business continuity solutions. To ensure that the arguments and principles apply across the board, the paper sticks to basic underlying concepts rather than sophisticated interpretations. First, the paper explores what exactly people are defending themselves against. Secondly, the paper looks at how defences should be set up. Disruptive events tend to unfold in phases, each of which invites a particular style of protection, ranging from risk management through to business continuity to insurance cover. Their impact upon any business operation will fall into one of six basic scenarios. The hexagon hypothesis suggests that everyone should be prepared to deal with each of these six disruptive scenarios and it provides them with a useful benchmark for business continuity.

  11. Intraluminal polyethylene glycol stabilizes tight junctions and improves intestinal preservation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, M; Joshi, M; Björkman, E; Oltean, S; Casselbrant, A; Herlenius, G; Olausson, M

    2012-08-01

    Rapidly progressing mucosal breakdown limits the intestinal preservation time below 10 h. Recent studies indicate that intraluminal solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) alleviate preservation injury of intestines stored in UW-Viaspan. We investigated whether a low-sodium PEG solution is beneficial for intestines stored in histidine-tryptophane-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solution. Rat intestines used as control tissue (group 1) were perfused with HTK, groups 2 and 3 received either a customized PEG-3350 (group 2) or an electrolyte solution (group 3) intraluminally before cold storage. Tissue injury, brush-border maltase activity, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-3 expression in the tight junctions (TJ) were analyzed after 8, 14 and 20 h. We measured epithelial resistance and permeability (Ussing chamber) after 8 and 14 h. Group 2 had superior morphology while maltase activity was similar in all groups. TJ proteins rapidly decreased and decolocalized in groups 1 3; these negative events were delayed in group 2, where colocalization persisted for about 14 h. Intestines in group 2 had higher epithelial resistance and lower permeability than the other groups. These results suggest that a customized PEG solution intraluminally reduces the intestinal preservation injury by improving several major epithelial characteristics without negatively affecting the brush-border enzymes or promoting edema. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Tightness of the thermal envelope of office and educational buildings; Klimaskaermens taethed i kontor- og undervisningsbygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Nickel, J.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell Danmark A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Bundesen, E.W.; Nielsen, Carsten (DanEjendomme, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In 2006 tightening of the energy regulations in the Danish Building Regulations were introduced including requirements regarding the tightness of the building envelope. The requirements are, with minor changes, continued in the current Building Regulations, BR10. During the past few years experience has been gained regarding both the actual execution of air tightness measurements and solutions that will lead to more air tight building envelopes. Experiences, however, are primarily related to single family houses. The report presents results of measurements in large buildings and discusses reasons for lack of knowledge and experience on the tightness of the building envelope in large buildings. Apparently, there is a need for dissemination of knowledge on the importance of a tight building envelope both in terms of energy consumption and indoor climate and in terms of the difficulties and costs associated with repairing leaks in a completed envelope. Air tightness must be brought into focus at an early stage in the planning process, and during the construction phase air tightness measurements should be performed, e.g. on facade sections or in parts of the building. The project team has attended a number of measurements in large buildings and further gained access to results of a large number of measurements. In summary, the results show that it is possible to achieve the required tightness, and in most buildings the results are better than the requirement of a maximum of 1.5 l/s per m{sub 2}. (Author)

  13. Expression of Tight Junction Protein Claudin-1 in Human Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Koda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of crescent forming cells in human glomerulonephritis (GN remains unknown. Some animal studies demonstrated that parietal epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule (PECs were the main component of proliferating cells and PEC-specific tight junction protein claudin-1 was expressed in crescentic lesions. We investigated the expression of claudin-1 in human GN. Immunohistochemistry for claudin-1 was performed on 17 kidney biopsy samples with crescent formation. Colocalization of claudin-1 with intracellular tight junction protein ZO-1 was also evaluated by immunofluorescence double staining. Claudin-1 is expressed mainly at the cell to cell contact site of proliferating cells in cellular crescentic lesions in patients with these forms of human GN. Small numbers of crescent forming cells showed extrajunctional localization of claudin-1. Colocalization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 was found at cell to cell contact sites of adjacent proliferating cells. In control samples, staining of claudin-1 was positive in PECs, but not in podocytes. Our findings suggest that claudin-1 contributes to crescent formation as a component of the tight junction protein complex that includes ZO-1. Co-localization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 implies the formation of functional tight junction complexes in crescentic lesions to prevent the interstitial damage caused by penetration of filtered molecules from Bowman’s space.

  14. Absolute tightness: the chemists hesitate to invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The safety requirements of industries as nuclear plants and the strengthening of regulations in the field of environment (more particularly those related to volatile organic compounds) have lead the manufacturers to build absolute tightness pumps. But these equipments do not answer all the problems and represent a high investment cost. In consequence, the chemists hesitate to invest. (O.L.)

  15. Interaction between infinitely many dislocations and a semi-infinite crack in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guan-Ting; Yang Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    By means of analytic function theory, the problems of interaction between infinitely many parallel dislocations and a semi-infinite crack in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal are studied. The analytic solutions of stress fields of the interaction between infinitely many parallel dislocations and a semi-infinite crack in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystal are obtained. They indicate that the stress concentration occurs at the dislocation source and the tip of the crack, and the value of the stress increases with the number of the dislocations increasing. These results are the development of interaction among the finitely many defects of quasicrystals, which possesses an important reference value for studying the interaction problems of infinitely many defects in fracture mechanics of quasicrystal. (paper)

  16. Direct observation of the lowest indirect exciton state in the bulk of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, R.; Habenicht, C.; Ahmad, M.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.

    2018-01-01

    We combine electron energy-loss spectroscopy and first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) to identify the lowest indirect exciton state in the in-plane charge response of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals. This remarkably sharp mode forms a narrow pocket with a dispersion bandwidth of ˜100 meV and, as we argue based on a comparison to our DFT calculations, is predominantly polarized along the Γ K direction of the hexagonal Brillouin zone. Our data support the recent report by Cassabois et al. [Nat. Photonics 10, 262 (2016), 10.1038/nphoton.2015.277] who indirectly inferred the existence of this mode from the photoluminescence signal, thereby establishing h-BN as an indirect semiconductor.

  17. Multidirection Piezoelectricity in Mono- and Multilayered Hexagonal α-In2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Junwei; Hu, Weijin; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Han, Ali; Leung, Siu; Huang, Jing-Kai; Wan, Yi; Liu, Shuhai; Zhang, Junli; He, Jr-Hau; Chang, Wen-Hao; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    to their noncentrosymmetry originating from the hexagonal stacking. Specifically, the corresponding d33 piezoelectric coefficient of α-In2Se3 increases from 0.34 pm/V (monolayer) to 5.6 pm/V (bulk) without any odd-even effect. In addition, we also demonstrate a type of α-In2

  18. Synthesis and adsorption performance of Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mengdi; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies and Centre for Education in Environmental Sustainability, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T. Hong Kong (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheets with various mass of GO were prepared. • Mg(OH){sub 2}–GO composite showed enhanced adsorption capacity to congo red. • Zeta potential was used to explain preparation and adsorption mechanism. - Abstract: A series of Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheet–graphene oxide (GO) composites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method using magnesium nitrate and GO as precursors, sodium nitrate and sodium oxalate as additives, and sodium hydroxide and ammonia as precipitants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption affinity of the as-prepared samples toward congo red (CR) in water was analyzed and investigated. Results indicated that GO addition influenced the thickness, morphology, and adsorption performance of Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheets. As GO concentration increased, the thickness decreased. Especially at high GO concentration (1 wt%), Mg(OH){sub 2} hexagonal nanosheets changed into aggregated flower-like spheres. Addition of small amounts of GO also increased the adsorption capacity of Mg(OH){sub 2}. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on the composite were further investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich models, indicating that the Langmuir model was much more suitable for the experimental data. The sample prepared with 0.5 wt% GO showed the highest adsorption capacity with 118 mg g{sup −1}. The experimental data were then fitted using pseudo-second order kinetics, suggesting that pseudo-second order kinetics could well describe the adsorption of CR on composites. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis showed that the adsorption activation energy was 29.2 kJ mol{sup −1}, suggesting that the adsorption of CR onto the samples was physical adsorption. Adsorption between the samples and CR was mainly due to the

  19. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kureta, Masatoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi

    2002-01-01

    Fuel rods of the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) are so designed to be in tight lattices as to reduce moderation and achieve higher conversion ratio. As for the BWR type reactor coolant flow rate is reduced small compared with the existing BWR, so average void fraction comes to be langer. In order to evaluate thermo hydraulic characteristics of designed cores, critical heat flux experiments in tight lattice core have been conducted using simulated high pressure coolant loops for both the PWR and BWR seven fuel rod bundles. Experimental data on critical heat flux for full bundles have been accumulated and applied to assess the critical power of designed cores using existing codes. Evaluated results are conservative enough to satisfy the limiting condition. Further experiments on axial power distribution effects and 37 fuel rod bundle tests will be performed to validate thermohydraulic characteristics of designed cores. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman effects in transition metal dichalcogenides: A tight-binding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Maciej; Korkusiński, Marek; Szulakowska, Ludmiła; Potasz, Paweł; Ozfidan, Isil; Hawrylak, Paweł

    2018-02-01

    We present here the minimal tight-binding model for a single layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) MX 2(M , metal; X , chalcogen) which illuminates the physics and captures band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman magnetic field effects. TMDCs share the hexagonal lattice with graphene but their electronic bands require much more complex atomic orbitals. Using symmetry arguments, a minimal basis consisting of three metal d orbitals and three chalcogen dimer p orbitals is constructed. The tunneling matrix elements between nearest-neighbor metal and chalcogen orbitals are explicitly derived at K ,-K , and Γ points of the Brillouin zone. The nearest-neighbor tunneling matrix elements connect specific metal and sulfur orbitals yielding an effective 6 ×6 Hamiltonian giving correct composition of metal and chalcogen orbitals but not the direct gap at K points. The direct gap at K , correct masses, and conduction band minima at Q points responsible for band nesting are obtained by inclusion of next-neighbor Mo-Mo tunneling. The parameters of the next-nearest-neighbor model are successfully fitted to MX 2(M =Mo ; X =S ) density functional ab initio calculations of the highest valence and lowest conduction band dispersion along K -Γ line in the Brillouin zone. The effective two-band massive Dirac Hamiltonian for MoS2, Landé g factors, and valley Zeeman splitting are obtained.

  2. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA. Expression of tetracycline efflux pumps is tightly controlled by the repressor Tet...

  3. A rational repeating template method for synthesis of 2D hexagonally ordered mesoporous precious metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Azusa; Doi, Yoji; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    A repeating template method is presented for the synthesis of mesoporous metals with 2D hexagonal mesostructures. First, a silica replica (i.e., silica nanorods arranged periodically) is prepared by using 2D hexagonally ordered mesoporous carbon as the template. After that, the obtained silica replica is used as the second template for the preparation of mesoporous ruthenium. After the ruthenium species are introduced into the silica replica, the ruthenium species are then reduced by a vapor-infiltration method by using the reducing agent dimethylamine borane. After the ruthenium deposition, the silica is chemically removed. Analysis by transmission and scanning electron microscopies, a nitrogen-adsorption-desorption isotherm, and small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the mesoporous ruthenium had a 2D hexagonal mesostructure, although the mesostructural ordering is decreased compared to that of the original mesoporous carbon template. This method is widely applicable to other metal systems. By changing the metal species introduced into the silica replica, several mesoporous metals (palladium and platinum) can be synthesized. Ordered mesoporous ruthenium and palladium, which are not easily attainable by the soft-templating methods, can be prepared. This study has overcome the composition variation limitations of the soft-templating method. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis of Phase Pure Hexagonal YFeO3 Perovskite as Efficient Visible Light Active Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ismael

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal perovskite YFeO3 was synthesized by a complex-assisted sol-gel technique allowing crystallization at calcination temperatures below 700 °C. As determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and Tauc plots, the hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a lower optical band gap (1.81 eV than the orthorhombic structure (about 2.1 eV or even higher being typically obtained at elevated temperatures (>700 °C, and thus enables higher visible light photocatalysis activity. Structure and morphology of the synthesized YFeO3 perovskites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and nitrogen adsorption, proving that significantly smaller crystallite sizes and higher surface areas are obtained for YFeO3 with a hexagonal phase. The photocatalytic activity of the different YFeO3 phases was deduced via the degradation of the model pollutants methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol. Experiments under illumination with light of different wavelengths, in the presence of different trapping elements, as well as photoelectrochemical tests allow conclusions regarding band positions of YFeO3 and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very thin layer of Y2O3 might support the photocatalysis by improving the separation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  5. Importance of the hexagonal lipid phase in biological membrane organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jouhet, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    Domains are present in every natural membrane. They are characterized by a distinctive protein and/or lipid composition. Their size is highly variable from the nano- to the micrometer scale. The domains confer specific properties to the membrane leading to original structure and function. The determinants leading to domain organization are therefore important but remain obscure. This review presents how the ability of lipids to organize into hexagonal II or lamellar phases can promote particu...

  6. Economic evaluation on tight sandstone gas development projects in China and recommendation on fiscal and taxation support policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available China is rich in tight sandstone gas resources (“tight gas” for short. For example, the Sulige Gasfield in the Ordos Basin and the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Fm gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin are typical tight gas reservoirs. In the past decade, tight gas reserve and production both have increased rapidly in China, but tight gas reservoirs are always managed as conventional gas reservoirs without effective fiscal, taxation and policy supports. The potential of sustainable tight gas production increase is obviously restricted. The tight gas development projects represented by the Sulige Gasfield have failed to make profit for a long period, and especially tight gas production has presented a slight decline since 2015. In this paper, a new economic evaluation method was proposed for tight gas development projects. The new method was designed to verify the key parameters (e.g. production decline rate and single-well economic service life depending on tight gas development and production characteristics, and perform the depreciation by using the production method. Furthermore, the possibility that the operation cost may rise due to pressure-boosting production and intermittent opening of gas wells is considered. The method was used for the tight gas development project of Sulige Gasfield, showing that its profit level is much lower than the enterprise's cost level of capital. In order to support a sustainable development of tight gas industry in China, it is recommended that relevant authorities issue value-added tax (VAT refund policy as soon as possible. It is necessary to restore the non-resident gas gate price of the provinces where tight gas is produced to the fair and reasonable level in addition to the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.24/m3, or offer the fiscal subsidy of CNY0.32/m3 directly based on the on-going gate price. With these support policies, tax income is expected to rise directly, fiscal expenditure will not increase, and gas

  7. Magnetocaloric properties of the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} single crystal revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balli, M., E-mail: Mohamed.balli@Usherbrooke.ca [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Roberge, B.; Vermette, J.; Jandl, S. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Fournier, P. [Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe, Département de physique, Université de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Gospodinov, M.M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia 1184 (Bulgaria)

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} single crystal have been revisited. It was found that the magnetocaloric effect shown by HoMnO{sub 3} strongly depends on the crystal orientation in respect to the applied magnetic field. Consequently, a large thermal effect can be induced by spinning the single crystal HoMnO{sub 3} around the a (or b) axis in a constant magnetic field instead of the conventional magnetization–demagnetization process. Under 7 T, the maximum rotating entropy change was evaluated to be about 8 J/kg K. The associated adiabatic temperature change reaches a value of about 5 K. These values are comparable to those of the other oxides exhibiting a large rotating magnetocaloric effect. The presence of both conventional and rotating thermal effects makes the hexagonal HoMnO{sub 3} more interesting from a practical point of view.

  8. High-order discrete ordinate transport in hexagonal geometry: A new capability in ERANOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Suteau, C.; Fournier, D.; Ruggieri, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an arbitrary order discontinuous Galerkin scheme within the framework of a discrete ordinate solver of the neutron transport equation for nuclear reactor calculations. More precisely, it deals with non-conforming spatial meshes for the 2 D and 3 D modeling of core geometries based on hexagonal assemblies. This work aims at improving the capabilities of the ERANOS code system dedicated to fast reactor analysis and design. Both the angular quadrature and spatial scheme peculiarities for hexagonal geometries are presented. A particular focus is set on the spatial non-conforming mesh and variable order capabilities of this scheme in anticipation to the development of spatial adaptiveness algorithms. These features are illustrated on a 3 D numerical benchmark with comparison to a Monte Carlo reference and a 2 D benchmark that shows the potential of this scheme for both h-and p-adaptation.

  9. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION BY TIGHT ROPE TECHNIQUE (ARTHREX®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÓmez Vieira, Luis Alfredo; Visco, Adalberto; Daneu Fernandes, Luis Filipe; GÓmez Cordero, Nicolas Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope - Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation and to evaluate results obtained with this procedure. Methods: Between August 2006 and May 2007, 10 shoulders of 10 patients with acute acromioclavicular dislocation were submitted to arthroscopic repair using the Tight Rope - Arthrex® system. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 15 months. Age ranged from 26 to 42, mean 34 years. All patients were male. Radiology evaluation was made by trauma series x-ray. The patients were assisted in the first month weekly and after three months after the procedure. Clinical evaluation was based on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: All patients were satisfied after the arthroscopic procedure and the mean UCLA score was 32,5. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope – Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation showed to be an efficient technique. PMID:26998453

  10. Robust half-metallicity of hexagonal SrNiO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gao-Yuan; Ma, Chun-Lan; Chen, Da; Zhu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the rich panorama of the electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transition metal oxides SrMO_3 (M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu), one member (SrNiO_3) is missing. In this paper we use GGA+U method based on density functional theory to examine its properties. It is found that SrNiO_3 is a ferromagnetic half-metal. The charge density map shows a high degree of ionic bonding between Sr and other atoms. Meanwhile, a covalent-bonding Ni–O–Ni–O–Ni chain is observed. The spin density contour of SrNiO_3 further indicates that the magnetic interaction between Ni atoms mediated by O is semicovalent exchange. The density of states are examined to explore the unusual indirect magnetic-exchange mechanism. Corresponding to the total energies results, a robust half-metallic character is observed, suggesting a promising giant magneto-optical Kerr property of the material. The partial density of states are further examined to explore the origin of ferromagnetic half-metallicity. The O atoms are observed to have larger contribution at fermi level than Ni atoms to the spin-polarized states, demonstrating that O atoms play a critical role in ferromagnetic half-metallicity of SrNiO_3. Hydrostatic pressure effect is examined to evaluate how robust the half-metallic ferromagnetism is. - Graphical abstract: (a) The total energy as a function of the lattice constant a for hexagonal SrNiO3 with various magnetic phases. (b) The total electronic density of states for hexagonal SrNiO_3 with FM configuration from GGA+U calculations. (c) Total electron-density distribution in the (110) plane. The colors gradually change from cyan (through pink) to yellow corresponding to charge density value from 0 to 4.0. (d) The magnetization density map in the (110) plane. The colors range from blue (through green) to red corresponding to magnetization density value from −0.15 to 0.45. Black and white contours stand for positive and negative values, respectively. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Sr

  11. Loosen up? Cultural tightness and national entrepreneurial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    The level of entrepreneurship between countries differs consistently. A source of this variance lies in national culture differences. Recently, the cultural dimension “tightness” has been introduced in the literature. Tightness refers to the degree to which a nation has strong norms and a low

  12. Trapping of Rydberg atoms in tight magnetic microtraps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetes, A.Q.G.; Skannrup, R.V.; Naber, J.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Spreeuw, R.J.C.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the possibility to trap Rydberg atoms in tightly confining magnetic microtraps. The trapping frequencies for Rydberg atoms are expected to be influenced strongly by magnetic-field gradients. We show that there are regimes where Rydberg atoms can be trapped. Moreover, we show that

  13. Existence of non-abelian representations of the near hexagon Q(5,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A near hexagon is a partial linear space of diameter 3 in which for every point x and every line l ... (iii) rx /∈ Z(R) for each x ∈ P and ψ is faithful. ..... As a consequence of the ..... [4] De Bruyn B, Near polygons (2006) (Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag).

  14. Studies on the magnetic after-effect of hydrogen isotopes in hexagonal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, G.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of hydrogen isotopes in hexagonal gadolinium, in intermetallic compounds of the RECo 5 type (RE = rare earth metal), and in cobalt alloys with small concentrations of alloyed impurity atoms was studied using the magnetic after-effect method in the temperature range between 4.2 K and 300 K. (orig./WBU) [de

  15. Propagation of resist heating mask error to wafer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, S. V.; Karklin, Linard

    2006-10-01

    As technology is approaching 45 nm and below the IC industry is experiencing a severe product yield hit due to rapidly shrinking process windows and unavoidable manufacturing process variations. Current EDA tools are unable by their nature to deliver optimized and process-centered designs that call for 'post design' localized layout optimization DFM tools. To evaluate the impact of different manufacturing process variations on final product it is important to trace and evaluate all errors through design to manufacturing flow. Photo mask is one of the critical parts of this flow, and special attention should be paid to photo mask manufacturing process and especially to mask tight CD control. Electron beam lithography (EBL) is a major technique which is used for fabrication of high-end photo masks. During the writing process, resist heating is one of the sources for mask CD variations. Electron energy is released in the mask body mainly as heat, leading to significant temperature fluctuations in local areas. The temperature fluctuations cause changes in resist sensitivity, which in turn leads to CD variations. These CD variations depend on mask writing speed, order of exposure, pattern density and its distribution. Recent measurements revealed up to 45 nm CD variation on the mask when using ZEP resist. The resist heating problem with CAR resists is significantly smaller compared to other types of resists. This is partially due to higher resist sensitivity and the lower exposure dose required. However, there is no data yet showing CD errors on the wafer induced by CAR resist heating on the mask. This effect can be amplified by high MEEF values and should be carefully evaluated at 45nm and below technology nodes where tight CD control is required. In this paper, we simulated CD variation on the mask due to resist heating; then a mask pattern with the heating error was transferred onto the wafer. So, a CD error on the wafer was evaluated subject to only one term of the

  16. Hexagonal boron nitride and water interaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanbin; Aluru, Narayana R., E-mail: aluru@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Wagner, Lucas K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The study of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in microfluidic and nanofluidic applications at the atomic level requires accurate force field parameters to describe the water-hBN interaction. In this work, we begin with benchmark quality first principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations on the interaction energy between water and hBN, which are used to validate random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. We then proceed with RPA to derive force field parameters, which are used to simulate water contact angle on bulk hBN, attaining a value within the experimental uncertainties. This paper demonstrates that end-to-end multiscale modeling, starting at detailed many-body quantum mechanics and ending with macroscopic properties, with the approximations controlled along the way, is feasible for these systems.

  17. Discrete breathers in a two-dimensional hexagonal Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Imran A.; Wattis, Jonathan A. D.

    2007-02-01

    We consider a two-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice with hexagonal symmetry. Using asymptotic methods based on small amplitude ansatz, at third order we obtain a reduction to a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for the breather envelope. However, this does not support stable soliton solutions, so we pursue a higher order analysis yielding a generalized NLS, which includes known stabilizing terms. We present numerical results which suggest that long-lived stationary and moving breathers are supported by the lattice. We find breather solutions which move in an arbitrary direction, an ellipticity criterion for the wavenumbers of the carrier wave, asymptotic estimates for the breather energy, and a minimum threshold energy below which breathers cannot be found. This energy threshold is maximized for stationary breathers and becomes vanishingly small near the boundary of the elliptic domain where breathers attain a maximum speed. Several of the results obtained are similar to those obtained for the square FPU lattice (Butt and Wattis 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4955), though we find that the square and hexagonal lattices exhibit different properties in regard to the generation of harmonics, and the isotropy of the generalized NLS equation.

  18. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali, E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.i [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. B. 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedighi, Matin [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, P. B. 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-01

    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  19. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of magnesium arsenide in cubic and hexagonal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali; Sedighi, Matin

    2010-01-01

    Full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory (DFT) was applied to study the structural and electronic properties of the magnesium arsenide in both cubic and hexagonal phases. The exchange-correlation functional was approximated as a generalized gradient functional introduced by Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (GGA96) and Engel-Vosko (EV-GGA). The lattice parameters, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, cohesive energy, band structures and effective mass of electrons and holes (EME and EMH) were obtained and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. A phase transition was predicted at pressure of about 1.63 GPa from the cubic to the hexagonal phase. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of the electronic properties such as band gap, valence bandwidths, anti-symmetry gap (the energy gap between two parts of the valence bands), EME and EMH were investigated using both GGA96 and EV-GGA methods. High applied pressure can decrease (increase) the holes mobility of cubic (hexagonal) phase of this compound.

  20. Effect of the surface film electric resistance on eddy current detectability of surface cracks in Alloy 600 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Paine, J.P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for NDE of steam generator tubing is eddy current. This technique can reliably detect cracks grown in sodium hydroxide environment only at depths greater than 50% through wall. However, cracking caused by thiosulphate solutions have been detected and sized at shallower depths. The disparity has been proposed to be caused by the different electric resistance of the crack wall surface films and corrosion products in the cracks formed in different environments. This work was undertaken to clarify the role of surface film electric resistance on the disparity found in eddy current detectability of surface cracks in alloy 600 tubes. The proposed model explaining the above mentioned disparity is the following. The detectability of tightly closed cracks by the eddy current technique depends on the electric resistance of the surface films of the crack walls. The nature and resistance of the films which form on the crack walls during operation depends on the composition of the solution inside the crack and close to the crack location. During cooling down of the steam generator, because of contraction and loss of internal pressurization, the cracks are rather tightly closed so that exchange of electrolyte and thus changes in the film properties become difficult. As a result, the surface condition prevailing at high temperature is preserved. If the environment is such that the films formed on the crack walls under operating conditions have low electric resistance, eddy current technique will fail to indicate these cracks or will underestimate the size of these cracks. However, if the electric resistance of the films is high, a tightly closed crack will resemble an open crack and will be easily indicated and correctly sized by eddy current technique

  1. Numerical simulation of flow behavior in tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqi; Yang Yanhua; Gu Hanyang; Cheng Xu; Song Xiaoming; Wang Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    The Numerical investigation is performed on the air turbulent flow in triangular rod bundle array. Based on the experimental data, the eddy viscosity turbulent model and the Reynold stress turbulent model are evaluated to simulate the flow behavior in the tight lattice. The results show that SSG Reynolds Stress Model has shown superior predictive performance than other Reynolds-stress models, which indicates that the simulation of the anisotropy of the turbulence is significant in the tight lattice. The result with different Reynolds number and geometry shows that the magnitude of the secondary flow is almost independent of the Reynolds number, but it increases with the decrease of the P/D. (authors)

  2. APCVD hexagonal boron nitride thin films for passive near-junction thermal management of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, Pratik; Rai, Amit; Ashton, Taylor S.; Moore, Arden L.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of graphene to serve as an ultrathin heat spreader has been previously demonstrated with impressive results. However, graphene is electrically conductive, making its use in contact with electronic devices problematic from a reliability and integration perspective. As an alternative, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a similarly structured material with large in-plane thermal conductivity but which possesses a wide band gap, thereby giving it potential to be utilized for directing contact, near-junction thermal management of electronics without shorting or the need for an insulating intermediate layer. In this work, the viability of using large area, continuous h-BN thin films as direct contact, near-junction heat spreaders for electronic devices is experimentally evaluated. Thin films of h-BN several square millimeters in size were synthesized via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method that is both simple and scalable. These were subsequently transferred onto a microfabricated test device that simulated a multigate transistor while also allowing for measurements of the device temperature at various locations via precision resistance thermometry. Results showed that these large-area h-BN films with thicknesses of 77-125 nm are indeed capable of significantly lowering microdevice temperatures, with the best sample showing the presence of the h-BN thin film reduced the effective thermal resistance by 15.9% ± 4.6% compared to a bare microdevice at the same power density. Finally, finite element simulations of these experiments were utilized to estimate the thermal conductivity of the h-BN thin films and identify means by which further heat spreading performance gains could be attained.

  3. Characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloys after a thermal treatment for high wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagna, C.; Spriano, S.; Faga, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloys are characterized by a high resistance to wear and corrosion, as well as good mechanical properties, allowing their use in the substitution of hip and knee joints. Five alloys were used as substrates for a coating deposition by a thermal treatment in molten salts, as reported elsewhere, in order to form a tantalum‐rich coating on the sample surface, able to improve the biocompatibility and wear resistance of the materials. However, the temperature (970 °C), reached during this process, is considered critical for the phase transformation of the Co-based alloys. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature effects on the structure, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the considered substrates, after the removal of the coating by polishing. The substrates are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and profilometry. The mechanical behavior is evaluated by the macro- and micro-hardness and bending tests, whereas the tribological properties are analyzed through a ball on disc test. A comparison between the as-received alloys and thermal treated substrates is reported. The biocompatibility feature is not reported in this work. The substrate crystalline structure changed during the heat treatment, inducing the formation of the hexagonal cobalt phase and the decrement of the cubic one. This crystallographic modification does not seem to influence the tribological behavior of the substrates. On the contrary, it affects the strength and ductility of the substrates. - Highlights: ► Effect of a thermal treatment on different CoCrMo alloys suitable for hip and knee joint substitution. ► The temperature induced an increment in the amount of hexagonal phase and a change in the grain size. ► The increment of the hexagonal phase decreases the hardness of the substrates but not the tribological properties.

  4. Ultra-Tightly Coupled GNSS/INS for small UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel; Jakobsen, Jakob; Knudsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an ultra-tight integration of a Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System ( INS) for small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ( UAVs). The system is based on a low-cost and low-weight GNSS Intermediate Frequency ( IF) sampler which has been...

  5. High-Entropy Alloys in Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M. C.; Zhang, B.; Guo, S. M.; Qiao, J. W.; Hawk, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    The microstructures and properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) based on the face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic structures have been studied extensively in the literature, but reports on HEAs in the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure are very limited. Using an efficient strategy in combining phase diagram inspection, CALPHAD modeling, and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, a variety of new compositions are suggested that may hold great potentials in forming single-phase HCP HEAs that comprise rare earth elements and transition metals, respectively. Experimental verification was carried out on CoFeReRu and CoReRuV using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersion spectroscopy.

  6. Effects of Sr-substitution on the structural and magnetic behavior of Ba-based Y-type hexagonal ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar, E-mail: mukhtarahmad25@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ali, Qasim; Ali, Ihsan; Ahmad, Ishtiaq [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Azhar Khan, M. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rana, M.U., E-mail: mazharrana@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Sr-substituted Y-type hexaferrites synthesized by sol–gel method have been investigated. •Platelet grains with well defined hexagonal shape are suitable for microwave absorbers. •Saturation magnetization values were calculated by the law of approach to saturation. •Coercivity of a few hundred oersteds found for all samples is suitable for EM materials. -- Abstract: Sr-substituted samples of Y-type hexagonal ferrites with chemical formula Ba{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}Ni{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) were synthesized using the sol–gel autocombustion method and were sintered at 1150 °C for 3 h. The samples were investigated by differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that single phase samples can be achieved by substituting Sr{sup 2+} ions at Ba{sup 2+} sites in Y-type hexagonal ferrites. X-ray density and bulk density were observed to decrease whereas porosity increased with increasing Sr-concentration. All the samples show well defined hexagonal shape which is favorable for microwave absorbing purposes. The saturation magnetization values were calculated from M–H loops by the law of approach to saturation. The loops show low values of coercivity of a few hundred oersteds which is one of the necessary conditions for electromagnetic (EM) materials and is suitable for security, switching, sensing and high frequency applications.

  7. Outcome of tight versus standard glycemic control in coronary artery bypass patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the outcome of tight versus standard glycemic control and its impact on post operative morbidity and short term mortality in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CA-BG). Patients and Methods: A prospective surveillance of 124 patients undergoing isolated CABG surgery (on pump) was included in the study, 62 patients in each group were randomly assigned to tight and standard glucose control group. The main exposure was insulin in respect to level of blood glucose and the primary outcome measures were Sternotomy wound infection, Leg wound infection and new Myocardial Infarction. Surgical Site infection was assessed on a daily basis during the patient's stay in the Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore or within 30 days of operation prompting the patient to return to the hospital. Chi-square test or test was used to identify the significance of various short term morbidities and mortality. Results: In this study, 12 patients in the standard group and 4 patients in the tightly controlled group developed Sternal wound infection (p value 0.046). Similarly, 9 versus 2 patients in the standard and tight group respectively developed Leg wound infection (p-value 0.035). Test of proportion was applied and it was found that there was significant difference in the pro-portion of infection in the two groups (p value 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in other morbidities and the short term mortality. Conclusion: Study confirmed that tight glucose con-trol post operatively in CABG patient's results in reduced sternal and leg wound infection rates; however, there was no effect on other morbidities and short term mortality. (author)

  8. HEXAN - a hexagonal nodal code for solving the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makai, M.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the theory of and provides a user's manual for the HEXAN program, which is a nodal program for the solution of the few-group diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry. Based upon symmetry considerations, the theory provides an analytical solution in a homogeneous node. WWER and HTGR test problem solutions are presented. The equivalence of the finite-difference scheme and the response matrix method is proven. The properties of a symmetric node's response matrix are investigated. (author)

  9. Characterization of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite-based wide band microwave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, M. R.; Agrawal, Nawal K.; Sinha, Bharoti; Misra, P. S.

    2004-05-01

    This paper present the design, development and characterization of the hexagonal ferrite powder [BaCo 0.5δTi 0.5δMn 0.1Fe (11.87-δ)O 19] and [Ba(MnTi) δFe (12-2δ)O 19] at δ=1.6 as a microwave absorber. The hexagonal ferrite powder has been developed by dry attrition and sintering procedure. The developed ferrite powder 60% by weight has been mixed in epoxy resin to form a microwave-absorbing paint. This paint was coated on a conducting aluminum sheet to study the absorption characteristics of a linearly polarized TE wave at X band. The results for single- and two-layer microwave absorbers for different coating thicknesses have been reported. It has been found that it shows the broadband characteristics with minimum absorption of 8 dB from 8 to 12 GHz for a coating thickness of 2 mm.These paints are very useful in military applications such as RCS reduction, camouflaging of the target and prevention of EMI, etc.

  10. Characterization of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite-based wide band microwave absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshram, M.R.; Agrawal, Nawal K.; Sinha, Bharoti; Misra, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper present the design, development and characterization of the hexagonal ferrite powder [BaCo 0.5δ Ti 0.5δ Mn 0.1 Fe (11.87-δ) O 19 ] and [Ba(MnTi) δ Fe (12-2δ) O 19 ] at δ=1.6 as a microwave absorber. The hexagonal ferrite powder has been developed by dry attrition and sintering procedure. The developed ferrite powder 60% by weight has been mixed in epoxy resin to form a microwave-absorbing paint. This paint was coated on a conducting aluminum sheet to study the absorption characteristics of a linearly polarized TE wave at X band. The results for single- and two-layer microwave absorbers for different coating thicknesses have been reported. It has been found that it shows the broadband characteristics with minimum absorption of 8 dB from 8 to 12 GHz for a coating thickness of 2 mm.These paints are very useful in military applications such as RCS reduction, camouflaging of the target and prevention of EMI, etc

  11. Hexagonal-shaped chondroitin sulfate self-assemblies have exalted anti-HSV-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Aurélia; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Djabourov, Madeleine; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2016-01-20

    The initial step in mucosal infection by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) requires its binding to certain glycosaminoglycans naturally present on host cell membranes. We took advantage of this interaction to design biomimetic supramolecular hexagonal-shaped nanoassemblies composed of chondroitin sulfate having exalted anti-HSV-2 activity in comparison with native chondroitin sulfate. Nanoassemblies were formed by mixing hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate with α-cyclodextrin in water. Optimization of alkyl chain length grafted on chondroitin sulfate and the ratio between hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate and α-cyclodextrin showed that more cohesive and well-structured nanoassemblies were obtained using higher α-cyclodextrin concentration and longer alkyl chain lengths. A structure-activity relationship was found between anti-HSV-2 activity and the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. Also, antiviral activity of hexagonal nanoassemblies against HSV-2 was further improved in comparison with hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. This work suggests a new biomimetic formulation approach that can be extended to other heparan-sulfate-dependent viruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evanescent Properties of Optical Diffraction from 2-Dimensional Hexagonal Photonic Crystals and Their Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Yang; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Chen, Chien-Chun; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2018-04-03

    The sensitivity of traditional diffraction grating sensors is limited by the spatial resolution of the measurement setup. Thus, a large space is required to improve sensor performance. Here, we demonstrate a compact hexagonal photonic crystal (PhC) optical sensor with high sensitivity. PhCs are able to diffract optical beams to various angles in azimuthal space. The critical wavelength that satisfies the phase matching or becomes evanescent was used to benchmark the refractive index of a target analyte applied on a PhC sensor. Using a glucose solution as an example, our sensor demonstrated very high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. This shows that the diffraction mechanism of hexagonal photonic crystals can be used for sensors when compact size is a concern.

  13. Pressure drop characteristics in tight-lattice bundles for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hidesada; Kureta, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    The reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) consists of several distinctive structures; a triangular tight-lattice configuration and a double-flat core. In order to design the RMWR core from the point of view of thermal-hydraulics, an evaluation method on pressure drop characteristics in the rod bundles at the tight-lattice configuration is required. In this study, calculated results by the Martinelli-Nelson's and Hancox's correlations were compared with experimental results in 4 x 5 rod bundles and seven-rod bundles. Consequently, the friction loss in two-phase flows becomes smaller at the tight-lattice configuration with the hydraulic diameter less than about 3 mm. This reason is due to the difference of the configuration between the multi-rod bundle and the circular tube and due to the effect of the small hydraulic diameter on the two-phase multiplier. (author)

  14. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew; Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54 μm. After resampling to 54

  15. Structural hierarchy in flow-aligned hexagonally self-organized microphases with parallel polyelectrolytic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruotsalainen, T; Torkkeli, M; Serimaa, R; Makela, T; Maki-Ontto, R; Ruokolainen, J; ten Brinke, G; Ikkala, O; Mäkelä, Tapio; Mäki-Ontto, Riikka

    2003-01-01

    We report a novel structural hierarchy where a flow-aligned hexagonal self-organized structure is combined with a polyelectrolytic self-organization on a smaller length scale and where the two structures are mutually parallel. Polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-block-P4VP) is selected with

  16. SrAl12O19 thin films by chemical solution deposition and their use as buffer layers for oriented growth of hexagonal ferrites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Uhrecký, Róbert; Kaščáková, Dorota; Kužel, R.; Holý, V.; Dopita, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 616, OCT (2016), s. 228-237 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18392S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical solution deposition * Hexagonal aluminates * Hexagonal ferrites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  17. Growth and Brilliant Photo-Emission of Crystalline Hexagonal Column of Alq3 Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokho Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth and nanoscale luminescence characteristics of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq3 with a crystalline hexagonal column morphology. Pristine Alq3 nanoparticles (NPs were prepared using a conventional reprecipitation method. Crystal hexagonal columns of Alq3 were grown by using a surfactant-assisted self-assembly technique as an adjunct to the aforementioned reprecipitation method. The formation and structural properties of the crystalline and non-crystalline Alq3 NPs were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The nanoscale photoluminescence (PL characteristics and the luminescence color of the Alq3 single NPs and their crystal microwires (MWs were evaluated from color charge-coupled device images acquired using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope. In comparison with the Alq3 NPs, the crystalline MWs exhibited a very bright and sharp emission. This enhanced and sharp emission from the crystalline Alq3 single MWs originated from effective π-π stacking of the Alq3 molecules due to strong interactions in the crystalline structure.

  18. Stress-strain relationship and XRD line broadening in [0001] textured hexagonal polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi

    2011-01-01

    Stress analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for hexagonal polycrystalline materials in the Laue classes 6/mmm and 6/m has been studied on the basis of the crystal symmetry of the constituent crystallites which was proposed by R. Yokoyama and J. Harada ['Re-evaluation of formulae for X-ray stress analysis in polycrystalline specimens with fibre texture', Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol.42, pp.185-191 (2009)]. The relationship between the stress and strain observable by XRD in a hexagonal polycrystalline material with [0001] fibre texture was formulated in terms of the elastic compliance defined for its single crystal. As a result, it was shown that the average strains obtained in the crystallites for both symmetries of 6/mmm and 6/m are different from each other under the triaxial or biaxial stress field. Then, it turned out that the line width of XRD changes depending on the measurement direction. (author)

  19. Local structure theory: calculation on hexagonal arrays, and interaction of rule and lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowitz, H.A.; Victor, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Local structure theory calculations are applied to the study of cellular automata on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice. A particular hexagonal lattice rule denoted (3422) is considered in detail. This rule has many features in common with Conway's Life. The local structure theory captures many of the statistical properties of this rule; this supports hypotheses raised by a study of Life itself. As in Life, the state of a cell under (3422) depends only on the state of the cell itself and the sum of states in its neighborhood at the previous time step. This property implies that evolution rules which operate in the same way can be studied on different lattices. The differences between the behavior of these rules on different lattices are dramatic. The mean field theory cannot reflect these differences. However, a generalization of the mean field theory, the local structure theory, does account for the rule-lattice interaction

  20. Fabrication of non-hexagonal close packed colloidal array on a substrate by transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Meneka; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    Self-organized colloidal arrays find application in fabrication of solar cells with advanced light management strategies. We report a simple spincoating based approach for fabricating two dimensional colloidal crystals with hexagonal and non-hexagonal close packed assembly on flat and nanopatterned substrates. The non-HCP arrays were fabricated by spin coating the particles onto soft lithographically fabricated substrates. The substrate patterns impose directionality to the particles by confining them within the grooves. We have developed a technique by which the HCP and non-HCP arrays can be transferred to any surface. For this purpose the colloidal arrays were fabricated on a UV degradable PMMA layer, resulting in transfer of the particles on UV exposure. This allows the colloidal structures to be transported across substrates irrespective of their surface energy, wettability or morphology. Since the particles are transferred without exposing it to any kind of chemical or thermal environment, it can be utilized for placing particles on top of thin film solar cells for improving their absorption efficiency.

  1. Quantum tight-binding chains with dissipative coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogilevtsev, D; Slepyan, G Ya; Garusov, E; Kilin, S Ya; Korolkova, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional tight-binding chain of two-level systems coupled only through common dissipative Markovian reservoirs. This quantum chain can demonstrate anomalous thermodynamic behavior contradicting Fourier law. Population dynamics of individual systems of the chain is polynomial with the order determined by the initial state of the chain. The chain can simulate classically hard problems, such as multi-dimensional random walks. (paper)

  2. Comparative study of the interfaces of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride with silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnica, Manuela; Schwarz, Martin; Ducke, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Silver opens up interesting perspectives in the fabrication of complex systems based on heteroepitaxial layers after the growth of a silicene layer on its (111) face has been proposed. In this work we explore different synthesis methods of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene sheets on sil...

  3. Efficient self-consistency for magnetic tight binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Preetma; Horsfield, A. P.; Nguyen-Manh, D.

    2011-06-01

    Tight binding can be extended to magnetic systems by including an exchange interaction on an atomic site that favours net spin polarisation. We have used a published model, extended to include long-ranged Coulomb interactions, to study defects in iron. We have found that achieving self-consistency using conventional techniques was either unstable or very slow. By formulating the problem of achieving charge and spin self-consistency as a search for stationary points of a Harris-Foulkes functional, extended to include spin, we have derived a much more efficient scheme based on a Newton-Raphson procedure. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method by looking at vacancies and self-interstitials in iron. Self-consistency can indeed be achieved in a more efficient and stable manner, but care needs to be taken to manage this. The algorithm is implemented in the code PLATO. Program summaryProgram title:PLATO Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 228 747 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 880 369 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, Windows XP Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes. Up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEFC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2616 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Achieving charge and spin self-consistency in magnetic tight binding can be very

  4. IGF-1 decreases portal vein endotoxin via regulating intestinal tight junctions and plays a role in attenuating portal hypertension of cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Yu; Su, Li-Ping; Ma, Chun-Ye; Zhai, Xiao-Han; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Gang; Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Li-Xia; Yang, Dong

    2015-07-08

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is not only the consequence of liver cirrhosis, but also an active participant in the development of liver cirrhosis. Previous studies showed that external administration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) improved intestinal barrier function in liver cirrhosis. However, the mechanism of IGF-1 on intestinal barrier in liver cirrhosis is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to investigate the mechanisms of IGF-1 improving intestinal barrier function via regulating tight junctions in intestines. We used carbon tetrachloride induced liver cirrhotic rats to investigate the effect of IGF-1 on intestinal claudin-1 and occludin expressions, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, severity of liver fibrosis, portal pressures, enterocytic apoptosis and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) levels in portal vein. The changes of IGF-1 in serum during the development of rat liver cirrhosis were also evaluated. Additionally, we assessed the effect of IGF-1 on claudin-1 and occludin expressions, changes of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells to confirm in vivo findings. Serum IGF-1 levels were decreased in the development of rat liver cirrhosis, and external administration of IGF-1 restored serum IGF-1 levels. External administration of IGF-1 reduced serum ALT and AST levels, severity of liver fibrosis, LPS levels in portal vein, enterocytic apoptosis and portal pressure in cirrhotic rats. External administration of IGF-1 increased the expressions of claudin-1 and occludin in enterocytes, and attenuated tight junction dysfunction in intestines of cirrhotic rats. LPS decreased TEER in Caco-2 cell monolayer. LPS also decreased claudin-1 and occludin expressions and increased apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, IGF-1 attenuated the effect of LPS on TEER, claudin-1 expression, occludin expression and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. Tight junction dysfunction develops during the

  5. Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2011-11-14

    We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.

  6. Spin Seebeck effect in Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirschner, Jan; Maryško, Miroslav; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Uhrecký, Róbert; Soroka, Miroslav; Buršík, Josef; Anadón, P.; Aguirre, M.H.; Knížek, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 064428. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18392S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : hexagonal ferrites * spin Seebeck effect * thin films * magnetization * ferrimagnetic ferrites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Inorganic and nuclear chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  7. Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.

  8. Photoluminescence of Hexagonal ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Grown on Zn Foils in KOH Solutions with Different Values of Basicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuengruethai Ekthammathat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods on pure Zn foils were hydrothermally synthesized in 30 mL solutions containing 0.05–0.50 g KOH. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In this research, wurtzite hexagonal ZnO nanorods grown along the [002] direction with green light emission at 541 nm caused by singly ionized oxygen vacancies inside were detected.

  9. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R ampersand D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ''typical'' well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic

  10. Trapping a Knot into Tight Conformations by Intra-Chain Repulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Knots can occur in biopolymers such as DNA and peptides. In our previous study, we systematically investigated the effects of intra-chain interactions on knots and found that long-range repulsions can surprisingly tighten knots. Here, we use this knowledge to trap a knot into tight conformations in Langevin dynamics simulations. By trapping, we mean that the free energy landscape with respect to the knot size exhibits a potential well around a small knot size in the presence of long-range repulsions, and this potential can well lead to long-lived tight knots when its depth is comparable to or larger than thermal energy. We tune the strength of intra-chain repulsion such that a knot is weakly trapped. Driven by thermal fluctuations, the knot can escape from the trap and is then re-trapped. We find that the knot switches between tight and loose conformations—referred to as “knot breathing”. We use a Yukawa potential to model screened electrostatic interactions to explore the relevance of knot trapping and breathing in charged biopolymers. We determine the minimal screened length and the minimal strength of repulsion for knot trapping. We find that Coulomb-induced knot trapping is possible to occur in single-stranded DNA and peptides for normal ionic strengths.

  11. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  12. Molecular marker-assisted selection for resistance to pathogens in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, A.; Frusciante, L.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the use of molecular markers has been suggested to improve the efficiency of releasing resistant varieties, thus overcoming difficulties met with classical breeding. For tomato, a high-density molecular map is available in which more than 40 resistance genes are localized. Markers linked to these genes can be used to speed up gene transfer and pyramiding. Suitable PCR markers targeting resistance genes were constructed directly on the sequences of resistance genes or on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) tightly linked to them, and used to select resistant genotypes in backcross schemes. In some cases, the BC 5 generation was reached, and genotypes that cumulated two homozygous resistant genes were also obtained. These results supported the feasibility of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) in tomato and reinforcing the potential of this approach for other genes, which is today also driven by the development of new techniques and increasing knowledge about the tomato genome. (author)

  13. Topotactic reduction and reoxidation of hexagonal RCu0.5Ti0.5O3 (R = Y, Eu-Lu) Phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Peng; Berthelot, Romain; Li, Jun; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Topotactic reduction of hexagonal RCu 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 phases is performed. ► TGA and magnetism indicate a formula of RCu 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 2.78 for the reduced phase. ► Topotactic reoxidation occurs on heating these phases to 400 °C in air. - Abstract: Hexagonal AMO 2 and AMO 3 phases have the same basic structure, and intermediate compositions for this structure have been prepared by topotactic oxidation of AMO 2 phases such as RCuO 2 , where R is a trivalent rare earth cation. We now find that such intermediate phases can also be prepared by topotactic reduction of hexagonal RCu 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 (R = Y, Tb-Lu) phases. Our TGA and magnetic susceptibility studies indicate a formula of RCu 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 2.78 for these reduced phases. Topotactic reoxidation occurs on heating these phases to 400 °C in air

  14. An efficient magnetic tight-binding method for transition metals and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreteau, Cyrille; Spanjaard, Daniel; Desjonquères, Marie-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    that does not necessitate any further fitting is proposed to deal with systems made of several chemical elements. This model is extended to spin (and orbital) polarized materials by adding Stoner-like and spin–orbit interactions. Collinear and non-collinear magnetism as well as spin-spirals are considered......An efficient parameterized self-consistent tight-binding model for transition metals using s, p and d valence atomic orbitals as a basis set is presented. The parameters of our tight-binding model for pure elements are determined from a fit to bulk ab-initio calculations. A very simple procedure...

  15. Tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins marveld3, tricellulin, and occludin have distinct but overlapping functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, David R; Marchiando, Amanda M; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Le; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Wang, Yingmin; Long, Manyuan; Turner, Jerrold R

    2010-04-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that occludin and tricellulin are important for tight junction barrier function, but in vivo data suggest that loss of these proteins can be overcome. The presence of a heretofore unknown, yet related, protein could explain these observations. Here, we report marvelD3, a novel tight junction protein that, like occludin and tricellulin, contains a conserved four-transmembrane MARVEL (MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking and membrane link) domain. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction; analysis of RNA and protein tissue distribution; immunofluorescent and electron microscopic examination of subcellular localization; characterization of intracellular trafficking, protein interactions, dynamic behavior, and siRNA knockdown effects; and description of remodeling after in vivo immune activation show that marvelD3, occludin, and tricellulin have distinct but overlapping functions at the tight junction. Although marvelD3 is able to partially compensate for occludin or tricellulin loss, it cannot fully restore function. We conclude that marvelD3, occludin, and tricellulin define the tight junction-associated MARVEL protein family. The data further suggest that these proteins are best considered as a group with both redundant and unique contributions to epithelial function and tight junction regulation.

  16. Toward the Fabrication of Advanced Nanofiltration Membranes by Controlling Morphologies and Mesochannel Orientations of Hexagonal Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity has been recognized as one of the major threats to human activity, and, therefore, water purification technologies are increasingly drawing attention worldwide. Nanofiltration (NF membrane technology has been proven to be an efficient and cost-effective way in terms of the size and continuity of the nanostructure. Using a template based on hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs and partitioning monomer units within this structure for subsequent photo-polymerisation presents a unique path for the fabrication of NF membranes, potentially producing pores of uniform size, ranging from 1 to 5 nm, and large surface areas. The subsequent orientation of this pore network in a direction normal to a flat polymer film that provides ideal transport properties associated with continuous pores running through the membrane has been achieved by the orientation of hexagonal LLCs through various strategies. This review presents the current progresses on the strategies for structure retention from a hexagonal LLCs template and the up-to-date techniques used for the reorientation of mesochanels for continuity through the whole membrane.

  17. The hexagon gauge anomaly in type 1 superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.B.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Hexagon diagrams with external on-mass-shell Yang-Mills gauge particles are investigated in type I superstring theory. Both the annulus and the Moebuis-strip diagrams are shown to give anomalies, implying that spurious longitudinal modes cannot be consistently decoupled. However, the anomalies cancel when the two diagrams are added together if the gauge group is chosen to be SO(32). In carrying out the analysis, two different regulators are considered, but the same conclusions emerge in both cases. We point out where various terms in the low-energy effective action originate in superstring diagrams. (orig.)

  18. Topological dynamics of vortex-line networks in hexagonal manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xueyun; Ji, Yanzhou; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The two-dimensional X Y model is the first well-studied system with topological point defects. On the other hand, although topological line defects are common in three-dimensional systems, the evolution mechanism of line defects is not fully understood. The six domains in hexagonal manganites converge to vortex lines in three dimensions. Using phase-field simulations, we predicted that during the domain coarsening process, the vortex-line network undergoes three types of basic topological changes, i.e., vortex-line loop shrinking, coalescence, and splitting. It is shown that the vortex-antivortex annihilation controls the scaling dynamics.

  19. Wounds caused by tight contact with the barrel-cylinder gap of revolvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D R

    1984-06-01

    A case is presented in which the recognition of a tight cylinder gap contact wound was crucial. Experiments were carried out to reproduce the wound which was noted on the hand of a robbery suspect. Tight contact with the cylinder gap of a revolver produces a characteristic, readily recognizable wound. It is characterized by an L-shaped pattern of powder residue. Along one axis a searing burn may occur which may be deep and which may lead to significant tissue destruction.

  20. A horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus confers hyper‐resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity and enables survival of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Joanne; Thomas, Jamie; Riboldi, Gustavo P.; Zapotoczna, Marta; Tarrant, Emma; Andrew, Peter W.; Londoño, Alejandra; Planet, Paul J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Waldron, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Excess copper is highly toxic and forms part of the host innate immune system's antibacterial arsenal, accumulating at sites of infection and acting within macrophages to kill engulfed pathogens. We show for the first time that a novel, horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus (copXL), uniquely associated with the SCCmec elements of the highly virulent, epidemic, community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA‐MRSA) USA300, confers copper hyper‐resistance. These genes are additional to existing core genome copper resistance mechanisms, and are not found in typical S. aureus lineages, but are increasingly identified in emerging pathogenic isolates. Our data show that CopX, a putative P1B‐3‐ATPase efflux transporter, and CopL, a novel lipoprotein, confer copper hyper‐resistance compared to typical S. aureus strains. The copXL genes form an operon that is tightly repressed in low copper environments by the copper regulator CsoR. Significantly, CopX and CopL are important for S. aureus USA300 intracellular survival within macrophages. Therefore, the emergence of new S. aureus clones with the copXL locus has significant implications for public health because these genes confer increased resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity, enhancing bacterial fitness by altering S. aureus interaction with innate immunity. PMID:29521441

  1. Role of the intestinal tight junction modulator zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tammara; Berti, Irene; Sapone, Anna; Gerarduzzi, Tania; Not, Tarcisio; Zielke, Ronald; Fasano, Alessio

    2005-02-22

    Increased intestinal permeability has been observed in numerous human autoimmune diseases, including type-1 diabetes (T1D) and its' animal model, the BB-wor diabetic prone rat. We have recently described zonulin, a protein that regulates intercellular tight junctions. The objective of this study was to establish whether zonulin-dependent increased intestinal permeability plays a role in the pathogenesis of T1D. In the BB diabetic-prone rat model of T1D, intestinal intraluminal zonulin levels were elevated 35-fold compared to control BB diabetic-resistant rats. Zonulin up-regulation was coincident with decreased small intestinal transepithelial electrical resistance, and was followed by the production of autoantibodies against pancreatic beta cells, which preceded the onset of clinically evident T1D by approximately 25 days. In those diabetic prone rats that did not progress to diabetes, both intraluminal zonulin and transepithelial electrical resistance were similar to those detected in diabetic-resistant animal controls. Blockade of the zonulin receptor reduced the cumulative incidence of T1D by 70%, despite the persistence of intraluminal zonulin up-regulation. Moreover, treatment responders did not seroconvert to islet cell antibodies. Combined together, these findings suggest that the zonulin-induced loss in small intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of T1D in the BB diabetic-prone animal model.

  2. Phase transformation from cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, K.; Asghar, M.; Amin, N.; Ali, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of phase transformation from ZnS to hexagonal ZnO by high-temperature thermal annealing. The ZnS thin films were grown on Si (001) substrate by thermal evaporation system using ZnS powder as source material. The grown films were annealed at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), four-point probe, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX). The results demonstrated that as-deposited ZnS film has mixed phases but high-temperature annealing leads to transition from ZnS to ZnO. The observed result can be explained as a two-step process: (1) high-energy O atoms replaced S atoms in lattice during annealing process, and (2) S atoms diffused into substrate and/or diffused out of the sample. The dissociation energy of ZnS calculated from the Arrhenius plot of 1000/T versus log (resistivity) was found to be 3.1 eV. PL spectra of as-grown sample exhibits a characteristic green emission at 2.4 eV of ZnS but annealed samples consist of band-to-band and defect emission of ZnO at 3.29 eV and 2.5 eV respectively. SEM and EDX measurements were additionally performed to strengthen the argument.

  3. Two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride as lateral heat spreader in electrically insulating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Jie; Huang, Shirong; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Xiuzhen; Yuan, Zhichao; Jeppson, Kjell; Liu, Johan; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    The need for electrically insulating materials with a high in-plane thermal conductivity for lateral heat spreading applications in electronic devices has intensified studies of layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films. Due to its physicochemical properties, h-BN can be utilised in power dissipating devices such as an electrically insulating heat spreader material for laterally redistributing the heat from hotspots caused by locally excessive heat flux densities. In this study, two types of boron nitride based heat spreader test structures have been assembled and evaluated for heat dissipation. The test structures separately utilised a few-layer h-BN film with and without graphene enhancement drop coated onto the hotspot test structure. The influence of the h-BN heat spreader films on the temperature distribution across the surface of the hotspot test structure was studied at a range of heat flux densities through the hotspot. It was found that the graphene-enhanced h-BN film reduced the hotspot temperature by about 8–10 °C at a 1000 W cm −2 heat flux density, a temperature decrease significantly larger than for h-BN film without graphene enhancement. Finite element simulations of the h-BN film predict that further improvements in heat spreading ability are possible if the thermal contact resistance between the film and test chip are minimised. (paper)

  4. Management of Small Urethrocutaneous Fistula by Tight Ligation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After identifying the fistulous opening, the fistula tract was circumferentially and meticulously dissected ,then the dissected tract was lifted up and the base was ligated tightly with 5/0 vicryl, the external epithelium of the dissected tract was fulgurated with the diathermy, then a second layer of local soft tissue was secured over ...

  5. Tight Reference Frame–Independent Quantum Teleportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Verdon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a tight scheme for teleporting a quantum state between two parties whose reference frames are misaligned by an action of a finite symmetry group. Unlike previously proposed schemes, ours requires no additional tokens or data to be passed between the participants; the same amount of classical information is transferred as for ordinary quantum teleportation, and the Hilbert space of the entangled resource is of the same size. In the terminology of Peres and Scudo, our protocol relies on classical communication of unspeakable information.

  6. Photon-counting hexagonal pixel array CdTe detector: Spatial resolution characteristics for image-guided interventional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.karellas@umassmed.edu; Shi, Linxi; Gounis, Matthew J. [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Spandre, Gloria; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Pisa 56127, Italy and Pixirad Imaging Counters s.r.l., L. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: High-resolution, photon-counting, energy-resolved detector with fast-framing capability can facilitate simultaneous acquisition of precontrast and postcontrast images for subtraction angiography without pixel registration artifacts and can facilitate high-resolution real-time imaging during image-guided interventions. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the spatial resolution characteristics of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. Methods: A 650 μm thick CdTe Schottky photon-counting detector capable of concurrently acquiring up to two energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include photons of 10 keV or higher. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 μm resulting in pixel pitch of 60 and 51.96 μm along the two orthogonal directions. The detector was characterized at IEC-RQA5 spectral conditions. Linear response of the detector was determined over the air kerma rate relevant to image-guided interventional procedures ranging from 1.3 nGy/frame to 91.4 μGy/frame. Presampled modulation transfer was determined using a tungsten edge test device. The edge-spread function and the finely sampled line spread function accounted for hexagonal sampling, from which the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) was determined. Since detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display, the optimal square pixel size was determined by minimizing the root-mean-squared-error of the aperture functions for the square and hexagonal pixels up to the Nyquist limit. Results: At Nyquist frequencies of 8.33 and 9.62 cycles/mm along the apothem and orthogonal to the apothem directions, the modulation factors were 0.397 and 0.228, respectively. For the corresponding axis, the limiting resolution defined as 10% MTF occurred at 13.3 and 12 cycles/mm, respectively. Evaluation of the aperture functions yielded an optimal square pixel size of 54

  7. Eigenstates of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition is solved. Using the projection operators, we categorize eigenfunctions corresponding to each of the irreducible representations of the symmetry group . Based on these results, the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are discussed.

  8. A transmission probability method for calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasastjerna, F.; Lux, I.

    1980-03-01

    A transmission probability method implemented in the program TPHEX is described. This program was developed for the calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal light water reactor fuel assemblies. The accuracy appears to be superior to diffusion theory, and the computation time is shorter than that of the collision probability method. (author)

  9. Uniform hexagonal graphene flakes and films grown on liquid copper surface

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Dechao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Huang, Liping; Xue, Yunzhou; Chen, Jianyi; Yu, Gui; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping; Liu, Yunqi

    2012-01-01

    Unresolved problems associated with the production of graphene materials include the need for greater control over layer number, crystallinity, size, edge structure and spatial orientation, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here we report a chemical vapor deposition approach that allows the direct synthesis of uniform single-layered, large-size (up to 10,000 μm2), spatially self-aligned, and single-crystalline hexagonal graphene flakes (HGFs) and their continuous films ...

  10. Two-Finger Tightness: What Is It? Measuring Torque and Reproducibility in a Simulated Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, William B; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Shih, Albert J; Irwin, Todd A; Holmes, James R

    2016-05-01

    Residents in training are often directed to insert screws using "two-finger tightness" to impart adequate torque but minimize the chance of a screw stripping in bone. This study seeks to quantify and describe two-finger tightness and to assess the variability of its application by residents in training. Cortical bone was simulated using a polyurethane foam block (30-pcf density) that was prepared with predrilled holes for tightening 3.5 × 14-mm long cortical screws and mounted to a custom-built apparatus on a load cell to capture torque data. Thirty-three residents in training, ranging from the first through fifth years of residency, along with 8 staff members, were directed to tighten 6 screws to two-finger tightness in the test block, and peak torque values were recorded. The participants were blinded to their torque values. Stripping torque (2.73 ± 0.56 N·m) was determined from 36 trials and served as a threshold for failed screw placement. The average torques varied substantially with regard to absolute torque values, thus poorly defining two-finger tightness. Junior residents less consistently reproduced torque compared with other groups (0.29 and 0.32, respectively). These data quantify absolute values of two-finger tightness but demonstrate considerable variability in absolute torque values, percentage of stripping torque, and ability to consistently reproduce given torque levels. Increased years in training are weakly correlated with reproducibility, but experience does not seem to affect absolute torque levels. These results question the usefulness of two-finger tightness as a teaching tool and highlight the need for improvement in resident motor skill training and development within a teaching curriculum. Torque measuring devices may be a useful simulation tools for this purpose.

  11. ''Cube-on-hexagon'' orientation relationship for Fe on GaN(0001): The missing link in bcc/hcp epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Cunxu; Brandt, Oliver; Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Jenichen, Bernd; Schoenherr, Hans-Peter; Erwin, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the epitaxy of body-centered-cubic Fe on hexagonal GaN. For growth on the Ga-polar GaN(0001) surface we find the well-known Pitsch-Schrader orientation relationship between Fe and GaN. On the N-polar GaN(0001) surface we observe coexistence between the familiar Burgers orientation and a new orientation in which the Fe(001) plane is parallel to GaN(0001). This 'cube-on-hexagon' orientation constitutes the high-symmetry link required for constructing a symmetry diagram for bcc/hcp systems in which all orientation relationships are connected by simple rotations.

  12. Experience in North America Tight Oil Reserves Development. Horizontal Wells and Multistage Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Ibatullin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of horizontal drilling technology in combination with the multistage hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir has expanded the geological conditions for commercial oil production from tight reservoirs in North America. Geological and physical characteristics of tight reservoirs in North America are presented, as well as a comparison of the geological and physical properties of the reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, in particular, in the territory of Tatarstan. The similarity of these basins is shown in terms of formation and deposition. New drilling technologies for horizontal wells (HW and multistage hydraulic fracturing are considered. The drilling in tight reservoirs is carried out exclusively on hydrocarbon-based muds The multi-stage fracturing technology with the use of sliding sleeves, and also slick water – a low-viscous carrier for proppant is the most effective solution for conditions similar to tight reservoirs in the Devonian formation of Tatarstan. Tax incentives which are actively used for the development of HW and multistage fracturing technologies in Canada are described. wells, multistage fracturing

  13. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus in the cucumber line TMG-1: tissue-specific expression and relationship to zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, T; Grumet, R

    1995-09-01

    The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses:zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). The genetics of resistance to WMV and the relationship of WMV resistance to ZYMV resistance were examined. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, a susceptible inbred line. F1, F2 and backcross progeny populations were screened for resistance to WMV and/or ZYMV. Two independently assorting factors conferred resistance to WMV. One resistance was conferred by a single recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-2). The second resistance was conferred by an epistatic interaction between a second recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-3) and either a dominant gene from WI-2757 (Wmv-4) or a third recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-4) located 20-30 cM from wmv-3. The two resistances exhibited tissue-specific expression. Resistance conferred by wmv-2 was expressed in the cotyledons and throughout the plant. Resistance conferred by wmv-3 + Wmv-4 (or wmv-4) was expressed only in true leaves. The gene conferring resistance to ZYMV appeared to be the same as, or tightly linked to one of the WMV resistance genes, wmv-3.

  14. Permeation of Light Gases through Hexagonal Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas separation using porous solids have attracted great attention due to their energetic applications. There is an enormous economic and environmental interest in the development of improved technologies for relevant processes, such as H2 production, CO2 separation or O2 and N2 purification from air. New materials are needed for achieving major improvements. Crystalline materials, displaying unidirectional and single-sized pores, preferentially with low pore tortuosity and high pore density, are promising candidates for membrane synthesis. Herein, we study hexagonal ice crystals as an example of this class of materials. By slowly growing ice crystals inside capillary tubes we were able to measure the permeation of several gas species through ice crystals and investigate its relation with both the size of the guest molecules and temperature of the crystal.

  15. INFLUENCE OF FABRIC TIGHTNESS ON SPIRALITY OF WEFTKNITTED PLAIN COTTON FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Mobarok Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for knitted garments is growing at a faster rate than that of woven items.Currently around 50% of clothing needs in the developed countries is met by knit goods. So ensuring the required quality in a knitted fabric is a vital issue for the manufacturer. One of the major problems encountered in knitted fabric is spirality. It affects particularly single jersey fabric and presents a serious problem during garment confection and use. So controlling spirality is a basic requirement for producing quality knitted fabric. Though there are several factors that contribute to knitted fabric spirality, yarn twist and relative tightness of the fabric are said tobe the most significant ones. In this work the basic single jersey fabric, i.e. plain jersey cotton fabrics were produced by a Hosiery knitting machine and spirality values were observed for different yarn T.P.I. and tightness factor at relaxed state. It was found that tightness factor has a direct influence on knitted fabric spirality with a high degree of correlation. The work thus gives an idea to deal this problem by controlling the knitting parameters.

  16. Topological Quantum Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Lattice Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2013-09-01

    Since the successful fabrication of graphene, two-dimensional hexagonal lattice structures have become a research hotspot in condensed matter physics. In this short review, we theoretically focus on discussing the possible realization of a topological insulator (TI) phase in systems of graphene bilayer (GBL) and boron nitride bilayer (BNBL), whose band structures can be experimentally modulated by an interlayer bias voltage. Under the bias, a band gap can be opened in AB-stacked GBL but is still closed in AA-stacked GBL and significantly reduced in AA- or AB-stacked BNBL. In the presence of spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), further demonstrations indicate whether the topological quantum phase transition can be realized strongly depends on the stacking orders and symmetries of structures. It is observed that a bulk band gap can be first closed and then reopened when the Rashba SOC increases for gated AB-stacked GBL or when the intrinsic SOC increases for gated AA-stacked BNBL. This gives a distinct signal for a topological quantum phase transition, which is further characterized by a jump of the ℤ2 topological invariant. At fixed SOCs, the TI phase can be well switched by the interlayer bias and the phase boundaries are precisely determined. For AA-stacked GBL and AB-stacked BNBL, no strong TI phase exists, regardless of the strength of the intrinsic or Rashba SOCs. At last, a brief overview is given on other two-dimensional hexagonal materials including silicene and molybdenum disulfide bilayers.

  17. Finite element method for neutron diffusion problems in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.Y.C.; Hansen, K.F.

    1975-06-01

    The use of the finite element method for solving two-dimensional static neutron diffusion problems in hexagonal reactor configurations is considered. It is investigated as a possible alternative to the low-order finite difference method. Various piecewise polynomial spaces are examined for their use in hexagonal problems. The central questions which arise in the design of these spaces are the degree of incompleteness permissible and the advantages of using a low-order space fine-mesh approach over that of a high-order space coarse-mesh one. There is also the question of the degree of smoothness required. Two schemes for the construction of spaces are described and a number of specific spaces, constructed with the questions outlined above in mind, are presented. They range from a complete non-Lagrangian, non-Hermite quadratic space to an incomplete ninth order space. Results are presented for two-dimensional problems typical of a small high temperature gas-cooled reactor. From the results it is concluded that the space used should at least include the complete linear one. Complete spaces are to be preferred to totally incomplete ones. Once function continuity is imposed any additional degree of smoothness is of secondary importance. For flux shapes typical of the small high temperature gas-cooled reactor the linear space fine-mesh alternative is to be preferred to the perturbation quadratic space coarse-mesh one and the low-order finite difference method is to be preferred over both finite element schemes

  18. Interfacial-Bonding-Regulated CO Oxidation over Pt Atoms Immobilized on Gas-Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin; Zhu, Hongdan; Linguerri, Roberto; Han, Yu; Chambaud, Gilberte; Meng, Changgong

    2017-01-01

    We compared the electronic structure and CO oxidation mechanisms over Pt atoms immobilized by both B-vacancies and N-vacancies on gas-exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride. We showed that chemical bonds are formed between the B atoms associated

  19. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-24

    Jun 24, 2017 ... We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest neighbour electron hopping interactions besides doping and substrate-induced effects on graphene.

  20. Intraoperative tight glucose control using hyperinsulinemic normoglycemia increases delirium after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Leif; Duncan, Andra E; Yared, Jean-Pierre; Hesler, Brian D; You, Jing; Deogaonkar, Anupa; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is common in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Tight glucose control has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the effect of tight intraoperative glucose control using a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp approach on postoperative delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors enrolled 198 adult patients having cardiac surgery in this randomized, double-blind, single-center trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either tight intraoperative glucose control with a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp (target blood glucose, 80 to 110 mg/dl) or standard therapy (conventional insulin administration with blood glucose target, battery. The authors considered patients to have experienced postoperative delirium when Confusion Assessment Method testing was positive at any assessment. A positive Confusion Assessment Method was defined by the presence of features 1 (acute onset and fluctuating course) and 2 (inattention) and either 3 (disorganized thinking) or 4 (altered consciousness). Patients randomized to tight glucose control were more likely to be diagnosed as being delirious than those assigned to routine glucose control (26 of 93 vs. 15 of 105; relative risk, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.37; P = 0.03), after adjusting for preoperative usage of calcium channel blocker and American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status. Delirium severity, among patients with delirium, was comparable with each glucose management strategy. Intraoperative hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemia augments the risk of delirium after cardiac surgery, but not its severity.

  1. Synthesis and structure of large single crystalline silver hexagonal microplates suitable for micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutov, Dimitar L.; Genkov, Kaloyan V.; Zyapkov, Anton D.; Tsutsumanova, Gichka G.; Tzonev, Atanas N. [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 5, J. Bouchier Blvd, Sofia (Bulgaria); Lyutov, Lyudmil G. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1, J. Bouchier Blvd, Sofia (Bulgaria); Russev, Stoyan C., E-mail: scr@phys.uni-sofia.bg [Department of Solid State Physics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 5, J. Bouchier Blvd, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-01-15

    We report a simple one-step synthesis method of large single crystalline Ag (111) hexagonal microplates with sharp edges and a size of up to tens of microns. Single silver crystals were produced by reduction silver nitrate aqueous solution with 4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and optical microscopy techniques were combined to characterize the crystals. It is shown that the microplates can be easily dispersed and transferred as single objects onto different substrates and subsequently used as a high quality plasmonic starting material for micromachining of future nanocomponents, using modern top-down techniques like focused-ion beam milling and gas injection deposition. - Highlights: • Synthesis of large Ag hexagonal microplates with high crystallinity. • It is shown and discussed the role of twinning for the anisotropic 2D growth. • The Ag plates are stable in water and can be dispersed onto different substrates. • Their positioning and subsequent micromachining with FIB/GIS is demonstrated. • Suitable starting material for future plasmonic nanocomponents.

  2. Experimental study of natural convective heat transfer in a vertical hexagonal sub channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandian, Nathanael P.; Umar, Efrizon; Hardianto, Toto; Febriyanto, Catur

    2012-01-01

    The development of new practices in nuclear reactor safety aspects and optimization of recent nuclear reactors, including the APWR and the PHWR reactors, needs a knowledge on natural convective heat transfer within sub-channels formed among several nuclear fuel rods or heat exchanger tubes. Unfortunately, the currently available empirical correlation equations for such heat transfer modes are limited and researches on convective heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders (especially within the natural convection modes) are scarcely done. Although boundary layers around the heat exchanger cylinders or fuel rods may be dominated by their entry regions, most of available convection correlation equations are for fully developed boundary layers. Recently, an experimental study on natural convective heat transfer in a subchannel formed by several heated parallel cylinders that arranged in a hexagonal configuration has been being done. The study seeks for a new convection correlation for the natural convective heat transfer in the sub-channel formed among the hexagonal vertical cylinders. A new convective heat transfer correlation equation has been obtained from the study and compared to several similar equations in literatures.

  3. Experimental Air-Tightness Analysis in Mediterranean Buildings after Windows Retrofit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana d’Ambrosio Alfano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage, the possible infiltration of outdoor air through windows is not taken into account when determining the nominal outdoor airflow rate of the ventilation system. This practice may result in an oversizing of the ventilation system and consequent energy waste. Thus, the air-tightness class of a wall assembly should be assessed for each window component considering the type of material, the presence of the seal, the type of closure, the sealing and the maintenance condition. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of air-tightness measurements carried out using the fan pressurization method in three residential buildings located in the Mediterranean region before and after a window retrofit. Two different window retrofits were investigated: the application of rubber seals on window frames and the substitution of existing windows with new certified high performance windows. The effectiveness of such retrofits was estimated also in terms of energy saving. Test results demonstrated a high variability of the building air tightness after window retrofits, despite the fact that air tight–certified windows were used.

  4. A tri-continuous mesoporous material with a silica pore wall following a hexagonal minimal surface

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu

    2009-04-06

    Ordered porous materials with unique pore structures and pore sizes in the mesoporous range (2-50nm) have many applications in catalysis, separation and drug delivery. Extensive research has resulted in mesoporous materials with one-dimensional, cage-like and bi-continuous pore structures. Three families of bi-continuous mesoporous materials have been made, with two interwoven but unconnected channels, corresponding to the liquid crystal phases used as templates. Here we report a three-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica, IBN-9, with a tri-continuous pore structure that is synthesized using a specially designed cationic surfactant template. IBN-9 consists of three identical continuous interpenetrating channels, which are separated by a silica wall that follows a hexagonal minimal surface. Such a tri-continuous mesostructure was predicted mathematically, but until now has not been observed in real materials. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. A tri-continuous mesoporous material with a silica pore wall following a hexagonal minimal surface

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu; Zhang, Daliang; Chng, Leng Leng; Sun, Junliang; Zhao, L. J.; Zou, Xiaodong; Ying, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Ordered porous materials with unique pore structures and pore sizes in the mesoporous range (2-50nm) have many applications in catalysis, separation and drug delivery. Extensive research has resulted in mesoporous materials with one-dimensional, cage-like and bi-continuous pore structures. Three families of bi-continuous mesoporous materials have been made, with two interwoven but unconnected channels, corresponding to the liquid crystal phases used as templates. Here we report a three-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica, IBN-9, with a tri-continuous pore structure that is synthesized using a specially designed cationic surfactant template. IBN-9 consists of three identical continuous interpenetrating channels, which are separated by a silica wall that follows a hexagonal minimal surface. Such a tri-continuous mesostructure was predicted mathematically, but until now has not been observed in real materials. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. The experimental modeling of gas percolation mechanisms in a coal-measure tight sandstone reservoir: A case study on the coal-measure tight sandstone gas in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone gas from coal-measure source rock is widespread in China, and it is represented by the Xujiahe Formation of the Sichuan Basin and the Upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin. It is affected by planar evaporative hydrocarbon expulsion of coal-measure source rock and the gentle structural background; hydrodynamics and buoyancy play a limited role in the gas migration-accumulation in tight sandstone. Under the conditions of low permeability and speed, non-Darcy flow is quite apparent, it gives rise to gas-water mixed gas zone. In the gas displacing water experiment, the shape of percolation flow curve is mainly influenced by core permeability. The lower the permeability, the higher the starting pressure gradient as well as the more evident the non-Darcy phenomenon will be. In the gas displacing water experiment of tight sandstone, the maximum gas saturation of the core is generally less than 50% (ranging from 30% to 40% and averaging at 38%; it is similar to the actual gas saturation of the gas zone in the subsurface core. The gas saturation and permeability of the core have a logarithm correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.8915. In the single-phase flow of tight sandstone gas, low-velocity non-Darcy percolation is apparent; the initial flow velocity (Vd exists due to the slippage effect of gas flow. The shape of percolation flow curve of a single-phase gas is primarily controlled by core permeability and confining pressure; the lower the permeability or the higher the confining pressure, the higher the starting pressure (0.02–0.08 MPa/cm, whereas, the higher the quasi-initial flow speed, the longer the nonlinear section and the more obvious the non-Darcy flow will be. The tight sandstone gas seepage mechanism study shows that the lower the reservoir permeability, the higher the starting pressure and the slower the flow velocity will be, this results in the low efficiency of natural gas migration and accumulation as well as

  7. Hexagonal-like Nb2O5 Nanoplates-Based Photodetectors and Photocatalyst with High Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Nan; Liao, Meiyong; Fang, Xiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are important tools in the fields of optical imaging, environmental monitoring, and air and water sterilization, as well as flame sensing and early rocket plume detection. Herein, hexagonal-like Nb2O5 nanoplates are synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. UV photodetectors based on single Nb2O5 nanoplates are constructed and the optoelectronic properties have been probed. The photodetectors show remarkable sensitivity with a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 9617%, and adequate wavelength selectivity with respect to UV-A light. In addition, the photodetectors exhibit robust stability and strong dependence of photocurrent on light intensity. Also, a low-cost drop-casting method is used to fabricate photodetectors based on Nb2O5 nanoplate film, which exhibit singular thermal stability. Moreover, the hexagonal-like Nb2O5 nanoplates show significantly better photocatalytic performances in decomposing Methylene-blue and Rhdamine B dyes than commercial Nb2O5.

  8. Hexagonal pencil-like CdS nanorods: Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liang; Wang, Guanghui; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Fang; Cheng, Yang

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, hexagonal pencil-like CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized through a typical facile and economical one-step hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). The results revealed that the prepared CdS photocatalyst consisted of a large quantity of straight and smooth solid hexagonal nanorods and a few nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of CdS nanorods and commercial CdS powders were investigated by the photodegradation of Orange II (OII) in aqueous solution under visible light, and the CdS nanorods presented the highest photocatalytic activity. Its photocatalytic efficiency enhancement was attributed to the improved transmission of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CdS nanostructures. The present findings may provide a facile approach to synthesize high efficient CdS photocatalysts.

  9. A revisit to the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of α - Titanium at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Mondal, R.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of resistivity ρ(T) of a polycrystalline sample and a single crystal sample (current along the [0001] direction) of α - Titanium (Ti) at low temperatures is revisited to understand the electrical charge transport phenomena in this hexagonal closed pack metal. We show that the ρ(T) in single crystal Ti can be explained by considering the scattering of electrons due to electron-phonon, electron-electron, inter-band s-d and electron-impurity interactions, whereas the ρ(T) of polycrystalline Ti could not be explained by these interactions alone. We observed that the effects of the anisotropy of the hexagonal structure on the electronic band structure and the phonon dispersion need to be taken into account to explain ρ(T) of polycrystalline Ti. Two Debye temperatures corresponding to two different directions for the electron-phonon interactions and inter-band s-d scattering are needed to account the observed ρ(T) in polycrystalline Ti.

  10. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  11. Facile solution synthesis of hexagonal Alq3 nanorods and their field emission properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Song; Ji, Heng-Xing; Cao, An-Min; Huang, Zheng-Xi; Zhang, Yang; Wan, Li-Jun; Xia, An-Dong; Yu, Da-Peng; Meng, Xiang-Min; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2007-08-07

    A facile self-assembly growth route assisted by surfactant has been developed to synthesize tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq(3)) nanorods with regular hexagonal shape and good crystallinity, which exhibit field-emission characteristics with a very low turn-on field of ca. 3.1 V microm(-1) and a high field-enhancement factor of ca. 1300.

  12. Elastic properties and 2D icosahedral bonding in borides of hexagonal WC type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2005-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations we have identified materials with bulk moduli comparable to cubic BN. These are WB, IrB, ReB and OsB crystallizing in the hexagonal WC structure. In the (0 0 0 2) planes of these compounds, we find 2D icosahedral bonding between adjacent B atoms, which has previously not been reported

  13. Elastic properties and 2D icosahedral bonding in borides of hexagonal WC type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis [Materials Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 16, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 16, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2005-01-15

    Using ab initio calculations we have identified materials with bulk moduli comparable to cubic BN. These are WB, IrB, ReB and OsB crystallizing in the hexagonal WC structure. In the (0 0 0 2) planes of these compounds, we find 2D icosahedral bonding between adjacent B atoms, which has previously not been reported.

  14. Generalization of first-principles thermodynamic model: Application to hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe3N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten B.; Shang, Shu- Li; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2016-01-01

    A complete first-principles thermodynamic model was developed and applied to hexagonal close-packed structure ε-Fe3N. The electronic structure was calculated using density functional theory and the quasiharmonic phonon approximation to determine macroscopic thermodynamic properties at finite...

  15. 'Magic' Configurations of Three-Qubit Observables and Geometric Hyperplanes of the Smallest Split Cayley Hexagon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saniga, M.; Planat, M.; Pracna, Petr; Levay, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2012 (2012), 083 ISSN 1815-0659 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 'magic' configurations of observables * three-qubit Pauli group * split Cayley hexagon of order two Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.243, year: 2012

  16. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  17. Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset, Timing Offset, and Channel Spread Factor on the Performance of Hexagonal Multicarrier Modulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal multicarrier modulation (HMM system is the technique of choice to overcome the impact of time-frequency dispersive transmission channel. This paper examines the effects of insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset on the amplitude and phase of the demodulated symbol by using a projection receiver in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems. Furthermore, effects of CFO, TO, and channel spread factor on the performance of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems are further discussed. The exact SINR expression versus insufficient synchronization and channel spread factor is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradation on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization is incurred as in traditional cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM transmission. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations in a doubly dispersive (DD channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum, showing that HMM systems outperform traditional CP-OFDM systems with respect to SINR against ISI/ICI caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive channel.

  18. Identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in CIMMYT maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Krakowsky, Matthew D; Buntin, G David; Rector, Brian G; Guo, Baozhu; Snook, Maurice E

    2008-08-01

    Ninety four corn inbred lines selected from International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat (CIMMYT) in Mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. Damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)], and common smut [Ustilago maydis DC (Corda)] infection on these inbred lines were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 under subtropical conditions at Tifton, GA. Ten inbred lines possessing good agronomic traits were also resistant to the corn earworm. The correlation between ear-feeding insect damage or smut infection and three phenotypic traits (silk maysin level, husk extension, and husk tightness of corn ears) was also examined. Corn earworm and stink bug damage was negatively correlated to husk extension, but not to either silk maysin levels or husk tightness. In combination with the best agronomic trait ratings that show the least corn earworm and stink bug damage, lowest smut infection rate, and good insect-resistant phenotypic traits (i.e., high maysin and good husk coverage and husk tightness), 10 best inbred lines (CML90, CML92, CML94, CML99, CML104, CML108, CML114, CML128, CML137, and CML373) were identified from the 94 lines examined. These selected inbred lines will be used for further examination of their resistance mechanisms and development of new corn germplasm that confers multiple ear-colonizing pest resistance.

  19. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of West Nile virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Plevka, Pavel; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of infectious West Nile virus were obtained and diffracted at best to about 25 Å resolution. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction pattern suggested tight hexagonal packing of the intact virus. West Nile virus, a human pathogen, is closely related to other medically important flaviviruses of global impact such as dengue virus. The infectious virus was purified from cell culture using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and density-gradient centrifugation. Thin amorphously shaped crystals of the lipid-enveloped virus were grown in quartz capillaries equilibrated by vapor diffusion. Crystal diffraction extended at best to a resolution of about 25 Å using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis of the diffraction images indicated that the crystals had unit-cell parameters a ≃ b ≃ 480 Å, γ = 120°, suggesting a tight hexagonal packing of one virus particle per unit cell

  1. A tightly coupled scheme for neutronics and thermal–hydraulics using open-source software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsingtzu; Rizwan-uddin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel tight coupling scheme called “the Integrated Tight Coupling (ITC) method” is proposed. • The ITC method is implemented using DRAGON and OpenFOAM. • The ITC method is verified using a 1.5-D example. - Abstract: Coupling neutronic and thermal–hydraulic analyses of a nuclear reactor core is important because it helps identify the most relevant safety issues without conservative assumptions. Currently coupled computations solve the same governing equations using different coupling methods, which can be sorted into two categories: loose coupling and tight coupling. This paper proposes and verifies a third coupling approach called “the Integrated Tight Coupling (ITC) method”. The mathematical equations in the nuclear fuel are rearranged to be integrated via a novel concept of the energy-group function. In addition, the data from the neutron cross section library can be used directly. The ITC method is implemented using two open-source codes: the DRAGON code and OpenFOAM. Additionally, a coupled computation using these two codes is new and has not been done. The ITC method is verified using a 1.5-D (1-D neutronics and 2-D thermal–hydraulics) symmetric unit cell example. The mesh of the tightly integrated computation is 25% coarser than the loosely coupled one. Starting from a similar initial guess, the number of iterations for the ITC method is 24% fewer than that for the loosely coupled computation to reach the same accuracy. In addition, the ITC method is tested with different initial guesses. For all cases tested, the scheme converged to the same solution. With further improvement and additional testing, the ITC method has the potential to be incorporated with other neutronics and thermal–hydraulics codes.

  2. Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight, so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Installation of the light tight cover for the SSD modules (the modules are behind the aluminium plate). The silicon sensors are sensitive to light tight , so ambient light will increase the noise and may even damage them.

  3. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sivabrata Sahu

    Corresponding author. E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in. Published online 24 June 2017. Abstract. We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest- neighbour electron hopping ...

  4. Tight-binding tunneling amplitude of an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamasovs, Maksims; Liu, Bo

    2017-11-01

    The particle in a periodic potential is an important topic in an undergraduate quantum mechanics curriculum and a stepping stone on the way to more advanced topics, such as courses on interacting electrons in crystalline solids, and graduate-level research in solid-state and condensed matter physics. The interacting many-body phenomena are usually described in terms of the second quantized lattice Hamiltonians which treat single-particle physics on the level of tight-binding approximation and add interactions on top of it. The aim of this paper is to show how the tight-binding tunneling amplitude can be related to the strength of the periodic potential for the case of a cosine potential used in the burgeoning field of ultracold atoms. We show how to approach the problem of computing the tunneling amplitude of a deep lattice using the JWKB (Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin, also known as semiclassical) approximation. We also point out that care should be taken when applying the method of the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) in an optical lattice context. A summary of the exact solution in terms of Mathieu functions is also given.

  5. Tight-binding tunneling amplitude of an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzamasovs, Maksims; Liu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The particle in a periodic potential is an important topic in an undergraduate quantum mechanics curriculum and a stepping stone on the way to more advanced topics, such as courses on interacting electrons in crystalline solids, and graduate-level research in solid-state and condensed matter physics. The interacting many-body phenomena are usually described in terms of the second quantized lattice Hamiltonians which treat single-particle physics on the level of tight-binding approximation and add interactions on top of it. The aim of this paper is to show how the tight-binding tunneling amplitude can be related to the strength of the periodic potential for the case of a cosine potential used in the burgeoning field of ultracold atoms. We show how to approach the problem of computing the tunneling amplitude of a deep lattice using the JWKB (Jeffreys–Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin, also known as semiclassical) approximation. We also point out that care should be taken when applying the method of the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) in an optical lattice context. A summary of the exact solution in terms of Mathieu functions is also given. (paper)

  6. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Dancoff Correction in Square and Hexagonal Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I

    1966-11-15

    This report presents the results of a series of calculations of Dancoff corrections for square and hexagonal rod lattices. The tables cover a wide range of volume ratios and moderator cross sections. The results were utilized for checking the approximative formula of Sauer and also the modification of Bonalumi to Sauer's formula. The modified formula calculates the Dancoff correction with an accuracy of 0.01 - 0.02 in cases of practical interest. Calculations have also been performed on square lattices with an empty gap surrounding the rods. The results demonstrate the error involved in treating this kind of geometry by means of homogenizing the gap and the moderator. The calculations were made on the Ferranti Mercury computer of AB Atomenergi before it was closed down. Since then FORTRAN routines for Dancoff corrections have been written, and a subroutine DASQHE is included in the report.

  8. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Acuna, P. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencia de Materiales, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N., E-mail: lorr810813@gmail.com [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Programa de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-11-01

    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  9. Thermo-elastic Green's functions for an infinite bi-material of one-dimensional hexagonal quasi-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P.D.; Li, X.Y.; Zheng, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter is concerned with thermo-elastic fundamental solutions of an infinite space, which is composed of two half-infinite bodies of different one-dimensional hexagonal quasi-crystals. A point thermal source is embedded in a half-space. The interface can be either perfectly bonded or smoothly contacted. On the basis of the newly developed general solution, the temperature-induced elastic field in full space is explicitly presented in terms of elementary functions. The interactions among the temperature, phonon and phason fields are revealed. The present work can play an important role in constructing farther analytical solutions for crack, inclusion and dislocation problems. -- Highlights: ► Green's functions are constructed in terms of 10 quasi-harmonic functions. ► Thermo-elastic field of a 1D hexagonal QC bi-material body is expressed explicitly. ► Both perfectly bonded and smoothly contacted interfaces are considered

  10. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J.; Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S.; Acuna, P.; Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  11. First-principles determination of band-to-band electronic transition energies in cubic and hexagonal AlGaInN alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Freitas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide approximate quasiparticle-corrected band gap energies for quaternary cubic and hexagonal AlxGayIn1–x–yN semiconductor alloys, employing a cluster expansion method to account for the inherent statistical disorder of the system. Calculated values are compared with photoluminescence measurements and discussed within the currently accepted model of emission in these materials by carrier localization. It is shown that bowing parameters are larger in the cubic phase, while the range of band gap variation is bigger in the hexagonal one. Experimentally determined transition energies are mostly consistent with band-to-band excitations.

  12. First-principles determination of band-to-band electronic transition energies in cubic and hexagonal AlGaInN alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, F. L., E-mail: felipelopesfreitas@gmail.com; Marques, M.; Teles, L. K. [Grupo de Materiais Semicondutores e Nanotecnologia, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    We provide approximate quasiparticle-corrected band gap energies for quaternary cubic and hexagonal Al{sub x}Ga{sub y}In{sub 1–x–y}N semiconductor alloys, employing a cluster expansion method to account for the inherent statistical disorder of the system. Calculated values are compared with photoluminescence measurements and discussed within the currently accepted model of emission in these materials by carrier localization. It is shown that bowing parameters are larger in the cubic phase, while the range of band gap variation is bigger in the hexagonal one. Experimentally determined transition energies are mostly consistent with band-to-band excitations.

  13. Well test mathematical model for fractures network in tight oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwu, Pengxiang; Liu, Tongjing; Jiang, Baoyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Peidie; Yang, Jiping; Wang, Zhaoming

    2018-02-01

    Well test, especially build-up test, has been applied widely in the development of tight oil reservoirs, since it is the only available low cost way to directly quantify flow ability and formation heterogeneity parameters. However, because of the fractures network near wellbore, generated from artificial fracturing linking up natural factures, traditional infinite and finite conductivity fracture models usually result in significantly deviation in field application. In this work, considering the random distribution of natural fractures, physical model of fractures network is proposed, and it shows a composite model feature in the large scale. Consequently, a nonhomogeneous composite mathematical model is established with threshold pressure gradient. To solve this model semi-analytically, we proposed a solution approach including Laplace transform and virtual argument Bessel function, and this method is verified by comparing with existing analytical solution. The matching data of typical type curves generated from semi-analytical solution indicates that the proposed physical and mathematical model can describe the type curves characteristic in typical tight oil reservoirs, which have up warping in late-term rather than parallel lines with slope 1/2 or 1/4. It means the composite model could be used into pressure interpretation of artificial fracturing wells in tight oil reservoir.

  14. Bootstrapping the Three-Loop Hexagon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2011-11-08

    We consider the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. We apply constraints from the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit to the symbol of the remainder function at three loops. Using these constraints, and assuming a natural ansatz for the symbol's entries, we determine the symbol up to just two undetermined constants. In the multi-Regge limit, both constants drop out from the symbol, enabling us to make a non-trivial confirmation of the BFKL prediction for the leading-log approximation. This result provides a strong consistency check of both our ansatz for the symbol and the duality between Wilson loops and MHV amplitudes. Furthermore, we predict the form of the full three-loop remainder function in the multi-Regge limit, beyond the leading-log approximation, up to a few constants representing terms not detected by the symbol. Our results confirm an all-loop prediction for the real part of the remainder function in multi-Regge 3 {yields} 3 scattering. In the multi-Regge limit, our result for the remainder function can be expressed entirely in terms of classical polylogarithms. For generic six-point kinematics other functions are required.

  15. Orbital hybridization, crystal structure and anomalous resistivity of ultrathin CrZrx alloy films on polymeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Drew; Zuber, Kamil; Merkens, Kerstin; Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The orbital hybridization and crystal structure are experimentally explored for ultrathin chrome zirconium (CrZr x ) alloy films co-sputtered on precoated polymeric substrates. We determine the level of orbital hybridization and crystal structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron diffraction. Body-centred cubic and Ω-hexagonally close-packed phases are observed to coexist in the sputtered Cr-based films. Experiments reveal the orbital hybridization and crystal structure combine to produce anomalous resistivity for these ultrathin films.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  17. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  18. Loose and Tight GNSS/INS Integrations: Comparison of Performance Assessed in Real Urban Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Gianluca; Pini, Marco; Marucco, Gianluca

    2017-01-29

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) remain the principal mean of positioning in many applications and systems, but in several types of environment, the performance of standalone receivers is degraded. Although many works show the benefits of the integration between GNSS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs), tightly-coupled architectures are mainly implemented in professional devices and are based on high-grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). This paper investigates the performance improvements enabled by the tight integration, using low-cost sensors and a mass-market GNSS receiver. Performance is assessed through a series of tests carried out in real urban scenarios and is compared against commercial modules, operating in standalone mode or featuring loosely-coupled integrations. The paper describes the developed tight-integration algorithms with a terse mathematical model and assesses their efficacy from a practical perspective.

  19. Luminescent properties of stabled hexagonal phase Sr1-xBaxAl2O4:Eu2+ (x=0.37-0.70)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiaoli; Liu Zhen; Jiao Huan

    2009-01-01

    Stabled hexagonal phase Sr 1-x Ba x Al 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ (x=0.37-0.70) was prepared by solid-state method. Result revealed that the structure behavior of the SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ calcined at 1350 deg. C in a reducing atmosphere for 5 h strongly depended on the Ba 2+ concentration. With increasing Ba 2+ concentration, a characteristic hexagonal phase can be observed. When 37-70% of the strontium is replaced by barium, the structure of the prepared sample is pure hexagonal. Photoluminescence and excitation spectra of the samples with different x and doped with 2% Eu 2+ were investigated. Changes in the emission spectra were observed in the two different phases. The green emission at 505 nm from Eu 2+ was found to be quite strong in the hexagonal phase. The intensity and peak position of the green luminescence from Eu 2+ changed with increasing content of Ba 2+ . The strongest green emission was obtained from Sr 0.61 Ba 0.37 Al 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ . The decay characteristics of Sr 1-x Ba x Al 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ (x=0.37-0.70) showed that the life times also varied with the value of x. Furthermore, the emission colors and decay times varying with x could be ascribed to the variation of crystal lattice.

  20. Relevant multi-setting tight Bell inequalities for qubits and qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Dongling; Zhou Zisui; Chen Jingling

    2009-01-01

    In the celebrated paper [D. Collins, N. Gisin, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 37 (2004) 1775], Collins and Gisin presented for the first time a three-setting Bell inequality (here we call it CG inequality for simplicity) which is relevant to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. Inspired by their brilliant ideas, we obtained some multi-setting tight Bell inequalities, which are relevant to the CHSH inequality and the CG inequality. Moreover, we generalized the method in the paper [J.L. Chen, D.L. Deng, Phys. Rev. A 79 (2009) 012115] to construct Bell inequality for qubits to higher dimensional system. Based on the generalized method, we present, for the first time, a three-setting tight Bell inequality for two qutrits, which is maximally violated by nonmaximally entangled states and relevant to the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality.

  1. MOCA, Criticality of VVER Reactor Hexagonal Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KYNCL, Jan

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Criticality problem in neutron transport for hexagonal fuel assembly in VVER nuclear reactor. The assembly is assumed to be either arranged in an infinite hexagonal array or placed in vacuum. The problem is solved in three- dimensional geometry, using standard energy group formalism and assuming that effective scattering cross sections are presented as Legendre polynomial expansions. The code evaluates ten different physical quantities, e.g. multiplication factor, neutron flux per energy group and spatial zone, integrated over angle and power in any zone of the assembly. 2 - Method of solution: Monte Carlo method of successive generations is applied. Computation proceeds according to an analog random process. The code is organized into three blocks: In the first block, the input data are converted to quantities for use in the Monte Carlo calculation. An initial neutron distribution is calculated, which corresponds to a fission spectrum uniform in spatial and angular variables. The main calculations are carried out in the second block (subroutine PROC2). This block is subdivided into geometrical and physical parts. Neutron tracks in individual zones and groups as well as probabilities for the formation of secondary neutrons are calculated. In the third block (subroutine PROC3), the results are evaluated statistically. Effective multiplication coefficients, the neutron flux per group and zone, and respective errors are computed. These quantities serve as a basis for the evaluation of other quantities. The results are either printed or stored for future evaluations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In the PC version of the program, the maximum number of neutrons is 1000, the maximum number of energy groups is 4, and the maximum number of material compositions is 15. Angular expansion of scattering cross sections is allowed up to P10. These restrictions can easily be removed by increasing input parameters and

  2. Modulation of Tight Junction Structure and Function by Kinases and Phosphatases Targeting Occludin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Johannes Dörfel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs typically represent the most apical contacts in epithelial and endothelial cell layers where they play an essential role in the separation of extracellular or luminal spaces from underlying tissues in the body. Depending on the protein composition, TJs define the barrier characteristics and in addition maintain cell polarity. Two major families of integral membrane proteins form the typical TJ strand network, the tight junction-associated MARVEL protein (TAMP family members occludin, tricellulin, and MarvelD3 as well as a specific set of claudins. Occludin was the first identified member of these tetraspanins and is now widely accepted as a regulator of TJ assembly and function. Therefore, occludin itself has to be tightly regulated. Phosphorylation of occludin appears to be of central importance in this context. Here we want to summarize current knowledge on the kinases and phosphatases directly modifying occludin, and their role in the regulation of TJ structure, function, and dynamics.

  3. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Barlat, F; Moon, Y.H.; Lee, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a

  4. Chromatic Dispersion Compensation Using Photonic Crystal Fibers with Hexagonal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick E. Reyes-Vera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show various configurations of photonic crystal fiber with hexagonal holes distribution for compensation of chromatic dispersion in optical communications links. The vectorial finite element method with scattering boundary condition was used for the analysis of the fibers. From these results it was estimated variation of the dispersion and the dispersion slope with respect to change in the diameter of the holes in the microstructure. With the above was possible to obtain values of dispersion in the C and L bands of telecommunications close to -850 ps / nm * km, with confinement losses 10-3 dB / km

  5. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.A.

    1987-12-01

    Formaldehyde is but one of many chemicals capable of causing the tight building syndrome or environmentally induced illness (EI). The spectrum of symptoms it may induce includes attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness, arthralgia, unwarranted depression, dysphonia, exhaustion, inability to think clearly, arrhythmia or muscle spasms. The nonspecificity of such symptoms can baffle physicians from many specialties. Presented herein is a simple office method for demonstrating that formaldehyde is among the etiologic agents triggering these symptoms. The very symptoms that patients complain of can be provoked within minutes, and subsequently abolished, with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of formaldehyde. This injection aids in convincing the patient of the cause of the symptoms so he can initiate measure to bring his disease under control.

  6. Self-assembled quantum dot structures in a hexagonal nanowire for quantum photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Dou, Xiu-Ming; Wei, Bin; Zha, Guo-Wei; Shang, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Li; Su, Dan; Xu, Jian-Xing; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Sun, Bao-Quan; Ji, Yuan; Han, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Zhi-Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Two types of quantum nanostructures based on self-assembled GaAs quantumdots embedded into GaAs/AlGaAs hexagonal nanowire systems are reported, opening a new avenue to the fabrication of highly efficient single-photon sources, as well as the design of novel quantum optics experiments and robust quantum optoelectronic devices operating at higher temperature, which are required for practical quantum photonics applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Threefold rotational symmetry in hexagonally shaped core-shell (In,Ga)As/GaAs nanowires revealed by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Arman; Krause, Thilo; Kriegner, Dominik; Al-Hassan, Ali; Bahrami, Danial; Mostafavi Kashani, Seyed Mohammad; Lewis, Ryan B; Küpers, Hanno; Tahraoui, Abbes; Geelhaar, Lutz; Hanke, Michael; Leake, Steven John; Loffeld, Otmar; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2017-06-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging at symmetric hhh Bragg reflections was used to resolve the structure of GaAs/In 0.15 Ga 0.85 As/GaAs core-shell-shell nanowires grown on a silicon (111) substrate. Diffraction amplitudes in the vicinity of GaAs 111 and GaAs 333 reflections were used to reconstruct the lost phase information. It is demonstrated that the structure of the core-shell-shell nanowire can be identified by means of phase contrast. Interestingly, it is found that both scattered intensity in the (111) plane and the reconstructed scattering phase show an additional threefold symmetry superimposed with the shape function of the investigated hexagonal nanowires. In order to find the origin of this threefold symmetry, elasticity calculations were performed using the finite element method and subsequent kinematic diffraction simulations. These suggest that a non-hexagonal (In,Ga)As shell covering the hexagonal GaAs core might be responsible for the observation.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF TIGHTLY-ASSOCIATED SMOOTH MUSCLE MYOSIN-MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN KINASE-CALMODULIN COMPLEXES*

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Feng; Haldeman, Brian D.; John, Olivia A.; Brewer, Paul D.; Wu, Yi-Ying; Ni, Shaowei; Wilson, David P.; Walsh, Michael P.; Baker, Jonathan E.; Cremo, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    A current popular model to explain phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) by smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) proposes that MLCK is bound tightly to actin but weakly to SMM. We found that MLCK and calmodulin (CaM) co-purify with unphosphorylated SMM (up-SMM) from chicken gizzard, suggesting that they are tightly bound. Although the MLCK:SMM molar ratio in SMM preparations was well below stoichiometric (1:73 ± 9), the ratio was ~ 23–37% of that in gizzard tissue. Fifteen t...

  9. FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Qi; Wang, Xi-Lin; Jia, Ding; Chen, Jing; Fan, Ya-Xian; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-05-11

    We propose an improved FDTD method to calculate the optical forces of tightly focused beams on microscopic metal particles. Comparison study on different kinds of tightly focused beams indicates that trapping efficiency can be altered by adjusting the polarization of the incident field. The results also show the size-dependence of trapping forces exerted on metal particles. Transverse tapping forces produced by different illumination wavelengths are also evaluated. The numeric simulation demonstrates the possibility of trapping moderate-sized metal particles whose radii are comparable to wavelength.

  10. Magnetostriction of Hexagonal HoMnO3 and YMnO3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskii, N. S.; Dubrovskii, A. A.; Nikitin, S. E.; Semenov, S. V.; Terent'ev, K. Yu.; Shaikhutdinov, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the magnetostriction of hexagonal HoMnO3 and YMnO3 single crystals in a wide range of applied magnetic fields (up to H = 14 T) at all possible combinations of the mutual orientations of magnetic field H and magnetostriction Δ L/L. The measured Δ L/L( H, T) data agree well with the magnetic phase diagram of the HoMnO3 single crystal reported previously by other authors. It is shown that the nonmonotonic behavior of magnetostriction of the HoMnO3 crystal is caused by the Ho3+ ion; the magnetic moment of the Mn3+ ion parallel to the hexagonal crystal axis. The anomalies established from the magnetostriction measurements of HoMnO3 are consistent with the phase diagram of these compounds. For the isostructural YMnO3 single crystal with a nonmagnetic rare-earth ion, the Δ L/L( H, T) dependences are described well by a conventional quadratic law in a wide temperature range (4-100 K). In addition, the magnetostriction effect is qualitatively estimated with regard to the effect of the crystal electric field on the holmium ion.

  11. Growth of Ferromagnetic Epitaxial Film of Hexagonal FeGe on (111) Ge Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dushyant; Joshi, P. C.; Hossain, Z.; Budhani, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    The realization of semiconductors showing ferromagnetic order at easily accessible temperatures has been of interest due to their potential use in spintronic devices where long spin life times are of key interest. We have realized the growth of FeGe thin films on Ge (111) wafers using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The stoichiometric and single phase FeGe target used in PLD chamber has been made by arc melting. A typical θ-2 θ diffraction spectra performed on 40 nm thick FeGe film suggests the stabilization of β-Ni2In (B82-type) hexagonal phase with an epitaxial orientation of (0001)FeGe ||(111)Ge and [11-20]FeGe ||[-110]Ge. SEM images shows a granular structure with the formation of very large grains of about 100 to 500 nm in lateral dimension. The magnetization vs. temperature data taken from SQUID reveal the TC of ~ 270K. Since, PLD technique makes it easier to stabilize the B82 (Ni2In) hexagonal phase in thin FeGe films, this work opens opportunities to reinvestigate many conflicting results on various properties of the FeGe system.

  12. AXL mediates resistance to cetuximab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Toni M; Iida, Mari; Stein, Andrew P; Corrigan, Kelsey L; Braverman, Cara M; Luthar, Neha; Toulany, Mahmoud; Gill, Parkash S; Salgia, Ravi; Kimple, Randall J; Wheeler, Deric L

    2014-09-15

    The EGFR antibody cetuximab is used to treat numerous cancers, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to this agent is a common clinical outcome. In this study, we show that overexpression of the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is sufficient to mediate acquired resistance to cetuximab in models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), where AXL was overexpressed, activated, and tightly associated with EGFR expression in cells resistant to cetuximab (Ctx(R) cells). Using RNAi methods and novel AXL-targeting agents, we found that AXL activation stimulated cell proliferation, EGFR activation, and MAPK signaling in Ctx(R) cells. Notably, EGFR directly regulated the expression of AXL mRNA through MAPK signaling and the transcription factor c-Jun in Ctx(R) cells, creating a positive feedback loop that maintained EGFR activation by AXL. Cetuximab-sensitive parental cells were rendered resistant to cetuximab by stable overexpression of AXL or stimulation with EGFR ligands, the latter of which increased AXL activity and association with the EGFR. In tumor xenograft models, the development of resistance following prolonged treatment with cetuximab was associated with AXL hyperactivation and EGFR association. Furthermore, in an examination of patient-derived xenografts established from surgically resected HNSCCs, AXL was overexpressed and activated in tumors that displayed intrinsic resistance to cetuximab. Collectively, our results identify AXL as a key mediator of cetuximab resistance, providing a rationale for clinical evaluation of AXL-targeting drugs to treat cetuximab-resistant cancers. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5152-64. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p hamstrings.

  14. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further

  15. Novel mesoporous composites based on natural rubber and hexagonal mesoporous silica: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuntang, Sakdinun; Poompradub, Sirilux [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Butnark, Suchada [PTT Research and Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited, Wangnoi, Ayutthaya 13170 (Thailand); Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi [Division of Catalytic Chemistry, Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit, E-mail: Chawalit.Ng@Chula.ac.th [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2014-02-14

    The present study is the first report on the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous composites based on natural rubber (NR) and hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS). A series of NR/HMS composites were prepared in tetrahydrofuran via an in situ sol–gel process using tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica precursor. The physicochemical properties of the composites were characterized by various techniques. The effects of the gel composition on the structural and textural properties of the NR/HMS composites were investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 29}Si MAS NMR) results revealed that the surface silanol groups of NR/HMS composites were covered with NR molecules. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data indicated an expansion of the hexagonal unit cell and channel wall thickness due to the incorporation of NR molecules into the mesoporous structure. NR/HMS composites also possessed nanosized particles (∼79.4 nm) as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution analysis. From N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement, the NR/HMS composites possessed a high BET surface area, large pore volume and narrow pore size distribution. Further, they were enhanced hydrophobicity confirmed by H{sub 2}O adsorption–desorption measurement. In addition, the mechanistic pathway of the NR/HMS composite formation was proposed. - Highlights: • NR molecules were incorporated into hexagonal meso-structure of HMS. • NR/HMS composites exhibited an expanded unit cell and channel wall thickness. • Nanosized NR/HMS composites with a lower particle size range were obtained. • NR/HMS had high surface area, large pore volume and narrow pore size distribution. • NR/HMS composites displayed an enhanced hydrophobicity.

  16. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Jairo A; Jaramillo, Natalia A; Murillo, Mauricio F

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must

  17. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  18. A transfer technique for high mobility graphene devices on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, P. J.; Dash, S. P.; Tombros, N.; van Wees, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present electronic transport measurements of single and bilayer graphene on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride. We extract mobilities as high as 125 000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) at room temperature and 275 000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) at 4.2 K. The excellent quality is supported by the early

  19. A thermo mechanical benchmark calculation of a hexagonal can in the BTI accident with INCA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermomechanical behaviour of an hexagonal can in a benchmark problem (simulating the conditions of a BTI accident in a fuel assembly) is examined by means of the INCA code and the results systematically compared with those of ADINA

  20. Effects of Tight Versus Non Tight Control of Metabolic Acidosis on Early Renal Function After Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Etezadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the optimal strategy for intraoperative fluid replacement therapy in renal transplantation surgery. Since infusion of sodium bicarbonate as a buffer seems to be safer than other buffer compounds (lactate, gluconate, acetatethat indirectly convert into it within the liver, We hypothesized tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of sodium bicarbonate may improve early post-operative renal function in renal transplant recipients. Methods:120 patients were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group A, bicarbonate was infused intra-operatively according to Base Excess (BE measurements to achieve the normal values of BE (5 to +5 mEq/L. In group B, infusion of bicarbonate was allowed only in case of severe metabolic acidosis (BE [less than or equal to] 15 mEq/L or bicarbonate [less than or equal to] 10 mEq/L or PH [less than or equal to] 7.15. Minute ventilation was adjusted to keep PaCO2 within the normal range. Primary end-point was sampling of serum creatinine level in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days for statistical comparison between groups. Secondary objectives were comparison of cumulative urine volumes in the first 24 h of post-operative period and serum BUN levels which were obtained in first, second, third and seventh post-operative days. Results:In group A, all of consecutive serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in comparison with group B. With regard to secondary outcomes, no significant difference between groups was observed. Conclusion:Intra-operative tight control of metabolic acidosis by infusion of Sodium Bicarbonate in renal transplant recipients may improve early post-operative renal function.