WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistant grape rootstock

  1. Agronomic behavior of grape rootstocks resistant to young vine decline in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbó Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Young vine decline, caused by the ground pearl or margarodes (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis and pathogenic fungi (Cylindrocarpon, Phaeoacremonium and others, is a major problem in many vineyards of Southern Brazil. According to previous studies, the most resistant roostocks were hybrids of tropical species, such as Vitis caribaea (IAC 572, IAC 571-6, IAC 766 and V. cinerea (IAC 313. A medium resistance level was observed in V. champinii (Dog Ridge and Muscadinia rotundifolia hybrids (VR 043-43. However, these rootstocks have not being used in grape growing areas of Southern Brazil. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic characteristics of the scion cultivar Moscato Embrapa grafted on these rootstocks compared to Paulsen 1103 and R99, considered standards for this region. The tropical rootstocks IAC 313, IAC571-6, and IAC 766 induced earlier bud break compared to Paulsen 1103, the opposite of VR043-43 and Dog Ridge. In general aspects, all rootstocks tested can be used for grape production. Even the tropical rootstocks with no winter dormancy behave as normal rootstocks when grafted. IAC 572 has an advantage of not inducing early bud break. However, excessive vigor is the most limiting factor for IAC 572, requiring especial management practices to control vegetative development.

  2. Identification of grape cultivars and rootstocks with resistance to vine mealybug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine mealybug, an insect pest capable of causing direct and indirect damage to grape vineyards, costs California growers millions of dollars annually. Insecticide sprays used to manage the pest provide inconsistent results, and sustainable methods of control are needed. A previous study identified a...

  3. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2008-01-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety H elwani , was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  4. Moisture and Salinity Stress Induced Changes in Biochemical Constituents and Water Relations of Different Grape Rootstock Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satisha Jogaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten grape rootstocks were subjected to moisture and salinity stress in two separate experiments. The influence of these stresses on gas exchange, water relation, and biochemical parameters was monitored at various stages of stress cycle. Both stresses indicated significant changes in the physiological and biochemical parameters studied. Some biochemical constituents increased by several folds in few rootstock cultivars which also recorded increased osmotic potential suggesting their role in osmotic adjustment. Some of the rootstock cultivars such as 110R, 1103P, 99R, Dogridge, and B2/56 recorded increased phenolic compounds under stressed conditions. The same rootstock also recorded increased water use efficiency. The increased accumulation of phenolic compounds in these cultivars may indicate the possible role of phenolic compounds as antioxidants for scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated during abiotic stresses thus maintaining normal physiological and biochemical process in leaves of resistant cultivars.

  5. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... total sugar content, ash, and CIRG index values of grape samples in comparison to that of vines irrigated with T3, T4 and T5 levels. Grape quality response to irrigation levels was altered by rootstocks and quality of grapes harvested from vines grafted on SO4 was higher compared to those from 1103P.

  6. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2007-08-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks; Ru140, R99 and 3309 C and one local variety Helwani, which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety Helwani, was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. The was a positive effect of of IAA on the resistance of Helwani to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of Helwani to phlloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). The present study provides good information on the possibility of using irradiation and hormone to increase the resistance of grape to phylloxera.(author)

  7. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of two rootstocks (SO4 and 1103P) on grape quality and berry chemical composition was studied in a factorial experiment, in field grown grapevines of ... Also, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity, pH, total sugar content, ash, juice yield and color index of red grapes (CIRG) of berry samples were determined.

  8. Evaluating paradox walnut rootstocks for resistance to Armillaria root disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common Juglans regia (English walnut) rootstock in California is Paradox, a hybrid between J. hindsii (Northern California black walnut) and J. regia. Unfortuntely, Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to Armillaria root disease. The relative resistance of new clonal, Paradox rootstock...

  9. Regeneration systems for pyramiding disease resistance into walnut rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to regenerate selected walnut rootstocks adventitiously. This is an essential step to be able to produce transgenic walnut rootstocks with superior traits, such as disease resistance. A series of plant tissue culture experiments were conducted on RX1 and VX211 rootstocks wit...

  10. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ros Ibáñez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively. A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801 were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field.

  11. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  12. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  13. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  14. Progress in developing Armillaria resistant rootstocks for use with peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuardianTM (BY520-9) peach seedling rootstock was released in 1993 to provide a rootstock with superior resistance to peach tree short life (PTSL) which at the time was the number one cause of premature death of peach (Prunus persica L. [Batsch]) trees in the southeastern US. Since that time Guardi...

  15. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  16. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  17. Identification of tree-crop rootstocks with resistance to Armillaria root disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armillaria root disease attacks a broad range of tree crops in California. Instead of re-tooling ineffective conventional controls, namely soil fumigation, we focused on identification of Armillaria-resistant Juglans rootstocks, as part of a collaborative project to identify rootstocks with resistan...

  18. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight

  19. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a preliminary study on the influence two rootstocks (110R, high vigor; 420A, low vigor) grafted to scion 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8, and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation – usual practice in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or till...

  20. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  1. PHYLLOXERA-RESISTANT HYBRID FORM OF GRAPES OF TECHNICAL SORTS FOR IMPROVING THE ASSORTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Larkina M. D.; Nikulushkina G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many old varieties of grapes do not meet modern requirements, so there is a need for improved assortment of new high-quality varieties. The translation of the vineyards of the black sea coast of the Krasnodar region on inoculated culture is not fully decided the fate of the viticulture of the area. Weak resistance of American rootstocks to increased content of calcium and salts in the soil, caused the weakening of the bushes, reducing the vigor of the shoots, their maturation and yield of gra...

  2. 'Sharpe', a new Armillaria resistant rootstock for peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe clonal rootstock for peach is jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA) and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Sharpe, previously tested as FLA1-1, was discovered in the wild and appears to be a hybrid of Chickasa...

  3. Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare. The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

  4. Screening almond rootstocks for sources of resistance to Armillaria root diesease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunus is one of the most susceptible horticultural crops to Armillaria root disease. Resistance to the geographically isolated causal fungi Armillaria mellea and A. tabescens has been evaluated in separate field trials of almond and other Prunus rootstocks, but not in one comprehensive study. We ev...

  5. More crop for drop - climate change and wine: an economic evaluation of a new drought-resistant rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletto, Luigi; Barisan, Luigino; Boatto, Vasco; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Lorenzetti, Romina; Pomarici, Eugenio; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The current paper presents the results of an economic evaluation of a new drought-resistant rootstock (M4), capable to maintain in adverse environmental conditions high photosynthetic activity, to accumulate osmotic compounds and to compensate for the accumulation of sodium and chlorine in the grapevines, in two core Italian grapevine growing areas: the North-East and Sicily. After collecting data on quantitative (yield per plant in kg) and qualitative parameters (°Brix, anthocyanins, pH) of experimental vineyards (Cabernet Sauvignon variety) planted using the traditional rootstock 1103P and the innovative M4 rootstock, over a seven-year period, a cost-benefit analysis calculated the effects of replacing the traditional rootstock. The results show that M4 rootstock yields higher net revenues compared to the best situation of 1103P rootstock, roughly in 40% of North-East vineyards and in more than 80% of their Sicilian counterparts. In addition, 14% of North-East vineyards and more than 94% of Sicilian vineyards are currently exposed to drought risk, and these areas are expected to increase in the coming years. Thus the M4 rootstock, as other related innovations [51-53], could significantly improve watersaving strategies, which are gaining increasing attention from both public bodies and wine companies.

  6. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles Influência do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes nos pecíolos de videiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dalbó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of rootstocks can affect nutrient uptake and the nutrient status of grapevines. The rootstock influence on nutrient content in grape petioles was evaluated on three rootstocks competition experiments carried out at Vale do Rio do Peixe region, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with the cultivars Niagara Rosada, Concord, and Isabella, grafted on different rootstocks. Two soil liming depths were also evaluated in the Isabella experiment. The greatest rootstock effect was observed on K and Mg content and K/Mg ratio in the petioles. The Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks VR 043-43 and VR 044-4 provided the highest K/Mg values and self rooted Isabella the lowest K/Mg ratio. The other tested rootstocks resulted in intermediate values. There was also significant effect on P content, but only in Niagara Rosada and Concord experiments. The depth of soil liming did not significantly affect K and Mg content in the Isabella experiment. The results indicate that rootstock must be considered for nutritional status evaluation and fertilizer recommendation regarding to K and Mg.A diversidade genética dos porta-enxertos de videira pode afetar a absorção de nutrientes e o estado nutricional dos vinhedos. A influência do porta-enxerto nos teores de nutrientes em pecíolos de videira foi avaliada em três experimentos de competição de porta-enxertos instalados na região do Vale do Rio do Peixe-SC. As cultivares-copa foram Niagara Rosada e Concord, enxertadas sobre diversos porta-enxertos. Para a cultivar Isabel, além do efeito do porta-enxerto, avaliou-se também a influência de duas profundidades de calagem do solo. Os maiores efeitos do porta-enxerto foram verificados nos teores de K e Mg e na relação K/Mg nos pecíolos. Os porta-enxertos híbridos de Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia (VR 043-43 e VR 044-4 induziram as maiores relações K/Mg, ao passo que a cultivar Isabel (pé-franco resultou nos menores valores

  7. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  8. Porta-enxertos para o cultivar Máximo IAC 138-22 de uvas de vinho em Monte Alegre do Sul, SP Rootstocks for wine grape cultivar IAC 138-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, efetuou-se um experimento de longa duração para observar o comportamento do cultivar IAC 138-22 (Máximo de uvas para vinho, sobre cinco porta-enxertos: RR 101-14, 'Golia', "Ripária do Traviú', IAC 572 e IAC 313. Em oito colheitas sucessivas anuais, de 1974 a 1981, analisaram-se as produções médias de uvas por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o IAC 572' foi o melhor porta-enxerto para o IAC 138-22 'Máximo'. O IAC 313 superou o IAC 572 em um dos anos estudados. Todos os outros porta-enxertos apresentaram desempenho inferior.A long term experiment was conducted at Monte Alegre do Sul, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to study the behaviour of wine grape cultivar IAC 138-22 Máximo on five rootstocks: RR 101 14, 'Golia', "Ripária do Traviú', IAC 313 and IAC 572 The yields of eight consecutive annual harvests (from 1974 to 1981 were analysed. The results indicated that IAC 572 was the best rootstock. IAC 313 can also be used but with fair results. "Ripária do Traviú', RR 101-14 and 'Golia' are not recommended as rootstocks for IAC 138-22. Considering the row spacing (2 x 1m which allows 5,000 plants/ha, the difference between average yields of the best and the worst rootstock was 8,475kg/ha of grapes, a considerable figure for the grape grower.

  9. Assessment of Guardian Peach Rootstock for Resistance to Two Isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Pinochet, J

    2001-12-01

    Guardian, Lovell, and Nemaguard peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility and growth response to two isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus. One nematode isolate was obtained from peach in Georgia (P. vulnus [GA-isolate]) and the other from apple in Idaho (P. vulnus [ID-isolate]). Nematode reproduction and pathogenicity as related to rootstock were determined 29 months after inoculation in outdoor microplots. All rootstocks were susceptible to both nematode isolates. Guardian supported a greater number of nematodes per gram dry root weight than Lovell or Nemaguard rootstocks. All rootstocks supported greater numbers of P. vulnus (GA-isolate) than P. vulnus (ID-isolate). Tree growth among the three rootstocks was similar in the presence of either P. vulnus isolate, but growth suppression was greatest in P. vulnus (GA-isolate) plots, intermediate in P. vulnus (ID-isolate) plots, and least in the uninoculated plots.

  10. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  11. Análise foliar de diferentes combinações enxêrto-cavalo, para dez variedades de videira The foliar mineral composition of different scion-rootstock combinations, for ten grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho é feito um estudo comparativo do porta-enxêrto e da variedade através de seus efeitos na composição das fôlhas de videira, cultivada em canteiros sob condições comparáveis de solo, tratamento cultural e clima da Estação Experimental de São Roque, do Instituto Agronômico. Amostras de fôlhas de idade definida (a primeira madura, a contar da ponta foram colhidas à época do florescimento, e analisadas para nitrogênio total, fósforo total, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e boro. Os dados obtidos permitem distinguir as variações de composição das fôlhas determinadas pela variedade-enxêrto e variedade-cavalo e o uso desta informação como base nos pesquisas para o estabelecimento dos índices de nutrição para a videira, pela análise foliar. A diferença encontrada nos teores dos elementos nutritivos nas fôlhas foi maior entre porta-enxertos do que entre variedades.Determinations of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and boron were made on leaves of ten grape varieties on different rootstocks, growing in experimental plots under comparable soil, cultural, and climatic conditions. The youngest fully matured leaf was sampled at booming time. The influence of rootstock and scion on the principal nutrient elements in grape leaves could be summarized as follows: a Rootstocks induced larger variations in the concentrations of nutrient elements in the leaves than did the scion varieties, b Some of the rootstock differences were similar from one scion variety to another. This is illustrated for the highest levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on nearly all scion over the rootstock Rupestris du Lot, and for high calcium increases in leaves for most varieties grafted on the Riparia x Rupestris 101-14 rootstock. c At least for potassium, the scion does have some influence on the composition of the leaves. The varieties Diamante Negro, Itália e Moscatel de Hamburgo had more potassium present in

  12. HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND PERFORMANCE OF SOUR PASSION FRUIT POPULATIONS UNDER DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS RESISTANT TO Fusarium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Ambrósio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to describe histological traits of the graft welding process and evaluate the effect of rootstocks on the physical and chemical traits and the productivity of sour passion fruit populations. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in a 4x2 + 4 factorial scheme (cultivars / canopy x rootstocks, three replicates and nine plants per plot. Commercial cultivars and populations and Passiflora alata and P. nitida rootstocks, in addition to ungrafted plants were used as canopy. Cleft grafting was the grafting type adopted. Traits analyzed such as productivity and physical and chemical quality of fruits were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Tukey test. The canopy morphology was evaluated according to descriptors of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. Grafting was carried out for each graft/rootstock combination for histological analysis. Sections were obtained by freehand cuts, stained and mounted on semi-permanent slides, examined under optical microscope and photomicrographed. Rootstocks affected the early cultivation and reduced productivity and number of fruits of passion fruit populations. Grafting did not affect the quality of fruits or the canopy morphology. Considering the complete culture cycle, P. alata species is able to be used as rootstock. The anatomical study demonstrates the occurrence of better compatibility in the connection of P. edulis tissues on P. alata, compared to grafting on P. nitida.

  13. Controlling the root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, using resistance cultivars and grafting onto the cucurbit rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber damping off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is the most important root and stem rot that limits greenhouse cultivations. In this study, relative susceptibility of grafting commercial cucumber cultivars including Alpha, Caspian 340, Storm 5910, Shalim 616, Delta scar, Janette 810, Festibal C5, Royal, Negyn, Soltan and Fadia on two Cucurbita rootstocks were evaluated against P. aphanidermatum . Disease severity, survival and seedling growth were used for the evaluation. The results showed significant differences between the studied cultivars (p≤0.01. Caspian 340 and Alpha with 15.7% and 100% disease severity had more and less tolerant to P. aphanidermatum, respectively. Cucurbita maxima rootstock was more resistant than Cucurbita pepo to P. aphanidermatum. C. pepo had less compatibility with the cucumber and showed little resistance to the pathogen. The study revealed that grafting Caspian340 on the resistant cucurbit rootstock i.e. Cucurbita maxima could be used as disease control strategies in greenhouses.

  14. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  15. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  16. Grape and wine amino acid composition from Carignan noir grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in the Maule Valley, Chile: Effects of location and rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Martínez-Gil, A M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Garde-Cerdán, T; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines. In general, Carignan noir grapevines grafted over País showed lower grape amino acid content respect to ungrafted vines. Cool night index (CI) was inversely correlated to several amino acids, showing that their plant synthesis or accumulation increased with lower minimum temperatures during the last month before harvest. Truquilemu (Tru) and Ciénaga de Name (Cdn) sites showed the highest concentration for several amino acids and total amino acid content in grapes, which led to a faster alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nereu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the main biotic causes of crop losses in four grape castes, two red (Touriga Nacional and Baga and two white (Arinto and Chardonnay, and evaluated the potential effect of native biodiversity to provide biotic resistance to pest outbreaks and grape losses. Specifically, the diversity and abundance of bird and insect communities in these vineyards were quantified and divided into functional guilds (pest, neutral or auxiliary, to test whether these natural communities hold the potential to naturally control grape pests (biotic resistance hypothesis under normal vineyard management (including pesticide application regimes. A potential association between distance to the vineyard edge and grape losses was also evaluated. We recorded a very small proportion of grape losses (mean  =  0.6 %; max  =  7.5 %, with insect pests showing a preference for the castes Baga (red and Chardonnay (white, while bird pests avoided the caste Arinto (white. Grape color did not influence losses caused by insect pests, but birds showed a preference for red castes. The caste Baga was also more vulnerable to losses caused by fungi. Despite their low impact on grape production, most insects and birds detected in the six vineyards were pests, which entails a potentially low level of biotic resistance in this highly managed agricultural ecosystem. Further research is necessary to fully evaluate the role of functional biodiversity in vineyards, particularly if alternative production processes

  18. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  19. Influence of Rootstocks on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Content in Petioles of Four Table Grape Varieties Influencia de Portainjertos sobre el Contenido Peciolar de Nitrógeno, Fósforo y Potasio en Cuatro Variedades de Uva de Mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ibacache G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted at Vicuña Experimental Center (30°02' S, 70°44' W located in the Coquimbo Region, Chile, over four seasons, 2002-2003 to 2005-2006, to determine the influence of 10 rootstocks (Freedom, Harmony, Saint George, Salt Creek, SO4, 1613C, 1103P, 99R, 110R, 140Ru, as well as own roots vines on nutrient content in petioles of vars. Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Superior Seedless and Red Globe grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.. The trials took place at a site that had previously planted to vineyard. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replicates. Petioles opposite to clusters were taken at bloom as samples and analyzed for total N, P and K content. Significant differences in nutrient levels due to rootstocks were found in all varieties. Rootstocks increased the levels of petiole nutrients (except P over the values usually reported in literature for table grapes. Vines grafted onto the rootstock ‘Salt Creek’ had significantly higher petiole N and P content than those on their own roots vines. Total N level increased 67% in ‘Flame Seedless’, 77% in ‘Red Globe’, 33% in ‘Thompson Seedless’ and 8.5% in ‘Superior Seedless’. On the other hand, the petiole P level doubled in all varieties by using ‘Salt Creek’ as rootstock. Potassium status was also affected by rootstocks. ‘Harmony’ and ‘1613C’ showed higher K levels by at least 60% in vars. Flame Seedless, Red Globe and Thompson Seedless as compared to plants grown on their own roots. The present investigation demonstrates that rootstocks may have a considerable effect on grapevine nutrition.Se realizaron cuatro ensayos en Vicuña (30°02' S, 70°44' O, Región de Coquimbo, Chile, durante cuatro temporadas, 2002-2003 a 2005-2006 para determinar la influencia de 10 portainjertos de vid (Vitis vinifera L. (Freedom, Harmony, Saint George, Salt Creek, SO4, 1613C, 1103P, 99R, 110R, 140Ru, además de plantas sobre sus

  20. Involvement of rootstocks and their hydraulic conductance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the responses of different clone rootstocks and their grafted trees to water stress and find applicable methods for selecting drought resistant rootstocks, seven related parameters and root hydraulic properties of both seeds originated and grafted saplings of PB86, PR107, RRIM600 and GT1 were measured to ...

  1. Influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro ao estresse salino Influence of rootstocks on the resistance of cashew plantlets to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Ferreira-Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de porta-enxertos na resistência de mudas de cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L. à salinidade. As mudas foram obtidas pela enxertia do clone BRS 226 sobre os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226. Foram expostas a meio hidropônico sem NaCl (controle ou com NaCl 200 mM (tratamento salino, sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade, durante 12 dias. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (três combinações de enxerto/porta-enxerto e duas concentrações de NaCl, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados a concentração de Na+, Cl-, K+ e solutos orgânicos e os sintomas visuais de toxicidade nas folhas. Os conteúdos de Na+ e Cl-, a relação K+/Na+ e as concentrações de aminoácidos e de prolina livres nas folhas tiveram relação direta com os sintomas visuais de toxicidade. Os porta-enxertos CAPI 4, CCP 09 e BRS 226 foram classificados como sensível, intermediário e resistente à salinidade elevada, respectivamente. Essa variação foi decorrente da influência do porta-enxerto na partição do Na+ e do Cl-.The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. rootstocks on salt resistance in grafted plantlets. The plantlets were obtained by grafting the BRS 226 scion on CAPI 4, CCP 09 and BRS 226 rootstocks, and were exposed to nutrient solution without NaCl (control or with 200 mM NaCl (salt treatment in hydroponics under controlled temperature, humidity, and luminosity conditions during 12 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized in factorial arrangement 3x2 (three scion/rootstock combinations, two NaCl concentrations with four replicates. Na+, Cl-, K+ and organic solute concentrations and toxicity symptoms on leaves were determined. Na+ and Cl- contents, the K+/Na+ ratio and the free amino acid and proline concentrations in leaves were directly related to the visual

  2. ROOTSTOCKS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDÔ, ISABEL AND IAC 138-22 MÁXIMO MUST AND WINE

    OpenAIRE

    MARLON JOCIMAR RODRIGUES DA SILVA; LUCIANA TREVISAN BRUNELLI; MARA FERNANDES MOURA; JOSÉ LUIZ HERNANDES; SARITA LEONEL; MARCO ANTONIO TECCHIO

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rootstocks can influence grape characteristics, but there are few data in literature about the rootstocks influence in the wine characteristics, especially in wines elaborated with Vitis labrusca or hybrid grapes. This study evaluated the influence of ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts and wines. The musts were evaluated for pH, soluble solids, total acidity and...

  3. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Am...

  4. EFFECTS OF ROOTSTOCK-SCION COMBINATIONS ON MACROELEMENTS AVAILABILITY OF THE VINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna CSIKÁSZ-KRIZSICS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates macroelement contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and their quality relations of 4 scion grape varieties (Italian Riesling, White Riesling, Chardonnay, Cabernet sauvignon on 6 rootstock varieties (5C, 5BB, 125AA, 140Ru, 110R, Fercal between 2001 and 2005. A field experiment was set up at Szentmiklós Hill (on the border of the town of Pécs in southern part of Hungary in 1999. The investigated rootstocks had no statistically proven effect on the nitrogen levels of the leaves, but the scion varieties had. Phosphorus content of the leaves on rootstocks with Berlandieri x Riparia genetic background (5C, 5BB, 125AA was lower at blooming than that on other investigated rootstocks. We found statistically significant differences in the calcium and magnesium content of leaves regarding rootstock and scion varieties too.

  5. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  6. Baseline sensitivity to fluopyram and fungicide resistance phenotypes of botrytis cinerea populations from table grapes in california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of table grapes grown in the Central Valley of California. Understanding fungicide-resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of pre-harvest fungicide programs for control of postharvest gray mold. Baseline s...

  7. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  8. Does grape seed oil improve inflammation and insulin resistance in overweight or obese women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoost, Pardis; Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mehrangiz; Pirouzpanah, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Grape seed oil (GSO) is reported to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile. However, the ameliorating effect of GSO on inflammation and insulin resistance has not being noticed so far. We aimed to examine the effects of GSO consumption on inflammation and insulin resistance in overweight or obese females. The subjects (n = 44) were randomly assigned into intervention group as "GSO" (consuming 15% of energy from GSO) and control group as sunflower oil "SFO" (consuming 15% of energy from SFO) through a weight loss diet for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, dietary recall and fasting serum glucose, insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed before and after the intervention. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, hs-CRP and TNF-α decreased in the GSO group. The hs-CRP was lower in GSO than the SFO group (p < 0.03). GSO consumption seems to improve inflammatory condition and insulin resistance in overweight/obese women.

  9. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  10. Occurrence of fungicide resistance in populations of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) on table grape and strawberry in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miccolis Angelini, Rita Milvia; Rotolo, Caterina; Masiello, Mario; Gerin, Donato; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) is a pathogen with a high risk of development of resistance to fungicides. Fungicide resistance was monitored during 2008-2011 in B. fuckeliana populations from both table-grape vineyards and greenhouse-grown strawberries in southern Italy. Isolates showing different levels of resistance to anilinopyrimidines (APs) were detected at high frequency (up to 98%) in fields treated intensively with APs (4-7 sprays season(-1) ). A slight decrease in sensitivity to fludioxonil, always combined with AP resistance, was generally found at lower frequencies. The repeated use of fenhexamid on grapevine (3-8 sprays season(-1) ) led to a strong selection of highly resistant isolates (up to 100%). Boscalid-resistant mutants were detected at very variable frequencies (0-73%). Occurrence of resistance to quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs) was also ascertained. Multiple fungicide resistance to 2-6 different modes of action were frequently recovered. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the target genes Erg27, SdhB and cytb were associated with resistance to fenehexamid, boscalid and QoIs respectively. Resistance to the fungicides commonly used against grey mould on table grape and strawberry is quite common in southern Italy. This is an outcome of the incorrect use of fungicides, often because of the maximum number of detectable residues of plant protection products imposed by big international retailers, and underlines the crucial role of antiresistance strategies in integrated pest management. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenzel Neusa Maria Colauto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  12. Rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Colauto Stenzel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The 'Tahiti' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka is an important commercial citrus cultivar in Brazil. 'Rangpur' lime has being used as its main rootstock, but it is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora, reducing tree longevity. An experiment was set up in a randomized block design, with three trees per plot of each rootstock and four replicates, and run for 12 years, aiming to compare the performance of 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime, budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'C-13' citrange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'African' rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Sunki' mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.. Eleven years after the establishment of the orchard, trees with the greatest canopy development were budded on 'C-13' citrange and 'African' rough lemon, and both differed significantly from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Sunki' and 'Cleopatra' mandarins, which presented the smallest canopy development. Trees budded on 'Rangpur' lime and 'C-13' citrange had the highest cumulative yields, and were different from trees budded on trifoliate orange, 'Cleopatra' and 'Sunki' mandarins. There was no rootstock effect on mean fruit weight and on the total soluble solid/acid ratio in the juice. The 'Rangpur' lime and the 'Cleopatra' mandarin rootstocks reduced longevity of plants.

  13. Produção e vigor da videira 'Niágara Rosada' relacionados com o porta-enxerto Yield and plant vigor of 'Niágara Rosada' grape vine related to the rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Pauletto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção e o vigor da videira 'Niágara Rosada' sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', 'Kober 5BB', 'Traviú'(106-8 Mgt e 'Schwarzmann', no período de 1990 a 1998, em Taubaté,SP. As maiores produções médias foram obtidas quando se utilizaram os porta enxertos 'IAC 313' e 'IAC 766', totalizando 2,69 kg/planta e 2,59 kg/planta, respectivamente. As produções alcançadas com os porta-enxertos 'Kober5BB' e 'Schwarzmann' foram, em média, 110% menores que os anteriores, enquanto o 'Traviú' apresentou comportamento intermediário. Os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313' e 'IAC 766' também induziram maior vigor à copa, representado pela maior massa de ramos podados e maior diâmetro das plantas. Para a formação de um vinhedo com 'Niágara Rosada', recomenda-se, para a região, os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766' ou 'Traviú'.The yield and plant vigor of 'Niágara Rosada' grafted on the 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', 'Kober 5BB', 'Traviú' (106-8 Mgt and 'Schwarzmann' rootstocks were evaluated from 1990 to 1998, in Taubaté,SP, Brazil. The highest average yields were obtained on the 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' rootstocks, reaching 2.69 kg/plant and 2.59 kg/plant, respectively. Yields on 'Kober 5BB' and 'Schwarzmann' were 110% smaller than on the previous ones, while 'Traviú' showed intermediary behavior. 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' also induced higher vigor in the vine, represented by higher mass of pruned branches and higher diameter of plant. 'Niágara Rosada' cultivation in the region is recommended on the 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766' or 'Traviú' rootstocks.

  14. THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR STIMULATION PRODUCTS BOTH ON INCREASING THE RESISTANCE TO MAJOR PHYTOPATHOGENS ATTACKS, AND ON INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WINE GRAPES HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of fertilization and foliar stimulation products both on increasing the resistance to major phytopathogens attacks, and on increasing the quantity and quality of wine grapes harvest. Applying the foliar fertilizer products Plonvit Kali (c1, Tytanit (c2 and Optysil (c3 to vines, for a period of three years (2011/2013, in phenophases of intensive growth of shoots and grapes at approved dosages, simultaneously with pesticide treatment, not only a reduction of pathogenic fungi attack was obtained, but also and an increase of harvest without diminishing the quality of the grapes.

  15. Seca da mangueira: VIII. Resistência de porta-enxertos de mangueira ao fungo Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Mango wilt: VIII. Resistance of mango rootstocks to Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram testados em casa de vegetação para resistência à Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. as variedades de mangueira Jasmim, Espada, Coquinho e, como controle suscetível, a Haden. As mudas, originadas de sementes com três meses de idade e plantadas em vasos, foram inoculadas sem ferimentos por infestação do solo ou através de ferimentos na parte aérea Os índices de plantas mortas por infestação do solo foram: 'Haden' 100%; 'Coquinho' 100%; 'Jasmim' 10% e 'Espada' 0%. As inoculações por ferimentos mostraram os seguintes dados de mortalidade: 'Coquinho' 100%; 'Haden' 80%; 'Espada' 70% e 'Jasmim' 0%.Three mango varieties used as rootstocks - Coquinho, Jasmim and Espada - were grown from seeds and planted in pots under greenhouse conditions in order to evaluate their resistance to the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. The cultivar Haden was used as a susceptible control. The plants were inoculated either by irrigating the soil with a suspension of the pathogen or by taking out a leaf and placing the pathogen on the scar. When inoculated via soil 'Coquinho' and 'Haden' presented 100% mortality, 'Jasmim' 10% and 'Espada' 0%. When inoculated in the aerial part 'Haden' presented 80% mortality, 'Coquinho' 100%, 'Espada' 80% and 'Jasmim' 0%. The Espada variety which showed good resistance when inoculated via soil was susceptible when inoculated through a scar in the aerial part of the plant.

  16. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  17. Grape polyphenols prevent fructose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistance in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokayem, Marie; Blond, Emilie; Vidal, Hubert; Lambert, Karen; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Coudray, Charles; Pesenti, Sandra; Luyton, Cedric; Lambert-Porcheron, Stéphanie; Sauvinet, Valerie; Fedou, Christine; Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Rieusset, Jennifer; Bisbal, Catherine; Sultan, Ariane; Mercier, Jacques; Goudable, Joelle; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Laville, Martine; Avignon, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of nutritional amounts of grape polyphenols (PPs) in counteracting the metabolic alterations of high-fructose diet, including oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR), in healthy volunteers with high metabolic risk. Thirty-eight healthy overweight/obese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients (18 men and 20 women) were randomized in a double-blind controlled trial between a grape PP (2 g/day) and a placebo (PCB) group. Subjects were investigated at baseline and after 8 and 9 weeks of supplementation, the last 6 days of which they all received 3 g/kg fat-free mass/day of fructose. The primary end point was the protective effect of grape PPs on fructose-induced IR. In the PCB group, fructose induced 1) a 20% decrease in hepatic insulin sensitivity index (P grape PP supplementation. Antioxidative defenses, inflammatory markers, and main adipokines were affected neither by fructose nor by grape PPs. A natural mixture of grape PPs at nutritional doses efficiently prevents fructose-induced oxidative stress and IR. The current interest in grape PP ingredients and products by the global food and nutrition industries could well make them a stepping-stone of preventive nutrition.

  18. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 1. EFFECT ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and environment can induce different responses to the grapevine physiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rootstock effect on the yield components of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapevine grown in the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 15 treatments, three replicates and ten vines per plot. The results show that all variables evaluated were significantly affected by the year and the rootstock. The CS/Solferino was among other combinations influenced by the year and had higher significant yield/ vine. Indeed, it was higher than that CS/Rupestris du Lot, CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/3309 C, CS/5BB K, CS/161- 49 C, CS/1103 P. and CS/Isabel. The number of clusters/bud, per burst bud and per vine and the weight of clusters were affected by the rootstock as well. Pruning weight/vine, yield/pruning weight, leaf area/vine, leaf area index and leaf area/fresh fruit weight are variables related to the physiology of grapevine which were also affected by the rootstock. In general, rootstocks had adapted well to the environment where the experiment was carried out, giving vigor and high yield to Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine, which means that they may be used by grape growers in this region. However, the choice of the right rootstock depends on various aspects, such as those related to the soil characteristics, climate conditions, grape varieties, and even clones, and production purposes.

  19. Contributions of roots and rootstocks to sustainable, intensified crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter J; Atkinson, Christopher J; Bengough, A Glyn; Else, Mark A; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Harrison, Richard J; Schmidt, Sonja

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable intensification is seen as the main route for meeting the world's increasing demands for food and fibre. As demands mount for greater efficiency in the use of resources to achieve this goal, so the focus on roots and rootstocks and their role in acquiring water and nutrients, and overcoming pests and pathogens, is increasing. The purpose of this review is to explore some of the ways in which understanding root systems and their interactions with soils could contribute to the development of more sustainable systems of intensive production. Physical interactions with soil particles limit root growth if soils are dense, but root-soil contact is essential for optimal growth and uptake of water and nutrients. X-ray microtomography demonstrated that maize roots elongated more rapidly with increasing root-soil contact, as long as mechanical impedance was not limiting root elongation, while lupin was less sensitive to changes in root-soil contact. In addition to selecting for root architecture and rhizosphere properties, the growth of many plants in cultivated systems is profoundly affected by selection of an appropriate rootstock. Several mechanisms for scion control by rootstocks have been suggested, but the causal signals are still uncertain and may differ between crop species. Linkage map locations for quantitative trait loci for disease resistance and other traits of interest in rootstock breeding are becoming available. Designing root systems and rootstocks for specific environments is becoming a feasible target.

  20. Crop-Specific Grafting Methods, Rootstocks and Scheduling-Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting has gained popularity as a method to manage plant diseases previously controlled by soil fumigation with methyl bromide. Some of the most significant soilborne pest problems for which resistant rootstocks may be beneficial include root-knot nematodes, Verticillium wilt, and southern blight....

  1. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the

  2. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nereu; M. Nereu; R. H. Heleno; F. Lopez-Núñez; M. Agostinho; J. A. Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the ...

  3. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  4. thermostabilty of apple tree rootstock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... expanded leaves from the top of upright rootstock shoots were collected in the morning (9:00 a.m.) on a cloudy day. In the laboratory, they were submitted to phosystem II (PS II) thermostability test. The rated parameters were as follows: 1) 30 min dark adaptation, 2) chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics mea-.

  5. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  6. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  7. Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Aglès, M; Dalmau, E; Fernández, C; Felipe, A

    1996-12-01

    Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests.

  8. Efeito da época de estaquia, fitorreguladores e ácido bórico no enraizamento de estacas de porta-enxertos de videira Effect of pruning time, growth regulators and boric acid on rooting of grape rootstock cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leonel

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as interações entre os ácidos indol-butírico, alfa-naftaleno-acético e bórico no desenvolvimento de raízes em estacas de porta-enxertos de videira (Vitis vinifera L.. As estacas tinham aproximadamente 25 cm de comprimento e, necessariamente, 2 gemas, sendo obtidas em três épocas distintas (janeiro, abril e julho e colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, tendo vermiculita como substrato, e mantidas sob nebulização. O tratamento constou da imersão de 2,5 cm da base das estacas em soluções, por um tempo de imersão de 1 minuto. Os tratamentos utilizados corresponderam a: 1 .000; 2.000 e 5.000 ppm de IBA; 1.500 e 3.000 ppm de NAA; 150 microgramas/ml de H3BO3; IBA 1.000; 2.000 e 5.000 + H3BO3 150 microgramas/ml e H2O. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de enraizamento, o número médio de raízes formadas por estaca e o comprimento médio das raízes (mm aos 90 dias após a instalação, no mês de julho. O IBA 2.000 ppm propiciou o enraizamento em 88,87% das estacas, contudo não diferiu estatisticamente da testemunha (H2O-61,10%. A melhor época de coleta de estaca para o enraizamento foi o mês de julho (inverno.The effects of indolebutyric, naphtalen acetic and boric acids were studied on rooting of grape rootstock cuttings. The cuttings were 25 cm long with two buds and were taken in three different times (January, April and July. Rooting was carried out in styrofoam trays with vermiculite as substratum and under intermittent mist. Cuttings were imersed up to 2.5 cm from the base in solutions for one minute. The treatments were: 1,000; 2,000 and 5,000 ppm of IBA; 1,500 and 3,000 ppm of NAA; 150 micrograms/ml H3BO3; IBA 1,000; 2,000 and 5,000 ppm plus H3BO(3150 niicrograins/ml and H2O. Rooting percentage, average number of roots per cutting and average length of roots (mm were evaluated 90 days after planting, in July. IBA at 2,000 ppm was the best treatment with 88.8% of rooted cuttings. The best time for rooting was

  9. ROOTSTOCKS EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BORDÔ, ISABEL AND IAC 138-22 MÁXIMO MUST AND WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLON JOCIMAR RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It has been demonstrated that rootstocks can influence grape characteristics, but there are few data in literature about the rootstocks influence in the wine characteristics, especially in wines elaborated with Vitis labrusca or hybrid grapes. This study evaluated the influence of ‘IAC 766’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstocks on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts and wines. The musts were evaluated for pH, soluble solids, total acidity and soluble solids/acidity ratio. The wines were evaluated for density, alcohol content; total, volatile and fixed acidity; pH, dry extract, reducing sugars, reduced dry extract, alcohol in weight/reduced dry extract; free and total sulfur dioxide; anthocyanins, polyphenols index (I 280; polyphenols and total flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The ‘Bordô’, ‘Isabel’ and IAC 138-22 ‘Máximo’ musts had low soluble solids for winemaking. The ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstock promoted higher dry extract content and reduced dry extract in Bordô wine, and lower total and fixed acidity in IAC 138-22 Máximo wine. In Isabel wine, higher pH was promoted by the ‘IAC 766’ rootstock. Aside from low total acidity of the Bordô wine, all the physicochemical characteristics of the wines studied are in accordance with Brazilian law. There was no effect of rootstocks in the phenolics content and antioxidant activity of wines.

  10. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  11. Oregon 'Pinot noir' grape anthocyanin enhancement by early leaf removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Skinkis, Patricia A

    2013-08-15

    Complete cluster zone leaf removal of 'Pinot noir' was initiated at three separate pre-véraison growth stages (bloom, grain-pea size, and bunch closure) and maintained leaf free until harvest, for four growing seasons (2008-2011). Fruit anthocyanin composition was examined at harvest for the last two vintages (2010 and 2011) and compared to a control-no cluster zone leaf removal. Experiments were conducted at two commercially operating Oregon vineyards (site A=420 rootstock/'Pinot noir' 115 scion and site B=3309C rootstock/'Pinot noir' 777 scion). All clusters contained the five anthocyanins typically found in 'Pinot noir'. Leaf removal at bloom and maintained until harvest produced maximum anthocyanin accumulation in 'Pinot noir' grapes (site A=85.24 mg/100 g and site B=125.06 mg/100 g), compared to no leaf removal (control; site A=57.91 mg/100 g and site B=97.56 mg/100 g). Even leaf removal at bunch closure (last leaf removal initiation period) increased grape anthocyanin (site A=73.22 mg/100 g and site B=118.93 mg/100 g) compared to control, but total anthocyanins were lower than grapes from bloom leaf removal (first time period). Results differed slightly by vineyard site and rootstock/scion combination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Apple rootstocks: history, physiology, management and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more than two millennia superior fruit tree genotypes have been grafted onto rootstocks to maintain the genetic identity of the desirable scions. Until the 20th century most fruit trees were grafted onto seedling rootstocks. Following the classification, evaluation and propagation of clonal root...

  13. Micorrização e indução de quitinases e β-1,3-glucanases e resistência à fusariose em porta-enxerto de videira Mycorrhizal inoculation and induction of chitinases and β-1,3-glucanases and fusarium resistance in grapevine rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Dalla Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de expressão de β-1,3-glucanases e quitinases nos porta-enxertos de videira SO4 e R110, respectivamente suscetível e resistente a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis, bem como avaliar o efeito do fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus intraradices no crescimento, na expressão dessas enzimas e na supressão do patógeno no porta-enxerto suscetível. Foram quantificadas as atividades enzimáticas de β-1,3-glucanases e quitinases nas raízes dos porta-enxertos. Mudas do porta-enxerto SO4 receberam inóculos de G. intraradices e F. oxysporum, e foram avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, atividade das duas enzimas e sintomas de doença. As atividades das enzimas nas raízes do porta-enxerto resistente aumentaram entre 0 e 5 dias após a inoculação do patógeno. A atividade de quitinases nas raízes do porta-enxerto suscetível aumentou com a inoculação do fungo micorrízico e do patógeno. A atividade de β-1,3-glucanases foi maior somente com a presença do fungo micorrízico e do patógeno. Videiras com inoculação de G. intraradices apresentaram diminuição nos sintomas de infecção por Fusarium spp., o que indica que o fungo micorrízico promove a indução de quitinases e β-1,3-glucanases especificamente na supressão ou inibição do patógeno.The objective of this work was to evaluate the expression levels of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases in SO4 and 110 grapevine rootstocks, respectively susceptible and resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. herbemontis, as well as to evaluate the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on plant growth, on enzyme expression and on pathogen suppression in the susceptible rootstock. The enzyme activities of β-1,3-glucanases and chitinases in the rootstocks roots were evaluated. Plant growth, enzyme activity, and disease symptoms were evaluated in SO4 plantlets inoculated with G. intraradices and F. oxysporum. Enzyme activities

  14. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine grafted onto rootstocks during the autumn-winter season in southeastern Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of grape (Vitis vinifera harvest from summer to winter through double pruning management has improved the fine wine quality in southern Brazil. High altitude, late cultivar and grafting combination all need to be investigated to optimize this new viticulture management. For this purpose, this study was carried out during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in a high altitude region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using eight grafting combinations for five year old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. The stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were not affected by rootstock type. The rootstocks IAC 766 and 101-14 induced, respectively, the highest and lowest vegetative vigor in Cabernet Sauvignon, as shown by leaf area and pruning weight. In the 2011 growing season, the leaf chlorophyll contents were increased in IAC 766, whereas vines grafted onto 101-14 accumulated more leaf starch, probably due to reduced vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, rootstocks K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 had the highest yield as compared to 1103P and 101-14. Berries from the grapevine with the highest yield did not differ in pH, total soluble solids and acidity. The rootstocks did not influence the anthocyanins and total phenols in both growing seasons. Quality parameters were better in the 2011 than in the 2012 growing season due to better climatic conditions, mainly less rainfall. The best performance of Cabernet Sauvignon was achieved when grafted onto K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 rootstocks.

  15. VqDUF642, a gene isolated from the Chinese grape Vitis quinquangularis, is involved in berry development and pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yuejin

    2016-11-01

    The DUF642 gene VqDUF642 , isolated from the Chinese grape species V. quinquangularis accession Danfeng-2, participates in berry development and defense responses against Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The proteins with domains of unknown function 642 (DUF642) comprise a large protein family according to cell wall proteomic analyses in plants. However, the works about functional characterization of DUF642s in plant development and resistance to pathogens are scarce. In this study, a gene encoding a DUF642 protein was isolated from Chinese grape V. quinquangularis accession Danfeng-2, and designated as VqDUF642. Its full-length cDNA contains a 1107-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced 368-amino acid protein. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that VqDUF642 is highly homologous to one of the DUF642 proteins (VvDUF642) in V. vinifera. The VqDUF642 was localized to the cell wall of tobacco epidermal cells. Accumulation of VqDUF642 protein and VqDUF642 transcript abundance increased at the later stage of grape berry development in Danfeng-2. Overexpression of VqDUF642 in transgenic tomato plants accelerated plant growth and reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. Transgenic Thompson Seedless grapevine plants overexpressing VqDUF642 exhibited enhanced resistance to Erysiphe necator and B. cinerea. Moreover, VqDUF642 overexpression affected the expression of a couple of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in transgenic tomato and grapevine upon pathogen inoculation. Taken together, these results suggest that VqDUF642 is involved in plant development and defense against pathogenic infections.

  16. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  17. Micropropagation of the new apple rootstock ‘G. 814’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Meneguzzi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: International breeding programs launched new genetic material of apple rootstocks that in addition to precocity and great yield are resistant to major diseases and soil pests encountered in the largest apple producing regions in Brazil. Given this, there is a necessity for vegetative propagation of these materials for study and possible replacement of existing rootstocks. The objective was to adapt a micropropagation protocol for new apple rootstock ‘G. 814’. In the multiplication phase were evaluated BAP concentrations: 0; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4mg L-1 and in the rooting phase were evaluated IBA concentrations: 0; 0.25; 0.50; 1; 1.5 and 2.5mg L-1. These new results demonstrated that this new rootstock selection can be propagated with this tissue culture adapted protocol. For the successful in vitro propagation of apple rootstock ‘G. 814’ it is indicated the use of 1mg L-1 BAP at multiplication phase and 1.5mg L-1 IBA at rooting phase.

  18. Susceptibility to Armillaria mellea root rot in grapevine rootstocks commonly grafted onto Teroldego Rotaliano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prodorutti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria root rot is an increasing problem in some grapevine-growing areas in north-eastern Italy (Trentino Province. The susceptibility of seven grapevine rootstocks (Schwarzmann, 3309 C, 101-14, Teleki 5C, SO4, Kober 5BB and 41 B; all grafted with Teroldego Rotaliano to Armillaria mellea was evaluated in a five-year investigation. Two inoculation methods were also compared: young grapevine plants were transplanted to a substrate that had been inoculated with A. mellea (Method A, or A. mellea rhizomorphs were inserted under the root bark after the root bark had been lifted up with a scalpel (Method B. Plants inoculated with Method A had higher infection and mortality rates than plants that were inoculated with Method B, demonstrating that root wounding does not lead to higher A. mellea infection. The significantly higher mortality and infection rates of 3309 C as compared with Teleki 5C in the final year of the study suggest that a Teroldego Rotaliano vineyard established on 3309 C will suffer greater losses than would a similar vineyard established on Teleki 5C. Rootstocks that were intermediate in their response to infection (Schwarzmann, Kober 5BB, and 41B may offer moderate levels of resistance since with these rootstocks the mortality and infection rates were not signifi cantly different from those of Teleki 5C. Since all rootstocks became infected, however, no rootstock is completely immune.

  19. Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd) or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks in order to determine whether ChrSd improved insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of hepatic ...

  20. Enraizamento de estacas do porta-enxerto de videira 'vr 043-43' submetidas a estratificação, ácido indolbutírico e ácido bórico Rooting cuttings of rootstocks of grape vine 'vr 043-43' submitted to the stratification, indolebutyric acid and boric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Busch Salibe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas de porta-enxerto 'VR 043-43' (V. vinifera x V. rotundifolia, testando diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (0, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 mg L-1, ácido bórico (0 e 150 µg L-1 e a técnica de estratificação a 4 ºC por 48 horas em câmara refrigerada. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos inteiramente casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 x 2, com cinco repetições e cada parcela representada por oito estacas. Após 120 dias do plantio das estacas, os seguintes dados biométricos foram mensurados: porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, comprimento médio radicial, massa da parte aérea, massa do sistema radicial e número de raízes. Verificou-se que a estratificação das estacas e a utilização de ácido bórico não afetaram o enraizamento do porta-enxerto 'VR 043-43'. No que se refere ao tratamento com ácido indolbutírico, a concentração de 3.000 mg L-1 favoreceu sensivelmente o desenvolvimento do sistema radicial das estacas do porta-enxerto.The present work had as objective to study the rooting of rootstocks 'VR 043-43' (V. vinifera x V. rotundifolia, testing different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg L-1, boric acid (0 and 150 μg L-1 and the technique of the stratification at 4 °C for 48 hours in cooled chamber. We used a randomized complete block design, in factorial scheme 4 x 2 x 2, with five repetitions and each parcel represented for eight cuttings. After 120 days of planting the cuttings, the following biometric data were measured: percentage of rooting cuttings, average length root, mass of the aerial part, mass of the radicial system and number of roots. It was verified that the stratification of the cuttings and the use of boric acid did not affect the rooting of the rootstocks 'VR 043-43'. With regard the treatment with indolebutyric acid, the concentration of 3.000 mg L-1 significantly

  1. Consequences of Mesocriconema xenoplax parasitism on ‘Pinot noir’ grapevines grafted on rootstocks of varying susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot noir grapevines grafted to five rootstocks (Vitis vinifera) and a self-rooted control known to vary in resistance to ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) were studied over four years in field microplots to 1) evaluate durability of resistance to ring nematode under conditions allowing for hi...

  2. Expression of defence-related genes against Phytophthora cinnamomi in five avocado rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Engelbrecht

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Avocado (Persea americana – a major fruit crop worldwide – is threatened by root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. This pathogen is known to infect the plant via the feeder roots leading to branch dieback, and eventually tree mortality. While it is known that different avocado rootstocks have varying degrees of susceptibility to Phytophthora root rot, little research has been done on the avocado–Phytophthora interaction. In this study, transcript abundance levels of defence-related genes coding for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lipoxygenase, pathogenesis-related protein 5, endochitinase, gluthathionine S-transferase and metallothionein were characterised and compared among five rootstocks with varying susceptibility to root rot, after exposure to P. cinnamomi. Root samples were collected at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-infection and transcript abundance of the defence-related genes was determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The results indicated the involvement of PR-5 and endochitinase in the defence response of all avocado rootstocks to P. cinnamomi but these genes could not be directly linked to the observed phenotypic resistance. PR-5 and endochitinase were highly upregulated at 72 h post-infection. Differences in transcript abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and lipoxygenase genes were seen when comparing tolerant and less tolerant rootstocks, which may suggest that transcripts of these genes contribute to resistance. These data provide important insights into plant defence and into how different avocado rootstocks may exhibit increased resistance to infection by P. cinnamomi.

  3. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Rootstock in Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Fruit: Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of The Fruits of Two Commercial Citrus Varieties With The Fruits of Four Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N . Hemmati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: all fruits that called citrus are from rutaceae family and aurantioideae subfamily. This subfamily have more than 33 different genus that only three of its genus (citrus, poncirus and fortunella have economic aspects and in citrus producing country are important. It's reported that orange skin has a phenolic compounds which play a role in natural defense mechanism. Also various compounds of phenolic and antioxidant have a major role in fruit tolerance to stressful condition suh as cold and drought. Metabolites found in citrus fruits have antioxidant properties and it's very useful in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Oranges, like other citrus fruits, are an excellent source of vitamin C; Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood. Various factors such as rootstock type can effect on quality and quantity of citrus fruits. Also, the usage of rootstock causes the change in plant characteristics such as flowering time, ripening time, fruit quality and antioxidant characters of the fruits. Other factors except the rootstock such as scion, geographical and climate factors are effective on producing secondary metabolites. Also active substances or secondary metabolites are producing by the conduction of genetic processes, but their production are being effected by other factors obviously. The aim of this study is to investigating the biochemical changes grafted tree fruit that affected by rootstock with study the correlation between grafted tree and rootstock changes. Materials and Methods: This study was done to compare the amount of total phenol, total flavonoids and antioxidant features of fruit flesh and skin with investigating the effect of cultivar and rootstock on these parameters based on completely randomized factorial design with three replications

  5. comparative study with commercial rootstocks to determine the tolerance to heavy metal (Pb in the drought and salt stress tolerant eggplant breeding lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüde Nur TOPAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative effects of heavy metals on plants are peroxidation of lipids in cell membranes, production of free oxygen radicals, disorders in photosynthesis, damages in DNAs and as a result death of the cell. Plant development, productivity and quality of the fruits are decreased in the plants that are exposed to Pb stress which is one of the most toxic heavy metals. Usage of rootstocks which is mainly used against biotic stress conditions also seems to be defined as a solution to abiotic stress conditions such as heavy metal stresses. In eggplant production, wild species and hybrids are used as rootstocks against soil based pathogens and nematode. Reactions of improvement lines derived from local gene resources for rootstock improvement to heavy metal stress which is one of the abiotic stresses were determined. While determining the resistance against Pb stress, commercially used eggplant rootstocks are compared. In this study 4 eggplant cultivars (S. melongena: Burdur Bucak, Mardin Kızıltepe, Artvin Hopa and Kemer whose resistance potential against salt and drought stresses had been previously revealed and 6 rootstocks of wild eggplant species or hybrids (AGR-703, Doyran, Hawk, Hikyaku, Köksal-F1 and Vista-306 were tested against Pb stress. Eggplant seedlings were applied to 0, 150 and 300 ppm Pb solutions (Pb(NO32 during 4-5 true leaf stage. 20 days after the stress application wet and dry weight of green parts and roots, height of the body part and leaf areas were measured. Pb tolerance of Köksal F1 and AGR703 rootstocks were higher than other commercial rootstocks. Mardin Kızıltepe and Burdur Merkez genotypes which have high tolerances against abiotic stress gave lower values with respect to Artvin Hopa and Kemer which are sensitive genotypes and many other rootstocks while comparing the reduction ratios of stress signs such as shoot fresh weight and shoot length according to control under Pb stress.

  6. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  7. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  8. Zero-inflated beta regression model for leaf citrus canker incidence in orange genotypes grafted onto different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oilson Alberto Gonzatto Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data with excess zeros are frequently found in practice, and the recommended analysis is to use models that adequately address the counting of zero observations. In this study, the Zero Inflated Beta Regression Model (BeZI was used on experimental data to describe the mean incidence of leaf citrus canker in orange groves under the influence of genotype and rootstocks of origin. Based on the model, it was possible to quantify the odds that a null observation to mean incidence comes from a particular plant according to genotype and rootstock, and estimate its expected value according to this combination. Laranja Caipira rootstock proved to be the most resistant to leaf citrus canker as well as Limão Cravo proved to be the most fragile. The Ipiguá IAC, Arapongas, EEL and Olímpia genotypes have statistically equivalent chances.

  9. Rootstocks: Diversity, Domestication, and Impacts on Shoot Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschefsky, Emily J; Klein, Laura L; Frank, Margaret H; Chitwood, Daniel H; Londo, Jason P; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Miller, Allison J

    2016-05-01

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot (scion) of another. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops to indirectly manipulate scion phenotype. While recent research has focused on scions, here we investigate rootstocks, the lesser-known half of the perennial crop equation. We review natural grafting, grafting in agriculture, rootstock diversity and domestication, and developing areas of rootstock research, including molecular interactions and rootstock microbiomes. With growing interest in perennial crops as valuable components of sustainable agriculture, rootstocks provide one mechanism by which to improve and expand woody perennial cultivation in a range of environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  11. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in

  12. Grapevine Remote Sensing Analysis of Phylloxera Early Stress (GRAPES): Remote Sensing Analysis Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, Brad; Johnson, Lee; Hlavka, Chris; Armstrong, Roy; Bell, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    High spatial resolution airborne imagery was acquired in California's Napa Valley in 1993 and 1994 as part of the Grapevine Remote sensing Analysis of Phylloxera Early Stress (GRAPES) project. Investigators from NASA, the University of California, the California State University, and Robert Mondavi Winery examined the application of airborne digital imaging technology to vineyard management, with emphasis on detecting the phylloxera infestation in California vineyards. Because the root louse causes vine stress that leads to grapevine death in three to five years, the infested areas must be replanted with resistant rootstock. Early detection of infestation and changing cultural practices can compensate for vine damage. Vineyard managers need improved information to decide where and when to replant fields or sections of fields to minimize crop financial losses. Annual relative changes in leaf area due to phylloxera infestation were determined by using information obtained from computing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. Two other methods of monitoring vineyards through imagery were also investigated: optical sensing of the Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP), and thermal sensing. These did not convey the stress patterns as well as the NDVI imagery and require specialized sensor configurations. NDVI-derived products are recommended for monitoring phylloxera infestations.

  13. Grape Composition under Abiotic Constrains: Water Stress and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Mirás-Avalos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water stress and increasing soil salt concentration represent the most common abiotic constrains that exert a negative impact on Mediterranean vineyards performance. However, several studies have proven that deficit irrigation strategies are able to improve grape composition. In contrast, irrigation with saline waters negatively affected yield and grape composition, although the magnitude of these effects depended on the cultivar, rootstock, phenological stage when water was applied, as well as on the salt concentration in the irrigation water. In this context, agronomic practices that minimize these effects on berry composition and, consequently, on wine quality must be achieved. In this paper, we briefly reviewed the main findings obtained regarding the effects of deficit irrigation strategies, as well as irrigation with saline water, on the berry composition of both red and white cultivars, as well as on the final wine. A meta-analysis was performed using published data for red and white varieties; a general liner model accounting for the effects of cultivar, rootstock, and midday stem water potential was able to explain up to 90% of the variability in the dataset, depending on the selected variable. In both red and white cultivars, berry weight, must titratable acidity and pH were fairly well simulated, whereas the goodness-of-fit for wine attributes was better for white cultivars.

  14. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Robaina,Renata Rodrigues; Campos,Graziella Siqueira; Marinho,Cláudia Sales; Souza,Ricardo Moreira; Bremenkamp,Cíntia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was...

  15. Is rootstock-induced dwarfing in olive an effect of reduced plant hydraulic efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Raimondo, Fabio; Gortan, Emmanuelle; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Caruso, Tiziano; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2006-09-01

    We investigated the hydraulic architecture of young olive trees either self-rooted or grafted on rootstocks with contrasting size-controlling potential. Clones of Olea europea L. (Olive) cv 'Leccino' inducing vigorous scion growth (Leccino 'Minerva', LM) or scion dwarfing (Leccino 'Dwarf', LD) were studied in different scion/rootstock combinations (LD, LM, LD/LD, LM/LM, LD/LM and LM/LD). Shoots growing on LD root systems developed about 50% less leaf surface area than shoots growing on LM root systems. Root systems accounted for 60-70% of plant hydraulic resistance (R), whereas hydraulic resistance of the graft union was negligible. Hydraulic conductance (K = 1/R) of LD root systems was up to 2.5 times less than that of LM root systems. Total leaf surface area (A(L)) was closely and positively related to root hydraulic conductance so that whole-plant hydraulic conductance scaled by A(L) did not differ between experimental groups. Accordingly, maximum transpiration rate and minimum leaf water potential did not differ significantly among experimental groups. We conclude that reduced root hydraulic conductance may explain rootstock-induced dwarfing in olive.

  16. Proteome analysis of interaction between rootstocks and scions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main propagation method of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) is by grafting. However, the molecular mechanism underlying rootstock-scion interactions remains poorly understood. Identification and analysis of proteins related to rootstock-scion interactions are the bases of clarifying the molecular mechanism ...

  17. Scion - rootstock relationships and root behaviour in glasshouse roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, H.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the cultivation of cut roses in the glasshouse is commonly carried out yearround. Most cultivars are grown on a rootstock. The first part of this study investigates various rootstocks for their ability to influence production and quality throughout the year. The mutual influence

  18. Rootstock growth and development for increased graft success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Apart from the skills of grafters, the effects of different rootstock sizes on graft success remain unclear. According to Hartmann et al. (1997), 10 mm thick (dia- meter) is an ideal rootstock size for grafting fruit trees. However, this could depend on the species. For U. kirkiana, it is often hard to find scions that ...

  19. Proteome analysis of interaction between rootstocks and scions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... However, the role of CBL9 in rootstock-scion interaction is unclear. Metabolism. In this study, some metabolism-related proteins were successfully identified. These proteins may have key functions in rootstock-scion interactions. Spot 37 was corresponding to theta class glutathione transferase GSTT1.

  20. A study of the influence of different rootstocks on the vegetative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... rootstock had a meaningful impact on nutrient absorption so that the greatest amount of nitrogen absorption was obtained by ... Key words: Almond rootstocks, scion cultivar, vegetative growth, nutrient absorption. .... Effect of different rootstocks, scion cultivars and its interaction on annual growth. Rootstock/ ...

  1. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambier, Dominique; Benyahia, Hamid; Pensabene-Bellavia, Giovanni; Aka Kaçar, Yildiz; Froelicher, Yann; Belfalah, Zina; Lhou, Beniken; Handaji, Najat; Printz, Bruno; Morillon, Raphael; Yesiloglu, Turgut; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries.

  3. ‘JAFFA’ SWEET ORANGE PLANTS GRAFTED ONTO FIVE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELÍDIO LILIANO CARLOS BACAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low genetic diversity of citrus scion and rootstock cultivars makes the crop more vulnerable to diseases and pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange grafted onto five rootstocks over six harvests in subtropical conditions in the north of Paraná state, Brazil. The experiment used a randomized block design, with six replications and two trees per plot, spaced at 7.0 m x 4.0 m. The rootstocks were: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunki’ mandarins, ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange, and ‘Swingle’ citrumelo. The variables evaluated were vigor, yield, and yield efficiency of the trees as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, complemented by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The smallest tree canopy for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange plants was induced by the ‘Rangpur’ lime rootstock. The trees had the same cumulative yield performance over six seasons for all rootstocks. The best yield efficiency for ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange trees was provided by ‘Fepagro C-13’ citrange rootstock. With regard to fruit quality, no differences were observed among the rootstocks and the ‘Jaffa’ sweet orange fruits met the standards required by the fresh fruit market and the fruit processing industry.

  4. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  5. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaqiong; Wang, Dejun; Wang, Fan; Huang, Li; Tian, Xiaomin; van Nocker, Steve; Gao, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. “Tonghua-3”, and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathoge...

  6. Root distribution of rootstocks for 'Tahiti' lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on citrus roots are important for genetic selection of cultivars and for management practices such as localized irrigation and fertilization. To characterize root systems of six rootstocks, taking into consideration chemical and physical characteristics of a clayey Typic Hapludox of the Northern State of Paraná, this study was performed having as scion the 'IAC-5 Tahiti' lime [Citrus latifolia (Yu. Tanaka]. The rootstocks 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia Osbeck, 'Africa Rough' lemon (C. jambhiri Lush., 'Sunki' mandarin [C. sunki (Hayata hort. ex Tan.], Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'C13' citrange [C. sinensis (L. Osb. x P. trifoliata (L. Raf] and 'Catânia 2' Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. were used applying the trench profile method and the SIARCS® 3.0 software to determine root distribution. 'C-13' citrange had the largest root system. 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Africa Rough' lemon presented the smallest amount of roots. The effective depth for 80 % of roots was 31-53 cm in rows and 67-68 cm in inter-rows. The effective distance of 80 % of roots measured from the tree trunk exceeded the tree canopy for P. trifoliata, 'Sunki' mandarin, and 'Volkamer' and 'Africa Rough' lemons.

  7. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  8. Ácido giberélico no raleio de cachos de uva da cv. superior seedless, enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto 'SO4', cultivada na região do Vale do Submédio São Francisco Giberelic acid in grape cluster thinning, cv. superior seedless, grafted on the rootstock "SO4", cultivated at São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Maurício Viana Gonzaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações de ácido giberélico no raleio e melhoria da qualidade de cachos de uva da cv. Superior Seedless, foi realizado este experimento em pomar comercial na Fazenda Copa Fruit S.A., município de Petrolina-PE. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (GA3: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0 mg.L-1, quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela, e os dados foram interpretados por meio de análise de variância e regressão. As aplicações dos tratamentos foram realizadas em três fases, a primeira antes da antese e a segunda e terceira com aproximadamente25% e 80% de flores abertas, respectivamente, utilizando-se de um volume de calda de 2.000 litros/ha. Os cachos foram colhidos com 60 dias após a poda, e as características avaliadas foram: comprimento médio de cacho, engaço e "ombros"; densidade de bagas; massa da matéria fresca do cacho e bagas; e diâmetro e comprimento de bagas. os melhores resultados para o raleio foram obtidos com a concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, que proporcionou uma densidade de 5,39 bagas/cm de cacho, contra 8,24 bagas/cm de cacho obtido pela testemunha. Em relação à melhoria da qualidade de cachos e bagas, aplicações de GA3 acima de 2,0 mg.L-1, apesar de mostrarem eficiência no aumento do comprimento de cachos, tiveram efeitos negativos na massa da matéria fresca de cachos e bagas, inviabilizando os cachos comercialmente.With the objective to evaluate the effect of concentrations of gibberellic acid in thinning and in the quality improvement in grape clusters cv. Superior Seedless it was carried out an experiment in a commercial orchard in Copa Fruit S.A. farm, in Petrolina-PE. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments (GA3: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg.L-1, four replications and two plants/plot, and the data were interpreted by analysis of variance and regression. The

  9. A Rootstock Provides Water Conservation for a Grafted Commercial Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Line in Response to Mild-Drought Conditions: A Focus on Vegetative Growth and Photosynthetic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erik T.; Freeman, Joshua; Grene, Ruth; Tokuhisa, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Jjak Kkung’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination (‘BHN 602’ scion grafted onto ‘Cheong Gang’ rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock

  10. Some seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in coppiced rootstocks of Platanus occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.R.; Steinbeck, K.

    Carbohydrate concentrations were determined in 11-year-old rootstocks of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) which had been coppiced on one- or two-year rotations for the preceding eight years. Sixty rootstocks were destructively sampled periodically between September 1976 and April 1977. Root starch concentrations declined erratically from 21 percent of dry weight in autumn to 14 percent by late April. Sugar levels rose from 1.5 percent in autumn to 5 percent in winter and declined to 3 percent in spring. Considerable variation in root starch levels from tree to tree was observed, and differences in starch and sugar concentrations between rootstocks coppiced on an annual or biannual basis were unimportant. These data suggest that while differences in above-ground biomass yields encountered in short rotation coppice forestry are not due to differences in rootstocks carbohydrate concentrations, the total quantity of reserve carbohydrate stored in a root system is probably a controlling factor for sprout regrowth potential.

  11. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  12. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  13. Evaluation of Pyrus and Quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005). In the Netherlands, rootstock research is limited to and focussed on testing rootstocks selected abroad. For the Dutch pear growers the main selection criteria for new rootstocks are: 1) control of tree size; 2) production; 3) fruit size; 4) fruit quality; 5) ...

  14. A study of the influence of different rootstocks on the vegetative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated different seed rootstocks (bitter almond, peach seedling and sweet almond seedling), the reactions of these rootstocks with three different almond cultivars (Shahrood cultivars of 15, 12 and 18) and their effect on vegetative growth as well as the effect of the rootstocks on nutrient absorption. The used ...

  15. SELECTION OF VARIETY-ROOTSTOCK COMBINATIONS OF PLUM FOR THE KRASNODAR REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Sushkov D. N.; Zaremuk R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the results of integrated assessment of variety-rootstock combinations of plum on clonal rootstocks and different schemes of landing. We have defined the basic biometric parameters of trees, and specific indicators of productivity, allowing to identify the most optimal variety-stable rootstock combination for the conditions of the Krasnodar region

  16. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  18. Evaluation of three rootstocks on the productivity of some IAC wine grape cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Murilo Monteiro; Pires, Erasmo José Paioli; Pettinelli Jr., Armando; Pommer, Celso Valdevino; Sabino, José Carlos; Passos, Ilene Ribeiro da Silva; Coelho, Sônia Maria Bonilha Marcondes; Silva, André Camargo Pereira da; Ribeiro, Ivan José Antunes

    1990-01-01

    Em experimentos em Tietê (oito anos) e Tatuí (seis anos), compararam-se quatro cullivares IAC de uvas para vinho: IAC 133-22 Máximo e IAC 960-9 Sanches, para os tintos, e IAC 116-31 Rainha e IAC 960-12, para os brancos. Eles foram cultivados tanto como produtor direto (sem enxertia) como enxertados sobre os porta-enxertos IAC 313 'Tropical', IAC 766 e "Ripária do Traviú'. Estudou-se o potencial produtivo desses cultivares como produtores diretos, bem como sua afinidade e produtividade sobre a...

  19. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  20. Growth of citrus rootstocks under aluminium stress in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Walter Esfrain

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants present different degrees of adaptation to aluminium (Al concentrations in the soil, and the understanding of this characteristic can lead to a viable option for the utilization of acid soils. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of five Al concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mumol L-1 on the growth of 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana Hort. ex Tan., and tangerine rootstocks 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan and 'Sunki' (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan., in hydroponic culture. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications. For all rootstocks, the relative growth rate in terms of plant total fresh matter increased under low and, decreased under large Al concentrations. Growth of the shoot, leaf area ratio and leaf weight ratio decreased for all rootstocks in the presence of Al. The 'Rangpur' lime had a decrease of the root system growth, starting from 23 mumol L-1 of Al. For the remaining rootstocks, this growth reached maximum values at 91 to 117 mumol L-1 of Al, respectively. Considering all the evaluated characteristics of plant growth, the 'Rangpur' lime was the most susceptible to Al.

  1. Rootstock growth and development for increased graft success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of rootstock diameter (at root collar), skills and experience of grafters on mango seedling thinning and grafting. Skilled and unskilled grafters were involved in grafting mango plants for at least ...

  2. Genotype as a New Interspesific Hybrid Rootstock for Stone Fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Interspecific hybrids, especially in prunus genus, are used as rootstocks for stone fruit trees in the world, in recent decades. In this research, 106 interspesific hybrids including: almond × peach (P. amygdalus ×P. persica ) , almond × prune (P. amygdalus × P. cerasifera ), apricot × prune (P. armeniaca × P.

  3. Rootstock effects on almond leaf scorch disease incidence and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study was conducted to evaluate effects of duration and exclusion of Xylella fastidiosa infections on young almond tree performance and their links to tree vigor. ‘Nemaguard’, ‘Okinawa’, ‘Nonpareil’, and Y119 were used as rootstocks for almond scion ‘Sonora’. Among X.fastidiosa-inf...

  4. Determination of the bioclimatic indexes and type of climate for growing grapes in the conditions of "Jagüey grande", Matanzas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aranguren González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ignorance of the climate aptitudes of areas where grape plantations (Vitis vinifera L. are de-veloped in Cuba has limited the productive potential of cultivars introduced for the development of this cultiva-tion. Bioclimatic indexes for grapes growth during summer and winter seasons in Jagüey Grande municipality, Matanzas province, were determined in this work. Results showed that climate from this location is appropriate for setting up grape plantations; though it was detected as limitations that high humidity and temperature in certain periods of the year enhance the incidence of fungus diseases and may affect the productive parame-ters in this region. These results are basic for the selection of cultivars, rootstocks and the right management technologies as strategies for the adjustment of this crop to the Cuban climatic conditions

  5. Sunki mandarin and Swingle citrumelo as rootstocks for rain-fed cultivation of late-season sweet orange selections in northern São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazilian regions affected by the citrus sudden death disease, sweet orange cultivation depends on the use of resistant rootstocks. Rangpur lime was mainly replaced by Swingle citrumelo and Sunki mandarin rootstocks, more drought-sensitive ones. The diversification of scion selections is also desirable aiming at the increasing demand for not from concentrate orange juice (NFC that requires high-quality fruits. In this work, we evaluated the performance of 6 selections of Valencia (IAC, Dom João, Late Burjasot IVIA 35-2, Rhode Red SRA 360, Temprana IVIA 25 and Campbell and Natal IAC sweet oranges grafted onto Swingle citrumelo and Sunki mandarin. The planting occurred in 2001 under rain-fed cultivation in Bebedouro, northern São Paulo state, Brazil. The outline was made through randomized blocks in a 7 × 2 factorial design (selections × rootstock, with 4 replications and 2 trees in unit. Both rootstocks performed well in the region. Sunki mandarin rootstock induced greater tree size and production per plant to the scion selections, 38 and 21%, respectively, plus higher precocity of production compared to Swingle citrumelo. The later determined a greater productive efficiency, as well as a greater percentage of juice in general, albeit with lower concentrations of soluble solids and acidity. Natal IAC, Valencia IAC and Rhode Red Valencia selections presented a higher accumulated production, on average, 218.6 kg∙plant−1 (2004 – 2008, and a higher productive efficiency (kg fruit∙m−3 of canopy due to their smaller tree size. All assessed selections produced fruits with high soluble solids content that were suitable for juice processing.

  6. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiong; Wang, Dejun; Wang, Fan; Huang, Li; Tian, Xiaomin; van Nocker, Steve; Gao, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2017-09-17

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19 , from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis . We then generated VaSTS19 -expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 ( Pst DC3000). VaSTS19 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and B. cinerea , but increased susceptibility to Pst DC3000. Aniline blue staining revealed that VaSTS19 transgenic lines accumulated more callose compared to nontransgenic control plants, and showed smaller stomatal apertures when exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (flagellin fragment (flg22) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS)). Analysis of the expression of several disease-related genes suggested that VaSTS19 expression enhanced defense responses though salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. These findings provide a deeper insight into the function of STS genes in defense against pathogens, and a better understanding of the regulatory cross talk between SA and JA pathways.

  7. Expression of the Grape VaSTS19 Gene in Arabidopsis Improves Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Botrytis cinerea but Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringe pv Tomato DC3000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stilbene synthase (STS is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. “Tonghua-3”, and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000. VaSTS19 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and B. cinerea, but increased susceptibility to PstDC3000. Aniline blue staining revealed that VaSTS19 transgenic lines accumulated more callose compared to nontransgenic control plants, and showed smaller stomatal apertures when exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (flagellin fragment (flg22 or lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Analysis of the expression of several disease-related genes suggested that VaSTS19 expression enhanced defense responses though salicylic acid (SA and/or jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways. These findings provide a deeper insight into the function of STS genes in defense against pathogens, and a better understanding of the regulatory cross talk between SA and JA pathways.

  8. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, A; Šikić Pogačar, M; Trošt, K; Tušek Žnidarič, M; Mozetič Vodopivec, B; Smole Možina, S

    2017-01-01

    To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition of adhesion of Camp. jejuni to these abiotic and biotic surfaces. Low doses of GSS extract can inhibit Camp. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene surfaces and to PSI and H4 cells, and can thus modulate Camp. jejuni invasion and intracellular survival. An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step towards the application of new innovative strategies to control Campylobacter contamination and infection via the food chain. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. An innovative pot system for monitoring the effects of water stress on grapevines and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Mocali, Stefano; Perria, Rita; Priori, Simone; Storchi, Paolo; Zombardo, Alessandra; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The advantage of a pot system is the possibility to control many variables and factors with a large number of replicates, obtaining statistically significant results in only one year of experimentation. An innovative pot system for the monitoring of grapevine water stress was set up. The system consists of 99 pots of 70 liters, filled by 3 different soils collected from premium vineyards of the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany). The soils showed different texture (clay-loam, loam and sandy-loam), different gravel and carbonate content, and different available water capacity (AWC). The same soils had been field monitored for grapevine water stress; therefore it was possible to compare the grapevine behaviour both in pot and in field conditions. The grapevine cultivar was Pinot noir clone ENTAV 115, which can be used to investigate the genetic expression in response to environmental factors, since its genome has been sequenced. Different rootstocks theses were compared: not grafted, 1103 Paulsen and M101-14. Each combination rootstock-soil was repeated 9 times. Every pot was equipped for drip irrigation and with electrodes for soil moisture determination by TDR. A non-stop automated control unit recorded meteorological data (temperature and rainfalls), soil temperature and water potential on 9 selected pots. These 9 selected pots were also used to calibrate a model for soil water volume/tension curve. Soil, leaves and grapes samples from each pot were collected for microbial community determination, through NGS analysis. A preliminary study was based on testing the ability of the system to simulate the natural growing conditions of the grapevines. Therefore the grape performances of the potted plants were compared to those of plants cultivated in the vineyards where the soils were taken. In July 2015 three levels of water supply were tested during 5 weeks (up to veraison) in order to study the effects of water stress on the plants and the grape. Later, all the pots

  12. Incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-Infected Plants Among Citrandarins as Rootstock and Scion Under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boava, Leonardo Pires; Sagawa, Cíntia Helena Duarte; Cristofani-Yaly, Mariângela; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp., is currently one of the most serious diseases of citrus plants and has caused substantial economic losses. Thus far, there is no source of genetic resistance to HLB in the genus Citrus or its relatives. However, several studies have reported Poncirus trifoliata and some of its hybrids to be more tolerant to the disease. The main objective of this study was to report differences in the incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection in citrandarin plants, hybrids from Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki (Hayata) hort. ex Tanaka), and trifoliate orange Rubidoux (P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.)), after conducting an extensive survey under field conditions. These hybrid plants were established for approximately 7 years in an area with a high incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants. We selected two experimental areas (area A and area B), located approximately 10 m apart. Area A consists of Pera sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osb.) grafted onto 56 different citrandarin rootstocks. Area B consists of citrandarin scions grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb.) rootstock. Bacteria in the leaves and roots were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants was 92% in area A and 14% in area B. Because infected plants occurred in both areas, we examined whether the P. trifoliata hybrid rootstock influenced HLB development and also determined the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Citrus tree tissues. Although this survey does not present evidence regarding the resistance of P. trifoliata and its hybrids in relation to bacteria or psyllids, future investigation, mainly using the most promising hybrids for response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', will help us to understand the probable mechanism of defense or identifying compounds in P. trifoliata and its hybrids that are very important as strategy to combat HLB. Details of these results are

  13. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  14. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  15. FORMATION OF CASHEW AND TAMARIND ROOTSTOCKS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the seedling growth of cashew and tamarind rootstocks with nitrogen fertilization. To this end, two experiments were conducted in the Production Sector of the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, at the University Unit of Cassilândia (UUC, Brazil. Five nitrogen levels were tested: 0, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg/dm3 of N in the substrates. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 4 repetitions and ten plants per parcel. 20 ml of urea solution were added to each application from each treatment containing 45% nitrogen. The application was repeated four times. Ninety days after planting, we assessed plant height (cm, number of leaves/seedling, plant diameter (mm, roots, aerial part, root and total dry matter (g/seedling. Nitrogen fertilizer in doses of up to 2000 mg/dm3 of N in the substrate ensures better cashew and tamarind rootstock seedling quality. A 3200 mg/dm3 dose of N in the substrate had a growth depression effect on the rootstock seedlings.

  16. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  17. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. 'Burlat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Hernández-Munuera, María; Piñero, M Carmen; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2018-05-01

    High CO 2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO 2 concentrations, ambient (400 µmol mol -1 ) and elevated (800 µmol mol -1 ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for 7 d, followed by 7 d of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks. 'Mariana 2624' was also clearly affected by waterlogging that increased lipid peroxidation and the Cl - and SO 4 2- concentrations in all the studied plants. Nevertheless, CO 2 was able to overcome this reduction in photosynthesis, augmenting growth, increasing soluble sugars and starch, raising turgor and regulating the concentrations of Cl - and SO 4 2- , while lowering the NO 3 - concentration in leaves of all the studied rootstocks. In concordance with these results, the proline levels indicated a more intense stress at control CO 2 than at high CO 2 for waterlogged plants. 'Mariana 2624' was more resistant to waterlogging than 'Adara', and both were more resistant than 'LC 52' in control CO 2 conditions; this clearly enhanced the chance of survival under hypoxia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  19. The vigour of glasshouse roses : scion - rootstock relationships : effects of phenotypic and genotypic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Glasshouse roses commonly are combination plants, consisting of a scion variety and a rootstock of different genotypes. In this study, various environmental and genotypic factors have been investigated that influence the vigour of rootstocks and scion varieties, separately and in graft

  20. Composition and Concentration of Phenolic Compounds of ‘Auksis’ Apple Grown on Various Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kviklys Darius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out at the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2013-2015. Cv. ‘Auksis’ was tested on 12 rootstocks: B.396, B.9, M.9, M.26, P 22, P 59, P 61, P 62, P 66, P 67, PB.4, and Pure 1. Accumulation of phenolic compounds depended on fruit yield and average fruit weight. On average, significantly lower concentration among rootstocks occurred when apple trees had abundant yield and fruits were smaller. On average chlorogenic acid constituted 50% and total procyanidins 28% of total phenols in ‘Auksis’ fruits. Flavonoid concentration most depended on rootstock and the highest variation was recorded. More than 50% difference occurred between the highest total flavonoid concentration in apples on PB.4 and the lowest on M.9 rootstocks. Low variability of total procyanidin concentration among rootstocks was observed. Differences between the highest and lowest concentration was 15%. Total concentration of phenolic compounds differed among rootstocks by 29-35% depending on the year. Differences in accumulation of phenolic compounds depended on rootstock genotype but not on yield or fruit weight. PB.4 and P 67 rootstocks had the highest, and M.9, P 62 and M.26 had the lowest concentration of total phenol in ‘Auksis’ fruits

  1. The effect of age and type of rootstock, method of scion placement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was done to investigate the effects of age and type of rootstock, method of scion placement and light intensity on successful micrografting in Uapaca kirkiana, a miombo woodland fruit tree. Experiments were conducted to determine the interaction between the effects of age and type of rootstock and method of scion ...

  2. Apple endophytic microbiota of different rootstock/scion combinations suggests a genotype-specific influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study described the microbiota associated with three apple varieties, ‘Royal Gala’, ‘Golden Delicious’, and ‘Honey Crisp’, and two rootstocks, M.9, and M.M.111. The objectives were to 1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties, and 2) determine if...

  3. Effects of apple (Malus x domestica) rootstocks on scion performance and hormone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootstocks can influence the productivity and profitability of an orchard in a very significant way. Dwarfing rootstocks had a large impact in making possible the high-density orchards that have been planted during the last 15 years. However, there is a serious threat to high-density apple orchards,...

  4. Evaluation of pyrus and quince rootstocks for high density pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.

    2008-01-01

    High density planting systems are a prerequisite to economise the use of land and labour costs of orchards. Dwarfing rootstocks controlling the vigour of the scion cultivars form the basis for such orchards (Wertheim and Webster, 2005). In the Netherlands, rootstock research is limited to and

  5. Prunus rootstocks influence stem water potential, C/N ratio and shoot ash content in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many peach rootstocks have been released in recent years with limited information about their physiological effects on scion vigor and productivity. In this study, two trials were established with ‘Redhaven’ on 9 (planted 2006) and 18 (planted 2009) rootstock cultivars at the Musser Fruit Research ...

  6. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  7. Induction of resistance to gray mold with benzothiadiazole modifies amino acid profile and increases proanthocyanidins in grape: primary versus secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Rossoni, Mara; Borgo, Michele; Ferrara, Luigia; Faoro, Franco

    2005-11-16

    Field treatments of grapevine (cv. Merlot) with the plant activator benzothiadiazole (BTH, 0.3 mM) induced resistance against gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Both incidence and severity of the disease were reduced. The resistance was associated with an increase of total polyphenols in berry skins, in particular, the proanthocyanidin fraction, that increased up to 36%. The amino acid profile of leaves was also modified by treatments, particularly lysine, that augmented 4-fold. Other amino acids involved in resistance mechanisms to either biotic or abiotic stress increased as well. These results indicate that BTH treatments can be used to control gray mold, thereby limiting an excessive use of fungicides, and could be exploited to increase the content of micronutrients of high nutritional value, arising from both primary and secondary metabolisms.

  8. Grafting of different combinations of scions and rootstocks of passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Andrade dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstock in the cultivation of passion fruit aims to solve problems related to diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. The seedling production by this method may provide greater longevity for plants and smaller losses for the producer of passion fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grafting of different canopy / rootstock, using Passiflora alata and Passiflora cincinnata as rootstocks for yellow, sweet and purple passion fruit plants. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two rootstocks and three types of scions, with four replications and ten plants per plot. The Passiflora cincinnata when used as rootstock for yellow, purple, and sweet passion fruit showed lower grafting success rate and seedling development. The formation of seedlings by grafting of yellow and purple passion fruit on Passiflora alata proved to be feasible for the majority of those characteristics.

  9. 16D10 siRNAs inhibit root-knot nematode infection in transgenic grape hairy roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a biotech-based solution for controlling Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in grapes, we evaluated the efficacy of plant-derived RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of a conserved RKN effector gene, 16D10, for nematode resistance in transgenic grape hairy roots. Two hairpin-based silencing constru...

  10. Chitosan and grape secondary metabolites: A proteomics and metabolomics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavaresco Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained by deacetylation of chitin, and it is involved in defence mechanisms of plants toward diseases. In the present work, V. vinifera L. cv. Ortrugo, grafted on 420A rootstock was grown in pot and treated, at veraison, by 0.03% chitosan solution at cluster level. Just before the treatment (T0 and 24 hours (T1, 48 hours (T2, 72 hours (T3 and 10 days (T4 later, the concentration of stilbenic compounds was detected, and at T1 proteomics and metabolomics analyses were done. Proteomics relies on the analysis of the complete set of proteins existing in a given substrate, while metabolomics relies on the analyses of the complete set of metabolites in a given substrate. The treatment improved the stilbene concentration over the control at T1. Proteomic analysis showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL were overexpressed in the treated grapes. SOD is known to be an enzyme active against reactive oxygen species (ROS while PAL is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoids pathway. Metabolomics analysis highlighted the positive role of the treatment in improving the triperpenoid concentration (betulin, erythrodiol, uvaol, oleanolate; these compounds are known to be effective against microbes, insects and fungi.

  11. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  12. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-xin Zhao

    Full Text Available The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR, leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  13. Grape seed procyanidin reversal of p-glycoprotein associated multi-drug resistance via down-regulation of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activity in A2780/T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo-xin; Sun, Ya-bin; Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) activity, IκB degradation level and NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-κB and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-κB and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-κB activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic.

  14. Expression of the Grape VqSTS21 Gene in Arabidopsis Confers Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Biotrophic Pathogens but Not Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Zhang, Songlin; Singer, Stacy D.; Yin, Xiangjing; Yang, Jinhua; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid), that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arab...

  15. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  16. Expression of the Grape VqSTS21 Gene in Arabidopsis Confers Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Biotrophic Pathogens but Not Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zhang, Songlin; Singer, Stacy D; Yin, Xiangjing; Yang, Jinhua; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene synthase ( STS ) is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid), that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM) infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans -piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea . In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21 -mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress.

  17. Expression of the grape VqSTS21 gene in Arabidopsis confers resistance to osmotic stress and biotrophic pathogens but not Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stilbene synthase (STS is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid, that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans-piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress.

  18. Role of abscisic acid (aba) in modulating the responses of two apple rootstocks to drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Li, X.; Li, B.; Han, M.; Liu, F.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is considered as the main limiting factor for apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some semi-arid areas of China. In this study, we investigated the modulation role of abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (ABA synthesis inhibitor) on water relations and antioxidant enzyme system in 2-year-old seedlings of two apple rootstocks i.e. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. (MS) and Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. (MH). Drought stress induced ion leakage, accumulation of malondiadehyde (MDA) and decreases in leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) in both rootstocks, which were significantly alleviated by exogenous ABA application. Drought stress also induced markedly increases in endogenous ABA content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), to a greater magnitude in MS as compared to MH rootstock. Concentration of 100 mol/L and 50 mol/L ABA had the most positive effects on drought-stressed rootstocks of MS and MH, respectively. Spraying optimum exogenous ABA contributed to enhancement in most of the above antioxidant enzymes activities but reduction in content of MDA and maintained the appropriate leaf water potential and RWC in both rootstocks. Pretreatment with fluridone aggravated ion leakage and the accumulation of MDA in two apple rootstocks under drought stress, which was overcome by exogenous ABA application to some extent. In conclusion, the endogenous ABA was probably involved in the regulation of two apple rootstocks in responses to drought stress. (author)

  19. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  20. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  1. The genetics of tolerance to tristeza disease in citrus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bordignon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled pollinations between four elite citrus rootstocks, Citrus limonia - 'Limeira' rangpur lime (Cravo, C. sunki - 'Sunki' mandarin (Sunki, C. aurantium - 'São Paulo' sour orange (Azeda and Poncirus trifoliata - 'Davis A' trifoliate orange (Trifoliata, resulted in 1614 nucelar and 1938 hybrid plants identified by the isozyme loci Pgi-1, Pgm-1, Got-1, Got-2, Aps-1, Me-1, Prxa-1 and or by the morphological markers broadness of leaf petiole wing or trifoliolate leaves. Tolerance to the citrus tristeza virus (CTV was evaluated under nursery and field conditions for several years by the reaction of Valencia orange infected with a severe strain of CTV and grafted onto the hybrids and nucellar clones. Genetic analyses indicated that tolerance was controlled by at least two loci designated here as Az and t interacting in dominant-recessive epistasis. Genotypes Az__ __ __ and __ __ tt were tolerant while azaz T__ was intolerant. The intolerant Azeda was azaz TT, the tolerant rootstocks Sunki and Cravo were Azaz tt and the Trifoliata was Azaz TT. The different degrees of intolerance seen in some hybrids may reflect the inability of segregating modifiers from parental clones to overcome the epistatic interaction that controls the major tolerance reaction.

  2. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  3. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  4. Rootstock Sub-Optimal Temperature Tolerance Determines Transcriptomic Responses after Long-Term Root Cooling in Rootstocks and Scions of Grafted Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Ntatsi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of elite cultivars onto tolerant rootstocks is an advanced strategy to increase tomato tolerance to sub-optimal temperature. However, a detailed understanding of adaptive mechanisms to sub-optimal temperature in rootstocks and scions of grafting combinations on a physiological and molecular level is lacking. Here, the commercial cultivar Kommeet was grafted either onto ‘Moneymaker’ (sensitive or onto the line accession LA 1777 of Solanum habrochaites (tolerant. Grafted plants were grown in NFT-system at either optimal (25°C or sub-optimal (15°C temperatures in the root environment with optimal air temperature (25°C for 22 days. Grafting onto the differently tolerant rootstocks caused differences in shoot fresh and dry weight, total leaf area and dry matter content of roots, in stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 and guaiacol peroxidase activity but not in net photosynthesis, sugar, starch and amino acid content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. In leaves, comparative transcriptome analysis identified 361 differentially expressed genes (DEG responding to sub-optimal root temperature when ‘Kommeet’ was grafted onto the sensitive but no when grafted onto the tolerant rootstock. 1509 and 2036 DEG responding to sub-optimal temperature were identified in LA 1777 and ‘Moneymaker’ rootstocks, respectively. In tolerant rootstocks down-regulated genes were enriched in main stress-responsive functional categories and up-regulated genes in cellulose synthesis suggesting that cellulose synthesis may be one of the main adaptation mechanisms to long-term sub-optimal temperature. Down-regulated genes of the sensitive rootstock showed a similar response, but functional categories of up-regulated genes pointed to induced stress responses. Rootstocks of the sensitive cultivar Moneymaker showed in addition an enrichment of up-regulated genes in the functional categories fatty acid desaturation, phenylpropanoids

  5. Rootstock mass of coppiced Platanus occidentalis as affected by spacing and rotation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Nwoboshi, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The root mass per unit land area for Platanus occidentalis was determined 9 years after planting 1-0 seedlings. Trees had been planted at 0.3 X 1.2, 0.6 X 1.2 and 1.2 X 1.2 m spacings and coppiced after two growing seasons in the field. Rotations of 1, 2, and 7 years were then imposed. Rootstocks coppiced annually had significantly less rootstock mass (16.0 tons/ha) than those harvested on longer cycles. No significant difference was found between the 2- and 7-year rotations, which averaged 22.8 and 25.2 tons of dry rootstock mass per hectare, respectively. Spacing did not affect rootstock mass per unit land area. Rotations of 2 years or longer and relatively wide spacings are recommended for short rotation forestry.

  6. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  7. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  8. Postharvest properties of sweet cherry fruit depending on rootstock and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Regina’ sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. harvested from trees grown on vigorous and semi-dwarfing rootstocks was stored in normal atmosphere (NA at 8°C and 2°C, and in a controlled atmosphere (CA 3% O2 + 5% CO2 at 2°C for two weeks. At harvest time, the fruits differed in the measured quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content - SSC, titratable acidity - TA depending on the rootstock. The storage conditions and the rootstocks significantly influenced the fruit quality parameters after storage. Generally, reduced fruit firmness and TA, and higher SSC and SSC/TA ratio were observed at the end of the storage period. Among the rootstocks, the lowest soluble solids content was found in the fruit from trees on the vigorous F12/1 rootstock. The lower storage temperature decreased the SSC independently of the storage atmosphere composition. Firmer fruit was found in CA 2°C compared with the other two treatments. The greatest loss of weight was found after fruit storage in NA 8°C. The extent of fruit decay depended on the season, storage conditions and the rootstock. Storage in NA 8°C of the fruit grown on F12/1 rootstock resulted in the highest percentage of fungal decay. The best retention of the green colour of the peduncle was noted in CA 2°C. The findings on how the rootstocks affect sweet cherry fruit properties can be useful for sweet cherry breeding programmes, as well as for sweet cherry crop production and storage technologies.

  9. GRAFT COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN EUROPEAN PEAR CULTIVARS AND EAST MALLING “C” ROOTSTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO DALAZEN MACHADO; MAICON MAGRO; LEO RUFATO; AMAURI BOGO; AIKE ANNELIESE KREZTSCHMAR

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is one of the main factors limiting european pear production in Brazil. At present, there is no clear indication of the best combination(s) of european pear cultivars and quince rootstocks for graft compatibility. The study evaluated the graft compatibility for combinations of european Abbè Fetel, Rocha and Williams pear cultivars grafted onto the EMC quince rootstock. The experiment was performed in a commercial european pear orchard in the Urupema municipalit...

  10. Influence of polyphenols from lingonberry, cranberry, and red grape on in vitro digestibility of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Rina; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are abundant antioxidants in the human diet and are associated with lower rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to determine the effects of cooking white rice (WR) added with lingonberry (WRLB), cranberry (WRCB), and red grape (WRRG) on in vitro digestibility. There was significantly lower level of glucose release for WRRG compared with WR (p  0.05). Increasing concentrations of red grape polyphenol decreased digestibility of white rice (p grape phenolic content and the resistant starch was observed (R = 0.9854). Red grape polyphenol had the greatest impact on reducing in vitro digestibility of white rice. The addition of polyphenols in carbohydrate-rich foods may be a practical means to reduce the high glycemic response of rice eaten around the world.

  11. YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE GRAFTED ON DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO HÉLDER RODRIGUES SAMPAIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate, under field conditions, different combinations between ‘Pera’ sweet orange and eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL, ‘Volkamer’ lemon (VL, ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (CM, ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM, ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’ lime-010 and TH-051 hybrids. The soil water matric potential (?m was characterized for all scion-rootstock combinations at distance of 1.0m from the trunk at the plant row direction and depths of 0.25 m, 0.50 m 0.90 m in the dry and wet seasons. For two years, fruit production parameters and fruit quality were assessed. Differences of Ym among scion-rootstock combinations were observed during the dry season (p=0.05. The lowest Ym values for RL and the highest for TH-051 indicate the existence of different intrinsic mechanisms affecting the water extraction of each scion-rootstock combination. Rootstocks have influenced fruit yield and quality (p=0.05. The best combinations for fruit quality and production were sweet orange grafted on ‘Riverside’, ‘Indio’ and TH-051 rootstocks.

  12. Study of the Biochemical Responses and Enzymatic Activity of GF677 (Peach and Almond Hybrid Rootstock to In Vitro Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mashayekhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is the most significant abiotic factor limiting crop productivity and several physiological responses, including modification of ion balance, water status, mineral nutrition, stomatal behavior, photosynthetic efficiency and so on. The GF677 (Prunuspersica×Prunusamygdalus is widelyusedas rootstock for peach and almond. It is mainly used as a rootstock because of its resistance to drought, calcic soil and Fe deficiency. Nowadays, using tissue culture techniques is very popular for the selection of plant resistant to abiotic stress (in vitro salinity; because in vitro conditions are more controllable than in vivo conditions and the large number of genotypes can be evaluated in a limited space. For example, in the field, plants are exposed to variable biological and climatic conditions which result in some interaction effects. In other words, the nutrition and climatic effects are easily controllable in the in vitro conditions all over the year. The objective of this study is to identify biochemical markers of salinity stress of GF677 rootstock under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Plantlets of GF677 rootstock were subcultured into the Murashige and Skoog (MS proliferation medium containing1 mg/l BA (6-Benzyladenineand 0.1 mg/l NAA (naphthaline acetic acid with different concentrations (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl with four replicates. Cultures were transferred to the growth chamber with temperature of 25±2°C, relative humidity of 70%, under a 16/8 h (day/night photoperiod. Data were collected at the end of the experiment (6th weeks. Antioxidant enzymes activity (catalase and peroxidase,total protein content, proline content, soluble sugars, and Na and Cl were measured. The experiments were set up in a completely randomized design (CRD with four replicates (a vessel in each replicate and statistical analysis was performed using MSTAT-C program. Means were separated according to the Duncan

  13. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  14. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  15. BRS Isis: New seedless grape cultivar for the tropical viticulture in Northeastern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Patrícia Coelho de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the yield components of the grape BRS Isis grown in tropical conditions of the São Francisco Valley. The work was carried out during five growing seasons (2013–2015 in Petrolina, PE. The phenological cycle was 127 days between pruning to harvest. It was obtained 65.8% of sprouting on the rootstock IAC 313 and 60.4% on ‘SO4’. The bud fertility rates were high, around 1.00 bunches per shoot. The average production per plant was 20.63 kg on ‘SO4’ and 18.34 kg on ‘IAC 313’, corresponding to an yield at 29.45 ton/ha/season on ‘SO4’ and 26.19 ton/ha/season on ‘IAC 313’. The bunches are medium in size and cylindrical shaped with mass of 400 g on ‘SO4’ and 370 g on ‘IAC 313’. The bunch length and width were also slightly higher on ‘SO4’ (21.32 cm × 11.89 cm compared to ‘IAC 313’ (20.42 cm × 11.50 cm. The berries are large, elliptical shaped, crunchy with a neutral flavor. The grape presented SS content around 16.0°Brix and low TA (0.44 and 0.49%, giving an apropriate SS/TA ratio and pleasant taste. The results showed that ‘BRS Isis’ can be considered as a new option of seedless grape for the tropical viticulture in the Northeastern of Brazil.

  16. Apple endophytic microbiota of different rootstock/scion combinations suggests a genotype-specific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Norelli, John; Burchard, Erik; Schena, Leonardo; Droby, Samir; Wisniewski, Michael

    2018-01-27

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing spanning conserved portions of microbial genomes (16s rRNA and ITS) was used in the present study to describe the endophytic microbiota associated with three apple varieties, "Royal Gala," "Golden Delicious," and "Honey Crisp," and two rootstocks, M.9 and M.M.111. The objectives were to (1) determine if the microbiota differs in different rootstocks and apple varieties and (2) determine if specific rootstock-scion combinations influence the microbiota composition of either component. Results indicated that Ascomycota (47.8%), Zygomycota (31.1%), and Basidiomycota (11.6%) were the dominant fungal phyla across all samples. The majority of bacterial sequences were assigned to Proteobacteria (58.4%), Firmicutes (23.8%), Actinobacteria (7.7%), Bacteroidetes (2%), and Fusobacteria (0.4%). Rootstocks appeared to influence the microbiota of associated grafted scion, but the effect was not statistically significant. Pedigree also had an impact on the composition of the endophytic microbiota, where closely-related cultivars had a microbial community that was more similar to each other than it was to a scion cultivar that was more distantly-related by pedigree. The more vigorous rootstock (M.M.111) was observed to possess a greater number of growth-promoting bacterial taxa, relative to the dwarfing rootstock (M.9). The mechanism by which an apple genotype, either rootstock or scion, has a determinant effect on the composition of a microbial community is not known. The similarity of the microbiota in samples with a similar pedigree suggests the possibility of some level of co-evolution or selection as proposed by the "holobiont" concept in which metaorganisms have co-evolved. Clearly, however, the present information is only suggestive, and a more comprehensive analysis is needed.

  17. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ricardo Cantu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade, com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis.The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control, with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  18. Sweet orange trees grafted on selected rootstocks fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaggio José Antônio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of citrus trees in Brazil are grafted on 'Rangpur lime' (Citrus limonia Osb. rootstock. Despite its good horticultural performance, search for disease tolerant rootstock varieties to improve yield and longevity of citrus groves has increased. The objective of this work was to evaluate yield efficiency of sweet oranges on different rootstocks fertilized with N, P, and potassium. Tree growth was affected by rootstock varieties; trees on 'Swingle' citrumelo [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. × C. paradisi Macf.] presented the smallest canopy (13.3 m³ in the fifth year after tree planting compared to those on 'Rangpur lime' and 'Cleopatra' mandarin [C. reshni (Hayata hort. ex Tanaka] grown on the same grove. Although it was observed an overall positive relationship between canopy volume and fruit yield (R² = 0.95**, yield efficiency (kg m-3 was affected by rootstocks, which demonstrated 'Rangpur lime' superiority in relation to Cleopatra. Growth of citrus trees younger than 5-yr-old might be improved by K fertilization rates greater than currently recommended in Brazil, in soils with low K and subjected to nutrient leaching losses.

  19. GRAFT COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN EUROPEAN PEAR CULTIVARS AND EAST MALLING “C” ROOTSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO DALAZEN MACHADO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graft incompatibility is one of the main factors limiting european pear production in Brazil. At present, there is no clear indication of the best combination(s of european pear cultivars and quince rootstocks for graft compatibility. The study evaluated the graft compatibility for combinations of european Abbè Fetel, Rocha and Williams pear cultivars grafted onto the EMC quince rootstock. The experiment was performed in a commercial european pear orchard in the Urupema municipality, in State of Santa Catarina, during the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons. The plant growth variables comprised the section increment (mm in the trunk diameter in the graft union region of cultivars and rootstocks; difference in the diameter of the graft for cultivars and rootstocks; “translocated” incompatibility; “located” incompatibility and the vascular connection in the graft union region, which was assessed by immersing the bases of the plants in a 0.08% succinic acid solution. There were “located” and “translocated” incompatibility between the european Williams pear cultivar and the EMC rootstock based on the vascular discontinuity in the graft union region, which prevented the translocation of succinic acid stain. Thus, the Williams/EMC combination is considered incompatible and it is not recommended for use in commercial orchards. The Rocha/EMC and Abbè Fetel/EMC are considered partially incompatible combinations and showed good development eight years after planting.

  20. Comparative response of six grapevine rootstocks to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi based on root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogiatzis, Antreas; Bowen, Pat; Hart, Miranda; Holland, Taylor; Klironomos, John

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has been proven to be essential in grapevines, sustaining plant growth especially under abiotic and biotic stressors. The mycorrhizal growth response of young grapevines varies among rootstock cultivars and the underlying mechanisms involved in this variation are unknown. We predicted that this variation in mycorrhizal response may be explained by differences in root traits among rootstocks. We analyzed the entire root system of six greenhouse-grown rootstocks (Salt Creek, 3309 Couderc, Riparia Gloire, 101-14 Millardet et de Grasset, Swarzmann, Teleki 5C), with and without AM fungal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) and characterized their morphological and architectural responses. Twenty weeks after the inoculation, aboveground growth was enhanced by AM colonization. The rootstock varieties were distinctly different in their response to AM fungi, with Salt Creek receiving the highest growth benefit, while Schwarzmann and 5C Teleki receiving the lowest. Plant responsiveness to AM fungi was negatively correlated with branching intensity (fine roots per root length). Furthermore, there was evidence that mycorrhizas can influence the expression of root traits, inducing a higher branching intensity and a lower root to shoot ratio. The results of this study will help to elucidate how interactions between grapevine rootstocks and AM fungi may benefit the establishment of new vineyards.

  1. Fruit quality of seedless watermelon grafted onto squash rootstocks under different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianru; Zhao, Xin; Brecht, Jeffrey K; Sims, Charles A; Sanchez, Tatiana; Dufault, Nicholas S

    2017-11-01

    The market demand for seedless watermelon has been continuously increasing because of consumer preference. Grafting is a useful tool to manage soilborne diseases in watermelon production, but the use of squash rootstocks may negatively affect watermelon fruit quality. Currently, most research has focused on seeded cultivars, while grafting effects on seedless watermelons remain largely unknown. This multi-season study was conducted to assess the effects of squash rootstocks, including both Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata and C. moschata cultivars, with intact or excised and regenerated roots, on fruit quality of seedless watermelon 'Melody' using both instrumental and sensory measurements under different production scenarios. The grafted watermelon plants were also challenged by field inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum. A combination of instrumental measurements and consumer sensory analyses suggested that fruit quality of the seedless watermelon 'Melody' was not impacted by the use of the squash rootstocks used in this study, which included soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and most fruit sensory properties. Watermelon flesh firmness was increased by grafting but the grafting effect on lycopene content was inconclusive. Root excision and regeneration did not influence the grafting effect, whereas the grafting effect on flesh firmness varied among the rootstocks under Fusarium inoculation. Overall, grafting with squash rootstocks did not reduce fruit quality attributes of 'Melody' but improved texture. Our results support incorporating grafting into integrated management programs for seedless watermelon production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Defense mechanisms involved in disease resistance of grafted vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable grafting with resistant rootstocks is an effective strategy to control a variety of soil-borne diseases and root-knot nematodes in the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. In addition, improved resistance to some foliar diseases and viruses has also been reported in grafted plants. Hence, graft...

  3. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  4. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  5. Physiological and Transcriptional Changes of Three Citrus Rootstock Seedlings under Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms to improve iron acquisition from soils. Grafting on iron deficiency-tolerant rootstock is an effective strategy to prevent iron deficiency-chlorosis in fruit-tree crops. To determine the mechanisms underlying iron uptake in iron deficiency, two iron deficiency-tolerant citrus rootstocks, Zhique (ZQ and Xiangcheng (XC, as well as iron deficiency-sensitive rootstock trifoliate orange (TO seedlings were studied. Plants were grown in hydroponics system for 100 days, having 50 μM iron (control and 0 μM iron (iron deficiency nutrient solution. Under iron deficiency, more obvious visual symptoms of iron chlorosis were observed in the leaves of TO, whereas slight symptoms were observed in ZQ and XC. This was further supported by the lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of TO than in leaves of ZQ and XC. Ferrous iron showed no differences among the three citrus rootstock roots, whereas ferrous iron was significantly higher in leaves of ZQ and XC than TO. The specific iron absorption rate and leaf iron proportion were significantly higher in ZQ and XC than in TO, suggesting the iron deficiency tolerance can be explained by increased iron uptake in roots of ZQ and XC, allowed by subsequent translocation to shoots. In transcriptome analysis, 29, 298, and 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in response to iron deficiency were identified in ZQ, XC, and TO, respectively (Fold change ≥ 2 and Probability ≥ 0.8 were used as thresholds to identify DEGs. A Gene Ontology analysis suggested that several genotype-specific biological processes are involved in response to iron deficiency. Genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transduction pathways were involved in iron deficiency responses in citrus rootstocks. The results of this study provide a basis for future analyses of the physiological and molecular mechanisms of

  6. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  7. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  8. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  9. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc., as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard was established at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná-IAPAR, Paranavaí, PR, in January 2001. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine treatments, three replications, and two plants per plot. The rootstocks were Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb., Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka, C-13 citrange [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata orange (L. Raf.], Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. e Pasq., Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka, trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf. ], Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.], and Caipira DAC sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.]. The largest plant canopy to ‘Okitsu’ was induced by Cleopatra and the lowest by trifoliata, with 37.1 m3 and 9.9 m3, respectively. The highest relationship between scion and rootstock trunk diameter was observed for the plants budded on Swingle. The largest accumulated yields per plant over eight seasons were induced by Volkamer, Rangpur, Caipira DAC, Cleopatra, and Carrizo, ranging from 867.3 to 989.6 kg. These rootstocks also induced the largest fruit mass, along with Sunki, ranging from 173.3 to 188.0 g. Trifoliate induced accumulated production of 52.5% in relation to Rangpur lime. Rangpur, Carrizo, trifoliate, and Swingle induced the largest averages for the ratio, ranging from 10.41 to 10.79. For orchard

  10. Grapevine rootstocks shape underground bacterial microbiome and networking but not potential functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Michoud, Grégoire; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-03

    The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere. Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems. Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction

  11. Grapevine rootstocks shape underground bacterial microbiome and networking but not potential functionality

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona

    2018-01-03

    The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere.Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities\\' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems.Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction

  12. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  13. Effect of in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion on the allergenicity of grape lipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Rigby, Neil; Moreno, F. Javier; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; van Ree, Ronald; Mills, Clare

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe grape allergy has been linked to lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitization. LTPs are known to be resistant to pepsin digestion, although the effect of gastroduodenal digestion on its allergenicity has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of gastric

  14. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  15. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin as...

  16. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  17. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Data vines were categorized as non-stressed (ΨPD ≥ -7.9 bars and ΨL ≥ -14.9 bars) and stressed (ΨPD ≤ -8.0 bars and ΨL ≤ -15.0 bars) and subjected to analysis of variance. Significant separation emerged for vines categorized as non-stressed versus stressed at véraison, which correlated to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit. This report does not advocate the use of stress levels herein reported. The vineyard was planted to a vigorous, deep rooted rootstock (V. rupestris cv. St. George), and from years of management is known to be able to withstand stress levels of the magnitude we observed. Nonetheless, the results may suggest there is not a linear relationship between physiological water stress and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point controlling grape composition as well as physiological development.

  18. Selection of Almond Vegetative Rootstocks for Water Stress Tolerance Based on the Morphological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Shokouhian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF

  19. Nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (Vitis sp.) cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomès, Eric; Sagot, Emeric; Gaillard, Cécile; Laquitaine, Laurent; Poinssot, Benoit; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. Three cDNAs coding nsLTPs from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR. The expression of nsLTP genes was investigated in 41B-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. Ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor purified from Botrytis cinerea strongly and rapidly induced the accumulation of nsLTP mRNAs. Jasmonic acid, cholesterol, and sitosterol also promoted nsLTPs mRNA accumulation, although to a lesser extent, whereas salicylic acid had no effect. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the amounts of three LTP isoforms (previously named P1, P2, and P4) were increased by ergosterol. None of the four isoforms displayed any significant antifungal properties, with the exception of the P4 isoform, which reduced Botrytis mycelium growth in vitro, but only in calcium-free medium. The results are discussed in the context of plant-pathogen interactions.

  20. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  2. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  3. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  4. Rigitano: nova cultivar de umezeiro para porta-enxerto de pessegueiro Rigitano: new mume cultivar to rootstock of peach tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Pereira

    2007-04-01

    the present moment a clonal rootstock for peach tree culture with desirable agronomic characteristics, including root-knot nematode resistance, herbaceous cuttings propagation facilities and quality induction for fruits. The aim of this work is present the mume cultivar Rigitano, selected and approved to constitute a new rootstock for peach tree culture. Initially, identified as 'Clone 10', 'Rigitano' cultivar is resultant of a wide research collaboration project, carried out with clonal vegetal material coming from Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, Brazil, started in 1998 at Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The selection and multiplication works began with propagation experiments with herbaceous cuttings in intermittent mist system, whose results indicated viability of the method in four year season, in Jaboticabal climatic conditions. The bud with 'Aurora-1' peach (ship budding or ship budding modified was shown vailable in larger diameter rootstocks (± 10 mm. At field conditions, 'Rigitano' revealed to be the least vigorous comparing to the other mume's clones studied. Besides, 'Rigitano' is resistant to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita, however, it is susceptible to Mesocriconema xenoplax. The results at field conditions, as rootstock of 'Aurora-1' peach, reveal good productivity, pomological and technological fruits qualities. The research results reveals wide possibilities of 'Rigitano' as peach tree rootstock success, with good possibilities for plantation reduction space and better quality of fruit production.

  5. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  6. Performance of new apple rootstocks for Gala variety in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Denardi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Geneva® apple rootstocks for ‘Gala’. The experiment was set in a complete randomized block design with four replications of tree plants per plot. It was used ten Geneva® rootstocks and M.9EMLA and M.7EMLA as controls. It was evaluated plant vigor, annual yield, cumulative yield, cumulative yield efficiency and fruit weight. For ‘Gala’ vigor control, G.10 and G.757 were more efficient than M.9EMLA; CG.2022 was equivalent and the other rootstocks were less efficient. ‘G.24’, ‘G.969’, ‘G.30’ and ‘G.210’ presented vigor equivalent to ‘M.7EMLA’. ‘G.896’ was the most vigorous. Among dwarfing rootstocks, G.213 and G.757 were the most efficient on cumulative yield, the last showing the highest cumulative yield efficiency. Among semi-dwarfing, G.210 showed the highest cumulative yield and the highest cumulative yield efficiency. ‘G.896’ induced higher cumulative yield than ‘M.7EMLA’. The greatest ‘Gala’ fruit weight was on ‘G.213’ and ‘CG.2022’.

  7. Formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock under saline water irrigation and nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de P. Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and formation of fresh and dry weight of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock irrigated with waters of different saline levels and nitrogen (N doses, in an experiment conducted in plastic tubes under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with four replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the cultivation of guava seedlings, cv. ‘Paluma’. The dose referring to 100% corresponds to 773 mg of N dm-3. The highest growth of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock was obtained with ECw of 0.3 dS m-1 and fertilization of 541.1 mg N dm-3 of soil; increasing N doses did not reduce the deleterious effect of the salt stress on the growth and phytomass formation of ‘Crioula’ guava rootstock; irrigation with water of up to 1.75 dS m-1, in the production of guava rootstocks, promotes acceptable reduction of 10% in growth and quality of the seedlings.

  8. Breeding graft-compatible Douglas-fir rootstocks (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1999-01-01

    A study encompassing 24 years was conducted to determine if a breeding program could produce highly graft-compatible rootstocks. Twenty-seven trees of apparent high graft compatibility were selected and crossed to produce 226 control-pollinated families. Seedlings were grown, field planted, and grafted with test scions. Graft unions from field tests were evaluated...

  9. The effects of citrus rootstocks on Valencia Late and Rhode Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For N, K, Mg, Mn and Cu, Carrizo citrange has the highest means while Troyer and sour orange have the highest concentrations for P and. Fe, and Ca, Zn and Na, respectively. We recommend utilizations of Carrizo and Troyer citrange rootstocks for eastern Mediterranean region citrus production as they had higher ability to ...

  10. Growth Response of Peach and Plum Rootstocks Infected with Pratylenchus vulnus in Microplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Dorrego, A; Pinochet, J; Calvet, C

    1999-12-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on growth and nutrition of Cadaman peach and Ishtara and Julior plum rootstocks were evaluated in a microplot experiment lasting two growing seasons. Cadaman peach was the only rootstock that showed suppressed growth for all growth parameters at the end of the first year. At the end of the second growing season, dry and fresh shoot weights as well as shoot length and root weights of Cadaman peach were reduced in nematode-inoculated microplots in comparison to uninoculated treatments. Stem diameter was not affected. Dry and fresh shoot weights were the only growth parameters affected by the nematode in Ishtara plum at the end of the second growing season, whereas Julior was not affected by P. vulnus infection. No nutrient deficiencies were detected by foliar analysis in any of the rootstocks and treatments. All the tested rootstocks were good hosts for P. vulnus, whose mean root population ranged from 1,670 (Cadaman) to 2,895 (Julior) nematodes/g of root.

  11. The effects of citrus rootstocks on Valencia Late and Rhode Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... However, all cultivars mean were within the range of optimal limits except Zn. The rootstock had ... optimize fertilization programs. ... Leaf samples were decontaminated by washing detergent solution, tap water and rinsing with distilled water. Then, samples were dried at. 70°C until constant weight and ...

  12. Development of a green fluorescent tagged strain of Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Sempere, Ana; López Pérez, Mario; Martínez-Culebras, Pedro V.; González-Candelas, Luis

    2011-01-01

    An enhanced green fluorescent protein has been used to tag an OTA-producing strain of Aspergillus carbonarius (W04-40) isolated from naturally infected grape berries. Transformation of the fungus was mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The most efficient transformation occurred when the co-cultivation was done with 104 conidia due to higher frequency of resistance colonies (894 per 104 conidia) and lower background obtained. To confirm the presence of the hph gene in hygromycin resistant c...

  13. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  14. EVALUATION OF ROOTSTOCKS FOR ‘TAHITI’ ACID LIME IN NORTHERN STATE OF MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL LUCAS MAGALHÃES MACHADO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate 12 rootstock varieties on the development and quality of ‘Tahiti’ acid lime fruits cultivated in the municipality of Jaíba, MG. Seedlings were planted in an experimental orchard in November 2008, using 8 x 5 meters spacing and drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using a scion cultivar (Tahiti acid lime, IAC-5 cultivar and the following 12 rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Troyer’ citrange, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, 1707 hybrid (Rangpur lime x Swingle trifoliate, 1710 and 1697 citrandarins, 1708citradia, ‘Swingle’ citrumelo, ‘Cleopatra’ and ‘Sunki’ mandarins, ‘Volkamer’ lemon, and ‘Limeira’ trifoliate. A randomized block design with five replicates and three trees per plot was used. Trunk diameter of both rootstock and scion, as well as height, diameter, and canopy volume, yield, fruit mass, number of fruits per tree, productivity, production efficiency index, longitudinal diameter, equatorial diameter, total soluble solids, total acidity, and vitamin C content of fruits were evaluated. ‘Volkameriano’ and ‘Cleopatra’ rootstocks promoted higher plant vigor and productivity for ‘Tahiti’ acid lime. However, ‘Limeira’ trifoliate and ‘Troyer’ citrange produced less vigor, but increased production efficiency; and can be used as alternative rootstocks for ‘Rangpur’ lime, as long as adjustments are performed in the planting spacing to increase productivity. In general, no differences in physical and chemical characteristics of fruits for all treatments were found, and fruits remained within commercial standards.

  15. Comprehensive Mineral Nutrition Analysis of Watermelon Grafted onto Two Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is a widely used practice in fruit-bearing vegetables. However, why grafting affects plant growth, fruit yield, and quality, especially from the aspect of mineral nutrition, remains unclear. In this study, watermelon cultivar ‘Zaojia 8424’ was grafted onto bottle gourd ‘Jingxinzhen 1’ (Lagenaria siceraria and pumpkin ‘Qingyanzhen 1’ (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata. Non-grafted plants were used as the control. Results show that rootstock grafting significantly increases plant growth and single fruit weight of watermelon. Watermelon grafted onto rootstocks, especially pumpkin, exhibits significantly higher root volume, root surface area, and number of root tips and forks in comparison with non-grafted plants. Fruit flesh, rind firmness, and rind thickness were enhanced by grafting. However, fruit soluble solids and taste significantly decreased in plants grafted onto pumpkin. The total uptake (mg ⋅ plant−1 and concentration (mg ⋅ g−1 DW of N, K, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in root, stem, leaf, fruit rind, and flesh were generally higher in grafted plants compared to non-grafted ones, especially for N of pumpkin rootstock-grafted plants. The total uptake of nutrients of plants grafted onto bottle gourd and pumpkin was increased by 30.41% and 49.14% at fruit development stage and by 21.33% and 47.46% at fruit maturation stage, respectively, compared with non-grafted plants. We concluded that watermelon grafting onto suitable rootstocks can increase the uptake of mineral nutrition, especially for N in the pumpkin rootstock grafted plants, thereby affecting plant growth, fruit yield, and quality.

  16. Anatomical and Physiological Responses of Citrus Trees to Varying Boron Availability Are Dependent on Rootstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Geisa L.; Zambrosi, Fernando C. B.; Tanaka, Francisco A. O.; Boaretto, Rodrigo M.; Quaggio, José A.; Ribeiro, Rafael V.; Mattos, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    In Citrus, water, nutrient transport and thereby fruit production, are influenced among other factors, by the interaction between rootstock and boron (B) nutrition. This study aimed to investigate how B affects the anatomical structure of roots and leaves as well as leaf gas exchange in sweet orange trees grafted on two contrasting rootstocks in response to B supply. Plants grafted on Swingle citrumelo or Sunki mandarin were grown in a nutrient solution of varying B concentration (deficient, adequate, and excessive). Those grafted on Swingle were more tolerant to both B deficiency and toxicity than those on Sunki, as revealed by higher shoot and root growth. In addition, plants grafted on Sunki exhibited more severe anatomical and physiological damages under B deficiency, showing thickening of xylem cell walls and impairments in whole-plant leaf-specific hydraulic conductance and leaf CO2 assimilation. Our data revealed that trees grafted on Swingle sustain better growth under low B availablitlity in the root medium and still respond positively to increased B levels by combining higher B absorption and root growth as well as better organization of xylem vessels. Taken together, those traits improved water and B transport to the plant canopy. Under B toxicity, Swingle rootstock would also favor plant growth by reducing anatomical and ultrastructural damage to leaf tissue and improving water transport compared with plants grafted on Sunki. From a practical point of view, our results highlight that B management in citrus orchards shall take into account rootstock varieties, of which the Swingle rootstock was characterized by its performance on regulating anatomical and ultrastructural damages, improving water transport and limiting negative impacts of B stress conditions on plant growth. PMID:26973670

  17. Doses of controlled-release fertilizer for production of rubber tree rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Luis Grisi Macedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of doses of controlled-release fertilizer (ALL on the development of rubber tree rootstocks. The fertilizer used was Osmocote®, scheduled to be released for 8-9 months and with the following composition: N (15%, P2O5 (9%, K2O (12%, Mg (1%, S (2.3%, B (0.02%, Cu (0.05%, Fe (1%, Mn (0.06%, Mo (0.02% and Zn (0.05%. A randomized block design was used, with four treatments and eight replicates of 20 plants per plot. The controlled-release fertilizer was added to Rendimax Floreira® substrate at doses of 0, 3, 6 and 9 g per liter, and rootstocks were produced in plastic containers with a capacity of two liters of substrate. Three seeds of clone GT 1 were scattered in each container and thinning was performed on day 60, leaving the most vigorous plant only. After the fourth leaf shot from each rootstock, the containers of each treatment were topped, due to compaction, with 300 mL of the relevant fertilizer and substrate mixture. The rootstocks were evaluated at eight months of age as to height, stem diameter (DC 5 cm above root collar, total dry matter, shoot and root dry matter, leaf nutrient levels and percentage of plants suitable for grafting (DC≥1.0 cm. Results revealed that adequate development and nutrition of rootstocks was achieved by using 6 g of controlled-release fertilizer per liter of substrate.

  18. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  19. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient Rooting System for Apple “M.9” Rootstock Using Rice Seed Coat and Smocked Rice Seed Coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiullah Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “M.9” rootstock is considered as one of the most useful apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. rootstocks; it produces dwarfing trees efficiently. As “M.9” rootstock shows a poor, brittle, and shallow roots system, we grafted “M.9” rootstocks onto “Marubakaidou” (M. prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami Mo 84-A. We then propagated them by mound layering to establish a high-density root system. It was found that covering the roots with rice seed coat (RSC, RSC + smoked rice seed coat (SRSC, and vermiculite during mound layering was effective for the initiation of rooting. Utilizing RSC and SRSC seemed especially effective for producing “M.9” roots efficiently.

  1. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  2. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  3. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  4. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  5. Volatile contents of grape marcs in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Luz; Malcata, F. Xavier; Revel, G. de

    1996-01-01

    The present study reports on the composition of volatiles of most grape marcs (bagaceiras) commercially available in Portugal. These spirits, which are a valuable by-product of the winemaking industry, are obtained via steam-distillation of grape pomace after storage under anaerobic conditions for a given period of time. An impetus for this research is the increasingly strict European legal standards pertaining to the levels of health hazard volatile compounds (e.g., methanol) and the lack of...

  6. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications such as nerve and eye problems, improving wound healing, preventing tooth decay, preventing cancer, an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), poor night vision, liver ...

  7. Total Protein Content and SDS-PAGE in Pear Scions Grafted on Quince A and Pear Seedling Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLEN*, Hatice

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of various rootstocks on the total soluble protein content of pear scions, and to detect a polypeptide as a marker that would be associated with pear/quince compatibility/incompatibility. Bark samples were collected from 5 year-old pear scions grafted on QA and pear seedling rootstocks (PS). Total soluble protein contents of bark tissues of 4 pear scions, Passa Crassana (PC), Beurre Hardy (BH), Beurre Bosc (BB) and Bartlett (BT), were determ...

  8. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  9. Fire blight resistance in wild accessions of Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a devastating bacterial disease in apple that results in severe economic losses. Epidemics are becoming more common as susceptible cultivars and rootstocks are being planted, and control is becoming more difficult as antibiotic-resistant strains develop. Resistan...

  10. Grafting of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Mahbubi) onto different squash rootstocks as a means to minimize cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani Bidabadi, Siamak; Abolghasemi, Reza; Zheng, Si-Jun

    2018-06-07

    To test the possibility that using appropriate rootstocks could improve the tolerance of watermelon to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine growth and antioxidant activities of watermelons, either nongrafted or grafted onto summer squash and winter squash. We provided nutrient solutions having four levels (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) of cadmium to treat the plants. Shoot and root biomass reduction were significantly lower in summer squash rootstock-grafted watermelon than winter squash rootstock-grafted and nongrafted watermelons. Cadmium induced a smaller decrease in leaf area index in grafted watermelons compared with nongrafted plants. The Cd- related reductions in chlorophyll content and efficiency of photosynthesis were more severe in nongrafted watermelons compared with dose grafted onto summer squash. Cd accumulation in shoot at the highest dose (200 µM) of CdCl 2 was significantly lower (19.76 mg/kg) in summer squash rootstock-grafted watermelon compared with winter squash rootstock-grafted (37.58 mg/kg) and nongrafted watermelon (72.12 mg/kg). H 2 O 2 , MDA production and electrolyte leakage of summer squash rootstock-grafted watermelon showed less increase, which was associated with a significant increase in the activities of antioxidant. The improved crop performance of grafted watermelons was attributed to their strong capacity to inhibit Cd accumulation in the aerial parts.

  11. Response of direct or priming defense against Botrytis cinerea to methyl jasmonate treatment at different concentrations in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaituo; Liao, Yunxia; Kan, Jianquan; Han, Lin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-02-02

    This study was conducted to characterize the forms of disease resistance induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in harvested grape berries and to evaluate the impact of the induced resistance on fruit quality. The results showed that MeJA treatment at concentrations from 10 to 100μmol/L could effectively induce disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and reduce disease incidence in grape berries. The induced disease resistance was tightly associated with increased H2O2 generation, enhanced expression of the defense-related gene VvNPR1.1 and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins such as tran-resveratrol and its oligomer (trans-)ε-viniferin. The expression of the defense-related gene and synthesis of phytoalexins in 10μmol/L MeJA-treated grape berries were only significantly enhanced upon inoculating the berries with B. cinerea, whereas the 50 or 100μmol/L of MeJA treatment directly induced these defense responses. Hence, we deduce that the low concentration of MeJA (10μmol/L) triggered a priming defense mechanism, while higher concentrations of MeJA (50 or 100μmol/L) directly activated defense responses, thus enhancing disease resistance in grape berries. Moreover, the primed grape berries maintained higher contents of soluble sugars and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power compared with those expressing direct defense responses. These results indicate that priming of defense is a cost-effective strategy to protect harvested grape berries from B. cinerea infection in terms of minimizing quality loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  13. Root distribution of irrigated grapevine rootstocks in a coarse texture soil of the São Francisco Valley, Brazil Distribuição radicular de porta-enxertos de videiras irrigadas em um solo de textura arenosa do Vale do São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS HENRIQUE BASSOI

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the root distribution of four grapevine rootstocks (Salt Creek, Dogridge, Courdec 1613, IAC 572 in a coarse texture soil of a commercial growing area in Petrolina County, São Francisco Valley, Brazil. Rootstocks were grafted to a seedless table grape cv. Festival, and irrigated by microsprinkler. Roots were quantified by the trench wall method aided by digital image analysis. Results indicated that roots reached 1 m depth, but few differences among rootstocks were found. All of them presented at least 90 % of the roots distributed until 0.6 m depth, with a greater root presence in the first 0.4 m. The upper 0.6 m can be taken into account as the effective rooting depth for soil and water management.Um experimento foi conduzido para se determinar a distribuição radicular de quatro porta-enxertos (Salt Creek, Dogridge, Courdec 1613, IAC 572 em um solo de textura arenosa, em um plantio comercial em Petrolina - PE, no Vale do São Francisco. Os porta-enxertos foram enxertados com a cv. de uva de mesa sem sementes Festival, e irrigados por microaspersão. As raízes foram quantificadas pelo método da parede da trincheira auxiliado pela análise de imagem digital. Os resultados indicaram que as raízes atingiram 1 m de profundidade, mas poucas diferenças entre os porta-enxertos foram observadas. Cerca de 90% do sistema radicular de todos os porta-enxertos estavam distribuídos até 0,6 m de profundidade, mas houve uma grande presença de raízes até 0,4 m. A camada superficial de solo de 0,6 m pode ser considerada como a profundidade efetiva do sistema radicular para fins de manejo de solo e água.

  14. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoussi Hager

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the

  15. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the Tunisian citrus rootstock germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Citrus represents a substantial income for farmers in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the Mediterranean citrus industry faces increasing biotic and abiotic constraints. Therefore the breeding and selection of new rootstocks are now of the utmost importance. In Tunisia, in addition to sour orange, the most widespread traditional rootstock of the Mediterranean area, other citrus rootstocks and well adapted to local environmental conditions, are traditionally used and should be important genetic resources for breeding. To characterize the diversity of Tunisian citrus rootstocks, two hundred and one local accessions belonging to four facultative apomictic species (C. aurantium, sour orange; C. sinensis, orange; C. limon, lemon; and C. aurantifolia, lime) were collected and genotyped using 20 nuclear SSR markers and four indel mitochondrial markers. Multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were compared to references from French and Spanish collections. Results The differentiation of the four varietal groups was well-marked. The groups displayed a relatively high allelic diversity, primarily due to very high heterozygosity. Sixteen distinct MLGs were identified. Ten of these were noted in sour oranges. However, the majority of the analysed sour orange accessions corresponded with only two MLGs, differentiated by a single allele, likely due to a mutation. The most frequent MLG is shared with the reference sour oranges. No polymorphism was found within the sweet orange group. Two MLGs, differentiated by a single locus, were noted in lemon. The predominant MLG was shared with the reference lemons. Limes were represented by three genotypes. Two corresponded to the 'Mexican lime' and 'limonette de Marrakech' references. The MLG of 'Chiiri' lime was unique. Conclusions The Tunisian citrus rootstock genetic diversity is predominantly due to high heterozygosity and differentiation between the four varietal groups. The phenotypic diversity within the varietal groups has

  16. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikinci, Ali; Bolat, Ibrahim; Ercisli, Sezai; Kodad, Ossama

    2014-12-16

    Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communis and Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal) and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal) have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC) and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were investigated. Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree(-1)), largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha(-1)) in the 10(th) year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant), K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu mineral element concentrations

  17. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ikinci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L. were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree−1, largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha−1 in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant, K, Ca, Mg, Fe

  18. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra de Souza, Joadson; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Coelho Filho, Mauricio Antônio; Morillon, Raphaël; Bonatto, Diego; Micheli, Fabienne; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2017-01-01

    Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively), as well as common to both networks (773) were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants.

  19. Different adaptation strategies of two citrus scion/rootstock combinations in response to drought stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadson Dutra de Souza

    Full Text Available Scion/rootstock interaction is important for plant development and for breeding programs. In this context, polyploid rootstocks presented several advantages, mainly in relation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed the response to drought of two different scion/rootstock combinations presenting different polyploidy: the diploid (2x and autotetraploid (4x Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia, Osbeck rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Based on previous gene expression data, we developed an interactomic approach to identify proteins involved in V/2xRL and V/4xRL response to drought. A main interactomic network containing 3,830 nodes and 97,652 edges was built from V/2xRL and V/4xRL data. Exclusive proteins of the V/2xRL and V/4xRL networks (2,056 and 1,001, respectively, as well as common to both networks (773 were identified. Functional clusters were obtained and two models of drought stress response for the V/2xRL and V/4xRL genotypes were designed. Even if the V/2xRL plant implement some tolerance mechanisms, the global plant response to drought was rapid and quickly exhaustive resulting in a general tendency to dehydration avoidance, which presented some advantage in short and strong drought stress conditions, but which, in long terms, does not allow the plant survival. At the contrary, the V/4xRL plants presented a response which strong impacts on development but that present some advantages in case of prolonged drought. Finally, some specific proteins, which presented high centrality on interactomic analysis were identified as good candidates for subsequent functional analysis of citrus genes related to drought response, as well as be good markers of one or another physiological mechanism implemented by the plants.

  20. PERFORMANCE OF ‘TUXPAN VALENCIA’ SWEET ORANGE GRAFTED ONTO 14 ROOTSTOCKS IN NORTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATIANA DE OLIVEIRA FRANÇA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the State of Bahia, Brazil, the citrus industry is located on the north coast with the prevalence of the combination ‘Pera’ sweet orange on ‘Rangpur’ lime. Scion-rootstock diversification may contribute to the increase of yield and the extension of harvest season, as long as to decrease the risk associated to abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, the performance of ‘Tuxpan Valencia’ sweet orange grafted onto 14 rootstocks was evaluated in Rio Real – BA. Planting was performed in 2006 under rainfed cultivation on cohesive ultisol and tree spacing of 6.0 m x 4.0 m. Tree size, yield and fruit quality were evaluated in the period of 2010-2014, in addition to tree survival at nine years old and drought tolerance in the field based on leaf wilting. In the evaluated conditions, ‘Sunki Tropical’ and ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarins led to the highest scion canopy volume. The highest accumulated yield in five harvests was recorded on ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ lemon, ‘Riverside’ and ‘Indio’ citrandarins, ‘Sunki Tropical’ mandarin and the hybrid TSKC x (LCR x TR – 001. ‘Riverside’ and TSKFL x CTSW – 049 induced higher yield efficiency on the canopy. The rootstocks did not influence the tree survival nine years after planting except for lower survival of TSKFL x CTSW – 049. Drought tolerance was not affected either. Regarding to the fruit quality of ‘Tuxpan Valencia’, the rootstocks influenced the juice content, soluble solids and technological index with the citrandarins, ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ lemon and ‘Sunki Tropical’ mandarin presenting higher performance in general.

  1. Expression of defence-related genes against Phytophthora cinnamomi in five avocado rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Juanita Engelbrecht; Noalani van den Berg

    2013-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) – a major fruit crop worldwide – is threatened by root rot caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. This pathogen is known to infect the plant via the feeder roots leading to branch dieback, and eventually tree mortality. While it is known that different avocado rootstocks have varying degrees of susceptibility to Phytophthora root rot, little research has been done on the avocado–Phytophthora interaction. In this study, transcript abundance levels of defence-related genes...

  2. Transcriptional Characterization of a Widely-Used Grapevine Rootstock Genotype under Different Iron-Limited Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Alessandro; Donnini, Silvia; Vigani, Gianpiero; Corso, Massimiliano; Valle, Giorgio; Vitulo, Nicola; Bonghi, Claudio; Zocchi, Graziano; Lucchin, Margherita

    2017-01-01

    Iron chlorosis is a serious deficiency that affects orchards and vineyards reducing quality and yield production. Chlorotic plants show abnormal photosynthesis and yellowing shoots. In grapevine iron uptake and homeostasis are most likely controlled by a mechanism known as “Strategy I,” characteristic of non-graminaceous plants and based on a system of soil acidification, iron reduction and transporter-mediated uptake. Nowadays, grafting of varieties of economic interest on tolerant rootstocks is widely used practice against many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, many interspecific rootstocks, and in particular those obtained by crossing exclusively non-vinifera genotypes, can show limited nutrient uptake and transport, in particular for what concerns iron. In the present study, 101.14, a commonly used rootstock characterized by susceptibility to iron chlorosis was subjected to both Fe-absence and Fe-limiting conditions. Grapevine plantlets were grown in control, Fe-deprived, and bicarbonate-supplemented hydroponic solutions. Whole transcriptome analyses, via mRNA-Seq, were performed on root apices of stressed and unstressed plants. Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) confirmed that Strategy I is the mechanism responsible for iron uptake in grapevine, since many orthologs genes to the Arabidopsis “ferrome” were differentially regulated in stressed plant. Molecular differences in the plant responses to Fe absence and presence of bicarbonate were also identified indicating the two treatments are able to induce response-mechanisms only partially overlapping. Finally, we measured the expression of a subset of genes differentially expressed in 101.14 (such as IRT1, FERRITIN1, bHLH38/39) or known to be fundamental in the “strategy I” mechanism (AHA2 and FRO2) also in a tolerant rootstock (M1) finding important differences which could be responsible for the different degrees of tolerance observed. PMID:28105035

  3. Photosynthetic activity in the rootstock of hybrid peach trees submitted to water restriction and flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Martinazzo, Emanuela G.; Perboni, Anelise T.; Farias, Márcio E.; Bianchi, Valmor J.; Bacarin, Marcos A.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of flooding and water restriction (drought) on the photosynthetic activity in plants of the hybrid rootstock 'GxN-9' (Prunus dulcis Mill. × Prunus persica L. Bastsch), grown in a greenhouse. Chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange were analyzed in plants of approximately 12 months. The reduction of photosynthetic activity in both the stresses were associated with decreased carboxylation efficiency, but without affecting the internal concentration of c...

  4. Inner necrosis in grapevine rootstock mother plants in the Cognac area (Charentes, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M. Liminana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and quantification of decline-associated inner necrosis in grapevine rootstock mother plants have rarely been studied. In an experimental vineyard planted in 1991 at Saintes (Charentes, susceptibility to esca was evaluated in eleven common rootstock varieties. Fifty vines per rootstock variety were used as mother plants producing long canes which were severely pruned every year. No foliar symptoms, typical of grapevine wood diseases, were seen in field inspections conducted in the summer of 1996, 2002, 2003 and 2006. In 2007, nine trunks per variety were randomly selected and were cross-sectioned at the point of greatest diameter. All sections revealed typical esca necrosis, central and/or sector-shaped, indicating that such necrosis is very common. Every section was photographed and the percentage of necrotic area was calculated by either visual assessment or image-analysis. No significant difference was detected between these two calculating methods. Based on the mean percent necrotic area, rootstock varieties were ranked in order of susceptibility from the least susceptible, ‘1103 Paulsen’ (33%, to the most susceptible, ‘101-14 MGT’ (71%. The percent of necrotic area was correlated significantly with i the incidence of mortality and ii the percentage of vine sections showing white rot, a type of necrosis indicating an advanced stage of wood deterioration. This study confirmed that necrosis in grapevine wood is not always associated with foliar symptoms, but that it is related positively with grapevine mortality. Furthermore, wood necrosis in mother-plants poses a risk of disseminating associated fungi through propagation material.

  5. EFFECT OF COMBINATIONS OF VERMICULITE AND EARTHWORM COMPOST IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RANGPUR LIME ROOTSTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Orioli, Fabrício Alberghini; Coopercitrus/Jales; Oliveira, Antônio Luís de; FAFRAM; Orioli Júnior, Valdeci; Unesp/Jaboticabal

    2008-01-01

    The present work was carried in protecting environment located in the Ranch Saint Luzia, situated in Monte Azul Paulista city. Rangpur lime rootstock was evaluated in different combinations of vermiculite and earthworm compost. The experiment was installed using a randomized block design, with five repetitions and seven treatments: 100% vermiculite; 100% earthworm compost; 50% vermiculite and 50% earthworm compost; 60% vermiculite and 40% earthworm compost; 70% vermiculite and 30% earthworm c...

  6. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  7. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is prohibited...

  8. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop insurance provisions. The Table Grape Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  9. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by the...

  10. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the approval...

  11. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grape crop insurance provisions. 457.138 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance provisions. The grape crop insurance provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows: United...

  12. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  13. Rootstocks influence yield performance of navel orange trees after drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drastic pruning is an alternative control recommended in orchards affected by citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of six rootstocks on growth, yield and quality of 'Monte Parnaso'(Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. navel oranges, after performing a drastic pruning to eradicate the citrus canker. A complete randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replicates, was used. The following rootstocks were tested: 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Pasq., 'Cravo' Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb., 'Swingle'citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata. Traits related to plant height, yield and fruit quality were evaluated. The largest cumulative yield was obtained from 'Cravo', 'Volkamer' and 'Sunki'. 'Cravo' and 'Volkamer' induced higher production efficiency, fruits with the highest average weight and the lowest pre-harvest fruit drop. All the evaluated rootstocks produced high quality fruits and similar canopy sizes.

  14. Salt tolerance of precocious-dwarf cashew rootstocks: physiological and growth indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Paulo Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew crop (Anacardium occiedentale L. is of great economic and social importance for Northeast Brazil, a region usually affected by water and soil salinity. The present study was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of four salinity levels established through electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 dS m-1, at 25ºC, on growth and physiological indexes of five rootstocks of dwarf-precocious cashew varieties CCP06, CCP09, CCP1001, EMBRAPA50, and EMBRAPA51. Plant height, leaf area, dry weight of root, shoot and total; water content of leaves, root/shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, absolute and relative growth rates and rate of net assimilation were evaluated. The majority of the evaluated variables were found to be affected by ECw and the effects varied among clones; however, no significant interactive effects were observed for factors. The value of ECw = 1.39 dS m-1 was considered as a threshold tolerance for the precocious cashew rootstocks used in this study. The dwarf-precocious cashew is moderately sensible to soil salinity during the formation phase of rootstock. Clones EMBRAPA51 and EMBRAPA50 presented, respectively, the least and the best development indexes.

  15. BIOFERTILIZATION WITH RHIZOBACTERIA AND A CONSORTIUM OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gregorio Chiquito-Contreras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilization of plants with rhizobacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (mycorrhizal consortium, potentially promotes plant growth and health, and reduces the use of agrochemicals. The effect of individual and combined biofertilization with three strains of rhizobacteria and the mycorrhizal consortium (MTZ-1 was evaluated under nursery conditions on the growth of rootstocks of Citrus volkameriana and Rangpur lime grafted with Tahiti lime. Plants were inoculated individually and combined with the rhizobacteria strains FCA-8, FCA-56 and FCA-60 of Pseudomonas putida, and with MTZ-1; 50 % fertilization also was applied (18-46-00 N-P-K and compared with controls that received nursery management and 100 % fertilization. A split-plot experimental design with five replications per treatment was established. Individual and combined biofertilization with the three strains of bacteria and MTZ-1 positively promoted the growth of C. volkameriana, and Rangpur lime grafted with Tahiti lime, similar to the control with 100 % fertilization. The nutrient content of Tahiti lime leaves was similar to the control for both rootstocks. The presence of rhizobacterial and mycorrhizal populations in the combined biofertilization treatments demonstrated a positive synergism in the colonization of rootstock roots. Results demonstrate the potential of the three strains of P. putida and the MTZ-1 mycorrhizal consortium on the promotion of plant growth and assimilation of nutrients.

  16. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  17. Grapes and Cardiovascular Disease1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of wine, grape products, and other foods containing polyphenols is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of wine consumption appear to be greater than other alcoholic beverages. Experimental studies indicate that grape polyphenols could reduce atherosclerosis by a number of mechanisms, including inhibition of oxidation of LDL and other favorable effects on cellular redox state, improvement of endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, inhibition of platelet aggregation, reducing inflammation, and activating novel proteins that prevent cell senescence, e.g. Sirtuin 1. Translational studies in humans support these beneficial effects. More clinical studies are needed to confirm these effects and formulate dietary guidelines. The available data, however, strongly support the recommendation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, including grapes, can decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625699

  18. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  19. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  20. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, Tom; Geuna, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...... potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown...

  1. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Burlakov M. M.; Rodionova L. Y.; Troshin L. P.; Chausov V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice var...

  2. Yield, fruit quality traits and leaf nutrient concentration of sapodilla cv ‘Prolific’ grafted onto 16 rootstocks in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on sapodilla has been very limited. A field study was conducted to determine the yield potential, fruit quality traits, leaf nutrient composition and scion/rootstock compatibility of cultivar ‘Prolific’ grafted onto 16 sapodilla rootstocks. For this purpose cultivars ‘Adelaide’, ‘Arcilago’...

  3. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Moreno, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1) on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol) and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC). Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties. PMID:24496242

  4. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  5. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bolat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67% and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33% combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  7. The effect of water stress on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success on apple and quince rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Ibrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Ercisli, Sezai; Ikinci, Ali; Tonkaz, Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weights. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll index decreased while electrolyte leakage increased with the increase of water stress in both rootstocks. An increase in water stress also resulted in reduction in budding success in Vista Bella/M9 (79.33% and 46.67%) and Santa Maria/MA (70.33% and 15.33%) combinations. However, the water stress in Santa Maria/MA was more prominent. The increase in water stress resulted in higher peroxidase activities as well as phenol contents in both rootstocks. Although catalase activity, anthocyanin, and proline contents increased with the impact of stress, this was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the impact of stress increased with the increase of water stress; therefore, growers should be careful when using M9 and MA rootstocks in both nursery and orchards where water scarcity is present.

  8. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  9. Polyphenol metabolomics of twenty Italian red grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavaresco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Suspect screening analysis”method to study grape metabolomics, was performed. This method is a middle-way “targeted” and “untargeted”approach aiming at identifying the largest number of metabolites in grape samples. A new database of putative grape and wine metabolites (GrapeMetabolomics, which currently contains around 1,100 compounds, was constructed by CREA at Conegliano. By performing high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the grape extract in both positive and negative ionization mode, averaging 320-450 putative compounds are identified. Most of them are grape polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives. By performing PCA and Cluster Analysis the composition in anthocyanins and flavonols of 20 Italian red grape varieties, was studied.

  10. Recent applications of grape polyphenols in foods, beverages and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollücke, Andréa P B

    2010-06-01

    Grape polyphenols are associated with the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. The present review discusses the most abundant polyphenols in red grapes as well as the recent food and beverage products developed with these natural antioxidant substances. Grape phenolic concentration and composition depend on agro-geographic factors and processing conditions. In humans, grape polyphenols demonstrated effects such as maintenance of endothelial function, increase in antioxidant capacity and protection against LDL oxidation. Recent patents regarding grape polyphenols show a tendency to return to natural products with a minimum use of severe extraction processes and organic solvents. The new products tend to use grape juice and wine as raw materials and maximize their polyphenolic contents. Grape derived polyphenolic foods, beverages and supplements suit effectively the current demand for antioxidant substances of nutritional interest.

  11. Use of biocontrol agents and botanicals in integrated management of Botrytis cinerea in table grape vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Caterina; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Dongiovanni, Crescenza; Pollastro, Stefania; Fumarola, Giulio; Di Carolo, Michele; Perrelli, Donato; Natale, Patrizia; Faretra, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of biological control agents (BCAs) and botanicals (BOTs) due to increasing awareness of the environmental and human health risks associated with synthetic plant protection products. The BCAs Bacillus subtilis strain QST713, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 and Aureobasidium pullulans strains DSM14940 and DSM14941, and the BOTs Melaleuca alternifolia and terpenic extracts are proposed for the control of grey mould in vineyards. This study was aimed at evaluating their effectiveness in integrated crop management strategies and their outcomes in terms of the management of fungicide resistance and residues. In field trials carried out on table grapes in southern Italy, use of BCAs or BOTs alternately or mixtures of BCAs or BOTs with the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicide fluopyram showed efficacy of up to 96% against grey mould on bunches, comparable with the chemical reference strategy (up to 87%). By contrast, use of BCAs or BOTs (up to 11 sprays) alone was not effective (integrated use of BCAs or BOTs reduced the spread of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor-resistant conidia, as well as fungicide residues in grapes. Spray schedules based on integration of BCAs or BOTs with fungicides are effective against grey mould and reduce the risk of fungicide resistance in B. cinerea and fungicide residues in grapes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  13. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  14. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  15. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to improve metabolite accumulation of grape cells by manipulating culture and environmental conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design and conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and light intensity.

  16. Composting winery waste: sludges and grape stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, E; Sort, X; Soliva, M; Trillas, I

    2004-11-01

    The composting of winery waste is an alternative to the traditional disposal of residues, and also involves a commitment to reducing the production of waste products. We studied two residues (sludge and grape stalks), mixed in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 sludge and grape stalks (v/v)), and we also examined the effects of grinding the grape stalks. Our results showed that composting the assayed materials was possible. Best results were obtained in the compost heap in which the residues were mixed in the proportion 1:2, and where the grape stalks had been previously ground. Optimum results required a moisture around 55% and a maximum temperature around 65 degrees C and an oxygen concentration not lower than 5-10%. The resulting compost had a high agronomic value and is particularly suitable for the soils of the vineyards which have a very low organic matter content. The compost can be reintroduced into the production system, thereby closing the residual material cycle.

  17. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp. is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  18. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappellini, E.; Gilbert, M.T.P.; Geuna, F.; Fiorentino, G.; Hall, A.; Thomas-Oates, J.; Ashton, P.D.; Ashford, D.A.; Arthur, P.; Campos, P.F.; Kool, J.; Willerslev, E.; Collins, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce,

  19. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qian; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Yali

    2017-04-26

    Grape hyacinth ( Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  20. Produtividade e composição físico-química de bagas de cultivares de uva em distintos porta-enxertos Productivity and physicochemical composition of berries of grapevine cultivars grafted onto different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de nove porta-enxertos na produção e composição química das bagas de uvas de mesa e de processamento durante o período de 2006 a 2008 em Caldas, MG. As cultivares Niágara Rosada e Folha de Figo foram enxertadas sobre 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', '420 A', '1103 Paulsen', 'Traviú', '196-17', 'Gravesac' e 'RR 101-14' e submetidas ao delineamento em blocos ao acaso com dez tratamentos (nove porta-enxertos e o pé-franco e quatro repetições. Ambas cultivares apresentaram maior produção sobre 'IAC 572', porém com prejuízo para a qualidade das bagas que apresentaram menor relação sólidos solúveis/acidez, menor teor de antocianinas e de compostos fenólicos e maior acidez. A absorção de potássio foi mais dependente do porta-enxerto em 'Niágara Rosada'; a maior absorção foi com os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'Traviú'. Videiras enxertadas sobre '196-17' apresentaram o menor teor de potássio nas bagas. 'Niágara Rosada' apresentou produção de 9 kg por planta e elevada relação sólidos solúveis/acidez sobre 'RR 101-14', '420 A' e 'Gravesac'. Entretanto, 'Gravesac' proporcionou maior concentração de antocianinas. 'Folha de Figo' enxertada em '196-17' apresentou elevado teor de sólidos solúveis, antocianinas e fenólicos nas cascas e menor teor de acidez e fenólicos nas sementes, além de produção de 5 kg por planta, estatisticamente semelhante aos porta-enxertos mais produtivos.This work aimed at evaluating the influence of nine rootstocks on the productivity and chemical composition of table and processing grapes from 2006 to 2008 in Caldas, MG. The cultivars Niagara Rosada and Folha de Figo were grafted onto 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', '420 A', '1103 Paulsen', 'Traviú', '196-17', 'Gravesac' and 'RR 101-14' and submitted to a randomized block design with ten treatments (nine rootstocks and ungrafted plant with four replicates. Both cultivars had higher yields

  1. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  2. Suitable criteria for drought-tolerant peach rootstocks grown in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Boonanunt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peach growing in rainfed areas in the hi ghlands of northern Thailand is suffering from drought conditions, which are becoming increasingly severe every y ear. Drought tol erant rootstocks provide one option to all eviate this problem. Thus, this study aims to find some guides for selecting drought -tolerant peach rootstocks. The local peach vari ety ‘Red Angkhang’ and 3 new hybrid cultivars ‘42047T1’, ‘43060T1’ and ‘43087T2’ were used in this study. Two-y ear-old peach seedlings of each cultivar were grown in pots and divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of well - watered plants (100% of evapotranspiration and the second group consisted of water-deficit plants which received only 30% of evapotranspiration for 5 weeks. After that, the water- defi cit peach seedlings were re-watered in the same manner as the well-watered plants f or 2 weeks. Water stress led to a decrease in growth in all cultivars. T h e water- deficit tol erance of Red Angkhang was comparable to that of the new hybrid 42047T1, but the two cultivars used different mechanisms: Red Angkhang responded to water deficit by increasing only the root dry wei ght while hybrid 42047T1 also accumulated sorbitol. The 43060T1 and 43087T2 h y b r i d s were l ess tol erant to water defi cit and responded by decreasing the root dry wei ght with no sorbitol accumulation. From this study , we suggest that root dry wei ght and sorbitol concentration can be used to screen drought tolerant rootstocks in peach in northern Thailand.

  3. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Physiological responses of apricot plants grafted on two different rootstocks to flooding conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Miguel, Rafael; Pérez-Pastor, A.; Ruiz Sánchez, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The effects of soil flooding on plant water relations and vegetative growth was studied in potted two-year-old apricot plants (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Búlida) grafted on two different rootstocks: Pollizo prune (P. insititia L.) (P) and Real Fino apricot (RF). Plants were submitted to three outdoor treatments: T0, not flooded (control), and two flooded treatments for 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) days. Apricot water relations were seen to be adversely affected from the first day of the flooding onwards. ...

  5. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  6. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  7. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  8. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Zuzana Barboráková; Soňa Felšöciová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice) of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine), and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol a...

  9. Thermal degradation of grape marc polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Katalin; Solá, Ruth; Cocero, María José; Mato, Rafael B

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds of wine making by-products are of interest in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Extraction of antioxidants under mild conditions is time-consuming, giving ground to the development of intensification processes where the operation at high temperature may deteriorate extract quality. This study examined thermal degradation of grape marc and its filtered extract (80, 100 and 150°C). The decrease in anthocyanin content was modelled under non-isothermal conditions by first order kinetics, using the Arrhenius equation. Simulated degradation under isothermal heating showed that the grape marc is more sensitive by one order of magnitude to heat than the filtered extract. This tendency was also confirmed by analyses of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It is suggested that an optimal combination of temperature, treatment time and also raw material environment could be found in process intensification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ~400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV, at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of >1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above.

  11. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  12. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for market as natural grapes by performing all the normal cultural practices, but not using any inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth regulators...

  13. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  15. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  16. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  17. Evaluation of tomato rootstocks and its use to control bacterial wilt diseaseAvaliação de porta-enxertos de tomateiro e o uso da enxertia no controle da murcha bacteriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferraz Laranjeira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants are susceptible to bacterial wilting, which causes production losses varying from 10 to 100 %. A method for controlling this disease is the use of grafting on resistant rootstocks. This work had the objective of evaluating tomato genotypes for the resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and the grafting technique as an alternative for the bacterial wilt control in the region of Recôncavo Baiano, Brazil. To evaluate the resistance to R. solanacearum, four local genotypes, collected in different regions of Bahia, the cv. Santa Clara as a susceptible treatment, and the Hawaii 7996 (H7996, as a resistant treatment were studied. For the evaluation of grafting method for control of bacterial wilt, the H7996 was used as rootstock, and the cvs. Santa Clara, Santa Cruz Kada, and Débora Plus were used as the scion plants. Both experiments were evaluated in an area infested with R. solanacearum, for a period of 65 days for the selection of the rootstocks and 45 days for the evaluation of the grafting method. Only the H7996 can be recommended as a R. solanacearum resistant rootstock. The other genotypes showed susceptibility to the pathogen. The grafting on the H7996 did not show incompatibility with the scion tomato cultivars tested and reached 100 % control of the bacterial wilt disease, for all treatments, suggesting that this method can be used as an alternative for the bacterial wilt control, allowing the production of susceptible tomato cultivars in areas infested with R. solanacearum A suscetibilidade do tomateiro à murcha bacteriana (Ralstonia solanacearum causa perdas que vão de 10 a 100 % na produção e uma das alternativas de controle que vem sendo utilizada é a enxertia com porta-enxerto resistente. Este trabalho teve o objetivo avaliar genótipos de tomateiro quanto à resistência a R. solanacearum e a enxertia como alternativa para o controle da murcha bacteriana do tomateiro na região do Recôncavo Baiano. Para avalia

  18. Overcoming grape growers’ pesticide lock-in

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline UGAGLIA (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Bernard DEL’HOMME (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Maryline FILIPPI (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB)

    2011-01-01

    An evolutionary framework is used here to study the issue of pesticide reduction in vineyards. After analyzing grape growers’ pesticide lock-in we show that, although Integrated Pest Management (IPM) could reduce pesticide use significantly, the lack of specific implementation know-how hampers its diffusion. Consequently, once the features of technological change for IPM have been scrutinized, we adopt a case analysis approach in which environmental regulation is envisaged as one possible way...

  19. [Micronutrient composition of grape growing in Dagestan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmulaeva, Z K; Magadova, S A

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient content in Pearl Zala, Pearl Saba, Creamy, and Amber Muscat varieties of grape has been determined. The ultimate analysis has been made by the atomic-absorption flame photometry; ascorbic acid has been determined by the titrometric analysis; rutin, niacin, and carotene have been studied by the colorimetric method. It has been found that the content of potassium (2673.8 mg/kg), calcium (349.0 mg/kg), iron (35.9 mg/kg), silicon (611.3 mg/kg), manganese (0.89 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5.3 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearl Zala grapes, while the content of zinc (0.31 mg/kg), nicotinic acid (10.9 mg/dm3) and carotene (0,33 mg/dm3) was the highest in Pearls Saba. Amber Muscat grape has been found to have the highest concentration of sodium (151.4 mg/kg), phosphorus (466.8 mg/kg), magnesium (221.6 mg/kg), aluminum (68.5 mg/kg), cobalt (0.120 mg/kg) and copper (1.91 mg/kg) in comparison with other grape varieties. It has been found that the content of ascorbic acid and rutin differ 1.5-1.6 fold, of magnesium, iron, silicon and potassium--1.7-1.8 fold, of calcium and phosphorus--2.2-2.5 fold, carotene--4.1 times, aluminum, sodium and nicotinic acid--4.7-5.5 fold, cobalt and copper--8.6-8.7 fold, zinc and manganese--10.3-22.2 fold.

  20. Subirrigation equipment for the production of citrus rootstocks: Design and hydraulic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan Ayade Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and characterize hydraulic subirrigation equipment for the citrus rootstocks production of to allow the water capillary rise for the seedling stage. This equipment was designed since the citrus seedling phase occurs in plastic containers with substrate, and because there is a need to increase the irrigation efficiency in this sector. The methodology consisted of: (i identification and characterization of the irrigation methods used in the citrus rootstocks production; (ii the design of subirrigation equipment prototype; and, (iii the construction and hydraulic evaluation of the prototype equipment. After a model was designed, 10 prototypes were built with two different dimensions (44 × 29 × 15 cm and 62 × 41 × 15 cm, and the theoretical and experimental relationships of flow and operating pressure were determined. The proposed equipment was designed according to engineering criteria that allows its evaluation for commercial use, although additional field trials are required for its final adjustment. Moreover, the theoretical equation of flow rate was validated for small-immersed orifices in thin walls, as an operational condition of the developed subirrigation equipment.

  1. HR-MAS NMR metabolomics of 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock genetically modified to overproduce proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline S; Carlos, Eduardo F; Vieira, Luiz G E; Lião, Luciano M; Alcantara, Glaucia B

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of proline is a typical physiological response to abiotic stresses in higher plants. 'Swingle' citrumelo, an important rootstock for citrus production, has been modified with a mutated Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene (VaP5CSF129A) linked to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to induce the overproduction of free proline. This paper presents a comparative metabolomic study of nontransgenic versus transgenic 'Swingle' citrumelo plants with high endogenous proline. (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis showed significant differences in some metabolites between the nontransgenic and transgenic leaves and roots. The overproduction of proline has reduced the sucrose content in transgenic leaves, revealing a metabolic cost for these plants. In roots, the high level of free proline acts for the adjustment of cation-anion balance, causing the reduction of acetic acid content. The same sucrose level in roots indicates that they can be considered as sucrose sink. Similar behavior may be waited for fruits produced on transgenic rootstock. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. Grafted vegetables – the influence of rootstock and scion on postharvest quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallik Elazar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grafting of vegetable seedlings is a unique horticultural technology, practised for more than 50 years, to overcome problems associated with intensive cultivation on limited arable land. Grafting vegetables can protect against soil-borne diseases and nematodes, against abiotic stresses such as high/low temperatures, salinity, drought or excessive soil-water content, and against elevated soil concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. In addition, the grafted plant takes up water and nutrients from the soil more efficiently and retains its vitality for longer periods during the growing season. However, rootstock/scion combinations may affect and alter the final size, yield, and quality of fruits from grafted plants, both immediately postharvest and during prolonged storage. These alterations may be attributed in part to differing production environments and methods, the type of rootstock/scion combinations used, and harvest date. The aim of this paper is to review the most recent literature on the effects of grafting on postharvest quality of fruits/vegetables: tomato, watermelon, melon, eggplant, cucumber and pepper. The review will conclude by identifying several prospects for future research aimed at improving the quality of grafted fruit/vegetable products.

  4. Effect of high Al content in the soil on vegetative rootstocks for apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Gorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of fruit trees depends not only on the availability of major chemical elements in the soil, but also on their inter-relationships, their existing forms in the soil and the capability of the root system to absorb nutrients. The intensity of nutrient uptake is also highly dependent on soil solution pH. In recent years, large areas of land have been increasingly underused for fruit production. This can be partly attributed to soil acidification which also leads to increased concentrations of H, Al, Fe and Mn ions in its adsorptive complex. In order to neutralize soil acidity and Al toxicity, neutralizing agents should be used to help the soil become capable of fruit production. For this purpose, the following lime materials were used: CaO, bentonite and lifos. The commonly used vegetative rootstocks of different vigor for apple M9, M26 and MM106 were planted as test plants. The impact of lime materials was evaluated with respect to the leaf assimilating surface area, vegetative growth and tree diameter of the rootstocks used. The best soil amending effect was achieved by CaO, followed in declining order by lifos and bentonite.

  5. EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZAL INOCULANTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN LANDRACE AVOCADO ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Castro Alvarado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculants in the development of avocado rootstocks. Seeds of Mexican landrace avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. drymifolia were used, with two commercial inoculants: T1 containing Glomus fasciculatum, G. constrictum, G. tortuosum, G. geosporum,and Acaulospora scrobiculata, and T2, containing G. mosseae and G. cubense.  The plants inoculated with AMF showed more rapid growth than the no inoculant control as measured by plant height (50% and 54%, stem diameter (35% and 36%, leaf number (48% and 37% and length (31% and 40%, and root fresh weight (85% and 59%; however, no significant differences were observed between T1 and T2. The chlorophyll concentration in the leaves from T1 was 16.4% and T2 was 19% higher than the control suggesting a higher photosynthetic capacity in T1 and T2. Finally the shoot/root ratio, as indicator of the potential development of plantations, was 79% and 50% higher in mycorrhizal plants than in the control. In conclusion both T1 and T2 inoculants improved growth rate and vigor of avocado nursery rootstocks producing higher quality plants.

  6. Influence of three rootstocks on yield and commercial quality of "Italian Sweet" pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Doñas-Uclés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper crops (Capsicum annuum L. represent a very important production sector in the Southeast of Spain. Specifically, in the province of Almería, approximately 7000 hectares are grown every year. Due to the economic importance that this crop has for the region and the withdrawal of soil fumigants from the market, agronomic techniques have been adopted with the aim of controlling some soil pathogens and increasing the yield and quality parameters of the fruits obtained. The use of grafted pepper plants is not, as yet, very well established in this region, due mainly to the lack of commercial rootstocks that satisfy the producers of this vegetable. In this experiment three pepper rootstocks were assessed. An experiment was designed with four treatments and three replications of each one (12 experimental plots, which were distributed in randomised blocks. Three of the treatments corresponded to grafted plants of the "Palermo" cultivar onto: "Oscos", "AR40" and "Tresor", using non-grafted "Palermo" cultivar as the control test. The average yield expressed in kg/plant, showed significant differences between grafted and non-grafted plants. The highest fruit weight was obtained in Palermo onto Tresor. The presence of Blossom end rot (BER in the assessed fruits also showed significant differences between the different treatments, with the fruits from plants grafted onto Tresor showing a higher proportion of BER and the fruits coming from plants grafted onto AR40 showing the lowest proportion.

  7. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  8. Effect of different rootstocks on growth, chlorophyll a fluorescence and mineral composition of two grafted scions of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goto, R.; Miguel, de A.; Marsal, J.I.; Gorbe, E.; Calatayud, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two tomato scions (cvs. ‘Raf’ and ‘Gorety’) were grafted on three different rootstocks: S. torvum, ‘Beaufort’ (Lycopersicum esculentum × Lycopersicum hirsutum) and intermediate grafting of eggplant ‘Cristal’ between tomato and S. torvum (double graft). Plants were grown in Mediterranean greenhouse

  9. Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Marull, J

    1991-10-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei.

  10. Krymsk®1 (VVA-1), A dwarfing rootstock suitable for high density plum orchards in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Krymsk®:1 (Prunus tomentosa × Prunus cerasifera) was selected by Gennady Eremin at the Krymsk Breeding Station in Russia in 1966. Since 1994, it has been tested as a rootstock for several plum cultivars in The Netherlands. Graft compatibility was good for scion cultivars ‘Avalon’, ‘Excalibur’,

  11. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  12. Foliar feeding of rootstocks of various cultivars of hazelnuts (Corylus maxima Mill. in the mother plantation for horizontal vegetative propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. О. Яремко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of optimum dozes of foliar fee­ding for each cultivar that will provide the highest output of standard rootstocks. Methods. Field, analytical and statistical ones. Results. The author presents the results of study of the hazelnut plant foliar feeding in the mother plantation for vegetative propagation with applying different carba­mide concentration combined with 0.1% potassium sulfate (1.50.4 m in case of horizontal method of growing. Biometric indices of hazelnut layers were analyzed; the influence of each factor on their height and diameter was determined. The rootstocks output per 1 linear meter for each cultivar as well as optimum foliar feeding doze was defined (0.5% carbamide with 0.1% potassium sulfate. Conclusions. The highest output of standard rootstocks in the mother plantation for horizontal vegetative propagation was achieved when applying the foliar feeding with 0.5% carbamide combined with 0.1% potassium sulfate, particularly (thousand rootstocks per 1 ha for the cultivars: ‘Sviatkovyi’ – 66.7, ‘Dolynskyi’ – 62.1 and ‘Darunok Yunnatam’ – 50.7. For ‘Koronchatyi’ cultivar, the use of 3% carbamide was the most efficient.

  13. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  14. Ectopic Expression of the Wild Grape WRKY Transcription Factor VqWRKY52 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Powdery Mildew But Not to the Necrotrophic Pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhang; Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Dejun; Guo, Chunlei; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52 , from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate, revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea , compared with wild type (WT) plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic P. syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea . In addition, the relative expression levels of various defense-related genes were compared between the transgenic A. thaliana lines and WT plants following the infection by different pathogens. Collectively, the results indicated that VqWRKY52 plays essential roles in the SA dependent signal transduction pathway and that it can enhance the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by microbial pathogens.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of ‘Shatangju’ Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), ‘Shatangju’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of ‘Shatangju’ mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and ‘Shatangju’ mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in ‘Red tangerine vs Canton lemon’. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways. PMID:28081213

  16. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dēķena Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  17. Table grape of Ukraine – varietal resources, pers­pectives of production and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Власов

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To enrich and improve the range of table grape varieties of Ukraine. Methods. Breeding, hybridological, mathematic, visual ones. Results. Modern Ukrainian gene pool of table grape varieties has been created on the base of the best introduced and homegrown cultivars and selections. New genotypes that are creating at the National Scientific Centre “Institute of Viticulture and Wine-Making named after V. Ye. Tairov” under the breeding program “Resistense plus Quality” are the basis of current and future regional assortments for the south and central areas of the steppe zone of Ukraine. The complexity of the origine explains the genetically determined high-level manifestation of commercially valuable characters. New varieties and selections are ecologically safe for humans and the environment, as the level of their resistance to the group of fungal main diseases is not less than 6.5 points according to the 9-point scale, therefore they do not require a large pesticide load. New promising table varieties demonstrate a stable yield and high marketability of grapes – 5–10 kg per plant with the marketability nearly 80–87% during the last five years. In addition, dense flesh of grapes is a guarantee of high transportability. The variety of table genotypes taste, shape and berries ripening from very early to very late embodied in the innovative and highly profitable development “Conveyor of table grapes”. Depending on the ecological and geographical conditions, the conveyor can include a diffe­rent quantity of varieties, but to in order increase the efficiency and profitability it is necessary to have a few groups (from 2 to 4 varietes of different ripening. The approximate ratio (% of varieties of different ripening time is recommended: very early – 22%, early – 22%, average – 17%, mid-late – 17%, and late – 22%. Conclusions. The variation of shape, flavour and color of new promising genotypes of table grapes makes

  18. Amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Petiole of Some Iranian and Imported Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Doulati Baneh

    2016-02-01

    play a role in improving nutrients uptake. The rootstocks of V. labruscaand scions grafted on them achieve a higher ability in uptaking iron, even in markedly alkaline soils. Such tolerant varieties can mobilize iron by reducing soil pH at root level, thanks to their ability to emit H+ and/or organic acids.In the latter case, iron is absorbed and transferred as a complex. Roots of some cultivars can also reduce Fe3+ to Fe2 + encouraging its migration from roots to leaves. Conclusion: The studied grapevine cultivars displayed a considerable level of variability based on mineral content analysis. The results suggested that significant differences existed in the leaf petioles elemental concentrations among the grapevine cultivars analysis that might be in due part to the ability of the cultivar to accumulate metals. This study could be also used as a reference for grape growers to help them decide the best varieties that might grow under their soil conditions giving the best growth and yield productivity.

  19. RESEARCH ON AGROBIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF TABLE GRAPES VARIETIES IN THE VINEYARD STEFANESTI-ARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necula Cezarina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the sortment of vatietis for table grapes at Stefănesti´s vineyard the the behaviour of four varieties:Augusta, Victoria, Argessis and Transilvania was observed for a perioad of 3 years. The table varieties have presentedsome superior characters of adaptation to the Stefănesti´s vineyard condition, this is why this this varieties was thesubject of a detailed study. The authors recommend these varieties to be checked in the production plantations. Duringthe period 2007-2009 were carried out research on a number of four native varieties for table grapes ripening withplanting different varieties with valuable traits that can complete the requirements agrobiological market from July toSeptember. Varieties are in a collection bearing the INCDBH Stefănesti ampelography.In the study observations were made and determinations of frost resistance of varieties of winter, vine vigor, carryingthe main phenophase, duration of vegetation period were calculated and relative percentages of fertility, indices ofproductivity, quality and quantity grape production.

  20. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been developed for the determination of Fe3+ at pH 5.0. The emission wavelength of the grape skin sensor occurs at 680 nm and the excitation wavelength at 421 nm. The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of ...

  1. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  2. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  3. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wildfrost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify th...

  4. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: gupta@grapes.tifr.res.in. MS received 11 October 2012; revised 11 April 2013; accepted 17 April 2013. Abstract. The GRAPES-3 experiment at Ooty contains a large-area (560 m2) tracking muon detector.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against. Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry ...

  6. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of anthocyanin with the metal ions. Anthocyanin, the main pigment in the grape skin, has been found fluorescence sensing material. The sensor based on the grape skin exhibited a calibration response for Fe3+ in two concentration ...

  7. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  8. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Fernández-Escudero, J.A. [Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon, Rueda (Spain); Barajas, E. [ITACYL, Valladolid (Spain); Medrano, G. [Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  9. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Plaza, C.; Saja, J.A. de; Fernández-Escudero, J.A.; Barajas, E.; Medrano, G.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  10. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  11. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  12. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  13. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  14. Severe immediate allergic reactions to grapes: part of a lipid transfer protein-associated clinical syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Rigby, Neil R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; van Ree, Ronald; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grape allergy is considered rare; grape lipid transfer protein (LTP; Vit v 1), an endochitinase and a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) have been reported as grape allergens. A considerable number of patients have referred to our department for severe reactions to grapes, and several IgE

  15. The elaboration of a practical protocol for the micropropagation of several apple rootstock varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Clapa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The apple rootstock varieties ‘MM 106/4’, ‘MM 106/6’, ‘D 18’, ‘D 20’, ‘JTE-H’ and ‘MR 09/4’ were multiplied in vitro on modified Murashige and Skoog media gelled with wheat starch (MSs and supplemented with 0.7 mg/l BA, which provided intense axillary shoot proliferation. Among the genotypes we studied, MR 09/4 had the highest multiplication rate  (19.56, followed by D18 (15.36. The lowest multiplication rates were recorded in MM 106/6 (5.36 and in MM 106/4 (3.32. The use of the technique of direct ex vitro rooting and acclimatization in floating perlite provided rooting percentages of more than 90 %.

  16. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  17. Effects of transient soil waterlogging and its importance for rootstock selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morales-Olmedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under transient waterlogging, a number of transformations in the soil are generated associated with lack of aeration, seriously affecting the root system. Significant progress has been reported on understanding the effects of lack of oxygen on the metabolism of the roots, although few studies have examined changes in the soil. Diverging conclusions about the degree of tolerance exhibited by plants exclude the effects of hypoxia and anoxia on physical-chemical soil properties under plant experiments. This review examines the main changes occurring in soil and roots due to transient soil waterlogging conditions. Parameters such as antioxidant capacity, nutrient uptake dynamics and regeneration and distribution of the root system are relevant for selecting rootstocks tolerant to soil waterlogging.

  18. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Cedó; Anna Castell-Auví; Victor Pallarès; Mayte Blay; Anna Ardévol; Montserrat Pinent

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model ...

  19. Canopy structure and physiology related to rootstock vigour in early-ripening peach cultivar Flordastar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motisi, A.; Grutta, I.; Pernice, F.; Caruso, T.

    2005-01-01

    Canopy architectural and eco-physiological traits were measured on five-year-old early-ripening peach cv Flordastar trees grafted on GF 677 and MrS 2/5 rootstocks. Data are reported both on measurements performed directly on the trees, for branches and twigs characters, and on the fractal dimension (D), estimated by the 'box counting' method taken from digital images of Winter-dormant trees, adopted as an indicator of canopy complexity. Results are discussed in relation to the modification of the canopy microclimate as a consequence of the effects of rootstock on tree architecture and water consumption, the latter measured by using sap flow (HPV) probes. A lower degree of canopy complexity was observed in trees grafted onto MrS 2/5 and this, in turn, was related to a higher degree of aerodynamic contact of the tree with the atmosphere (expressed in terms of leaf boundary conductance) and to a higher solar radiation intensity along the canopy profile. These differences did not affect fruit quality in terms of size, red skin over-colour and soluble solid content. In MrS 2/5, the higher light availability at all levels along canopy profile was related to a moderate water deficit status, even under full-irrigation conditions, as evidenced by the lower stem water potential (below -1.3 MPa) and by a lower transpiration rate (about one-half of the values observed on GF 677). At tree-level, MrS 2/5 had a daily water consumption that, also in relation to the lower leaf area per tree, resulted as low as 25% of the values observed on GF 677. The latter, even carrying a significantly higher leaf area and higher water consumption, never showed apparent symptoms of water deficit [it

  20. Effects of Salinity Stress on Gas Exchange, Growth, and Nutrient Concentrations of Two Citrus Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Khoshbakht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study was undertaken to assess the salt tolerance of two citrus rootstocks, namely, Bakraii (Citrus sp. and Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata. A factorial experiment through a completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and four levels of salt including 0, 20, 40 and 60 mM NaCl was conducted. After eight weeks of treatment, number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, wet and dry weight of leaf, stem and root, length of root, chlorophyll content, net CO2 assimilation rate (ACO2, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E and water use efficiency (WUE and ion concentrations were measured. Salinity decreased growth and net gas exchange. Trifoliate orange showed the most decrease in growth indices and net gas exchange compared with Bakraii. The ability to limit the transfer of sodium to leaves in low levels of salt was observed in Trifoliate orange, but this ability was not observed in high levels of salt. Results showed that accumulation of chloride in leaves and roots were less in Bakraii compared to the Trifoliate orange. The lower Cl- concentration in leaves of Bakraii than trifoliate orange suggests that the salinity tolerance of Bakraii is associated with less transport of Cl- to the leaves. Salinity increased K+ and decreased Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations in leaves of both rootstocks. It is proposed that salt stress effect on plant physiological processes such as changes in plant growth, Cl- and Na+ toxicity, and mineral distribution, decreases chlorophyll content and reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of these citrus species.

  1. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  2. Production of white wine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on grape pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Macedo, S.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Teixeira, J. A.; Oliveira, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    White wine was produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on grape pomace, by natural adsorption. The support, the main solid waste from the wine industry, consisted of the skins, seeds and stems. Immobilization was tested using different media, namely complex culture medium, raw grape must and diluted grape must. Grape pomace was revealed to be an appropriate support for yeast cell immobilization. Moreover, grape must was shown to be the most suitable medium as immobilized c...

  3. Characterisation of seed oils from different grape cultivars grown in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xin; Zhu, Minghui; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Jinhong; Chen, Ziye; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-01-01

    To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian?grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars (Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88?77.12?%), sterols (227.99?338.83?mg/100?g oil) and tocotri...

  4. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  5. Effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on in vitro growth of some apple rootstock and varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Sarakbi, G.

    2007-04-01

    Three apple rootstocks (MM106, MM109 and Bizree) and 2 local varieties (Sucary and Sakarji) were collected from the field. Internode explants of the above rootstocks varieties were micropropagated on MS and modified MS media. Shoot growth of MM106 and MM109 rootstocks and Sucary variety increased significantly in modified MS. Similar results were observed on leaf number of MM109 and Bizree rootstocks and the 2 varieties in the same medium. Three rooting media (1, 2 and 3) were used by transferring microcuttings, to auxin free 50% strength MS (1), 50% strength MS with 1 mg.l - 1 IAA and 2 mg.l - 1 IBA (2) and 50% strength MS with 2 mg.l - 1 IAA and 4 mg.l - 1 NAA (3). All plants cultured on rotting media were irradiated with different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 Gy). During the initial 5 days of the rooting treatment, the cultures were incubated in darkness. During this period, the root initials are formed, and then the cultures were moved to the light. The highest rooting percentages in MM109, MM106, Sucary and Sakarji were obtained at 7 Gy with medium no 3 (92.5%, 87.5%, 93% and 90% respectively). Also, a combination of 7 Gy and medium no 3. When 5 Gy was combined with medium no 2 the root number of Sucary variety was increased, a similar result was observed in Sakarji variety when 5 and 7 Gy were integrated with both media no 1 and no 3.(author)

  6. Effects of Six Pratylenchus vulnus Isolates on the Growth of Peach-Almond Hybrid and Apple Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Fernández, C; Esmenjaud, D; Doucet, M

    1993-12-01

    The effects of six geographic isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus on the growth of GF-677 peach-almond hybrid and M-26 apple rootstocks were determined under greenhouse conditions. Plantlets were obtained from micropropagated plant material, and nematode isolates were reared in monoxenic cultures. All isolates suppressed growth on GF-677 compared with the uninfected controls. Isolate PvRO-S from Spain affected top weight of GF-677 more adversely than PvAT-F from France. Final population densities (Pf) of all P. vulnus on GF-677 were greater than 14.7 times the initial densities (Pi). They increased 61.5-fold on plants infected by PvWA-U from the United States. PvWA-U-, PvAT-F, and geographic undetermined PvU-UK isolates did not affect the growth of M-26 apple rootstock compared with PvAP-S, PvRO-S (both from Spain), and PvWA-A from Argentina isolates, which severely suppressed shoot growth of this rootstock. On M-26, Pf of the more parasitically fit isolates PvWA-A, PvAP-S, and PvRO-S were greater than those of nondamaging PvWA-U, PvAT-F, and PvU-UK isolates (>41.4 vs. 28.6 vs. <6.5 times the Pi). Isolate PvRO-S reproduced well and was quite destructive on both rootstocks. Results confirm the existence of strains with different damage potentials among geographically separated populations of P. vulnus.

  7. Alleviation of salt stress in citrus seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi depends on the rootstock salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Josefa M; Pérez-Tornero, Olaya; Morte, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and Alemow (Citrus macrophylla Wester) were inoculated with a mixture of AM fungi (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) (+AM), or left non-inoculated (-AM). From forty-five days after fungal inoculation onwards, half of +AM or -AM plants were irrigated with nutrient solution containing 50 mM NaCl. Three months later, AM significantly increased plant growth in both Cleopatra mandarin and Alemow rootstocks. Plant growth was higher in salinized +AM plants than in non-salinized -AM plants, demonstrating that AM compensates the growth limitations imposed by salinity. Whereas AM-inoculated Cleopatra mandarin seedlings had a very good response under saline treatment, inoculation in Alemow did not alleviate the negative effect of salinity. The beneficial effect of mycorrhization is unrelated with protection against the uptake of Na or Cl and the effect of AM on these ions did not explain the different response of rootstocks. This response was related with the nutritional status since our findings confirm that AM fungi can alter host responses to salinity stress, improving more the P, K, Fe and Cu plant nutrition in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow plants. AM inoculation under saline treatments also increased root Mg concentration but it was higher in Cleopatra mandarin than in Alemow. This could explain why AM fungus did not completely recovered chlorophyll concentrations in Alemow and consequently it had lower photosynthesis rate than control plants. AM fungi play an essential role in citrus rootstock growth and biomass production although the intensity of this response depends on the rootstock salinity tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  9. Pesticide residues in grapes from integrated production of the Slovene origin The CORRECTED TITLE is: Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik , Helena; Gregorčič , Ana; Čuš , Franc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. The paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring in 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) of the 2006 vintage from the vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them, 20 were allowed in IPM in ...

  10. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes, had pronounced (≥2 fold) differences in mRNA expression) illustrating the dynamic nature of the developmental process. The subset of 4,151 Unigenes was split into twenty well-correlated expression profiles. Expression profile patterns included those with declining or increasing mRNA expression over the course of berry development as well as transient peak or trough patterns across various developmental stages as defined by the modified E-L system. These detailed surveys revealed the expression patterns for genes that play key functional roles in phytohormone biosynthesis and response, calcium sequestration, transport and signaling, cell wall metabolism mediating expansion, ripening, and softening, flavonoid metabolism and transport, organic and amino acid metabolism, hexose sugar and triose phosphate metabolism and transport, starch metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance. In particular, mRNA expression patterns of transcription factors, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and calcium signaling genes identified candidate factors likely to participate in the progression of key developmental events such as véraison and potential candidate genes associated with such processes as auxin partitioning within berry cells, aroma compound production, and pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Finally, analysis of sugar metabolism gene expression patterns indicated the existence of an alternative pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production that is invoked from véraison to mature berries. Conclusion These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the transcriptome dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at the dissection of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that govern berry development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape. More importantly

  11. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    , had pronounced (> or =2 fold) differences in mRNA expression) illustrating the dynamic nature of the developmental process. The subset of 4,151 Unigenes was split into twenty well-correlated expression profiles. Expression profile patterns included those with declining or increasing mRNA expression over the course of berry development as well as transient peak or trough patterns across various developmental stages as defined by the modified E-L system. These detailed surveys revealed the expression patterns for genes that play key functional roles in phytohormone biosynthesis and response, calcium sequestration, transport and signaling, cell wall metabolism mediating expansion, ripening, and softening, flavonoid metabolism and transport, organic and amino acid metabolism, hexose sugar and triose phosphate metabolism and transport, starch metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance. In particular, mRNA expression patterns of transcription factors, abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and calcium signaling genes identified candidate factors likely to participate in the progression of key developmental events such as véraison and potential candidate genes associated with such processes as auxin partitioning within berry cells, aroma compound production, and pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Finally, analysis of sugar metabolism gene expression patterns indicated the existence of an alternative pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production that is invoked from véraison to mature berries. These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the transcriptome dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at the dissection of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that govern berry development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape. More importantly, this analysis identified a set

  12. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes, had pronounced (≥2 fold differences in mRNA expression illustrating the dynamic nature of the developmental process. The subset of 4,151 Unigenes was split into twenty well-correlated expression profiles. Expression profile patterns included those with declining or increasing mRNA expression over the course of berry development as well as transient peak or trough patterns across various developmental stages as defined by the modified E-L system. These detailed surveys revealed the expression patterns for genes that play key functional roles in phytohormone biosynthesis and response, calcium sequestration, transport and signaling, cell wall metabolism mediating expansion, ripening, and softening, flavonoid metabolism and transport, organic and amino acid metabolism, hexose sugar and triose phosphate metabolism and transport, starch metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian cycles and pathogen resistance. In particular, mRNA expression patterns of transcription factors, abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis, and calcium signaling genes identified candidate factors likely to participate in the progression of key developmental events such as véraison and potential candidate genes associated with such processes as auxin partitioning within berry cells, aroma compound production, and pathway regulation and sequestration of flavonoid compounds. Finally, analysis of sugar metabolism gene expression patterns indicated the existence of an alternative pathway for glucose and triose phosphate production that is invoked from véraison to mature berries. Conclusion These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the transcriptome dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed at the dissection of the transcriptional regulatory hierarchies that govern berry development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape

  13. Persistence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, Raminderjit Singh

    2010-03-01

    Following four foliar applications of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on grapes @ 175 and 350 g/ha, resulting in active applications of trifloxystrobin @ 43.75 and 87.5 g a.i./ha and that of tebuconazole @ 87.5 and 175 g a.i./ha, the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 7.76 and 15.53 mg/kg, respectively, at single and double the application rates. These residue levels dissipated to >85% after 10 days of its application at both the dosages. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were observed to be 13.84 and 26.55 mg/kg at single and double the application rate, respectively. These residue levels dissipated to >90% after 10 days of application at both the dosages. The half-life (t(1/2)) periods of trifloxystrobin on grape leaves were observed to be 2.92 and 3.48 days at single and double application rates, respectively, whereas these values were 2.68 and 3.96 days for tebuconazole. Ripe grape berries and soil samples collected at harvest which happened to be 34 days after the last application, did not show the presence of residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.

  14. Viabilidade de uso do híbrido Hawaii 7996 como porta-enxerto de cultivares comerciais de tomate Potential of Hawaii 7996 hybrid as rootstock for tomato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suane Coutinho Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de enxertia é utilizada em algumas hortaliças, principalmente em áreas infestadas, para atribuir resistência a patógenos do solo, minimizando as perdas de produção de cultivares suscetíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de plantas de tomateiro enxertadas em híbrido, tido como resistente a Ralstonia solanacearum, em comparação a pés-francos. O experimento foi desenvolvido em viveiro (produção de mudas e enxertia e em céu aberto, no município de Cruz das Almas, Bahia, no período de outubro de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Utilizou-se o método de enxertia de fenda cheia, com o híbrido 'Hawaii 7996' como porta-enxerto e as cultivares Santa Clara, Santa Cruz Kada e Débora Plus, suscetíveis a R. solanacearum, como enxerto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (3 enxertados e 3 pés-francos, 5 repetições e 6 plantas por parcela útil. Avaliaram-se os caracteres: diâmetro do caule, altura da planta e da primeira inflorescência, distância entre inflorescências e produtividade comercial de frutos. O desenvolvimento das plantas, a produção total e a massa média dos frutos foram semelhantes para os tratamentos enxertados em relação a seus respectivos pés-francos e não houve incompatibilidade entre porta-enxerto e enxerto. A cultivar Santa Cruz Kada foi mais sensível às condições agroecológicas do município de Cruz das Almas, refletindo negativamente na produção e no peso médio dos frutos. Observou-se na enxertia com o híbrido 'Hawaii 7996' potencial para viabilizar a produção de tomateiros comerciais suscetíveis à murcha bacteriana, em áreas infestadas com R. solanacearum.Grafts have been used in horticultural crops, to overcome soilborne plant pathogens, and thus minimize yield losses of susceptible cultivars. This work aimed at to evaluate growth and yield of tomato plants grafted on to a hybrid resistant to Ralstonia

  15. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three....... Intake of the experimental diet significantly reduced plasma vitamin C and plasma AAS in both groups. This effect was most pronounced in the particular week with no grape-skin extract addition. We speculate that grape-skin extract may have a sparing effect on vitamin C. The effects of the experimental...

  16. A summary of recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 experiment is a combination of a high density extensive air shower (EAS array of nearly 400 plastic scintillator detectors, and a large 560 m2 area tracking muon telescope with an energy threshold Eμ >1 GeV. GRAPES-3 has been operating continuously in Ooty, India since 2000. By accurately correcting for the effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature, the muon telescope provides a high precision directional survey of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR intensity. This telescope has been used to observe the acceleration of muons during thunderstorm events. The recent discovery of a transient weakening of the Earth's magnetic shield through the detection of a GCR burst was the highlight of the GRAPES-3 results. We have an ongoing major expansion activity to further enhance the capability of the GRAPES-3 muon telescope by doubling its area.

  17. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  18. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2009-03-08

    * and Dan Xiao*. College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. (Received March 8, 2009; revised October 17, 2009). ABSTRACT. ABSTRACT. A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been ...

  19. Economic characteristics of grape production in South Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in Serbia has a long tradition. Serbia has great potentials for the production of grape and wine, but they are at a low level of utilization. Grape production in Serbia takes place on only 25,000 ha with an average annual production of 285,571 t of grapes with variations according to year. The vineyards and wine production are in a significant decline, while the main bearers of production are small family households or individual producers. The research presented in this paper is the economic characteristics of grapes production in the region of South Banat, Vršac wine-growing region, which occupies 81.2% of the total vineyard area in this part of AP Vojvodina.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  1. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  3. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  4. Selection and Estimation the Genetic Parameters of Rootstock Characteristics on Cocoa Seedling of Half-sibs Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For cocoa clonal propagation it need rootstock with good characteristics. Half sibs families is the most appropriate alternative for rootstock selection. This study was aimed to select and estimate genetic parameters of cocoa seedling on the half sibs families of DR 1, DR 2, ICS 60, DRC 15, BLC 4, DRC 16, KEE 2, ICS 13, KW 162, KW 163, PA 300, RCC 70, TSH 858, Sca 6 and Sca 12. Research was carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Genetic parameter were estimated based on variance and covariance component of the variables of the number of leaf, stem height, stem girth, leaf acreage, the volume of fresh root, the length of secondary root and the length of primary root which assessed along seed growth till 90 day after planting. The result showed that most of the recorded variables perform high category of narrow sense heritability (h 2>0.5. Stem girth, leaf acreage, volume of fresh root, length of secondary root and the length of primary root were assessed as the broad category of genetic variability (d2 A >2Sed 2 A . Therefore, length of primary root and length of secondary root would be the main criterion for rootstock selection as their performance on broad category of genetic variability and high category of narrow sense heritability. Length of secondary root can be estimated based on the performance of stem girth (r = 0.5 * and leaf acreage (r = 0.23* and the primary root can be stimated based on the performance of stem height (r = 0.81 * and leaf acreage (r = 0.72*. Based on positive selection of primary root lenght and negative selection of secondary root lenght it was identified that the families of KEE 2 and Sca 12 potentially would be good rootstock due to their long category of the primary root and short category of the secondary root that having characteristics of high water uptake and low vigor. Key words: selection, genetic parameter, half-sib familiy, rootstock, cocoa.

  5. Tangerineiras como porta-enxertos para laranjeira 'Pêra' Mandarins as rootstocks for 'Pêra' sweet orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgino Pompeu Junior

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laranjeiras 'Pêra' enxertadas em 11 cultivares ou híbridos de tangerineiras foram plantadas em 1988 em Itirapina (SP, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo textura arenosa, no espaçamento 4,25m x 7,5m e conduzidas sem irrigação sob clima Cwa. Tristeza e declínio são endêmicos na região. As tangerineiras 'África do Sul', 'Xienkhouanga', 'Empress', 'Cleópatra', 'Wildt', 117.477 e 'Sul da África', sem diferirem entre si, induziram, em ordem decrescente, as maiores produções de frutos às laranjeiras 'Pêra', no total das quatro primeiras colheitas do experimento. Num total de nove colheitas, as cultivares Xienkhouanga, África do Sul, 117.477, Cleópatra, Empress, Wildt e Szinkon x Tizon, sem diferirem entre si, proporcionaram, em ordem decrescente, as maiores produções de frutos às laranjeiras 'Pêra'. Os porta-enxertos não determinaram diferenças significativas nas características comerciais dos frutos, porém a 'Cleópatra' induziu maturação mais precoce que os demais porta-enxertos. Apenas a 'Szwinkon' x 'Szinkon-tizon' proporcionou a formação de plantas nanicas, com altura inferior a 2,5m. Os dados médios de produção de frutos e de sólidos solúveis, concernentes a três anos consecutivos de colheita, revelaram que as laranjeiras 'Pêra' enxertadas nas tangerineiras 'Xienkhouanga' e 117.477, sem diferir das plantas enxertadas nas cultivares África do Sul, Cleópatra, Empress, Wildt e Szinkon x Tizon, foram significativamente mais produtivas em frutos e em sólidos solúveis que as enxertadas em 'Sul da África', 'Vermelha', 'Muscia' e 'Szwinkon' x 'Szinkon-tizon'. Nenhuma das plantas apresentou sintomas de intolerância à tristeza, ao declínio dos citros ou anel de goma na região de enxertia, considerado sintoma de incompatibilidade entre a copa e o porta-enxerto.'Pera' sweet orange trees budded either on mandarins or mandarin-hybrids rootstocks were planted in 1988 at 4.25m x 7.5m spacing on a sandy textured Oxisol in

  6. Cellulose and hemicelluloses recovery from grape stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigno, Giorgia; Pizzorno, Tiziana; De Faveri, Dante Marco

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two mild chemical fractionation procedures were compared to separate and recover lignocellulosic components from grape stalks. The first method consisted of mild acid hydrolysis for hemicelluloses separation, followed by an alkaline/oxidative step for lignin solubilization, while in the second method the acid hydrolysis was preceded by an alkali steeping phase. Influence of the length of the first step of both methods (from 2 to 24 h) on monosaccharides and cellulose yields was investigated. The first method allowed a higher sugar recovery for longer times, and a slightly lower amount of cellulose. Cellulose residues from both the methods were comparable for cellulose content and thermal profile (studied by differential scanning calorimetry). Acid hydrolysis of the first step was carried out also in autoclave, showing that xylan degradation could be described by a first order kinetics where at higher temperature the presence of a fast reaction and a slow reacting fraction must be accounted for.

  7. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  8. Original Research: Polyphenols extracted from grape powder induce lipogenesis and glucose uptake during differentiation of murine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Sheida; DiMarco, Nancy M

    2016-10-01

    Assessing the effects of grapes and grape powder extracted polyphenols on lipogenesis and glucose uptake in adipocytes may clarify the risk/benefit of recommending them to individuals with obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated the effect of grape powder extracted polyphenols (GPEP) on intracellular fat accumulation and glucose uptake during differentiation of 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Total polyphenols were extracted and measured based on gallic acid equivalents (GAE). There were 2167 mg of GAE polyphenols in 100 g of grape powder. 3T3-F442A cells were incubated with GPEP, extracted from 125-500 µg GP/mL of media, until day 8 of differentiation when the cells were collected for different assays. AdipoRed™ assay and Oil Red O staining showed that GPEP induced, in a dose-dependent manner, an increase in intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content of adipocytes. Concomitantly, grape powder extracted polyphenols increased, in a dose-dependent manner, glucose uptake by 3T3-F442A cells, and there was a strong positive correlation between glucose uptake and the amount of TAG accumulation (r = 0.826, n = 24, P ≤ 0.001). No changes in cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue staining, suggesting that these effects were independent of cytotoxicity. Western-blot showed that GPEP upregulated protein level of glucose transport protein 4 (GLUT4), p-PKB/Akt, and p-AMPK in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. LY294002 (10 µmol/L), a phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase inhibitor (PI3K), reversed the effects of grape powder extracted polyphenols on cellular lipid content and glucose uptake. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that GPEP increased mRNA expression of GLUT4, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, adiponectin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, while it decreased mRNA expression of leptin and Insig-1. Our results indicate that GPEP may induce adipocyte differentiation via upregulation of GLUT4, PI3K and

  9. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  11. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGYCOMPOTE WITH GRAPES FROM THE SHF EMF

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Achmedov; A. F. Demirova; M. M. Achmedova; T. N. Daudova

    2013-01-01

    The experimental results warming of canned "compote grapes" in an electromagnetic microwave field. Some new modes of heat sterilization using preheating of the grapes in the microwave EMF.Revealed that the use of pre-microwave heating of berries in the banks before pouring syrup saves heat, shortening heat sterilization regimes compote over 30% and the quality of the finished product.

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGYCOMPOTE WITH GRAPES FROM THE SHF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Achmedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results warming of canned "compote grapes" in an electromagnetic microwave field. Some new modes of heat sterilization using preheating of the grapes in the microwave EMF.Revealed that the use of pre-microwave heating of berries in the banks before pouring syrup saves heat, shortening heat sterilization regimes compote over 30% and the quality of the finished product.

  14. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Shulgau; Vladislav Tritek; Alexander Gulyaev; Gulsim Adilgozhina; Talgat Nurgozhin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the benef...

  15. Production Charachteristics of Some Introduced Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić; Edi Maletić; Nikola Mirošević; Bernard Kozina; Jasmina Marić

    2000-01-01

    In order to expand the number of red grape cultivars suitable for Northern Dalmatia subregion experimental vineyard has been planted on the farm 'Bastica' PK Zadar. The large number of red grape cultivar has been introducted. Seven of them are spread in central and southern Italy (Montepulciano, Sangiovese, Malvasia nera di Lecce, Ciliegiolo, Aglianico, Cabernet sauvignon, Moscato rosa), which have similar ecological conditions as the area of Ravni Kotari. During the five years period agrobio...

  16. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Garavaglia; Melissa M. Markoski; Aline Oliveira; Aline Marcadenti

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These...

  17. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent the cafeteria-diet-induced decrease of glucagon-like peptide-1 production

    OpenAIRE

    Pinent, M.; Ardèvol, A.; Blay, M.; Martínez, N.; González, N.

    2014-01-01

    10.1021/jf405239p Grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to improve insulin resistance in cafeteria rats. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in glucose homeostasis, the preventive effects of GSPE on GLP-1 production, secretion, and elimination were evaluated in a model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks, and 25 mg of GSPE/kg of body weight was administered concomitantly. Vehicle-treated cafeteria-fed rats and c...

  18. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    each sample and put in contact with adults of D. suzukii (5 males and 5 females) for 24 hours. Infestation percentages were expressed by numbers of eggs and infected berries per sample As a preliminary results, we found a relevant infestation on the varieties "Italia" (75%) and "Scarlotta" (60%); coming form organic agriculture fields. The number of eggs collected from each berry ranged from 1 to 5. Twelve samples on a total of 19 came from conventional agriculture, five samples on a total of 23 came from organic agriculture, were found without damages. "Victoria" variety, came form a organic field located at IAMB was seen more resistant to D. suzukii than the varieties "Italia" and "Scarlotta" As a conclusion, there is the evidence that D. suzukii can become a big problem for grape cultivation in Puglia region, jeopardizing a very economically important sector of the regional agriculture Therefore, it is necessary a further investigation to understand the population dynamic and behaviour of this species as well as the possible control strategies for a control in organic agriculture. Key words: Drosophila suzukii, Vitis vinifera, Puglia, infestation, damages, organic agriculture, conventional agriculture

  19. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  20. Bioactive compounds of juices from two Brazilian grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Kelly; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Furlan, Cibele Priscila Busch; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases owing to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS-Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and phenolic profile (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection--HPLC-DAD-FLD) were determined. BRS-Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential, than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, HPLC-DAD-FLD showed a higher total phenolic content in BRS-Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. The present results show BRS-Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Ocular promoting activity of grape polyphenols-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sithranga Boopathy; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2017-03-01

    The eye is a sensitive organ with complex optical system involves in the perception of light. Although it has several protective mechanisms by itself, various physiological and metabolic disorders are detrimental to the proper functioning of the visual system. Grape juice has long been used worldwide for its potent medicinal values including ocular promotion. Bioactivities of grape products are highly attributed to the presence of health promoting phytochemicals in them. Some phytochemicals present in the grape juice have been involved in the maintenance of intra-ocular pressure, regulation of glucose metabolisms and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the system. Particularly, the grape derived phytochemicals involve in minimizing various eye defects such as macular degradation, uvea, cataract formation, red eye, diabetic retinopathy and so on. However, only limited number of studies has been conducted so far focusing the ocular promoting activity of grape polyphenols. In this review, we discuss the role of grape polyphenols in ocular promotion relating their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-aging, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-02

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  4. Stereoselective degradation of flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hua, Xiude; Yang, Yu; Yin, Wei; Tian, Mingming; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Minghua

    2015-03-01

    The stereoselective dissipation of flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape had been studied. A simple and sensitive method for determination of flutriafol and tebuconazole enantiomers in grape was developed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a cellulose tris(3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) column. The limits of quantification for flutriafol and tebuconazole in grape were 0.033 and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The dissipations of flutriafol and tebuconazole stereoisomers in grape followed first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.93). The stereoisomers of flutriafol and tebuconazole were enantioselectively degraded in grape, and tebuconazole was more enantioselective than flutriafol. The half-life of (-)-tebuconazole was 5.2 days and shorter than (+)-tebuconazole with half-life of 6.4 days. The (-)-flutriafol was also preferentially degraded in grape, the half-lives of which were 6.59 and 6.98 days for (-) and (+)-flutriafol, respectively. The enantiomeric ratio value of the two fungicides was nearly 1.0 at the 1st day and increased to 1.143 for flutriafol and 2.015 for tebuconazole at the 28th day. The stereoselective dissipations could provide a reference to fully evaluate the risks of two important chiral triazole fungicides.

  5. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  6. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... production history shows the majority of the grapes produced in the production area are shipped prior to July... for notifications under the U.S.- Chile Free Trade Agreement, the embassies of Argentina, Brazil...

  7. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohidul Hasan; Hanhong Bae

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a...

  8. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.

  10. Tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock increases drought tolerance via enhanced constitutive root abscisic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, Thierry; Brumos, Javier; Colmenero-Flores, Jose M; Iglesias, Domingo J; Pina, Jose A; Navarro, Luis; Talon, Manuel; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2013-04-01

    Whole-genome duplication, or polyploidy, is common in many plant species and often leads to better adaptation to adverse environmental condition. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular determinants underlying adaptation. We examined the drought tolerance in diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) clones of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) scions, named V/2xRL and V/4xRL, respectively. Physiological experiments to study root-shoot communication associated with gene expression studies in roots and leaves were performed. V/4xRL was much more tolerant to water deficit than V/2xRL. Gene expression analysis in leaves and roots showed that more genes related to the response to water stress were differentially expressed in V/2xRL than in V/4xRL. Prior to the stress, when comparing V/4xRL to V/2xRL, V/4xRL leaves had lower stomatal conductance and greater abscisic acid (ABA) content. In roots, ABA content was higher in V/4xRL and was associated to a greater expression of drought responsive genes, including CsNCED1, a pivotal regulatory gene of ABA biosynthesis. We conclude that tetraploidy modifies the expression of genes in Rangpur lime citrus roots to regulate long-distance ABA signalling and adaptation to stress. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. In vitro establishment of the hybrid rootstock ‘Garfi x Nemared’ (Garnem for peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberg Guevara Salguero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The interspecific hybrid between almond and peach, ‘Garfield x Nemared’ (Prunus dulcis (Mill D.A.Webb x Prunus persica (L. Batsch. has become very important as rootstocks for peach in Bolivia, but propagation by traditional methods of this hybrid has been very difficult. In the present study the aim was to in vitro establishment of this hybrid. As initial explants, nodal segments from mother plants, growing under controlled culture conditions, were used. For disinfection two concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (0.5 and 0.75% and time (10 and 12 min were tested. The greatest percentage of establishment was achieved using 0.75% NaClO for 12 min in an MS culture medium free of growth regulators. A 100% control of the phenols oxidation was achieved with the combination of mother plants growing under 50% shade, young buds, use of 150 mg l-1 citric acid at the end of the disinfection process and into the culture medium and then place the test tubes with the nodal segments one week in the dark.   Keywords: interspecific hybrid, Prunus, tissue culture

  12. Reproductive characteristics of citrus rootstocks grown under greenhouse and field environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of environmental factors on meiosis, meiotic index, pollenviability and in vitro germination of pollen from stock plants of the rootstocks Trifoliate, ‘Swingle’, ‘Troyer’, ‘Fepagro C13’, ‘FepagroC37’ and ‘Fepagro C41’ grown in a protected environment in comparison with stock plants grown in the field. The results showed thatvalues for the characteristics analyzed in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were always higher in the field than in the greenhouse conditions. Inthe field, the average of normal meiotic cells was 60.05%, 44.44% and 60.12%, respectively, and in the greenhouse, 52.75%, 30.95%and 52.82%, respectively. Mean pollen viability in the field was 90.28%, 56.23% and 74.74%, and, in the greenhouse, 64.25%, 41.41%and 66.71%, respectively. As temperature oscillations were higher in the greenhouse than in the field, we suggest that this negativelyaffects the reproductive characteristics analyzed.

  13. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  14. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE BUD-BREAK AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF 420 A AND 5 BB AMERICAN VINE ROOTSTOCKS IRRADIATED WITH DIFFERENT GAMMA DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper DARDENIZ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important and intensive agricultural branch in Çanakkale province and also in Turkey. Different American vine rootstocks are widely used against phylloxera in our country. Plant breeders have been using gamma radiation for creating new varieties of crops and for obtaining broad genetic diversity for years. In this study, four different doses of gamma rays were applied to 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks when the buds on the cuttings were at the dormant stage. Then, effects of different gamma radiation doses on the cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks were investigated. The aim of the research was to study the effect of different gamma radiation doses on some growth parameters of cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB, and to determine the GR50 dose. The results obtained were statistically elaborated by TARIST.

  15. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  16. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  17. Comportamento de catorze porta-enxertos para o limão eureka km 47 na região de Araraquara-SP Behaviour of fourteen rootstocks for eureka lemon [Citrus limon (L Burm. F. ] cv. km 47, in Araraquara, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orlando de Figueiredo

    2005-04-01

    five years (1998-2002. The best yielding rootstocks were C. pennivesiculata and Cleopatra mandarin (> 220 kg/tree. Citrus karna, both tangelos, both trifoliates and sweet orange cv. Caipira DAC presented the lowest fruit yields (<180 kg/tree. Fruit quality and percentage of trees affected by gummosis were also studied. No significant variation was observed for fruit quality characteristics for trees on different rootstocks, while trees on C. penivesiculata and sour orange were resistant to gummosis infection.

  18. Grapevine powdery mildew (Uncinula necator (Schw. Burr. – a permanent issue concerning the health status of grapes cenosis in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakova Mariana B.

    2017-01-01

    the spread of the grapes powdery mildew and the field resistance of some varieties were studied. Critical stages of the disease appearance and spread are defined based on the research data. Management strategies are proposed including alternative approach practices.

  19. Ti Plasmids from Agrobacterium Characterize Rootstock Clones That Initiated a Spread of Crown Gall Disease in Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnat, Sandrine; Keller, Harald; Héricher, Delphine; Bettachini, Andrée; Dessaux, Yves; Nesme, Xavier; Poncet, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Crown gall caused by Agrobacterium is one of the predominant diseases encountered in rose cultures. However, our current knowledge of the bacterial strains that invade rose plants and the way in which they spread is limited. Here, we describe the integrated physiological and molecular analyses of 30 Agrobacterium isolates obtained from crown gall tumors and of several reference strains. Characterization was based on the determination of the biovar, analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms by PCR (PCR-RFLP), elucidation of the opine type, and PCR-RFLP analysis of genes involved in virulence and oncogenesis. This study led to the classification of rose isolates into seven groups with common chromosome characteristics and seven groups with common Ti plasmid characteristics. Altogether, the rose isolates formed 14 independent groups, with no specific association of plasmid- and chromosome-encoded traits. The predominant Ti plasmid characteristic was that 16 of the isolates induced the production of the uncommon opine succinamopine, while the other 14 were nopaline-producing isolates. With the exception of one, all succinamopine Ti plasmids belonged to the same plasmid group. Conversely, the nopaline Ti plasmids belonged to five groups, one of these containing seven isolates. We showed that outbreaks of disease provoked by the succinamopine-producing isolates in different countries and nurseries concurred with a common origin of specific rootstock clones. Similarly, groups of nopaline-producing isolates were associated with particular rootstock clones. These results strongly suggest that the causal agent of crown gall disease in rose plants is transmitted via rootstock material. PMID:10473434

  20. Oxidative stress associated with rootstock-scion interactions in pear/quince combinations during early stages of graft development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisarri, Patricia; Binczycki, Piotr; Errea, Pilar; Martens, Helle Juel; Pina, Ana

    2015-03-15

    Exposing a plant to stress situations, such as grafting, generally triggers antioxidant defense systems. In fruit tree grafting, quince (Cydonia oblonga) is widely used as a rootstock for pear (Pyrus communis L.), but several economically important pear cultivars are incompatible with available quince rootstocks. In this study, grafts were established using an in vitro callus graft system mimicking the events taking place in fruit trees. In vitro grown callus from pear [P. communis L. cv. 'Conference' (Co) and cv. 'William' (Wi)] and quince (C. oblonga Mill. clone 'BA29') was used to establish the compatible homografts 'Co/Co', 'Wi/Wi' and 'BA29/BA29', the compatible heterograft 'Co/BA29' and the incompatible heterograft 'Wi/BA29'. The main objective was to determine whether specific isoforms of genes involved in oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)] are differentially expressed at the graft interface from compatible and incompatible unions throughout 3 weeks after grafting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and programmed cell death were also evaluated in the course of graft development. Genes differentially expressed between compatible and incompatible heterografts were identified. Transcript levels of six antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD3, APX3, APX6, CAT1 and CAT3) were down-regulated 10 days after grafting (DAG) in the incompatible heterograft in comparison to the compatible one. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activities were significantly higher at 1 and 10 days after wounding in the compatible cultivar 'Co' than in the incompatible one 'Wi'. These findings, together with live cell imaging of ROS-specific probes, ultrastructural mitochondrial changes and DNA fragmentation related to apoptotic processes, give indications that within incompatible rootstock/scion interfaces, either the level of ROS is increased or there is a less efficient detoxification system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of rootstocks on cryotolerance and overwintering survivorship of genic male sterile lines in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    Full Text Available Grafting desirable scion on stress-tolerant rootstocks provides an opportunity to improve the cryotolerance of scion. Genic male sterile (GMS lines of plant could be used as sterile line and maintainer in breeding, and they have the conspicuous characteristics that the fertility of which is easy to regain but hard to maintain by sexual reproduction. In order to maintain the fertility of GMS cotton by means of its perennial growth on the basis of frostless winters in Nanning, Guangxi autonomous region, GMS line A4 was grafted onto 7 cryotolerant rootstocks (F118, F697, F098, F112, F113, P098 and P113, and the cryotolerance and the overwintering survivorship of scions were investigated. In consequence, when compared with control (self-grafted A4, the relative conductivity of the grafted plants in shoot bark was reduced (8.80%, the content of soluble sugar, soluble protein and free proline were higher, 25.00, 1.55, 3.46%, respectively; the overwintering survival rate and the height of regeneration bud under field condition of grafted plants were higher, 10.44, 15.75%, respectively; the order of the grafted plants based on the average subordinate function value of overwintering survivorship was A4/F113>A4/F118>A4/F098>A4/F697>A4/F112>A4/P098>A4/P113>A4/A4(CK; the correlation analyses indicated that the physiological parameters of cryotolerance could be used for forecasting the overwintering survivorship, and the relative conductivity could be chosen as the first physiological parameter for forecasting cryotolerance or overwintering survivorship. The results indicate that the cryotolerance and the overwintering survivorship of GMS cotton could be improved by grafting, and F113 appeared to be a valuable rootstock.

  2. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Jian; Liu, Chonghuai; Kibet, Korir Nicholas; Kayesh, Emrul; Shangguan, Lingfei; Li, Xiaoying; Fang, Jinggui

    2012-03-29

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs) from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72 new potential miRNAs and 34 known but non-conserved mi

  3. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr. by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. Results A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Conclusions Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72

  4. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  6. Grape and wine polymeric polyphenols: Their importance in enology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Sun, Baoshan

    2017-09-21

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of red wine, contributing to its sensory properties and antioxidant activity. Owing to the diversity and structural complexity, study of these compounds was mainly limited, during the last three decades, on their low-molecular-mass compounds or simple phenolic compounds. Only in recent years, much attention has been paid to highly polymerized polyphenols in grape and red wines. The reason for this is largely due to the development of analytical techniques, especially those of HPLC-ESI-MS, permitting the structural characterization of highly polymerized polyphenols. Furthermore, the knowledge on the biological properties of polymeric polyphenols of red wine is very limited. Grape polyphenols mainly consist of proanthocyanidins (oligomers and polymers) and anthocyanins, and low amount of other phenolics. Red wine polyphenols include both grape polyphenols and new phenolic products formed from them during winemaking process. This leads to a great diversity of new polyphenols and makes wine polyphenol composition more complex. The present paper summarizes the advances in the research of polymeric polyphenols in grape and red wine and their important role in Enology. Scientific results indicate that polymeric polyphenols, as the major polyphenols in grape and red wine, play a major role in red wine sensory properties, color stability and antioxidant activities.

  7. Effect of grape and other berries on cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, JoLynne D; Heuberger, Roschelle A

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death globally. Many cardiovascular risk factors can be modified through lifestyle modification, including dietary patterns that emphasize daily consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Recent observational and clinical studies suggest that flavonoids, especially those abundant in grapes and other berries, may be associated with health benefits, particularly cardiovascular benefits. Human clinical data support cardioprotective benefits of grapes through inhibition of platelet aggregation, decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, reduction in oxidative stress and improvements in endothelial function. Emerging evidence suggests that grapes may also have a favorable effect on blood lipids, decrease inflammation and reduce blood pressure in certain populations. Studies to date have shown that berries can have a beneficial effect on reducing LDL oxidation. Limited data suggest that berries may have a favorable effect on endothelial health and blood pressure. This review summarizes the current literature on human clinical studies examining the cardioprotective benefits of grapes and berries. Collectively, these data support the recommendation to incorporate products made with grapes and other berries into a heart-healthy diet. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  9. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  10. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  11. Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Vita, Joseph A.; Chen, C. -Y. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages. PMID:26633488

  12. Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Vita, Joseph A; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2015-12-02

    Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages.

  13. EFFECT OF JASMONIC ACID ON IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF LOW VIGOROUS PEAR AND CHERRY ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjina Ružić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of Jasmonic acid (JA to improve in vitro multiplication phase in micropropagated shoots of low vigorous pear and cherry rootstocks – Pyrodwarf and Gisela 6 respectively, was studied. The experiment was performed during the multiplication phase and it included 23 media types containing Murashige and Skoog (1962 macro, micro salts and organic complex supplemented with JA at four concentrations (1, 2.3, 5 and 10 µM alone and in combination with benzyl adenine – BA (4.4 µM, indole-3-butyric acid – IBA (1, 2.30, 2.46, 5 and 10 µM, α-napthyl acetic acid –NAA (1, 2.30, 2.68, 5, 10 µM, and indole-3-acetic acid – IAA (1, 2.30, 2.85, 5, 10 µM. The multiplication parameters, such as multiplication index, length of axial and lateral shoots, FW and DW of shoots as well as quality of multiplied shoots were monitored. The highest multiplication rate in both genotypes was obtained on medium with BA (4.4 µM in combination with IBA (1 and 2.3 µM. The longest axial and lateral shoots were also obtained on media with BA in combination with JA or other three auxins used. The main characteristics of the JA effect (used alone were big shoots, large green leaves, small quantity of firm, nodular callus as well as occurrence of rooting. The obtained results suggest that JA used alone should not be used to improve the multiplication process, but only in combination with BA and IBA or NAA for the high quality plantlets which is important for the rooting phase, to skip elongation phase.

  14. Physiological responses and differential gene expression in Prunus rootstocks under iron deficiency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-06-15

    Two Prunus rootstocks, the Myrobalan plum P 2175 and the interspecific peach-almond hybrid, Felinem, were studied to characterize their biochemical and molecular responses induced under iron-Deficient conditions. Plants of both genotypes were submitted to different treatments using a hydroponic system that permitted removal of Fe from the nutrient solution. Control plants were grown in 90 μM Fe (III)-EDTA, Deficient plants were grown in an iron free solution, and plants submitted to an Inductor treatment were resupplied with 180 μM Fe (III)-EDTA over 1 and 2 days after a period of 4 or 15 days of growth on an iron-free solution. Felinem increased the activity of the iron chelate reductase (FC-R) in the Inductor treatment after 4 days of iron deprivation. In contrast, P 2175 did not show any response after at least 15 days without iron. The induction of the FC-R activity in this genotype was coincident in time with the medium acidification. These results suggest two different mechanisms of iron chlorosis tolerance in both Strategy I genotypes. Felinem would use the iron reduction as the main mechanism to capture the iron from the soil, and in P 2175, the mechanism of response would be slower and start with the acidification of the medium synchronized with the gradual loss of chlorophyll in leaves. To better understand the control of these responses at the molecular level, the differential expression of PFRO2, PIRT1 and PAHA2 genes involved in the reductase activity, the iron transport in roots, and the proton release, respectively, were analyzed. The expression of these genes, estimated by quantitative real-time PCR, was different between genotypes and among treatments. The results were in agreement with the physiological responses observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium accumulation and strategies to avoid its toxicity in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podazza, Griselda [Instituto de Ecologia, Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 251, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Arias, Marta [Catedra de Anatomia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina); Prado, Fernando E., E-mail: prad@arnet.com.ar [Catedra de Fisiologia Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Miguel Lillo 205, CP 4000, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd induces oxidative stress, increasing the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -} generation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SOD, G-POD, CAT activities are enhanced by Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-POD activity participates in Cd-induced lignin synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd mainly accumulates in exodermis and vascular cylinder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd is mostly immobilized in roots, limiting its transport to aerial parts. - Abstract: In order to assess implications of Cd-induced oxidative stress in roots of the citrus rootstock Citrumelo, seedlings were hydroponically exposed to two relatively realistic Cd concentrations during 7 days. Our results showed that increasing Cd concentrations in external solution were associated with higher Cd accumulations in roots. At 5 {mu}M Cd the accumulation of Cd in roots was over 70-f higher than in aerial part (stem + leaves). Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide radical (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and lipoxygenase activity (LOX) increased in Cd-exposed roots, suggesting a metal-induced oxidative stress. The Cd treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-type peroxidase (G-POD), as well as the content of secondary metabolites i.e. soluble phenolics (SPs) and lignin. Histochemical analyses of roots showed that Cd, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), lignin and G-POD displayed a similar location pattern. Almost all analyzed parameters showed a similar dynamic tendency with increases under 5 {mu}M Cd followed by decreases under 10 {mu}M Cd, suggesting that a complex coordinated Cd-defensive mechanism is operating in Citrumelo roots exposed to environmental realistic Cd concentrations.

  16. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohidul; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-02-14

    Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the "French Paradox". Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US) treatment, light-emitting diode (LED), ultra violet (UV) irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds) in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  17. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  18. Modeling of the devolatilization kinetics during pyrolysis of grape residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Luca; Valbusa, Michele; Lorenzi, Denis; Fambri, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed on grape seeds, skins, stalks, marc, vine-branches, grape seed oil and grape seeds depleted of their oil. The TGA data was modeled through Gaussian, logistic and Miura-Maki distributed activation energy models (DAEMs) and a simpler two-parameter model. All DAEMs allowed an accurate prediction of the TGA data; however, the Miura-Maki model could not account for the complete range of conversion for some substrates, while the Gaussian and logistic DAEMs suffered from the interrelation between the pre-exponential factor k0 and the mean activation energy E0--an obstacle that can be overcome by fixing the value of k0 a priori. The results confirmed the capabilities of DAEMs but also highlighted some drawbacks in their application to certain thermodegradation experimental data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape Polyphenols' Effects in Human Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasines-Perea, Zuriñe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals, has increased due to consumers' interest in the relevance of food composition for human health. Considerable recent interest has focused on bioactive phenolic compounds in grape, as they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-ageing and antimicrobial properties. Observational studies indicate that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods improves vascular health, thereby significantly reducing the risk of hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Other researchers have described the benefits of a grape polyphenol-rich diet for other types of maladies such as diabetes mellitus. This is a comprehensive review on the consumption of polyphenolic grape compounds, concerning their potential benefits for human health in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

  20. Potential of bio-drying applied to exhausted grape marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, experimentation was carried out to study the behavior of exhausted grape marc during the bio-drying process. This process was chosen as an alternative to the typical grape marc thermal drying approach. The aim was to reduce the moisture level thanks to the biological exothermal reactions, and to increase the energy content in the biodried grape marc. The target was the generation of a product interesting for energy options. For the development of the research, a biological pilot reactor and a respirometric apparatus were used. Results demonstrated that bio-drying can decrease the water content saving the original energy content. The final material could be assumed like a solid recovered fuel, class 5:1:1 with a very low potential rate of microbial self-heating.

  1. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  2. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  3. Modificação parcial do ambiente de cultivo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: efeito sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis Crop partially modified environment on different rootstocks of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine: effect on yield and sugar concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas regiões onde existe ocorrência de chuvas durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação dos frutos justifica-se a busca de alternativas de cultivo protegido de uvas para vinho visando atenuar esse impacto sobre a qualidade da produção. Um experimento com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e 'Ripária do Traviú',cultura videira foi conduzido em Jundiaí (SP, sob cultivo protegido (cobertura com plástico e laterais abertas, objetivando estudar as alterações microclimáticas ocorridas no ambiente de cultivo do vinhedo e avaliar o impacto dessa prática sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis, em relação ao cultivo em ambiente a céu aberto. A proteção por polietileno no cultivo da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' diminuiu o nível de radiação solar para 85,4% e aumentou as temperaturas máximas em 1,3 ºC. Nos ambientes analisados separadamente, as maiores produções por planta e teor de sólidos solúveis foram obtidas na 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' que superaram o 'Ripária do Traviú'. Na comparação entre os ambientes a céu aberto e parcialmente modificado não foram encontradas diferenças de produção, porém o teor de sólidos solúveis foi superior no ambiente a céu aberto.In the traditional regions of grape growers, where the incidence of rain is concentrated on the stage of fruit development and maturation, the search for improved crop management strategies is justified, aiming at attenuate the impact of it on yield quality. An experiment with grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" cultivated on rootstocks IAC 766, IAC 572 and Ripária do Traviú was carried out in Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, under plastic greenhouse. The search was focused on the microclimate modification in the environment of cultivated grapes from its conduction in partially modified crop cultivation environment (plastic cover with open sides, as well as evaluates the impact on

  4. Keberhasilan sambungan pada beberapa jenis batang atas dan famili batang bawah kakao (Theobroma cocoa L.. (Grafting performance of some scion clones and root-stock family on cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Differences in performance of grafting seedling were estimated from effect of using the root-stock and scion clones. This research aimed to study the differences of performance of some root-stock and scion clones on grafting seedling. The study used split plot design. First factor was root-stock consisted of ICS 60, Sca 6, Sca 12 and KW 165 and the second factor were 12 scions clones consisted of ICCRI 01, ICCRI 04, ICCRI 05, DR 2, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 516, KW 514, KW 617, KW 570, KEE 2, and KW 604. There were three replication in each treatment and each replication consisted of 15 samples. Viability, lingkage diameter, ratio of root-stock and scion, hight of shoot, number of leaves and shoot were observed. The study showed that differences of root-stock just affected viability, lingkage diameter, and high of shoot. Scion clones factor affected to all of the characters. Their interaction caused the differences of all characters except of the number of shoot. Root-stock Sca 6 showed the lowest viability and number of the shoot, however root-stock KW 165 and ICS 60 showed the best performance to all parameters. The cluster analysis was done based on growth parameters and viability on lingkage distance of 15. There were three clusters; cluster 1 (KW 570, cluster 2 (ICCRI 04, ICCRI 05, Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, KW 514, KW 165 and cluster 3 (ICCRI 01, DR 2, KW 516, KW 617, KW 604. Correlation analysis showed that main factor which affected the high viability root-stock diameter and diameter ratio of root-stock and scion were used.

  5. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Tiţa; Ciprian Tuşa; Axenia Rădulescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  6. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabner, Brian J.; Tabner, Vivienne A.

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, skins and stalks of unirradiated and γ-irradiated Cape black grapes have been obtained. In the spectra of all parts of the grape a single line (g ca. 2.004) is observed both before and after irradiation. New spectral features are observed after irradiation with doses of between 2 and 10 kGy. Some of these features decline in intensity over a period of several days. However, in the case of stalks, new spectral features are readily observed over the shelf-life of the fruit and in samples irradiated to a dose of only 2kGy.

  7. Spectral Analysis of Burgundy Pinot Noir Grape Harvest Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, K.; Thomson, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    We perform an analysis of Burgundy pinot noir grape harvest dates. This annual record reports the annual grape harvest date in days after September 1st, which has been used in summer temperature reconstructions. We perform spectral analysis and dynamic spectral analysis of the data where we find evidence of coherence indicating solar influence. Specifically we find structure in the dynamic spectra indicating solar influence, and there is evidence of the non-stationary structure associated with Seuss cycles as seen in other historical temperature data.

  8. Biochemical Analysis and in Vivo Hypoglycemic Activity of a Grape Polyphenol–Soybean Flour Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Oren, Andrew; Lila, Mary Ann; Fridlender, Bertold; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can efficiently sorb, concentrate, and stabilize polyphenols, but not sugars, from Concord grape juice, to yield grape polyphenol-enriched DSF. Sorption of grape polyphenols to DSF particles was dependent on the ratio of DSF and grape juice concentrate used, but not time of mixing or pH. Depending on ratios of starting materials, 1 g of grape polyphenol-enriched DSF contained 1.6–10.4 mg of anthocyanins, 7.5–93.1 mg of proanthocyanidins, and 20.5–144.5 mg of total...

  9. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expressio...... resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the grape infection....

  10. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  11. GROWTH AND LEVELS OF N, P AND K IN ROOTSTOCKS OF TAMARIND TREES USING ORGANIC SUBSTRATES AND DOSES OF PHOSPHORUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO CASTRO PEREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different organic substrates and phosphorus doses on the growth and leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in rootstocks of Tamarindus indica L. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse nursery located on the campus of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, from March to October 2013. The treatments consisted of three organic sources at a concentration of 40% (v/v (bovine manure, goat manure and a commercial organic compound and four doses of simple superphosphate (0, 0 kg m-3, 2.5 kg m-3, 5.0 kg m-3 and 7.5 kg m-3. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design (RBD, with 12 treatments (substrates, four replications and 10 plants per plot, totaling 480 plants. The goat manure and the organic compound were the most suitable treatments for the production of rootstocks of the tamarind tree. The maximum dose of 7.5 g kg-1 of simple superphosphate caused the highest levels of phosphorus and potassium in the dry mass of shoots. The nutrients in the dry matter of shoots accumulated in the following order: N > K > P.

  12. Use of Genetic Diversity of the Genus Prunus L. in Selection of Clonal Rootstocks for Stone Fruit Crops and Features of Their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin Gennadiy V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of diversity of wild types of the genus Prunus L. (P. cerasifera, P. armeniaca, P. persica, P. fruticosa, P. lannesiana, P. maackii, P. tomentosa, P. pumila, and P. incana in the collection of the Krymsk Experiment Breeding Station, highly adaptive, medium or weak vigour clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops with good compatibility with grafted cultivars were selected: for plum, apricot and peach - Kuban 86, VVA-1, Evrika 99, Zarevo (Glow, Alab 1, Speaker, Best, VSV-1; and for sweet cherries and sour cherries - L-2, LC-52, VSL-1, VSL-2, and RVL-9. Part of the rootstocks were tested and successfully used in different parts of Russia and some near and far countries. The applied integration of tissue culture in vitro in the selection process at the station considerably promoted the rapid introduction of new rootstocks into world production. Technologies were developed for microclonal reproduction, and green and woody cuttings. The revealed light rooting of woody cuttings of stocks Kuban 86, Evrika 99, Zarevo, Best, VSL-1, RVL-9 (50-80% allowed to develop technology for growing of young plants on these rootstocks directly in the first field of the nursery.

  13. The effect of M.9 and M.26 rootstocks on the growth of maiden trees of 'Šampion' and 'Jonica' apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kapłan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 2000-2003 at the Felin Experimental Farm of the Agricultural University of Lublin. Maiden apple trees, 'Šampion' and 'Jonica', grafted on the M.9 RN29 and M.26 rootstocks, were the examined material. It was proved that genetic characteristics of the cultivar and weather conditions in the period of growth of young shoots had a significant effect on the growth of the examined trees. The diameter of the rootstocks of the examined cultivars depended on the type of the rootstock used. It turned out that in 2002 the M.26 apple was significantly thicker than the M.9 one. No significant effect of the rootstock and the cultivar on the diameter of the maiden trees at the height of 30 cm was found. It was observed that the trees on M.26 had a larger diameter than those on M.9. The cultivar and weather conditions in a given year had the most significant effect on the sum of shoot lengths, as well as the number and length of one shoot.

  14. THE EFFECT OF LOW ROOT TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH AND LIPID-COMPOSITION OF LOW-TEMPERATURE TOLERANT ROOTSTOCK GENOTYPES FOR CUCUMBER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULDER, HAM; DENNIJS, APM; SPEEK, EJ; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of research directed to diminish energy consumption of glasshouse cucumber production, three low temperature tolerant rootstock genotypes for cucumber were compared. Firstly, growth at low root temperature of one Cucurbita ficifolia and two Sicyos angulatus genotypes was studied to

  15. Resveratrol, in its natural combination in whole grape, for health promotion and disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Liu, Xiaoqi; Ahmad, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    The grape antioxidant resveratrol has been a topic of intense research for the past three decades. Resveratrol and other grape ingredients, as well as whole-grape products, have shown considerable promise in health promotion and disease management. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a natural combination of resveratrol and other phytonutrients, as it contains several catechins, anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonols. Thus, the whole grape products or specific combinations of grape constituents provide us with the possibility of synergistic interactions leading to improved efficacy. Recent research has suggested that whole-grape products may help in maintaining heart health and protect against aging, aging-associated diseases, neurodegeneration, and some cancers. Based on the available recent literature, the grape or whole-grape products seem to be safer choices for better health and disease prevention. However, for advanced disease conditions, individual grape ingredients (such as resveratrol) or combinations of multiple ingredients together with existing therapies appear to be better approaches. Further clinical studies are needed to understand the benefits of grapes and their products in the prevention and management of specific diseases. PMID:26099945

  16. Biochemical Analysis and in Vivo Hypoglycemic Activity of a Grape Polyphenol–Soybean Flour Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Oren, Andrew; Lila, Mary Ann; Fridlender, Bertold; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can efficiently sorb, concentrate, and stabilize polyphenols, but not sugars, from Concord grape juice, to yield grape polyphenol-enriched DSF. Sorption of grape polyphenols to DSF particles was dependent on the ratio of DSF and grape juice concentrate used, but not time of mixing or pH. Depending on ratios of starting materials, 1 g of grape polyphenol-enriched DSF contained 1.6–10.4 mg of anthocyanins, 7.5–93.1 mg of proanthocyanidins, and 20.5–144.5 mg of total polyphenols. LC-MS analysis of grape juice samples before and after addition and removal of DSF and eluate from grape polyphenol-enriched DSF confirmed that a broad range of grape compounds were sorbed to the DSF matrix. Finally, grape polyphenol-enriched DSF was able to significantly lower blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic C57BL/6J mice. The data indicate that grape polyphenol-enriched DSF can provide a high-protein, low-sugar ingredient for delivery of concentrated grape polyphenolics. PMID:22462390

  17. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

  18. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, A.E.N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  19. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  20. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  1. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  2. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  3. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation on home storage performance of table grape based on sensory quality and consumers' satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changyang; Fu, Zetian; Xu, Mark; Trebar, Mira; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2016-03-01

    With continuous rise of table grapes consumption and increased public awareness of food safety, the quality control of grapes in storage after purchase is not sufficiently examined. Home storage constitutes the last and important stage in grape supply chain. Literature review shows that few researches on grape quality focus on the home storage stage compared with numerous researches reported on the quality control during postharvest and transportation process. This paper reports the performance evaluation of grape quality at home storage and consumers' satisfaction using integrated sensory evaluations. The internal attributes, including Texture, Taste and Odor of the table grapes and the appearance indices, Color and Cleanliness are examined. Key results show that during home storage, all the internal attributes decrease rapidly as time goes on, and cleanliness and color appear to be deteriorating in a lower speed. A comprehensive quality index was created to measure the quality of table grape which has high correlation with the Overall acceptability perceived by consumers.

  5. Phytochemical Constituents, Health Benefits, and Industrial Applications of Grape Seeds: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng Feei; Zhang, Hongxia

    2017-09-15

    Grapes are one of the most widely grown fruits and have been used for winemaking since the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Grape seeds are rich in proanthocyanidins which have been shown to possess potent free radical scavenging activity. Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11% proteins, and 7% complex phenols such as tannins. Grape seeds are rich sources of flavonoids and contain monomers, dimers, trimers, oligomers, and polymers. The monomeric compounds includes (+)-catechins, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Studies have reported that grape seeds exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Their potential health benefits include protection against oxidative damage, and anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet functions. Recognition of such health benefits of proanthocyanidins has led to the use of grape seeds as a dietary supplement by the consumers. This paper summarizes the studies of the phytochemical compounds, pharmacological properties, and industrial applications of grape seeds.

  6. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahara, N; Tofani, I; Maki, K; Kojima, K; Kojima, Y; Kimura, M

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) given as a ratio of 3 mg in 100 g in a standard diet, on the tibial bone diaphysis in low-calcium fed rats. Measurements of bone density, mineral content, geometry, and bone strength using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Further, the whole tibia bones were tested for mechanical resistance using a material-testing machine, and mineral elements were also determined. Forty male Wistar rats, 5 weeks old, were divided into control (Co), low-calcium diet (LC), low-calcium diet . standard diet (LCS), and low-calcium diet . standard diet with supplementary GSPE (LCSG) groups. We found no significant differences in body weight among the 4 groups, whereas all of the bone parameters in LC were significantly lower than those in Co (pcalcium has a beneficial effect on bone formation and bone strength for the treatment of bone debility caused by a low level of calcium.

  8. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiana A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The material was activated with steam under different temperatures, activation times, and activating agent flow rates. Impact resistance index, axial compressive strength, tensile strength by diametrical compression, BET area, and pore volume were measured for product characterization. Satisfactory surface areas and mechanical strengths were found in the final products.

  9. Propagação por enxertia de atemoia 'Thompson' sobre espécies de Rollinia 'Thompson' atemoya grafting onto Rollinia rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Paes de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o índice de sobrevivência do enxerto de atemoia 'Thompson' sobre dois porta-enxertos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, dois porta-enxertos [araticum-de-terra-fria (Rollinia sp. e biribá (Rollinia mucosa] e dois métodos de enxertia (topo em fenda lateral e topo à inglesa simples, em 6 blocos, 4 tratamentos e 5 plantas por parcela, totalizando 120 plantas. Para as condições locais, verificou-se que a atemoia pode ser propagada com sucesso via enxertia, usando o porta-enxerto araticum-de-terra-fria, com diferença significativa em relação ao biribá. O melhor método de enxertia para araticum-de-terra-fria foi o inglês simples, com índice de sobrevivência do enxerto de 90%. Observou-se baixo índice de sobrevivência do enxerto, utilizando-se de ambos os métodos de enxertia para o porta-enxerto biribá.This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of atemoya 'Thompson' on two rootstocks.The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with factorial scheme 2 x 2 consisting of 6 blocks, 4 treatments and 5 replicates per parcel totaling 120 plants. Two grafting methods (side cleft graft and whip graft and two rootstocks [araticum-de-terra-fria (Rollinia sp. and biriba (Rollinia mucosa] were evaluated for propagation of 'Thompson' atemoya. Scion survival rate was evaluated and analyzed by Tukey test, with 5% of significance level. Atemoya tree under local conditions can be propagated successfully by grafting using araticum-de-terra-fria rootstock. Whip graft was the best grafting method for araticum-de-terra-fria rootstock with 90% survival. Both grafting methods for biriba rootstock resulted in low scion survival rate.

  10. A new three-locus model for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple revealed by genetic mapping of root bark percentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicola; Harrison, Richard J.; Barber-Perez, Nuria; Cascant-Lopez, Emma; Cobo-Medina, Magdalena; Lipska, Marzena; Conde-Ruíz, Rebeca; Brain, Philip; Gregory, Peter J.; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad

    2016-01-01

    Rootstock-induced dwarfing of apple scions revolutionized global apple production during the twentieth century, leading to the development of modern intensive orchards. A high root bark percentage (the percentage of the whole root area constituted by root cortex) has previously been associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple. In this study, the root bark percentage was measured in a full-sib family of ungrafted apple rootstocks and found to be under the control of three loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root bark percentage were found to co-localize to the same genomic regions on chromosome 5 and chromosome 11 previously identified as controlling dwarfing, Dw1 and Dw2, respectively. A third QTL was identified on chromosome 13 in a region that has not been previously associated with dwarfing. The development of closely linked sequence-tagged site markers improved the resolution of allelic classes, thereby allowing the detection of dominance and epistatic interactions between loci, with high root bark percentage only occurring in specific allelic combinations. In addition, we report a significant negative correlation between root bark percentage and stem diameter (an indicator of tree vigour), measured on a clonally propagated grafted subset of the mapping population. The demonstrated link between root bark percentage and rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion leads us to propose a three-locus model that is able to explain levels of dwarfing from the dwarf ‘M.27’ to the semi-invigorating rootstock ‘M.116’. Moreover, we suggest that the QTL on chromosome 13 (Rb3) might be analogous to a third dwarfing QTL, Dw3, which has not previously been identified. PMID:26826217

  11. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  12. Avaliação de citrandarins e outros híbridos de trifoliata como porta-enxertos para citros em São Paulo Performance of citrandarins and others trifoliate hybrids rootstocks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blumer

    2005-08-01

    productions in all years except in 1994. None of the trees showed symptoms of tristeza or blight diseases. Seedlings of these rootstocks were compared for resistance to Phytophthora parasitica inoculations. The citrandarins Cleopatra x Swingle (1.587, Cleopatra x Trifoliate (1.574, Cleopatra x Rubidoux (1.600, Clementine x Trifoliate (1.615 and Rangpur lime x Carrizo citrange (717, were significantly more resistant than the Cleopatra x Christian (712, Sunki x English (1.628, Cleopatra x Swingle (715 and Cleopatra x English (710.

  13. Interação enxerto e porta-enxerto na incidência da resinose do cajueiro Effect of cashew clone used as rootstocks and scions on gummosis incidence in cashew plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilson Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    genotypes used to both as scion and root-stock. This may contribute to enhance crop vulnerability to some biological harm such as the infection by the gummosis fungus agent, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the most important disease of this plant in semi-arid north-eastern Brazil. It has been estimated that half a million graft plants of EDC are yearly produced in Brazil, most of them obtained by grafting over seedling from CCP 06 clone as root-stock. The only means of managing gummosis is by the use of genetically resistant clones. However, the lack of studies on the scion and stock genotypic interactions has contributed to outbreak of successive gummosis epidemics. This study was developed in order to evaluate the effect of different combinations of EDC clones used as scion and stock on gummosis incidence. Root-stocks, prepared from seeds of six open pollinated plants, were grafted with two commercial clones: CCP 75 (susceptible and BRS 226 (resistant. The field trial was laid out under high disease pressure, in a 2 by 6 factorial scheme in a completely randomized block design with four replications and nine plants per plot. Disease incidence (I and severity (S (scale 0 to 4 was monitored for three years. On the third year, gummosis incidence and severity were higher in CCP 76 (I =97% and I = 2.10 than in BRS 226 (I =33% and I = 0.36, independently of root-stock. CCP 06 clone was the only one root-stock which reduced both incidence and severity of gummosis independently of scion. This clone was able to reduce susceptibility of CCP 76 as canopy.

  14. Water relations of field-grown grapevines in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil, under different rootstocks and irrigation strategies Relações hídricas de videiras cultivadas no Vale do São Francisco sob diferente porta-enxertos e estratégias de irrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased demand for high quality winegrapes in the São Francisco Valley, a new wine producing area in Brazil. As the grape quality is closely linked to the soil water status, understanding the effects of rootstock and irrigation management on grapevine water relations is essential to optimize yield and quality. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of irrigation strategies and rootstocks on water relations and scion vigour of field-grown grapevines in Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil. The cultivars used as scions are Moscato Canelli and Syrah, both grafted onto IAC 572 and 1103 Paulsen rootstocks. The following water treatments were used: deficit irrigation, with holding water after veraison; and partial root-zone drying, supplying (100% of crop evapotranspiration of the water loss to only one side of the root system after fruit set, alternating the sides periodically (about 24 days. In general, all treatments had values of pre-dawn leaf water potential higher than -0.2 MPa, suggesting absence of water stress. The vine water status was more affected by rootstock type than irrigation strategies. Both cultivars grafted on IAC 572 had the highest values of midday leaf water potential and stem water potential, measured on non-transpiring leaves, which were bagged with both plastic sheet and aluminum foil at least 1 h before measurements. For both cultivars, the stomatal conductance (g s, transpiration (E and leaf area index (LAI were also more affected by roostsotck type than by irrigation strategies. The IAC 572 rootstock presented higher g s, E and LAI than the 1103 Paulsen. Differences in vegetative vigor of the scion grafted onto IAC 572 rootstocks were related to its higher leaf specific hydraulic conductance and deeper root system as compared to the 1103 Paulsen, which increased the water-extraction capability, resulting in a better vine water status.Existe aumento na demanda por vinhos de alta qualidade no

  15. Use of gamma irradiation to stimulate growth of some grape varieties in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Nabulsi, I.

    1999-03-01

    Three rootstocks (R.99, Ruggeri 140, and 3309) and three varieties (Helwani, Cabernet and Ashlamich) of grapevine cultured on DSD1 medi, were irradiated with 0, 2, 5, and 7 Gy of gamma irradiation (Co 60 sources, 0.17 Gy/min). Ashlamich variety did not show any growth in all tested doses. Shoot length of all other varieties and rootstocks were increased at the 7 Gy dose compared to control except R.99. The root number was significantly increased of three rootstock with 5. Root length was significantly higher at doses 2, 5, and 7 Gy had the same effect on Helwani and Cabernet varieties. The number of Cabernet leaves exposed to 2 and 7 Gy was increased compared to control, whereas it was increased at 5 and 7 Gy on Helwani. The leaf area of Helwani and Cabernet was significantly reduced at 5 Gy dose. (authors)

  16. Early detection of gray mold in grape using conventional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botrytis cinerea affects grape quality and yield, and can be difficult to manage due in part to non-symptomatic, quiescent infection in berry development. The aim of this study was to develop a dual system for the detection, isolation and quantification of B. cinerea. After three days of samples replication on the modified ...

  17. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui×. Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55).

  18. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  19. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  20. Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant status, immune response, gut morphology and histopathological responses in broiler chickens. ... The secondary titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased significantly in the birds fed 10% GP and the secondary IgG concentration of birds ...

  1. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... embryo rescue from interspecific hybridization between diploid and tetraploid grape species. Wakana et al. (2003) and Motosugi et al. (2003) studied the formation and developments of hybrid seeds from cross between diploid and tetraploid, and then obtained triploid progenies through embryo rescue.

  2. Antimicrobial Properties of Grape Fruit, Pawpaw and Black Pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, Nigeria loses 30-50% of its fish harvest to spoilage. This exacerbates her fish demand-supply gap; hence the need to devise means of mitigating the spoilage. This paper reports the findings of a study that delved into the antimicrobial properties of Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisa), Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and ...

  3. Post-harvest Decay of ‘Campbell Early’ Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Noh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of post-harvest diseases and their pathogens in ‘Campbell Early’ which is the most produced grape in Korea was investigated. The ‘Campbell Early’ grapes produced in 3 main grape-producing areas were stored in a cold room (0-4°C for 2 weeks then at room temperature for 4 weeks prior to investigation. The major post-harvest diseases occurred were gray mold, blue mold, ripe rot, new decay 1, and new decay 2. Pathogens isolated from the symptoms were identified as Botrytis cinerea for gray mold, Penicillium sclerotiorum for blue mold and Collectrichum acutatum for ripe rot. Pathogens for new decay 1 and new decay 2 were not identified yet. Incidences of new decay 1 and new decay 2 were much higher than the other 3 decays in all grapes produced from 3 areas. Gray mold and blue mold occurred at much lower frequencies than these two decays, and ripe rot occurred least.

  4. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  5. Bioactive polyphenols from grapes and wine emphasized with resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latruffe, Norbert; Rifler, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Grape polyphenols are abundant. They play essential roles in the plant's life, particularly in defence mechanisms. Moreover, the grape, fresh or dried, is a widely consumed fruit by humans, as are its by-products, grape juice and wine. They also contain vast and highly varied quantities of polyphenols. Like other phytophenols, grape and wine resveratrol is considered a protective micronutrient. Resveratrol is a well known antioxidant, for example, a protector of low-density lipoproteins against oxidation. Its applications are therefore highly varied. Research supports the idea that wine consumed regularly, without excess, is a natural biological product possesses preventive properties, and not only well-known properties against vascular diseases (illustrated by the so-called French paradox). At least in experimental models so far, resveratrol prevents infections, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. This review addresses whether the pro-longevity properties of resveratrol are preserved in the human species. If such is the case, it will be possible to imagine new ways of eating based on natural foods, with or without supplements, based on resveratrol. On the other hand, studies such as ours are investigating the synergies between resveratrol and some of the many polyphenols found in wine. These studies should fill in the gaps between the study of a molecule tested in isolation or in a binary system (e.g., with alcohol) and this same molecule in its biological context.

  6. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  7. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  8. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    method for accurate pressure measurement and subsequent corrections applied to the GRAPES-3 muon data .... of >1 GeV muons [4]. This large rate of muons offers a very sensitive probe for studying the variations in primary cosmic rays due to a variety of atmospheric and solar ..... The error bar on each data point refers to.

  9. Characterization of mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate transporters from grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Ana; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Bitetto, Maria; Laera, Valentina Liliana; Pimentel, Catarina; Francisco, Rita; Passarinho, José; Chaves, Maria M; Agrimi, Gennaro

    2013-03-01

    Grape berries (Vitis vinifera L fruit) exhibit a double-sigmoid pattern of development that results from two successive periods of vacuolar swelling during which the nature of accumulated solutes changes significantly. Throughout the first period, called green or herbaceous stage, berries accumulate high levels of organic acids, mainly malate and tartrate. At the cellular level fruit acidity comprises both metabolism and vacuolar storage. Malic acid compartmentation is critical for optimal functioning of cytosolic enzymes. Therefore, the identification and characterization of the carriers involved in malate transport across sub-cellular compartments is of great importance. The decrease in acid content during grape berry ripening has been mainly associated to mitochondrial malate oxidation. However, no Vitis vinifera mitochondrial carrier involved in malate transport has been reported to date. Here we describe the identification of three V. vinifera mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate carriers (VvDTC1-3) putatively involved in mitochondrial malate, citrate and other di/tricarboxylates transport. The three VvDTCs are very similar, sharing a percentage of identical residues of at least 83 %. Expression analysis of the encoding VvDTC genes in grape berries shows that they are differentially regulated exhibiting a developmental pattern of expression. The simultaneous high expression of both VvDTC2 and VvDTC3 in grape berry mesocarp close to the onset of ripening suggests that these carriers might be involved in the transport of malate into mitochondria.

  10. Grape antioxidant dietary fiber stimulates Lactobacillus growth in rat cecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozuelo, María José; Agis-Torres, Angel; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Elvira López-Oliva, María; Muñoz-Martínez, Emilia; Rotger, Rafael; Goñi, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The digesta is a highly active biological system where epithelial cells, microbiota, nondigestible dietary components, and a large number of metabolic products interact. The gut microbiota can be modulated by both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Undigested dietary residues are substrates for colonic microbiota and may influence gut microbial ecology. The objective of this work was to study the capacity of grape antioxidant dietary fiber (GADF), which is rich in polyphenols, to modify the bacterial profile in the cecum of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed for 4 wk with diets containing either cellulose or GADF as dietary fiber. The effect of GADF on bacterial growth was evaluated in vitro and on the cecal microbiota of rats using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that GADF intake stimulates proliferation of Lactobacillus and slightly affects the composition of Bifidobacterium species. GADF was also found to have a stimulative effect on Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro. These findings suggest that the consumption of a diet rich in plant foods with high dietary fiber and polyphenol content may enhance the gastrointestinal health of the host through microbiota modulation. Grape antioxidant fiber combines nutritional and physiological properties of dietary fiber and natural antioxidants from grapes. Grape antioxidant fiber could be used as an ingredient for functional foods and as a dietary supplement to increase the intake of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Could grape seed extract modulate nephritic damage induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methomex (Metho) is classified as a carbamate insecticide. The present study was designed to examine the influence of grape seed oil (GSO) on the histopathological changes in methomex-induced kidney damage in male rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups, the first of which was considered as the control. The 2nd group ...

  12. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of histone deacetylase-inhibitor, vorinostat, on antitumour activity of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: Expression of thymidine phosphorlase (TP) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was measured by real-time PCR and western ...

  13. Contamination of grape seed oil with mineral oil paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann, Maurus; Ballini, Roberto; Coni, Ettore; Grob, Konrad

    2008-12-10

    The contamination of 11 commercial grape seed oils with paraffins of mineral oil origin was analyzed by online-coupled HPLC-HPLC-GC-FID and ranged from 43 to 247 mg kg(-1). The analysis of the marc and seeds indicated that the contamination is primarily from the peels. Since superficial extraction of the seeds with hexane removed most of the mineral paraffins, the contamination of the seeds is largely on the surface, perhaps transferred from the peels during storage of the marc. Mechanical purification of the seeds combined with washing with hexane reduced the contamination of the oil by a factor of about 10. The refining process removed 30% of the mineral paraffins, primarily the more volatile components. Oil obtained from the seeds of fresh grapes, including grapes not having undergone any phytochemical treatment, contained clearly less mineral paraffins (up to 14 mg kg(-1)), and the peels were less contaminated, suggesting an environmental background contamination. To this an additional contamination might be added by a treatment of the grapes used for wine making.

  14. Comparison of rheological properties of varietal grape seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the rheological properties of grape seed oils from different varieties selected at different temperatures. Measurement of the rheological properties of grape seed oils was performed on the instrument Anton Paar MCR 102. The rheological properties of the liquid have been performed at temperatures of 0 °C, 15 °C, 30 °C, 45 °C and 60 °C. The density of measured samples ranged from 0.905 ±0.002 to 0.948 ±0.002 g.mL-1. Subsequently, there were determined viscosity values at a shear rate of 5 s-1. As expected, the viscosity decreased with increasing temperature. Highest viscosity values reached grape seed oil of variety Pinot gris where at 0 °C the viscosity reached 0.206 ±0.037 Pa s. Samples measured at 0 °C showed non-Newtonian behavior, while at higher temperatures liquids behave as Newtonian substances. All grape seed oils samples exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at lower temperatures. In experiments carried out at 0 °C, it was observed that the tested samples tends to behave as shear-thinning system with thixotropic properties. At higher temperatures was, in line with other scientific works, observed that samples behave as Newtonian fluids. Knowledge of the rheological properties of oils are very important for their processing, storage, and may affect their quality.

  15. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The GRAPES-3 experiment at Ooty contains a large-area (560 m2) tracking muon detector. This detector consists of 16 modules, each 35 m2 in area, that are grouped into four supermodules of 140 m2 each. The threshold energy of muons is sec ⁡ ( ) GeV along a direction with zenith angle and the angular resolution of ...

  16. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Rouphael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH and aluminium (Al stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.‘Ekron’ either non-grafted or grafted onto ‘P360’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F. Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Exp. 1, 14 d and pH 6, pH 3.5 and pH 3.5 +0.75 mM Al (Exp. 2, 67 d. Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to i a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, ii a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, iii a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as iv the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage. Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  17. The influence of climate change on wine production - the case of the Touriga Nacional grape variety (Quinta dos Termos, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, João

    2017-04-01

    The regional and local climate, heavily influenced by global climate change, has strong implications for agriculture. Wine production which has specific characteristics in terms of climate and soil is undoubtedly one of the economic activities strongly influenced by climate change. Quinta dos Termos located in Beira Interior (Belmonte, Portugal) is the largest wine producer in the DOC Beira Interior region, producing premium to hiper premium wines of excellence, marketed at both national and international levels, and cultivates the vineyards according to the rules of Integrated Crop Management. Moreover, grapes are free from herbicides, pesticides or any other chemicals that can be harmful to the environment and health. These factors have contributed to the socio-economic development of the region, creating wealth, favoring employment and promoting tourism. The quality of the wines produced by Quinta dos Termos result from its terroir, given its granite region, the sun exposure, the wind protection, the atmospheric humidity and temperature, the soil water content, the mineralogical/organic composition and soil porosity. These factors favor unique conditions for the cultivation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, which is recognized by its extremely complex color and aroma, which allows the production of wines with great balance and a good ageing potential. Touriga Nacional, a red grape variety of Portuguese origin with high qualitative excellence and reputation and much appreciated worldwide, is versatile to several types of soils and resistant to high thermal amplitudes. Nevertheless, the climatic changes that has been gradually verified, the type of crop management, and in particular the reputation of Touriga Nacional grape variety, may be compromised in the long term, given that these characteristics are strongly influenced by the climate and soil. Aware of that, Quinta dos Termos has been performing a monitoring of the vineyards in terms of pedological treatment

  18. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine, and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice, we used plate-dilution method and DRBC as medium. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus isolates were inoculated on the identification media. Representatives of the genus Aspergillus were isolated from 13 samples berries, 7 samples of surface-sterilized berries, 4 samples of damaged berries and 9 samples of grape juice. Overall, representatives of aspergilli were detected in 90% of samples (75 isolates. In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of ochratoxin A belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Isolates, potential producers of ochratoxin A (Aspergillus niger aggregate and Aspergillus westerdijkiae, were after their identification inoculated on YES medium (Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar and after 14 days of incubation at 25±1°C, in the dark, we tested them for their ability to produce ochratoxin A using thin layer chromatography. Out of the 16 isolates from isolated potential producers of ochratoxin A none of the isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested produced ochratoxin A. The isolate of Aspergillus westerdijkiae (1, isolated from the surface-sterilized berries, produced ochratoxin A.

  19. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Characterization of oil obtained from grape seeds collected during berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuela; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Alvarruiz, Andrés; Fernández, Enrique; Pardo, Jose E

    2009-04-08

    The surpluses of the wine industry that originate from wine production in the European countries must be reduced. Green harvesting, consisting in collecting the grapes when they are still green, could contribute to the reduction of the yield of vineyards. The green grapes are not suitable for wine production, but they can be used for seed oil extraction. Grape seed oil is a linoleic acid rich oil that has been suggested as an alternative to traditional vegetable edible oils. In this work, grape samples were collected at different stages during berry development for seed oil extraction. The grapes collected at a very early stage showed a very low oil extraction yield compared with that of the samples collected at later stages. The oil from the grapes collected at an early stage had considerably higher sterols content and had a significantly different fatty acid composition compared with those of the oil extracted from grapes collected at later stages. However, the oil samples from grapes collected before veraison did not show significant differences with samples collected after veraison as regards oil extraction yield, fatty acids composition, and total sterol content and composition. Our data suggest that grapes collected from green harvesting near veraison could be suitable for seed oil extraction, with characteristics similar to those of the oil extracted from the seeds of mature grapes.

  1. Evaluation of Paclobutrazol Spraying on Salinity Hardiness of Peach- Almond Hybrid (GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam amiri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salinity is a common abiotic stress that seriously affects crop production in some parts of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. The deleterious effects of salinity on plant growth are associated with low osmotic potential of soil solution (water stress, nutritional imbalance, specific ion effect (salt stress, or a combination of these factors. Paclobutrazol (PBZ, a member of the triazole plant growth inhibitor group, is a broad-spectrum gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. Triazoles have both fungal toxicity and plant growth regulatory effects. They also increase tolerance of various plant species to biotic and abiotic stresses, including fungal pathogens, drought, air pollutants, and low- and high-temperature stress. According to our knowledge, there are no reports on the effects of exogenous PBZ enhancing vegetative peach- almond hybrid (GF 677 rootstock tolerance to salt stress. Therefore, the objective of this work was the possibility test of this idea that PBZ application would protect GF 677 rootstock from damaging effects of salinity. Materials and Methods: One-year-old rooted cuttings of GF 677 were grown in in plastic pots in the research greenhouse of Agricultural College, Isfahan University of Technology of Iran. The minimum and maximum temperatures during the experiment period were 19 and 32˚C, respectively. After cutting establishment (3 months, the plants were sprayed twice (with a 7 days interval with 0 (control, 20 and 40 mg l-1 PBZ to the point of run-off. One week after the second foliar application of PBZ, each plants was subjected to one of several salt stress treatments. The salt treatments (0, 25 and 50 mM NaCl were applied to the pots intervals in 0.5 l of irrigation water. To avoid osmotic shock, the NaCl concentration was increased gradually. The layout was a 3×3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The experimental measurements were carried out

  2. Grape yield to soil N-NO3- ratio can explain the different levels of biogenic amines in wine from two vineyards in the AOC Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Santamaría, Pilar; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Plant N status may affect the grape amino acid concentration, which act as precursors in the formation of biogenic amines in wine. Biogenic amines have negative effects on human health and so they reduce the wine quality. The objective of this study was to analyze, at bloom (when the vine N demand peaks) if both the available soil N and the N concentration in the leaf could explain the amino acid concentration in the must as well as the biogenic amines in wines from AOC Rioja. Two plots with cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grafted on R-110 rootstock were chosen: "La Grajera" (2,998 plants ha-1) and "Nájera" (2,849 plants ha-1), both plots with a traditional soil tillage management system and classified according to the American Soil Taxonomy as Typic Haloxerepts and Oxyaquic Xerorthent, respectively. Both soils had a pH higher than 7, a silty loam texture and organic matter values lower than 2%. The climatic conditions were described as semiarid Mediterranean according to the UNESCO aridity index. In each vineyard, three non-adjacent experimental plots with 3 rows of 30 vines each, were set out. No fertilizer was applied during the project. Each plot was sampled in 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons at bloom, analyzing the available soil N-NO3- at 0-15 and 15-45 cm depth and expressing the results in kg ha-1 by means of the bulk density of soil and the coarse elements content. Also at bloom, 30 leaves per experimental plot were collected and their N concentration was analyzed. At harvest, 200 berries were taken from each plot and the amino acid content in the musts was determined by HPLC. In addition, 100 kg of grapes from each plot were taken in order to elaborate wine according to the AOC Rioja common winemaking practices. When the winemaking process was finished, the concentration of biogenic amines in the wine (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadeverine, phenylethylamine and isoamylamine) was determined by HPLC. Our results showed

  3. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  4. α-Ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Saito, Takanori; Ohkawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Shishido, Masahiro; Ikeura, Hiromi; Takagi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Shigeyuki; Yokoyama, Mineyuki; Kondo, Satoru

    2016-03-15

    Effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (KODA) application on endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'Kyoho' grapes (Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (Glomerella cingulata). The expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1), lipoxygenase (VvLOX), and allene oxide synthase (VvAOS) were also examined. The grape berries were dipped in 0.1mM KODA solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25°C for 12 days. The development of infection was significantly suppressed upon KODA treatment. Endogenous ABA, JA and phaseic acid (PA) were induced in inoculated berries. KODA application before inoculation increased endogenous ABA, PA and JA through the activation of VvNCED1, VvCYP707A1 and VvAOS genes, respectively. In addition, terpenes, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and C6-aldehydes such as (E)-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal associated with fungal resistance also increased in KODA-treated berries during storage. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of JA, ABA, and some aromatic volatiles induced by KODA application may provide resistance to pathogen infection in grape berries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the influence of white grape seed extracts as copigment sources on the anthocyanin extraction from grape skins previously classified by near infrared hyperspectral tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José

    2017-04-15

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Cinnamic Acid for Controlling Gray Mold on Table Grape and Its Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanquan; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2015-09-01

    Cinnamic acid (CA) is an organic acid and is widely used in food industry as a common food additive. Previous studies showed that CA has the antimicrobial activity in vitro, but little is known about the effect of CA on controlling the fruit decay in vivo. In present study, we showed that application of CA was significantly effective on controlling the gray mold of table grape caused by Botrytis cinerea. CA can directly inhibit the mycelial growth of B. cinerea on potato dextrose agar plates. The mechanisms by which CA inhibited fungal growth were assayed by staining the spores with fluorescent dyes propidium iodide and 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively. The results indicated that CA can damage the integrity of plasma membrane and induce the intracellular reactive oxygen species level of B. cinerea which were responsible for the reduction of growth rate. Meanwhile, CA treatment significantly stimulated the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase which were closely related to the resistance of plant. Taken together, this study suggested that CA was effective on controlling the gray mold of table grape in postharvest period by inhibiting the growth of pathogen and inducing the resistance of host.

  7. Whole genome comparative analysis of four Georgian grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabidze, V; Pipia, I; Gogniashvili, M; Kunelauri, N; Ujmajuridze, L; Pirtskhalava, M; Vishnepolsky, B; Hernandez, A G; Fields, C J; Beridze, Tengiz

    2017-12-01

    Grapevine is the one of the most important fruit species in the world. Comparative genome sequencing of grape cultivars is very important for the interpretation of the grape genome and understanding its evolution. The genomes of four Georgian grape cultivars-Chkhaveri, Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli, belonging to different haplogroups, were resequenced. The shotgun genomic libraries of grape cultivars were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Pinot Noir nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast DNA were used as reference. Mitochondrial DNA of Chkhaveri closely matches that of the reference Pinot noir mitochondrial DNA, with the exception of 16 SNPs found in the Chkhaveri mitochondrial DNA. The number of SNPs in mitochondrial DNA from Saperavi, Meskhetian green, and Rkatsiteli was 764, 702, and 822, respectively. Nuclear DNA differs from the reference by 1,800,675 nt in Chkhaveri, 1,063,063 nt in Meskhetian green, 2,174,995 in Saperavi, and 5,011,513 in Rkatsiteli. Unlike mtDNA Pinot noir, chromosomal DNA is closer to the Meskhetian green than to other cultivars. Substantial differences in the number of SNPs in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of Chkhaveri and Pinot noir cultivars are explained by backcrossing or introgression of their wild predecessors before or during the process of domestication. Annotation of chromosomal DNA of Georgian grape cultivars by MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system, shows 66,745 predicted genes (Chkhaveri-17,409; Saperavi-17,021; Meskhetian green-18,355; and Rkatsiteli-13,960). Among them, 106 predicted genes and 43 pseudogenes of terpene synthase genes were found in chromosomes 12, 18 random (18R), and 19. Four novel TPS genes not present in reference Pinot noir DNA were detected. Two of them-germacrene A synthase (Chromosome 18R) and (-) germacrene D synthase (Chromosome 19) can be identified as putatively full-length proteins. This work performs the first attempt of the comparative whole genome analysis of different haplogroups

  8. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  9. Meta-analysis of the core aroma components of grape and wine aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ilc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  10. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  11. Characterisation of seed oils from different grape cultivars grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Zhu, Minghui; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Jinhong; Chen, Ziye; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-07-01

    To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars ( Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii ), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88-77.12 %), sterols (227.99-338.83 mg/100 g oil) and tocotrienols (320.08-679.24 mg/kg oil). Seed oil of V. amurensis exhibited the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acid, total tocotrienols, total tocols and DPPH· scavenging capacity. Seed oil of Carbernet Sauvignon had the highest contents of squalene, total sterols, total tocopherols and total phenolics. Principal component analysis five grape cultivars differentiated on the basis of bioactive components content and antioxidant properties.

  12. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  13. Grafting on a Non-Transgenic Tolerant Tomato Variety Confers Resistance to the Infection of a Sw5-Breaking Strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus via RNA Silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Spanò

    Full Text Available RNA silencing controls endogenous gene expression and drives defensive reactions against invasive nucleic acids like viruses. In plants, it has been demonstrated that RNA silencing can be transmitted through grafting between scions and silenced rootstocks to attenuate virus and viroid accumulation in the scions. This has been obtained mostly using transgenic plants, which may be a drawback in current agriculture. In the present study, we examined the dynamics of infection of a resistance-breaking strain of Tomato spotted wilt virus (RB-TSWV through the graft between an old Apulian (southern Italy tomato variety, denoted Sl-Ma, used as a rootstock and commercial tomato varieties used as scions. In tests with non-grafted plants, Sl-Ma showed resistance to the RB-TSWV infection as viral RNA accumulated at low levels and plants recovered from disease symptoms by 21 days post inoculation. The resistance trait was transmitted to the otherwise highly susceptible tomato genotypes grafted onto Sl-Ma. The results from the analysis of small RNAs hallmark genes involved in RNA silencing and virus-induced gene silencing suggest that RNA silencing is involved in the resistance showed by Sl-Ma against RB-TSWV and in scions grafted on this rootstock. The results from self-grafted susceptible tomato varieties suggest also that RNA silencing is enhanced by the graft itself. We can foresee interesting practical implications of the approach described in this paper.

  14. Inhibition of mammary tumor growth and metastases to bone and liver by dietary grape polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.; Martínez, Joel E.; Wall, Kristin M.; Cubano, Luis A.; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2009-01-01

    The cancer preventive properties of grape products such as red wine have been attributed to polyphenols enriched in red wine. However, much of the studies on cancer preventive mechanisms of grape polyphenols have been conducted with individual compounds at concentrations too high to be achieved via dietary consumption. We recently reported that combined grape polyphenols at physiologically relevant concentrations are more effective than individual compounds at inhibition of ERα(−), ERβ(+) MDA...

  15. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Patrik Burg; Pavel Zemánek; Milan Michálek

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk) sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of r...

  16. COLONIZATION OF GRAPE BERRIES BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS ALTERNARIA AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE STUM

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Mašková; Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Soňa Felšöciová; Jaroslava Kačinová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the mycobiota occurring on the grapes originating from Slovak wine-growing regions. The main focus was to discover the presence of the representatives of the genus Alternaria on/in grape berries and in the stum.Using the direct method of placing grape berries on the culture medium was analyzed their total and endogenous (after superficial sterilization) mycobiota. Plate dilution method was used for stum mycobiota determination. Alternaria spp. colonized gra...

  17. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Veljović, Mile; Despotović, Saša; Stojanović, Milan; Pecić, Sonja; Vukosavljević, Predrag; Belović, Miona; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared ...

  18. The effect of UV-C irradiation on grape juice turbidity, sensoric properties and microbial count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Czako

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the effect of UV-C radiation (254 nm on turbidity, microbial count and sensoric properties of the grape juices treated or not treated with sulphur dioxide. The UV-C radiation is considered to be germicidal against microorganisms. This technology is routinely used to treat drinking water. Application of this method for the purpose of treating the wine was tested in few studies. These studies have shown a positive effect on the inactivation of microorganisms, but they not dealt in detail with the sensory properties of grape juice after the treatment. The main idea of using this method appears to eliminate the sulphur dioxide from wine making technology. There are people who have a genuine allergy to sulfites, and these allergies are often linked with asthma. These people have an rapid onset of symptoms when drinking liquids like wine treated with sulphur dioxide. In our work we have found that the application of this method of treating the grape juice is problematic. Intensity of UV-C radiation increases the turbidity of grape juices. This effect was observed in all grape juices with or without addition of sulphur dioxide and also in clarified or not clarified grape juices. We found that UV-C radiation negatively affect the sensory properties of grape juices. This effect was more pronounced in grape juices treated with SO2. The smell and taste were significantly negatively changed. Exposure of grape juice treated with sulphur dioxide to UV-C radiation can probably lead to arising the sulphur compounds, which affects the smell and taste of grape juices. Also, it is very likely that the negative change in taste and smell may affect the quality of produced wines. For this purpose, we do not recommend to use UV-C treatment for the grape juice treatment. It will be interesting to conduct a detailed analysis of the grape juices composition before and after UV-C radiation treatment.

  19. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  20. Changes in the volatile compound production of fermentations made from musts with increasing grape content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K

    2010-01-27

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice. Model must systems have proven to be ideal for studies into the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To clarify the contribution of grape juice to the production of wine volatiles, we have employed a model must system spiked with increasing amounts of grape juice (Riesling or Cabernet Sauvignon). The resulting fermented wines were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS and the data obtained grouped using ANOVA and cluster analyses to reveal those compounds that varied in concentration with reproducible trends relative to juice concentration. Such grouping highlights those compounds that are grape-dependent or for which production is modulated by grape composition. In some cases, increasing the proportion of grape juice in the fermentations stimulated the production of certain esters to levels between 2- and 140-fold higher than those seen in fermentations made with model grape juice media alone. The identification of the grape components responsible for the increased production of these wine volatiles will have implications for the impact of grape production and enology on wine flavor and aroma.