WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistant future buildings

  1. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...... of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven...... by the three 1:1 prototypes of building elements, which are designed for maximum reuse and circular economy, that has been developed as a result of the project. Several built projects and commercially available products support this assertion. CIRCULAR PRINCIPLES The focus throughout the book is how to build...

  2. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    an energy system integration perspective, heat savings, electricity savings, and user behavioural aspects as well as energy storage and household level flexibility. Many reports on green or sustainable buildings focus only on savings levels and disregard the cost of renewable energy production. Some reports......Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this change....... The report builds on a literature review encompassing more than 50 reports and research papers over the last 10 years and more than a two decades knowledge about the interactions between different components of the energy sector. The review has been focused on aspects such as cost-effective solutions from...

  3. CANDU, building the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, F. [Stern Laboratories (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The CEO of Stern Laboratories delivered a speech on the problems and challenges facing the nuclear industry. The CANDU system is looked at as the practical choice for the future of our energy source. The people of the industry must be utilized and respected to deliver to the best of their ability.

  4. CANDU, building the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, F.

    1997-01-01

    The CEO of Stern Laboratories delivered a speech on the problems and challenges facing the nuclear industry. The CANDU system is looked at as the practical choice for the future of our energy source. The people of the industry must be utilized and respected to deliver to the best of their ability

  5. Building the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Masspower project in Springfield, Mass., was built by a joint venture partnership of five separate companies. Independence Station in Oswego, NY., is a 1,000 MW facility that will wheel power 250 miles to Consolidated Edison's grid. The 1,500 MW Summit Pumped Storage Project in Norton, Ohio, is expected to be an exempt wholesale generator that will be leased by its owners to a group of utilities led by Ohio Edison. These are examples of the foundation-level changes the power industry is undergoing. Current trends such as globalization, consolidation, vertical disintegration and privatization reflect fundamental changes in the system by which electric power capacity is built, operated, distributed and managed. At the nexus of this change is an international shift toward competition in power markets. In the United States, new energy legislation is poised to enable a diverse group of players to bring new power capacity on line. Internationally, privatization and competitive market measures are opening up scores of countries to participation by private power development companies. One recent example is India, where the government is rewriting the rules to encourage private investment. The topics of this article include financing new projects, fuel issues, permitting and siting, the vendor/client relationship, project scenarios, incentive ratemaking, global markets, increased competition and responding to the marketplace. The article also includes a sidebar illustrating the types of financing, ownership and operations structures likely to be seen in future projects

  6. Montage in future building practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    on a connection between rational methods of building production and an architectonic vision of freedom and flexibility, and concludes with af view into the consequences of the development of IT and hi-tech production methods for future building. It is no longer the end product, but the production process, which...... is standardised, and this has given us the means to produce a radically different architecture...

  7. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  8. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  9. Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    How do cross-bracing, geometry, and base isolation help buildings withstand earthquakes? These important structural design features involve fundamental geometry that elementary school students can readily model and understand. The problem activity, Designing an Earthquake-Resistant Building, was undertaken by several classes of sixth- grade…

  10. Building our future: a plea for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souba, Wiley W

    2004-05-01

    In recent years the spastic nature of the health care marketplace has continued to increase, which has greatly escalated the demands of leadership in academic medical centers. The expectations of leaders, including surgery chairs, have increased considerably, whereas their capacity for independent action has undeniably diminished. In such a predicament, it is useful to revisit fundamentals, using them as a guide to build a sound future. Five leadership principles are critical to building a better future: (1) recognizing that the work of leadership involves an inward journey of self-discovery and self-development; (2) establishing clarity around a set of core values that guide the organization as it pursues its goals; (3) communicating a clear sense of purpose and vision that inspires widespread commitment to a shared sense of destiny; (4) building a culture of excellence and accountability throughout the entire organization; and (5) creating a culture that emphasizes the development of leaders and leadership as an organizational capacity. Leadership and learning are inextricably linked. We must change the perception that learning in academic surgery is about correcting a deficit rather than a natural part of human growth and development. Our ability to learn, grow, and contribute to an organization is what provides each of us with meaning and identity. This feeling of being part of something special that is larger than ourselves is a powerful force and an important dividend of great leadership.

  11. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Fujrman, Jay [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Abdelaziz, Amar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    BTO works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  12. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  13. INTEGRATING HEALTH INTO BUILDINGS OF THE FUTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Leila; Younger, Margalit; Chandler, George; Gooch, James; Schramm, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The health and wellbeing of building occupants should be a key priority in the design, building, and operation of new and existing buildings. Buildings can be designed, renovated, and constructed to promote healthy environments and behaviors and mitigate adverse health outcomes. This paper highlights health in terms of the relationship between occupants and buildings, as well as the relationship of buildings to the community. In the context of larger systems, smart buildings and green infrastructure strategies serve to support public health goals. At the level of the individual building, interventions that promote health can also enhance indoor environmental quality and provide opportunities for physical activity. Navigating the various programs that use metrics to measure a building's health impacts reveals that there are multiple co-benefits of a "healthy building," including those related to the economy, environment, society, transportation, planning, and energy efficiency.

  14. Future Directions for Building Services Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

      The hypothesis of this paper is that industrial transformation in the Danish construction sector needs in the future to focus on integrating building services technologies into the buildings. This can be illustrated by analysing historical developments in building services usage, exploring design...

  15. Transforming and Building the Future Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Vernon

    1998-12-31

    The petroleum industry is experiencing unprecedented change: increasing competition within a global context, deregulation in the European gas market, technological innovation that will fundamentally alter the economics of the industry. Sustainable Development, the challenge of balancing the Financial, Social and Environmental demands: collectively these demands are fundamentally altering the future shape of the industry. In this presentation the author describes his perspectives on the impact of change on the future shape of the energy industry in the years to come

  16. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  17. Building a sustainable future: Bioclimatic house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Mallen, Esther; Rivera Fusalba, Oriol

    2010-05-01

    The application of bioclimatic principles is a critical factor in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This poster develops a sequence of experiments and building working models in order to form students of secondary school and make progress towards real applications of new energy technologies. The activity has been carried out by 14 and 15-year-old students using a Power House building kit. Scientific method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) were used as an effective system of acquiring new knowledge. Students were asked to form cooperative groups. Firstly, each group had to choose the best location and orientation in the imaginary Dragon Island for the construction of the house. The house consisted of eight Styrofoam parts and one transparent plastic part. The Styrofoam parts formed the house structure (floor, walls and roof) with two interior chambers and the attached greenhouse. Once the house was assembled in a few steps, it was ready for the students to start adding more components. Students then conducted several experiments related to the heat and light energy of the Sun and the energy of the wind. Some of the experiments and building projects realized were: how to capture the Sun to heat the house by passive solar heating, how to collect the Sun's rays to heat water using a Sun Collector and how to extract electricity current from Sun Power station and from wind power plant. For most of the assays it was necessary to record the temperature and students used for that purpose a temperature sensor that comes with Multilog Pro, a portable, graphic data collection and analysis system. Groups of students were really engaged in the project and each of them ran a different test with the house. Finally they proved if their initial hypothesis was correct and they had to expose the results to the rest of the class members. Students demonstrated how we can transform and use renewable forms of energy. With the experiments students

  18. Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Aysin Sev; Meltem Ezel

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forc...

  19. NASA technology investments: building America's future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Mason

    2013-03-01

    Investments in technology and innovation enable new space missions, stimulate the economy, contribute to the nation's global competitiveness, and inspire America's next generation of scientists, engineers and astronauts. Chief Technologist Mason Peck will provide an overview of NASA's ambitious program of space exploration that builds on new technologies, as well as proven capabilities, as it expands humanity's reach into the solar system while providing broadly-applicable benefits here on Earth. Peck also will discuss efforts of the Office of the Chief Technologist to coordinate the agency's overall technology portfolio, identifying development needs, ensuring synergy and reducing duplication, while furthering the national initiatives as outlined by President Obama's Office of Science and Technology Policy. By coordinating technology programs within NASA, Peck's office facilitates integration of available and new technology into operational systems that support specific human-exploration missions, science missions, and aeronautics. The office also engages other government agencies and the larger aerospace community to develop partnerships in areas of mutual interest that could lead to new breakthrough capabilities. NASA technology transfer translates our air and space missions into societal benefits for people everywhere. Peck will highlight NASA's use of technology transfer and commercialization to help American entrepreneurs and innovators develop technological solutions that stimulate the growth of the innovation economy by creating new products and services, new business and industries and high quality, sustainable jobs.

  20. Building the Competences of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    it is also an adaptation to international trends. Finally, the revision is based on a survey around the competences of the graduates, and whether these competences are in line with the demands of the employment areas.    The competences of the future are not established solely through the university program....... Even if university education is of course the foundation, professional competence cannot be achieved until the academic and professional skills are merged with experiences obtained through professional practice. Therefore, it is crucial to establish an ongoing dialogue between the university......, the profession, and the employers or the costumers. The Danish experience in this regard has been to establish a Surveyors´ Advisory Board with representatives from the key employment areas to discuss the educational issues in a visionary perspective....

  1. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  2. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  3. Building the library/information center of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M J; Weise, F O; Freiburger, G A; Douglas, J V

    1994-09-01

    Changes in the mission, roles, and infrastructure of academic health sciences libraries pose an enormous challenge to those designing and planning new library buildings. The library will be judged by its ability to respond to changing information dissemination patterns, changing missions, technologies not yet contemplated, and curricular trends, notably the rise of informatics and problem-based learning. Key questions are posed; the answers will shape library building now and in the future.

  4. Accountability for Public Expenditure under "Building Schools for the Future"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Jean; Stafford, Anne; Stapleton, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the disclosure and reporting of expenditure under the UK government's "Building Schools for the Future" programme. The study finds that there is little detailed and useful financial reporting, and the public's right to know under Freedom of Information Act 2000 is very limited. The lack of such information makes it…

  5. Commentary on ``Future directions: Building technologies and design tools``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  6. Building models for marketing decisions : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, PSH; Wittink, DR

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  7. Building models for marketing decisions : past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, Dick R.

    2000-01-01

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  8. The implications of future building scenarios for long-term building energy research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, W.T.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents a discussion of alternative future scenarios of the building environment to the year 2010 and assesses the implications these scenarios present for long-term building energy R and D. The scenarios and energy R and D implications derived from them are intended to serve as the basis from which a strategic plan can be developed for the management of R and D programs conducted by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy. The scenarios and analysis presented here have relevance not only for government R and D programs; on the contrary, it is hoped that the results of this effort will be of interest and useful to researchers in both private and public sector organizations that deal with building energy R and D. Making R and D decisions today based on an analysis that attempts to delineate the nexus of events 25 years in the future are clearly decisions made in the face of uncertainty. Yet, the effective management of R and D programs requires a future-directed understanding of markets, technological developments, and environmental factors, as well as their interactions. The analysis presented in this report is designed to serve that need. Although the probability of any particular scenario actually occurring is uncertain, the scenarios to be presented are sufficiently robust to set bounds within which to examine the interaction of forces that will shape the future building environment.

  9. Building room for the future; Rum foer framtiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Leif; Dreborg, Karl Henrik; Finnveden, Goeran; Gullberg, Anders; Hoejer, Mattias; Aakerman, Jonas

    2003-05-01

    In this project, our aim has been to find new and resource efficient solutions for the energy use in buildings, in line with sustainable development. The solutions have been sought within the interaction between behaviour and the utilization of buildings and its equipment. The focus has been to study how more efficient use of buildings and reduced demand for floor space can decrease the energy demand. A back casting approach has been used to outline a number of images of the future for 2050. Two alternative paths of development that can contribute to more efficient use of buildings are identified. In the first information technology is used for performing more activities in dwellings. This development reduces the need for premises. This development is the base for the image Sparse. The urbanization slows down and more people live in single-family houses in the suburban areas of cities. The Dense image is based on the other path, a more urban lifestyle. Activities in premises become more important and the demand for dwelling floor space decreases. People continue to move into cities. In the cities people live in nodes where the neighbourhood offers offices for tele commuting and a rich supply of services.

  10. The cob building technique. Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson, L.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cob, an ancient earth building technique has given rise to hundreds of thousand buildings across Europe for centuries. It has a very distinct appearance of substantial organic walls punctuated with small apertures whose windows and doors are set back to create deep reveals. Traditionally protected by thatched roofs, these vernacular buildings make an important contribution to local identity. Cob buildings still survive and continue to be occupied in many European countries including France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Czech Republic and England (1. Following a description of the cob technique, this paper will present a brief overview of the history of cob in Devon, a county in South West England. Recent English cob buildings will be introduced with a discussion of the potential of this earth building technique for future architecture.

    A través de Europa, cientos de miles de edificios han sido construidos por un método de construcción antiguo, el uso del cob. Estos edificios tienen una apariencia característica de muros orgánicos salpicados con pequeñas aperturas cuyas puertas y ventanas se rehunden para crear profundos relieves. Tradicionalmente protegidos por techos de paja, en estos edificios vernáculos está una parte importante de la identidad local. En muchos países europeos todavía se encuentran edificios hechos de cob, como Francia, Italia, Alemania, Bélgica, República Checa, e Inglaterra (1. Después de una descripción sobre el uso de cob, este artículo presentará una historia breve del uso de cob en Devon, una región en el suroeste de Inglaterra. También introducirá ejemplos de edificios modernos de cob, con una discusión sobre el potencial de usar este método de construcción en proyectos arquitectónicos en el futuro.

  11. Resistant hypertension: Current status, future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Hajizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension in adolescents is increasing in frequency and is increasingly recognized as having significant short- and long-term health consequences. It may be seen in up to 30% of all hypertensive patients cared for. Adolescents with resistant hypertension are at higher cardiovascular (CV risk due to a long history of severe hypertension complicated by other CV risk factors such as obesity. Common causes of resistant hypertension include primary aldosteronism, sleep apnea, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Careful blood pressure (BP measurement and thorough evaluation of patients with sustained BP elevation should make a possible early diagnosis of resistant hypertension. Successful treatment requires identification and reversal of life-style factors contributing to treatment resistant and diagnosis and appropriate treatment of causes of hypertension. Improved pharmacologic therapies may offer the potential for preventing or at least ameliorating early CV disease. This review highlights these and other important issues in the evaluation and management of adolescents with resistant hypertension and provides practical guidance to the practitioners involved in caring for such patients.

  12. PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS FROM TUBE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdujafar I. Akaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the research is to find optimal design solutions for the erection of buildings that will ensure their reliability and durability, compliance with environmental requirements, fire resistance and earthquake resistance. In this regard, the task is to determine the advantages and prospects of erecting earthquake resistant buildings from tube concrete constructions, since they are distinct in constructive, technological and economic efficiency when are used as vertical load-bearing struts of high-rise buildings. Method The technique for calculating the strength of normal sections of eccentrically-compressed tube concrete elements uses a nonlinear deformation model, taking into account the joint operation of the steel shell and the concrete core under the conditions of triaxial compression. Results In the article the review of the newest world experience of using tube concrete as vertical load-bearing structures for public facilities from the standpoint of earthquake resistant construction is given. The international practices of public facility construction ranging in height from 100 to 600 m with the use of tube concrete technology, including regions with dangerous natural and man-made conditions, have been studied. The structural, operational and technological advantages and disadvantages of tube concrete technology are analysed. Methods for calculating the strength of concrete tube elements in the case of central compression are considered: according to the so-called deformation theory, the state of total destruction of both concrete and tube fluidity attained at maximum pressure are indicated by the beginning of "tube flow on the longitudinal axis". The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are shown. Factors constraining the introduction and wider application of tube concrete constructions in Russia are considered. Conclusion While the advantages of concrete tube constructions in their extensive

  13. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, J. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Fuhrman, J. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning (A/C) systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development (R&D) on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. Over the past several decades, product costs and lifecycle cooling costs have declined substantially in many global markets due to improved, higher-volume manufacturing and higher energy efficiency driven by R&D investments and efficiency policies including minimum efficiency standards and labeling programs.1 This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential2 (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  14. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative - past, present, future, and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Mendez, Mariano; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Santolik, Ondrej; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Smith, Randall

    At the time of the COSPAR General Assembly in Moscow, the 21st workshop of the Programme for Capacity Building will have taken place. We have started in 2001 with the aim of: i) increasing the knowledge and use of public archives of space data in developing countries, ii) providing highly-practical instruction in the use of these archives and the associated publicly-available software, and iii) fostering personal links between participants and the experienced scientists who lecture during the workshops and supervise the projects carried on by the students. Workshops in many space disciplines have been successfully held so far (X-ray, Gamma-ray and Space Optical and UV Astronomy, Magnetospheric Physics, Space Oceanography, Remote Sensing and Planetary Science) in thirteen countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay). An associated Fellowship Programme is helping former participants of these workshops to build on skills gained at them. We will summarize the past and discuss the present and future of the Programme, including highlights like the most recent one: the identification of a transient magnetar (the 9th object of this class so far discovered) in the vicinity of a supernova by one of our students, during the CB workshop on high-energy Astrophysics in Xuyi, China, in September 2013.

  15. Smart Buildings: An Introduction to the Library of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Advances in building technologies are combining energy efficiency, networked sensors, and data recording in exciting ways. Modern facilities can adjust lighting, heating, and cooling outputs to maximize efficiency, provide better physical security, improve wayfinding for occupants, and provide detailed reports of building use. This column will briefly explore the idea of "smart buildings," describe some of the technologies that are being developed for these buildings, and explore their implications for libraries. A brief listing of selected smart building technologies is also provided.

  16. Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani kumar

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses existing development scenario and issues to accommodate future development in hill towns located in Indian Himalayan region, also highlights the state of existing building regulations through an in-depth study of building regulations in major hill towns, and briefly discuses possible approaches to change existing building regulations for achieving contextually appropriate development.

  17. Building on the past, planning for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A University Working Conference (UWC) sponsored by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) was held on June 14 and 15, 1996, prior to the ANS Annual Meeting in Reno, Nevada. With a theme of open-quotes Building on the Past, Planning for the Future,close quotes the meeting was the successor to the first UWC held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1995. This workshop refined the recommendations to the national nuclear engineering academic community of the earlier UWC on strategies for success in the 21st century. This UWC had 40 attendees from academe and industry, and the program was developed around the outcomes of the Philadelphia meeting. The general chair of UWC96 was Don Miller of Ohio State University, while the author of this paper served as the technical program chair. Assistant technical program chairs included Madeline Feltus of Pennsylvania State University, Dan Bullen of Iowa State University, and Gilbert Brown of the University of Massachusetts Lowell. A working conference is often loosely structured, with an informal, flexible program, consisting of a few highlight or keynote presentations followed by workshop sessions devoted to a theme area. The workshop sessions at this meeting included the following: 1. strategic planning in today's climate; 2. university/industry research collaboration; 3. profiles of nuclear engineering and radiological engineering students, now and in the future; 4. accreditation issues, especially ABET's engineering 2000; 5. employment of nuclear and radiological engineers; 6. new program thrusts in nuclear engineering departments; 7. uses of new technology in the classroom and laboratory; 8. internet access to information for education; 9. distance education/remote delivery of curricula

  18. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy

  19. Future directions in breeding for disease resistance in aquaculture species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Houston

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infectious disease is a major constraint for all species produced via aquaculture. The majority of farmed fish and shellfish production is based on stocks with limited or no selective breeding. Since disease resistance is almost universally heritable, there is huge potential to select for improved resistance to key diseases. This short review discusses the current methods of breeding more resistant aquaculture stocks, with success stories and current bottlenecks highlighted. The current implementation of genomic selection in breeding for disease resistance and routes to wider-scale implementation and improvement in aquaculture are discussed. Future directions are highlighted, including the potential of genome editing tools for mapping causative variation underlying disease resistance traits and for breeding aquaculture animals with enhanced resistance to disease.

  20. On ethics and the earthquake resistant interior design of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-03-01

    The most common tectonic quality of modern structures, such as frame systems, is their flexibility; they are open for change. Although this characteristic is a big advantage in comparison to the inflexible masonry structures of the past, it might also create some serious problems, such as e.g. the lack of safety in the event of an earthquake, if the flexibility is not used consciously by architects and interior designers. This article attempts to define and establish some rules for the interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems. The rules for making subtractions from these structures and extending them by making additions to them are contained within this article. The main objective of this article is to derive some ethical values from these rules. Thus, the conclusion of the article focuses on the derivation of some ethical values for achieving earthquake resistant interior design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems.

  1. Post-earthquake fire resistance of steel buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelinek, T.; Zania, V.; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    and are responsible for casualties and major additional damage to buildings and other constructions. Despite a number of research studies on the topic, it is at present unclear as to what extent the occurrence of a previous earthquake could affect the response of a structure to fire. The response of a moment......-resistant steel frame to post-earthquake fires (PEFs) is investigated and compared with the response of the undamaged frame exposed to fire only, by means of numerical analyses performed using a commercial finite element software. The frame considered as a case study is not insulated against fire...

  2. Erlotinib Resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joy; Salama, Rasha; Gadgeel, Shirish M.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Ahmad, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies, and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherap...

  3. Intelligence, integration & industrialisation for the building services technologies of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the construction sector's industrial transformation needs to focus on integrating building services technologies in the buildings of the future. This can be achieved by analysing developments in intelligent building services, exploring design strategies for ef...

  4. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  5. Building Evidence for Health: Green Buildings, Current Science, and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Williams, A; MacNaughton, P; Cao, X; Eitland, E; Spengler, J; Allen, J

    2018-04-01

    Civilizational challenges have questioned the status quo of energy and material consumption by humans. From the built environment perspective, a response to these challenges was the creation of green buildings. Although the revolutionary capacity of the green building movement has elevated the expectations of new commercial construction, its rate of implementation has secluded the majority of the population from its benefits. Beyond reductions in energy usage and increases in market value, the main strength of green buildings may be the procurement of healthier building environments. Further pursuing the right to healthy indoor environments could help the green building movement to attain its full potential as a transformational public health tool. On the basis of 40 years of research on indoor environmental quality, we present a summary of nine environment elements that are foundational to human health. We posit the role of green buildings as a critical research platform within a novel sustainability framework based on social-environmental capital assets.

  6. Just Do It! Collection Building for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Alice Evans

    1994-01-01

    Discusses weeding as part of the school library collection-building process. Topics addressed include criteria for making weeding decisions, including copyright date, last date of use, physical appearance, and timeliness; meeting students' needs; weeding audiovisual materials; and developing a plan for weeding. A sidebar describes special…

  7. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative - past, present, future, and highlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriel, Carlos; Mendez, Mariano; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Santolik, Ondrej; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Smith, Randall

    2014-01-01

    At the time of the COSPAR General Assembly in Moscow, the 21st workshop of the Programme for Capacity Building will have taken place. We have started in 2001 with the aim of: i) increasing the knowledge and use of public archives of space data in developing countries, ii) providing highly-practical

  8. Building Futurism into the Institution's Strategic Planning and Human Resource Development Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    A process for building futurism into the institution's strategic planning and human resource development model is described. It is an attempt to assist faculty and staff to understand the future and the formulation and revision of professional goals in relation to an image of the future. A conceptual framework about the changing nature of human…

  9. Building and Maintaining Healthy Organizations: The Key to Future Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Lloyd J

    2000-01-01

    .... Symposium discussions addressed four major thematic areas: establishing values-based organizations, creating a change-receptive organizational culture, attracting and retaining future leaders, and selecting and developing the best leaders...

  10. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goins, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  11. Erlotinib resistance in Lung Cancer: Current Progress and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy eTang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite modern advancements in surgeries, chemotherapies and radiotherapies over the past few years, lung cancer still remains a very difficult disease to treat. This has left the death rate from lung cancer victims largely unchanged throughout the past few decades. A key cause for the high mortality rate is the drug resistance that builds up for patients being currently treated with the chemotherapeutic agents. Although certain chemotherapeutic agents may initially effectively treat lung cancer patients, there is a high probability that there will be a reoccurrence of the cancer after the patient develops resistance to the drug. Erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved for localized as well as metastatic non-small cell lung cancer where it seems to be more effective in patients with EGFR mutations. Resistance to erlotinib is a common observation in clinics and this review details our current knowledge on the subject. We discuss the causes of such resistance as well as innovative research to overcome it. Evidently, new chemotherapy strategies are desperately needed in order to better treat lung cancer patients. Current research is investigating alternative treatment plans to enhance the chemotherapy that is already offered. Better insight into the molecular mechanisms behind combination therapy pathways and even single molecular pathways may help improve the efficacy of the current treatment options.

  12. Durability of future energy-efficient building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Diana

    carried out based on the proposed method: an example of a long-lasting window and flat roofs with drying-out potential. The proposed window solution was a triple glazed non-sealed unit which included an air filter and drying remedy to avoid moisture and dust accumulation in the cavities. Analysis showed...... that it was possible to develop a long-lasting window solution that meets future energy requirements based on the calculated energy contribution. Further analysis was made to investigate the optimum glass-combination for distribution of outer condensation and transparency. It was concluded that future-proof glazing...

  13. Skid resistance and durability of coated and uncoated concrete floors in dairy cattle buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Georg, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Passageways in cattle buildings should provide durable and non-slippery surface to allow cattle an unrestrained locomotion and expression of behaviour. In order to evaluate walking areas fo cattle buildings and their grip or skid resistance, measures with Skid Resistance Tester to obtain SRT-values were performed on sevreal dairy farms in Germany.

  14. Building for change: university hospital design for future clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Jörgen; Kiessling, Anna; Nordquist, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    Recent developments in the way health care is organized and delivered have rendered many old hospital structures obsolete. The creation of an entire new university hospital for tertiary health care, clinical research and education has made it necessary to discuss and define what pedagogical strategies should be used in this new setting and how physical structures can support learning. Contemporary health care is per se interprofessionally team-based, but most health care education is still performed in silos, separated for each profession. When building a new hospital new possibilities arise to create an interprofessional and learner-centered environment with an adjusted physical infrastructure and spaces for learning. The old hospital conserved highly discipline-based (and professionally isolated) curriculas and didactically oriented; all manifested in the physical environments. However, the New Karolinska University Hospital presents a shift towards a pedagogy characterized by learning centeredness, interprofessionalism clearly expressed in the architecture, design and allocation of spaces within the new buildings. The aim of this article is to highlight the considerations that have been made during the process to design and plan for the new university hospital.

  15. The future 2015 Danish Building Regulations concerning energy performance of multi framed windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacksen Kampmann, Thomas

    The future Danish Building Regulation BR 2015 will reduce energy consumption within the overall building stock. Regarding the very important field windows, it seems that BR 2015 will be based on the same rules as today, except for a simple reduction of the limits for energy loss. Since a big part...

  16. Building a better future: Contributions of nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Food, health, energy, industry and the environment. The fields could not be more diverse. Yet they are all linked in one universe - the worldwide research and development activities of the IAEA's Department of Research and Isotopes. These are just a few of many examples where nuclear-based technologies are helping to understand and provide constructive solutions to today's economic and social problems. The development of these technologies through the IAEA's Research Contract Programme and their extension through its Technical Co-operation (TC) Programme and information services encourage specialists in Member States to transform scientific results into knowledge, products and services which benefit society at large. In each of these sectors, the Department's activities foster leadership and international cooperation in applying nuclear technology to everyday scientific, technological and socio-economic problems. Together with international meetings, they add to the collective knowledge within Member States that supports capacity building and end-user oriented development projects supported by the TC Programme

  17. Cutting-edge research in developing the library of the future new paths for building future services

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Cutting-Edge Research in the 21st-Century Academic Library: New Paths for Building Future Services explores examples of exciting new library services and workflows and provides opportunities for the rest of the library profession to model and adapt for their own communities and patrons.

  18. Building Our Future: The Public Library Leadership Fellows Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Barrie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the 21st Century unfolds, public libraries and their leaders will face unique issues that warrant focused thought, research, discussion and visioning. The Canadian Urban Libraries Council (CULC, in partnership with the iSchool Institute, University of Toronto is seeking to help prepare leaders with the launch of the new executive Public Library Leadership Fellows (PLLF program. The goal of the PLLF program is to contribute to the vitality and success of public libraries and the diverse communities they serve by positioning public library professionals to be proactive, effective leaders in the global information environment. The Public Library Leadership Fellows program (PLLF is about the future of public libraries and the changing communities they serve.

  19. Energy Saving Potential of PCMs in Buildings under Future Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Abdullah Ahmed Gassar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM is a promising strategy for reducing building energy consumption under future climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings under future climate conditions in the humid and snowy regions in the hot continental and humid subtropical climates of the east Asia (Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope. Methodology in this work is implemented in two phases: firstly, investigation of energy saving potentials in buildings through inclusion of three types of PCMs with different phase temperatures into the building envelop separately and use weather file in the present (2017; and, secondly, evaluation of the effect of future climate change on the performance of PCMs by analyzing energy saving potentials of PCMs with 2020, 2050 and 2080 weather data. The results show that the inclusion of PCM into the building envelope is a promising strategy to increase the energy performance in buildings during both heating and cooling seasons in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong under future climate conditions. The energy savings achieved by using PCMs in those regions are electricity savings of 4.48–8.21%, 3.81–9.69%, and 1.94–5.15%, and gas savings of 1.65–16.59%, 7.60–61.76%, and 62.07–93.33% in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong, respectively, for the years 2017, 2020, 2050 and 2080. In addition, BioPCM and RUBITHERMPCM are the most efficient for improving thermal performance and saving energy in buildings in the tested regions and years.

  20. Contemplating the Future: Building Student Resilience in Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change research has largely focused on the biophysical, economic, and political aspects of the phenomenon, its projected impacts, and the possibilities for adaptation (Carey et al. 2014; Castree et al. 2014). In the classroom, too, climate change is generally presented as a scientific, technological, political, and economic challenge. However, defining climate change as physical challenge, divorced from its cultural causes and responses, forecloses some pathways of inquiry and limits the possibilities for adaptation (Adger et al. 2013). Recent perspectives by the environmental historian Mark Carey and colleagues (2014) and by the geographer Noel Castree and colleagues (2014) contend that ethnographic, narrative, social scientific, and humanistic insights are necessary additions to the climate change policy process and can contribute to deliberate, resilient responses to climate change. Among the humanistic insights needed are strategies and practices to maintain fortitude and persistence in the midst of dispiriting ecological trends. Students facing the "gloom and doom" of climate change data in environmental studies courses can experience negative states of mind such as denial, despair, burnout, and grief. Emerging research, however, demonstrates how contemplative practice can shift consciousness and promote resilience. Contemplative practices are those that consciously direct calm, focused attention. Such practices can build internal resilience, by promoting a greater sense of calm and well-being, decreasing stress, and sharpening focus and concentration. In addition, contemplative practices improve relationships with other people, through increasing compassion and flexibility in thinking. They also strengthen relationships with the surrounding world by increasing our ability to question, explore, and cope with rapid change and complexity. This presentation provides a context for incorporating contemplative practices, including mindfulness exercises

  1. Building Future Directions for Teacher Learning in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathy; Lindsay, Simon

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, as part of a process to renew an overall sector vision for science education, Catholic Education Melbourne (CEM) undertook a review of its existing teacher in-service professional development programs in science. This review led to some data analysis being conducted in relation to two of these programs where participant teachers were positioned as active learners undertaking critical reflection in relation to their science teaching practice. The conditions in these programs encouraged teachers to notice critical aspects of their teaching practice. The analysis illustrates that as teachers worked in this way, their understandings about effective science pedagogy began to shift, in particular, teachers recognised how their thinking not only influenced their professional practice but also ultimately shaped the quality of their students' learning. The data from these programs delivers compelling evidence of the learning experience from a teacher perspective. This article explores the impact of this experience on teacher thinking about the relationship between pedagogical choices and quality learning in science. The findings highlight that purposeful, teacher-centred in-service professional learning can significantly contribute to enabling teachers to think differently about science teaching and learning and ultimately become confident pedagogical leaders in science. The future of quality school-based science education therefore relies on a new vision for teacher professional learning, where practice explicitly recognises, values and attends to teachers as professionals and supports them to articulate and share the professional knowledge they have about effective science teaching practice.

  2. GMOs: building the future on the basis of past experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.L. Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosafety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their derivatives is still a major topic in the agenda of government and societies worldwide. The aim of this review is to bring into light that data that supported the decision taken back in 1998 as an exercise to stimulate criticism from the scientific community for upcoming discussions and to avoid emotional and senseless arguments that could jeopardize future development in the field. It must be emphasized that Roundup Ready® soybean is just one example of how biotechnology can bring in significant advances for society, not only through increased productivity, but also with beneficial environmental impact, thereby allowing more rational use of agricultural pesticides for improvement of the soil conditions. The adoption of agricultural practices with higher yield will also allow better distribution of income among small farmers. New species of genetically modified plants will soon be available and society should be capable of making decisions in an objective and well-informed manner, through collegiate bodies that are qualified in all aspects of biosafety and environmental impact.A biosegurança dos organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados é um dos principais tópicos na agenda de discussões de governos e sociedades. O objetivo desta revisão é reviver os dados científicos que fundamentaram a decisão de liberação comercial da soja transgênica resistente ao Glifosate com o intuito de estimular uma posição crítica da comunidade científica para as próximas discussões no tema. A soja em questão é apenas um exemplo de como a biotecnologia pode contribuir para avanços na produtividade e na preservação do meio ambiente, com ganho de produtividade e lucratividade para agricultores em todas as escalas. Novas variedades trangênicas estarão na pauta de discussões que deverão estar fundamentadas em dados científicos objetivos, evitando argumentos emocionais que

  3. Ten questions concerning future buildings beyond zero energy and carbon neutrality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Phelan, Patrick E.; Gonzalez, Jorge; Harris, Chioke; Henze, Gregor P.; Hutchinson, Robert; Langevin, Jared; Lazarus, Mary Ann; Nelson, Brent; Pyke, Chris; Roth, Kurt; Rouse, David; Sawyer, Karma; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Architects, planners, and building scientists have been at the forefront of envisioning a future built environment for centuries. However, fragmental views that emphasize one facet of the built environment, such as energy, environment, or groundbreaking technologies, often do not achieve expected outcomes. Buildings are responsible for approximately one-third of worldwide carbon emissions and account for over 40% of primary energy consumption in the U.S. In addition to achieving the ambitious goal of reducing building greenhouse gas emissions by 75% by 2050, buildings must improve their functionality and performance to meet current and future human, societal, and environmental needs in a changing world. In this article, we introduce a new framework to guide potential evolution of the building stock in the next century, based on greenhouse gas emissions as the common thread to investigate the potential implications of new design paradigms, innovative operational strategies, and disruptive technologies. This framework emphasizes integration of multidisciplinary knowledge, scalability for mainstream buildings, and proactive approaches considering constraints and unknowns. The framework integrates the interrelated aspects of the built environment through a series of quantitative metrics that aim to improve environmental outcomes while optimizing building performance to achieve healthy, adaptive, and productive buildings.

  4. A Perspective of Energy Codes and Regulations for the Buildings of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,2032 Todd Street,Eugene, OR 97405e-mail: michael.rosenberg@pnnl.gov; Jonlin, Duane [Seattle Department ofConstruction and Inspections,P.O. Box 34019,Seattle, WA 98124e-mail: duane.jonlin@seattle.gov; Nadel, Steven [American Council for anEnergy-Efficient Economy,529 14th Street NW #600,Washington, DC 20045e-mail: snadel@aceee.org

    2016-10-13

    Today’s building energy codes focus on prescriptive requirements for features of buildings that are directly controlled by the design and construction teams and verifiable by municipal inspectors. Although these code requirements have had a significant impact, they fail to influence a large slice of the building energy use pie – including not only miscellaneous plug loads, cooking equipment and commercial/industrial processes, but the maintenance and optimization of the code-mandated systems as well. Currently, code compliance is verified only through the end of construction, and there are no limits or consequences for the actual energy use in an occupied building. In the future, our suite of energy regulations will likely expand to include building efficiency, energy use or carbon emission budgets over their full life cycle. Intelligent building systems, extensive renewable energy, and a transition from fossil fuel to electric heating systems will likely be required to meet ultra-low-energy targets. This paper lays out the authors’ perspectives on how buildings may evolve over the course of the 21st century and the roles that codes and regulations will play in shaping those buildings of the future.

  5. A conceptual framework for future-proofing the energy performance of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadou, Maria Christina; Hacking, Theophilus; Guthrie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review undertaken to understand the concept of ‘future-proofing’ the energy performance of buildings. The long lifecycles of the building stock, the impacts of climate change and the requirements for low carbon development underline the need for long-term thinking from the early design stages. ‘Future-proofing’ is an emerging research agenda with currently no widely accepted definition amongst scholars and building professionals. In this paper, it refers to design processes that accommodate explicitly full lifecycle perspectives and energy trends and drivers by at least 2050, when selecting energy efficient measures and low carbon technologies. A knowledge map is introduced, which explores the key axes (or attributes) for achieving a ‘future-proofed’ energy design; namely, coverage of sustainability issues, lifecycle thinking, and accommodating risks and uncertainties that affect the energy consumption. It is concluded that further research is needed so that established building energy assessment methods are refined to better incorporate future-proofing. The study follows an interdisciplinary approach and is targeted at design teams with aspirations to achieve resilient and flexible low-energy buildings over the long-term. - Highlights: ► We examine the concept of ‘future-proofing’ the energy performance of buildings. ► It reconciles sustainability issues, lifecycle thinking, risks and uncertainties. ► A knowledge map with axes and types of ‘future-proofed’ solutions is presented. ► The energy design process should adopt full lifecycle considerations. ► Design for flexibility, use of dynamic models and futures techniques are suggested.

  6. The future of building and living; Zukunft des Bauens und Wohnens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharp, Michael

    2011-06-15

    What is the future of building and living? The author of the contribution under cionsideration attempts to answer this question. Under this aspect, the author identifies general trends affecting the future of building and living using an Internet research, a literature review and the evaluation of research projects of the Institute for Futures Studies and Technology Assessment (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). The following priorities are considered: construction and living for the residential sector, socio-demographic developments, intelligent living, technology attitudes and building energy technology. Subsequently, the trends are evaluated and discussed at a workshop. The 32 identified trends range from the development of new residential construction, the needs of older generations, the use of a smart home solutions and the use of efficient heating systems.

  7. THE CEYHAN EARTHQUAKE OF JUNE 27, 1998 AND DESIGN OF EARTQUAKE RESISTING BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kaplan

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Our country is under risk of earthquake, and it has lost extensive economical goods. In addition to this, the reality of buildings those had not been constructed earthquake resisting on seismic regions have come out. It is true that those kind of building have been constructed all over the country. In this paper the design of earthquake resisting buildings have been taken up. It is dwelled upon the buildings had damages in Adana-Ceyhan earthquake at 27th July 1998 and reasons of damages. The damages on the buildings are appreciated under the lights of principles of design of earthquake resisting. The important precautions that have to taken are grouped for not living those kind of tragic earthquake disasters.

  8. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    METCALF, I.L.

    1999-12-06

    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  9. Quantifying Change in Buildings in a Future Climate and Their Effect on Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Jenkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Projected climate change is likely to have a significant impact on a range of energy systems. When a building is the centre of that system, a changing climate will affect the energy system in several ways. Firstly, the energy demand of the building will be altered. Taken across the entire building stock, and placed in context of technological and behavioural changes over the same timescale, this can have implications for important parameters such as peak demand and load factors of energy requirement. The performance of demand-side, distribution/transmission and supply-side technologies can also alter as a result of changing temperatures. With such uncertainty, a flexible approach is required for ensuring that this whole energy system is robust for a wide range of future scenarios. Therefore, building design must have a standardised and systematic approach for integrating climate change into the overall energy assessment of a building (or buildings, understanding the implications for the larger energy network. Based on the work of the Low Carbon Futures (LCF and Adaptation and Resilience In Energy Systems (ARIES projects, this paper overviews some of the risks that might be linked to a changing climate in relation to provision and use of energy in buildings. The UK is used as a case-study but the outputs are demonstrated to be of relevance, and the tools applicable, to other countries.

  10. Glyphosate-resistant crops: adoption, use and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Gerald M; Cajacob, Claire A; Padgette, Stephen R

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) were first introduced in the United States in soybeans in 1996. Adoption has been very rapid in soybeans and cotton since introduction and has grown significantly in maize in recent years. GRCs have grown to over 74 million hectares in five crop species in 13 countries. The intent of this paper is to update the hectares planted and the use patterns of GRC globally, and to discuss briefly future applications and uses of the technology. The largest land areas of GRCs are occupied by soybean (54.2 million ha), maize (13.2 million ha), cotton (5.1 million ha), canola (2.3 million ha) and alfalfa (0.1 million ha). Currently, the USA, Argentina, Brazil and Canada have the largest plantings of GRCs. Herbicide use patterns would indicate that over 50% of glyphosate-resistant (GR) maize hectares and 70% of GR cotton hectares receive alternative mode-of-action treatments, while approximately 25% of GR soybeans receive such a treatment in the USA. Alternative herbicide use is likely driven by both agronomic need and herbicide resistance limitations in certain GR crops such as current GR cotton. Tillage practices in the USA indicate that > 65% of GR maize hectares, 70% of GR cotton hectares and 50% of GR soybean hectares received some tillage in the production system. Tillage was likely used for multiple purposes ranging from seed-bed preparation to weed management. GRCs represent one of the more rapidly adopted weed management technologies in recent history. Current use patterns would indicate that GRCs will likely continue to be a popular weed management choice that may also include the use of other herbicides to complement glyphosate. Stacking with other biotechnology traits will also give farmers the benefits and convenience of multiple pest control and quality trait technologies within a single seed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J L; Shimizu, T; Li, Y-F; Morfill, G E; Schmidt, H-U; Isbary, G

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms. (paper)

  12. Turning dust to gold building a future on the Moon and Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Benaroya, Haym

    2010-01-01

    Our continued prosperity and survival as species will in part depend upon space exploration and manned settlement. This will provide resources for our industrial societies and create new opportunities and markets. This book is a journey into our potential future, as several nations today begin seriously to plan and build up their capabilites for manned space flight and settlement on the Moon and Mars.

  13. Commentary on Future directions: Building technologies and design tools''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  14. Potential of building-scale alternative energy to alleviate risk from the future price of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, David; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy used for building operations, the associated greenhouse gas emissions, and the uncertainties in future price of natural gas and electricity can be a cause of concern for building owners and policy makers. In this work we explore the potential of building-scale alternative energy technologies to reduce demand and emissions while also shielding building owners from the risks associated with fluctuations in the price of natural gas and grid electricity. We analyze the monetary costs and benefits over the life cycle of five technologies (photovoltaic and wind electricity generation, solar air and water heating, and ground source heat pumps) over three audience or building types (homeowners, small businesses, large commercial and institutional entities). The analysis includes a Monte Carlo analysis to measure risk that can be compared to other investment opportunities. The results indicate that under government incentives and climate of Toronto, Canada, the returns are relatively high for small degrees of risks for a number of technologies. Ground source heat pumps prove to be exceptionally good investments in terms of their energy savings, emission, reductions, and economics, while the bigger buildings tend also to be better economic choices for the use of these technologies.

  15. Building Better Electrodes for Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, P. L.; La Brecque, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    In the third year of a project to understand and mitigate the systematic noise in resistivity and induced polarization measurements, we put a significant effort into understanding and developing better electrodes. The simple metal electrodes commonly used for both transmitting and receiving of electrical geophysical data are likely the Achilles" heal of the resistivity method. Even stainless steel, a commonly used electrode material because of its durability, showed only average results in laboratory tests for electrode noise. Better results have been found with non-polarizing metal-metal salt electrodes, which are widely used as surface electrodes and in IP surveys. But although they produce small measurement errors, they are not durable enough for in-situ borehole resistivity surveys, and often contain compounds that are toxic to the environment. They are also very seldom used as transmitters. In laboratory studies, we are exploring other materials and configurations for low-noise compound electrodes that will be nontoxic, inexpensive, and durable and can be used as both transmitters and receivers. Testing of the electrical noise levels of electrodes is an arduous task involving repeated measurements under varying conditions at field scales. Thus it is important to find methods of sorting out likely candidates from the mass of possible electrode configurations and construction methods. Testing of electrode impedance versus current density appears to provide simple criteria for predicting the suitability of electrodes. The best electrodes show relatively low overall contact impedance, relatively small changes in impedance with increased current density, and relatively small changes in impedance with time. Furthermore it can be shown that resistivity and induced polarization performance of electrodes is strongly correlated, so that methods of finding electrodes with low impedance and good direct current performance usually provide better quality induced

  16. Creativity of Junior High School’s Students in Designing Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, D. N.; Kaniawati, I.; Ramalis, T. R.

    2017-09-01

    This research was stimulated by the present the territory of Indonesia is largely an area prone to earthquakes and the issue that human resources and disaster response planning process is still less competent and not optimal. In addition, the construction of houses and public facilities has not been in accordance with earthquake-resistant building standards. This study aims to develop students’ creativity through earthquake resistant building model’s projects. The research method used is descriptive qualitative method. The sample is one of the 7th grades consisting of 32 students in one of the junior high schools, Indonesia. Data was collected using an observation sheets and student worksheet. Results showed that students’ creativity in designing earthquake resistant building models varies greatly and yields new solutions to solve problems.

  17. Antimicrobial drug resistance: "Prediction is very difficult, especially about the future".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-10-01

    Evolution of bacteria towards resistance to antimicrobial drugs, including multidrug resistance, is unavoidable because it represents a particular aspect of the general evolution of bacteria that is unstoppable. Therefore, the only means of dealing with this situation is to delay the emergence and subsequent dissemination of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in bacteria can result from mutations in housekeeping structural or regulatory genes. Alternatively, resistance can result from the horizontal acquisition of foreign genetic information. The 2 phenomena are not mutually exclusive and can be associated in the emergence and more efficient spread of resistance. This review discusses the predictable future of the relationship between antimicrobial drugs and bacteria.

  18. IPH response to Building an Active Travel Future for Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH)

    2012-01-01

    IPH responded to the Department for Regional Development consultation Building an Active Travel Future for Northern Ireland, March 2012 The draft Active Travel strategy seeks to set out how to increase active travel by demonstrating that walking and cycling are safe, healthy, flexible, inexpensive and social means of travel and by setting out ways in which opportunities for active travel can be significantly improved.IPH welcomes the new Active Travel Strategy and highlights the need for a tr...

  19. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  20. Engineering resistance to plant viruses: Present status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant viruses cause severe crop losses across the globe. Resistant cultivars together with pesticide application are commonly used to avoid the losses caused by plant viruses. However, very limited success has been achieved at diminishing the impact of plant viruses. Use of virus resistant plant is ...

  1. Combating antibiotic resistance, mitigating future threats and ongoing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Roseann; Sloand, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    To emphasise the impact of antibiotic resistance as a persistent, global health threat and highlight efforts to improve this complex problem. Political agendas, legislation, development of therapies and educational initiatives are essential to mitigate the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance. Original manuscript. Prescribers, policymakers and researchers are charged with the complex task of mitigating antibiotic resistance in an era when new treatments for bacterial infections are limited. Monitoring, surveillance and incentivising of practice, policy and new treatments provide solutions to antibiotic resistance in both the human and agricultural sectors. This article emphasises the complexity of antibiotic resistance and highlights the need for a multifaceted approach to improve health care outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Future comfort cooling in domestic and commercial buildings in Sweden; Naesta generations klimatkyla i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Rolfsman, Lennart; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Axell, Monica

    2010-09-15

    This report presents results from a national project on future potential for comfort cooling in the built sector. Results from an interview study are presented. Future changes in energy demand for comfort cooling in different building types based on scenarios are also presented and discussed. It is clear from the simulated results that the future need for comfort cooling will decrease due to a number of factors, including user behavior, regulations and new building codes

  3. The Sustainability Narrative in Contemporary Architecture: Falling Short of Building a Sustainable Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Martek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has emerged, arguably, as the premiere mission of contemporary architecture. Green assessment tools abound, consultancy services flourish, buildings are marketed on the basis of sustainability performance, and government, media, and corporations seem preoccupied with assessing the quality of the built environment through a green lens. Yet for all the effort, and indeed for all the progress made, fundamental issues resistant to the structural change that is essential for genuine sustainability remain. This paper reviews the state of play of sustainability across the urban landscape. It considers the road travelled so far, and points out some of the major challenges that lie ahead.

  4. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  5. Simplified life-cycle analysis of PV systems in buildings: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.; Masini, A.; Gamberale, M.; Toccaceli, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings shows several advantages compared to conventional PV power plants. The main objectives of the present study are the quantitative evaluation of the benefits of building-integrated PV systems over their entire life-cycle and the identification of best solutions to maximise their energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential. In order to achieve these objectives, a simplified life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been carried out. Firstly, a number of existing applications have been studied. Secondly, a parametric analysis of possible improvements in the balance-of-system (BOS) has been developed. Finally, the two steps have been combined with the analysis of crystalline silicon technologies. Results are reported in terms of several indicators: energy pay-back time, CO 2 yield and specific CO 2 emissions. The Indicators show that the integration of PV systems in buildings clearly increases the environmental benefits of present PV technology. These benefits will further increase with future PV technologies. Future optimised PV roof-integrated systems are expected to have an energy pay-back time of around 1-5 years (1 year with heat recovery) and to save during their lifetime more than 20 times the amount of CO 2 emitted during their manufacturing (34 times with heat recovery). (Author)

  6. Lateral Load-Resisting System Using Mass Timber Panel for High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.

  7. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a review of current concepts and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Gunar

    2014-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis are recent global health issues, which makes tuberculosis - after the success of short course treatment during the second half of the last century - a major health challenge. Globalisation, health inequalities, competing economic interests and political instability contribute substantially to the spread of drug-resistant strains, which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Issues such as increasing transmission of drug-resistant strains, poor diagnostic coverage and a lengthy, toxic treatment need to be overcome by innovative approaches to tuberculosis control, prevention, diagnostics and treatment. This review addresses recent developments and future concepts. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  8. Seismic resistant analysis of coupled model of reactor coolant system and reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaowen; Xia Zufeng

    2005-01-01

    Reactor coolant system(RCS) and reactor building are actually coupled with each other. SRP (Revision 2) edited by USNRC particularly pointed out in 3.7.2 that RCS, which is considered a subsystem but is usually analyzed using a coupled model with building. Under this background, this paper selects PC-NPP as a study object, and seismic resistant analysis is performed with a coupled model of building and RCS using response spectrum method and time history method. Finally, analyzed results are compared with those of uncoupled RCS model. In the analysis, building is simulated with cantilever beam model of shear wall combination. In the uncoupled model, each supporting of equipment is modeled using elastic beam element with actual supporting stiffness, which is connected to a rigid cantilever (single-point input) and to an elastic cantilever (multipoint input). Seismic load of coupled model is input from the bottom of building. After comparison, it is shown that the effect of interaction between RCS and building can not be ignored, and the uncoupled model for seismic resistant analysis is inappropriate to be applied in actual seismic design. Through this research, we can control the seismic analysis technique in coupled model and enhance our analysis level of NPP. (authors)

  9. Antibiotic-resistant gonococci — past, present and future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    key changes in recommended therapy for gonorrhoea over past decades. The recent emergence of .... Table I. Some of the key effects of mutations in the penA, penB, mtr and pem genes resulting in chromosomal resistance to penicillin. Gene Effect of mutation ... Health Organization (WHO). The presence of a self-mobile.

  10. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  11. Building Support for Adolescent Sexuality and Reproductive Health Education and Responding to Resistance in Conservative Contexts: Cases From Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Plesons, Marina; Hadi, Sheena; Baig, Qadeer; Lang, Iliana

    2018-03-21

    Despite international recommendations and supportive evidence, there are few examples of scaled-up and sustained programs to provide adolescents with sexuality education. Moreover, despite acknowledgment that building community support and responding to resistance are key challenges, there is a lack of detailed discussion on specific programmatic strategies to address these issues. This article reviews the work of 2 organizations-Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan-that are successfully implementing large-scale sexuality education programs in Pakistan, collectively reaching more than 500,000 students. This review aims to answer the following questions: (1) How did Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan work to understand Pakistani society and culture and shape their programs to build community support? (2) How did Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan overcome resistance to their efforts? We reviewed program documents and publications, synthesized key themes, identified questions of interest, and engaged key informants from Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan's leadership. The success of Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan was grounded in their readiness to understand the nuanced context within the communities, collaborate with groups of stakeholders-including parents, school officials, religious leaders, media personnel, and adolescents themselves-to ensure support, and stand up to forces of resistance to pursue their goals. Specific strategies included working with communities to select content, tactfully selecting and framing issues with careful consideration for sensitivities, engaging adolescents' influencers, strengthening media presence, showcasing school programs to increase understanding and transparency, and choosing opportune times to introduce messages. The successful strategies used by Aahung and Rutgers Pakistan to promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health through sexuality education can inform programs worldwide. Additionally, the programmatic weaknesses identified can guide future

  12. Building a vision for the future: strategic planning in a shared governance nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C; Beglinger, J E; Bowles, K; Brandt, C; Brennan, K M; Engelbaugh, S; Hallock, T; LaHam, M

    2000-06-01

    Today's health care delivery environment is marked by extreme turbulence and ever-increasing complexity. Now, more than ever, an organization's strategic plan must do more than outline a business plan. Rather, the strategic plan is a fundamental tool for building and sustaining an organizational vision for the future. The strong, dynamic strategic plan (1) represents a long-range vision for improving organizational performance, (2) provides a model for planning and implementing structures and processes for the management of outcomes, (3) reflects and shapes the organizational culture and customer focus, (4) provides decision support for difficult operational choices made day to day, and (5) integrates and aligns the work of the organization. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a methodology for strategic planning within a shared governance nursing organization. Built upon the strategic plan of the hospital, the process undertaken by the nursing organization reflects the following commitments: (1) to develop a strategic plan that is meaningful and part of daily work life at all levels of the nursing organization, (2) to make the plan practical and realistic through incremental building, (3) to locate and articulate accountability for each step, and (4) to build in a process for checking progress toward goal achievement and readjusting the plan as necessary.

  13. Mechanisms of reef coral resistance to future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbi, Stephen R; Barshis, Daniel J; Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Bay, Rachael A

    2014-05-23

    Reef corals are highly sensitive to heat, yet populations resistant to climate change have recently been identified. To determine the mechanisms of temperature tolerance, we reciprocally transplanted corals between reef sites experiencing distinct temperature regimes and tested subsequent physiological and gene expression profiles. Local acclimatization and fixed effects, such as adaptation, contributed about equally to heat tolerance and are reflected in patterns of gene expression. In less than 2 years, acclimatization achieves the same heat tolerance that we would expect from strong natural selection over many generations for these long-lived organisms. Our results show both short-term acclimatory and longer-term adaptive acquisition of climate resistance. Adding these adaptive abilities to ecosystem models is likely to slow predictions of demise for coral reef ecosystems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Takehito

    1997-01-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  15. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  16. Effect of interior changes on earthquake resistance of buildings - case: reinforced concrete frame system

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Mahsa Sadat Fard

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most disturbing natural hazards which cause enormous life and property losses. However, earthquake engineering has highlighted itself as an interdisciplinary subject over the past few decades. Different professions as seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, architecture, urban planning, information technology and some of the social sciences, have began to address different characteristic effects on the earthquake resistance of buildings. The purpose ...

  17. Resistive Plate Chambers in running and future experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, G

    2004-01-01

    This document surveys the RPC-based detection systems of running and future collider experiments focusing on the implications of the choice of some basic detector features: number of gaps, electrode material and operating mode. The muon identification systems of the B-factory experiments BaBar and Belle is described and the RPC performance since the first operation of the detectors is briefly reported. The trigger systems of the future LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS and CMS are discussed and some results obtained in the extensive research and development programs carried out by the Collaborations are reported. The application of the multi-gap RPC for the Time-of-Flight system of the ALICE and STAR experiments is also considered.

  18. Randomized trial of a peer resistance skill-building game for Hispanic early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; Hughes, Charles; Hecht, Michael; Peragallo, Nilda; Nickerson, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents can use peer resistance skills to avoid being pressured into risky behavior, such as early sexual behavior. Avatar-based virtual reality technology offers a novel way to help build these skills. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of an avatar-based virtual reality peer resistance skill building game (DRAMA-RAMA), to explore the impact of game play on peer resistance self-efficacy, and to assess how positively the game was perceived. Forty-four low-income early adolescent Hispanic girls were assigned randomly to either the intervention (DRAMA-RAMA) or attention control game (Wii Dancing With the Stars) condition. All participants were offered a five-session curriculum that included peer resistance skill content before playing their respective game for 15 minutes, once a week, for 2 weeks. Participants completed electronic surveys at baseline, after game play, and at 2 months to assess demographics, peer resistance self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. They also completed a paper-pencil game experience questionnaire immediately after game play. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, chi-square, and analyses of covariance. Separate analyses of covariance showed a significant game effect at posttest for the peer resistance self-efficacy measure (F = 4.21, p Dancing With the Stars (p > .26). This randomized control trial provides preliminary support for the hypothesis that playing an avatar-based virtual reality technology game can strengthen peer resistance skills, and early adolescent Hispanic girls will have a positive response to this game.

  19. Future technologies for monitoring HIV drug resistance and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Urvi M; McCormick, Kevin; van Zyl, Gert; Mellors, John W

    2017-03-01

    Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis. Similarly, improvements in PCR and NGS are resulting in higher throughput single genome sequencing to detect intact proviruses and to characterize HIV integration sites and clonal expansions of infected cells. Current population genotyping methods for resistance monitoring are high cost and low throughput. NGS, combined with simpler sample collection and storage matrices (e.g. dried blood spots), has considerable potential to broaden global surveillance and patient monitoring for HIVDR. Recent adaptions of NGS to identify integration sites of HIV in the human genome and to characterize the integrated HIV proviruses are likely to facilitate investigations of the impact of experimental 'curative' interventions on HIV reservoirs.

  20. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance: "Prediction Is Very Difficult, Especially about the Future"1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Evolution of bacteria towards resistance to antimicrobial drugs, including multidrug resistance, is unavoidable because it represents a particular aspect of the general evolution of bacteria that is unstoppable. Therefore, the only means of dealing with this situation is to delay the emergence and subsequent dissemination of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in bacteria can result from mutations in housekeeping structural or regulatory genes. Alternatively, resistance can result from the horizontal acquisition of foreign genetic information. The 2 phenomena are not mutually exclusive and can be associated in the emergence and more efficient spread of resistance. This review discusses the predictable future of the relationship between antimicrobial drugs and bacteria. PMID:16318687

  1. Cost and effectiveness of radon-resistant features in new school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A.B.; Leovie, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent concerns over elevated levels of radon in existing buildings have prompted the design and construction of a number of school buildings that either are radon resistant or incorporate features that facilitate post-construction mitigation if needed. This paper described initial results of a study of several schools with radon-resistant features that were recently constructed in the northeastern U.S. These designs are generally based on experience with radon mitigation in existing houses and schools and radon-resistant new house construction. The study was limited to slab-on-grade schools, where the most common radon-resistant school design is active subslab depressurization (ASD). The additional construction costs for eight schools built with ASD ranged from $3 to $11 per square meter of slab area. The radon contractors who designed these systems have tended to overdesign the radon-reduction systems in the absence of specific written guidance to follow to lessen potential liability in the event of system failure. Design features include detailed sealing of all slab cracks, multiple exhaust stacks, and extensive subslab piping

  2. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  3. THE FUTURE OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP: “BUILDING A SHARED EUROPEAN HOME”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria SARAKUTSA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The year 2014 became a turning point in the history of the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP, marked by the signing of the Association Agreements with three EaP states and a conflict in Ukraine. In view of the above, current research focuses on assessing the feasibility of scenarios of the EaP future, discussed in scholarship, based on the assessment of the EU’s foreign policy successes and challenges in Eastern Neighbourhood. EU’s internal issues, re-emerging geostrategic threats and domestic challenges in the EaP states are analyzed. The considered scenarios include the EU’s acceptance of the status quo in the region, taking a stronger stance on the integration of Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia, as well as building “a shared European home” by promoting a rapprochement with Russia. The single scenario for the EU’s policy in the EaP states is suggested, and the reason why the EU will try to “build a shared European home” is explained.

  4. Zero Emission Buildings in Korea—History, Status Quo, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the history, status quo, and future prospects of Zero Emission Buildings (ZEBs in the Republic of Korea. The advantages of, and requirements for ZEBs are described, concerning the factors of energy, water, nutrients, and biomass. ZEBs are characterized by net zero energy consumption through the minimization of the energy demand, as well as the onsite production and use of renewable energy. The direct water footprint is reduced by up to 100% through on-site water supply and wastewater management according to the principles of Sustainable Sanitation. The fresh water demand is reduced by using water saving technologies and by recycling of wastewater. Rainwater harvesting, utilization, and infiltration facilitates for onsite drinking water production. Nutrients and biomass from sanitation systems are recycled for local soil application. While traditional Korean buildings can be generally regarded as ZEBs, traditional know-how has been overlooked in the process of modernization and implementation of centralized infrastructure systems in the 20th century. However, the growing interest in sustainability issues in Korea since the beginning of the 21st century is reflected in a growing number of research and development activities, including the design, construction, and operation of ZEBs. The widespread implementation of ZEBs would significantly contribute to sustainable development in the Republic of Korea.

  5. Temporal Relationship Between Hyperuricemia and Insulin Resistance and Its Impact on Future Risk of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianshu; Lan, Li; Qu, Rongge; Xu, Qian; Jiang, Ruyue; Na, Lixin; Sun, Changhao

    2017-10-01

    Although hyperuricemia and insulin resistance significantly correlated, their temporal sequence and how the sequence influence on future risk of hypertension are largely unknown. This study assessed temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on future risk of hypertension by examining a longitudinal cohort including 8543 subjects aged 20 to 74 years from China, with an average follow-up of 5.3 years. Measurements of fasting uric acid, as well as fasting and 2-hour serum glucose and insulin, were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Indicators of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance were calculated. Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis were used to examine the temporal relationship between uric acid and insulin resistance and its impact on follow-up hypertension. After adjusting for covariates, the cross-lagged path coefficients ( β 1 values) from baseline uric acid to follow-up insulin resistance indices were significantly greater than path coefficients ( β 2 values) from baseline insulin resistance indices to follow-up uric acid ( β 1 =0.110 versus β 2 =0.017; P hypertensive group were significantly greater than that in the normotensive group ( P hypertension, and the mediation effect of peripheral insulin resistance was significantly greater than that of hepatic insulin resistance (31.3% versus 13.2%; P hypertension than hepatic insulin resistance does. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Building the Future of Environmental Public Health Tracking: Proceedings and Recommendations of an Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Baksh, Sheriza; Lam, Juleen; Resnick, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Since 2002, the national Environmental Health Tracking Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided vital support to state environmental public health efforts while simultaneously building a nationwide network of state, local, and academic partners to improve our nation’s capacity to understand and respond to environmental threats to public health. As part of program review and strategic planning, national thought leaders in environmental public health were convened to assess progress, identify gaps and challenges, and provide recommendations for enhancing the utility and impact of the Tracking Program. Several opportunities were identified. Chief among these was the need for continued and expanded CDC leadership to develop a coordinated Tracking Program agenda identifying specific scientific goals, data needs, and initiatives. Recommendations for future growth included expanded data availability and program coverage: i.e., making data available at the community scale and establishing tracking programs in all 50 states. Finally, a set of recommendations emphasizing communication to decision makers and the public was made that will be integral to the future utility and success of the Tracking Program.

  7. Improvement of impact-resistance of a nuclear containment building using fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Se-Jin; Jin, Byeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact-resistance of a structure can be improved by fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). • Material modeling of FRC is incorporated into finite element analysis of a structure. • A new index for impact-resistance is proposed based on plastic dissipation energy. • A nuclear power plant made of FRC shows improved resistance against aircraft crashes. - Abstract: Since the act of terrorism that occurred in the USA on September 11, 2001, the protection of nuclear power plants against large commercial aircraft crashes has been an emerging issue. Besides the verification of the safety of nuclear power plants in operation or in design, efficient methods for improving the impact-resistance of these structures have been investigated. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) has been generally accepted as an effective material for this purpose. In particular, FRC has been developed to improve the tensile behavior of concrete such as tensile strength, ductility and toughness. One of the main fields of application of FRC can be found in blast-protective or blast-resistant concrete structures. It is expected, therefore, that safety-related structures in a nuclear power plant can also be effectively protected from external blast, aircraft crash, etc. by applying FRC. In order to analytically verify the effect on structural behavior of applying FRC, the particular material properties of FRC should be incorporated into the material modeling of a structural analysis program. This study investigates the mathematical modeling of FRC, which represents various aspects of material behavior. Two numerical examples are provided to show the improved impact-resistance of a nuclear containment building that is expected when applying FRC in comparison with ordinary concrete. The analysis results show that the displacement decreases by 43–67% while the impact-resistance increases by 40–82%, depending on a fiber type.

  8. Earthquake-resistant performance investigation for rural buildings in Zhongxiang area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jingya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a census of the rural residential buildings of Zhongxiang area’s 17 towns. Next, we conducted a sample survey in four townships: Huji, Shipai, Zhangji, and Jiuli. According to the census and sample survey data of the rural residence buildings, we evaluated the quality and earthquake-resistant performance of the rural buildings for the various local rural residential structural types. The results showed that there are four main factors affecting the seismic performance of the local rural residences: (1 Foundations are not made appropriately (such as by compaction or some other fill but are built directly in the farming soil. (2 Seismic measures are not completely implemented. Structure construction measures are not in place at the junction of the vertical and horizontal wall. The vertical wall joints are not the result of the same masonry techniques as the horizontal joints. There are no lintels above the door and window openings, or if there are any, the length of the lintels is less than 240 mm. (3 The brick masonry wall has low strength. The greatest housing wall mortar strength is between M0. 4–1.5, much lower than the strength of the brick. (4 The building material and construction quality are poor. The quality of the mortar masonry wall is poor. The cracks between the bricks are uneven, even in the seams.

  9. Flexible Connection Elastomeric Rubber as a Pounding Resisting Element between Two Adjacent Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuskar Lase

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve pounding problem of two adjacent buildings, structural designer usually employs a dilatation between the structures or make the two structures as a monolith structure. Other alternative is by using an elastomeric rubber as a pounding resisting element between the two structures. Effectiveness in applying elastomeric rubber component as flexible connection of two adjacent structures is the main focus of this paper. Various simulations such as structure models, earthquake excitations and openings in gap element are studied. Observation of maximum structural responses will be performed for structure model with elastomeric rubber in comparison with (1 monolith structure model and (2 structure model with rigid element (steel element. Simulation results show that application of elastomeric rubber component to prevent structures from pounding problem provides advantages especially in reducing internal forces in the shorter building. However, it slightly increases displacement of both structures.

  10. Building effective partnerships: the role of trust in the Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa (VIRCA is an agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP comprising the Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center (DDPSC, National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO of Uganda and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI. The project seeks to develop virus-resistant cassava for farmers in Kenya and Uganda. Yet, there is much public skepticism about the use of genetically modified (GM crops and private sector involvement in Africa. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the VIRCA partnership. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ views on the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the VIRCA partnership. Interviewee responses, together with relevant documents and articles, were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust is operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes from the interviewee responses. Results Various factors undermine and build trust in agbiotech PPPs. Individual and institutional enthusiasm and detailed collaborative agreements stipulating partner roles and responsibilities are likely to enhance trust among partners. On the other hand, negative perceptions propagated by international partners about the capacities of African institutions and scientists, coupled with slow regulatory processes in Africa, are likely to be impediments to trust building. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, we have derived four key lessons. First, differences in the capacity of the partner institutions and individuals should be respected. Second, technical and infrastructural capacity support for regulatory processes in Africa must be built. Third, detailed agreements and open and transparent partner practices during project implementation are necessary to dispel perceptions of inequality among partners. Fourth, institutional

  11. A review study of maintenance and management issues in Malaysian commercial building towards sustainable future practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Faizal; Ibrahim, Siti Halipah; Riazi, Salman Riazi Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Good management of the building will be able to influence the quality of the buildings that remain long, safe and beautiful without any damage and problems. This research paper aims to explore the issue of maintenance and management that appear in managing the commercial building in Malaysian construction and property industry. The data in this research has been gathered through the reviewing process of secondary data such as journals, proceeding, thesis etc. in the area that related to maintenance and management issue in commercial building. As highlighted by previous study, building a good management can ensure that the facilities available in the building are well and meet the standard. Thus, exposure to the problems and needs in the management of the building would be able to improve the quality of building management systems to be more effective and fulfil the client needs and features.

  12. The role of hydrogen as a future solution to energetic and environmental problems for residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Aşchilean, I.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Şoimoşan, T.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. In achieving the desideratum "low-carbon energy system", in the domain of energy production, the use of innovative low-carbon technologies providing maximum efficiency and minimum pollution is required. Such technology is the fuel cell; as these will be developed, it will become a reality to obtain the energy based on hydrogen. Thus, hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using different forms of renewable resources becomes a secure and sustainable energy alternative. In this context, in the present paper, a comparative study of two different hybrid power generation systems for residential building placed in Cluj-Napoca was made. In these energy systems have been integrated renewable energies (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine), backup and storage system based on hydrogen (fuel cell, electrolyser and hydrogen storage tank), and, respectively, backup and storage system based on traditional technologies (diesel generator and battery). The software iHOGA was used to simulate the operating performance of the two hybrid systems. The aim of this study was to compare energy, environmental and economic performances of these two systems and to define possible future scenarios of competitiveness between traditional and new innovative technologies. After analyzing and comparing the results of simulations, it can be concluded that the fuel cells technology along with hydrogen, integrated in a hybrid system, may be the key to energy production systems with high energy efficiency, making possible an increased capitalization of renewable energy which have a low environmental impact.

  13. Building a Sustainable Energy Future for Africa - Acting Now and Together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, L.

    2007-07-01

    The key energy challenges Africa is facing are: low level of access to commercial energy, low per capita energy consumption, weak development of energy infrastructure and lack of investment and financing for energy projects. Addressing these challenges is critical for sustainable economic and social development, and assured access to secure, affordable and reliable energy. In spite of these daunting challenges, Africa is well endowed in energy resources, but these resources are largely untapped and concentrated in a few countries. In addition, there are numerous 'rooms' for opportunities that could be seized concretely to overcome the main obstacles to the Sustainable Energy Development of the Continent. Thus, right actions must be taken to overcome these obstacles, including: financing the huge needed investments, technological development, private-public partnerships, energy market reform and effective regulation, sound and sustainable energy policies, and economic and social measures. Subsequently, from priority areas, the related stakeholders should 'act now' and 'act together', through effective collaboration and partnership and making proper alliances, to initiate effective and concrete actions to support Africa aspirations in order to build a Sustainable Energy Future for Africa, in a cost-effective and timely manner. (auth)

  14. Investing in Professional Development: Building and Sustaining a Viable 4-H Youth Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk A. Astroth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive youth development outcomes are influenced by a competent, highly trained work force that enjoys their work with young people. The youth work field has struggled with how to keep and motivate front line youth workers given the heavy workloads, low pay, lack of recognition and irregular time demands to compete with family responsibilities. Professional development is a key strategy for retaining and motivating youth workers. A model of professional development called the Western 4-H Institute has been developed and held now for two sessions. Results from participants indicate that this strategy can have a positive influence on job satisfaction, competencies, and retention. In fact, only 10 percent of participants had left during the intervening 5 years, and job satisfaction had increased significantly over time. Organizational loyalty among participants is not high, but with early career professionals, they may still be trying to find their niche. A regional training model has shown itself to be effective in supporting 4-H youth professionals and is building a sustainable workforce for the future.

  15. EFFECT OF RECYCLE TIRE ISOLATOR AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE SYSTEM FOR LOW RISE BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW WEI JIE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Recycle Tire Isolator (RTI as earthquake resistance system for low rise buildings in Malaysia. Most of the earthquake’s victims are due to the collapse of poorly designed concrete and masonry buildings. Therefore, an economical but reliable RTI is introduced to solve the problem in most of the developing countries such as Malaysia. This study focuses on the effect of RTI-5 (5 layers RTI in protecting three stories buildings. The vertical displacement of RTI-5 was determined through static compression test. The maximum vertical displacement of RTI-5 was obtained when the specimen was monotonically loaded to failure. Finite element analysis was carried out by using ANSYS V16.0 to model the RTI-5 and the results obtained were compared to the experimental results. The dynamic stiffness and damping ratio of RTI-5 were investigated through dynamic test. The behaviour of various thickness of RTI were examined and compared with Rubber Bearing (RB and Scrap Tire Rubber Pad (STRP.Total displacement of three stories buildings on fixed base and on base isolation were determined. The results from static compression test and finite element analysis showed that RTI-5 could sustain a vertical load of 380 kN with vertical deformation of 12.5 mm. It has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA where both of the results achieved close agreement in terms of vertical deformation. RTI-5 and STRP have similar vertical stiffness due to the employment of same material in fabrication. However, rubber bearing is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the present of embedded steel plates. Besides, RTI-4 is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the number of layers are lesser in RTI-4. The results of dynamic test shown that RTI-5 has higher damping ratio than RTI-4. In overall, total deformation at the top floor of the three stories building is reduced by 83% via implementation of RTI in the base of the building. It has been proven

  16. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    systems enables them to send or receive energy from these systems. This is beneficial for NZEBs because even though they have an annual net exchange of zero, there is a temporal mismatch in regard to the energy consumption of buildings and the production from the renewable energy units added to them......The long-term goal for Denmark is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources (RES) in 2050. To reach this goal energy savings in buildings are essential. Therefore, a focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have increased....... In other words, situations occur where the renewable energy units produces more energy than the building consumes. If the building was not connected to a grid, the energy produced would have to be either stored or unused. By connecting the building to a grid it is possible to sell the energy to the grid...

  17. The Distribution of Fitness Costs of Resistance-Conferring Mutations Is a Key Determinant for the Future Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Model-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, Gwenan M.; Colijn, Caroline; Shrestha, Sourya; Fofana, Mariam; Cobelens, Frank; White, Richard G.; Dowdy, David W.; Cohen, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance poses a serious challenge for the control of tuberculosis in many settings. It is well established that the expected future trend in resistance depends on the reproductive fitness of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the variability in fitness between strains with

  18. Developing talent at AREVA: Investing in people and building our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivien, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    AREVA employs 65,000 people today and will recruit 12,000 new employees worldwide in 2008 to support business strategy. The group forecasts that recruitment needs will significantly rise to 40,000 by 2012, representing 50% of the workforce. In order to meet the challenges of rapid international expansion and a highly competitive talent market, AREVA has developed initiatives to accelerate its investment in people, to reinforce recruitment and retain high quality talents and valuable skills and knowledge. The group human resources department's mission is based on shaping talents for sustainable business performance. It established its five-point human resources policy, Talent Builder, to attract, develop, retain, reward and mobilize employees across all businesses. In the context of a global talent market, dynamic recruitment programs are implemented to attract top talent. A global Campus Management program builds on relationships with colleges and universities to attract the future generation of engineers and managers. Talent development initiatives include processes and management tools, such as the People Review to identify and nurture key skills and talents, a group-wide integration program, professional training, and priority to internal mobility. AREVA places particular importance to diversity, a keystone of HR policy, and a socio-economic lever of development. The rich variety of people and cultures in the group reflect the markets, customers and the civil society in which AREVA operates. The group is actively committed to equal opportunities for all. The European agreement on equal opportunities in the workplace sets out measures for promoting gender equality and professional career paths, with the principal themes of recruitment, career development, training, remuneration and parental support. In addition, the WE network of men and women was set up with the support of Anne Lauvergeon, Chief Executive of AREVA with the objectives of promoting gender equality

  19. The Durham Strategic Energy Alliance : building a roadmap to meet Ontario's present and future energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, K.; Lindeblom, D.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge facing Ontario in gaining access to affordable, flexible and reliable energy at a time when energy demand is escalating was discussed. The Durham Strategic Energy Alliance (DSEA) was created in 2005 to position Ontario's Durham Region as a Canadian leader in timely, sustainable and reliable energy solutions. Durham employs about 10,000 workers directly in the energy industry. The region also produces nearly 30 per cent of the province's power from local generating stations. It is also home to an energy focused teaching and research institution at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology. The DSEA is composed of business, industry, government and academic institutions committed to taking action on advancing energy solutions in all aspects of the energy life-cycle. Members have a stake in promoting sustainable energy solutions in energy supply and generation, manufacturing of energy solutions, transmission, distribution, conservation and/or consumption of all forms of energy. Since its creation, the DSEA has taken measures to exploit the energy opportunities in Durham Region and plans to significantly expand its activities in the future, particularly in building commercialization capabilities through an energy cluster. New links and formalized networks will be established to achieve this goal. Innovative networks will be developed to connect Durham's academic community with business, industry and energy clusters which are developing globally. The overall DSEA strategy is to develop Durham's energy cluster so that it evolves quickly into Ontario's energy commercialization center. There are three areas where such strategy will be recognized: energy technology adoption/demonstration centre; energy technology adoption officer; and, energy cluster outreach/network. 1 fig

  20. Developing talent at AREVA: Investing in people and building our future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivien, Philippe [Human Resources AREVA (France)

    2008-07-01

    AREVA employs 65,000 people today and will recruit 12,000 new employees worldwide in 2008 to support business strategy. The group forecasts that recruitment needs will significantly rise to 40,000 by 2012, representing 50% of the workforce. In order to meet the challenges of rapid international expansion and a highly competitive talent market, AREVA has developed initiatives to accelerate its investment in people, to reinforce recruitment and retain high quality talents and valuable skills and knowledge. The group human resources department's mission is based on shaping talents for sustainable business performance. It established its five-point human resources policy, Talent Builder, to attract, develop, retain, reward and mobilize employees across all businesses. In the context of a global talent market, dynamic recruitment programs are implemented to attract top talent. A global Campus Management program builds on relationships with colleges and universities to attract the future generation of engineers and managers. Talent development initiatives include processes and management tools, such as the People Review to identify and nurture key skills and talents, a group-wide integration program, professional training, and priority to internal mobility. AREVA places particular importance to diversity, a keystone of HR policy, and a socio-economic lever of development. The rich variety of people and cultures in the group reflect the markets, customers and the civil society in which AREVA operates. The group is actively committed to equal opportunities for all. The European agreement on equal opportunities in the workplace sets out measures for promoting gender equality and professional career paths, with the principal themes of recruitment, career development, training, remuneration and parental support. In addition, the WE network of men and women was set up with the support of Anne Lauvergeon, Chief Executive of AREVA with the objectives of promoting gender

  1. Libraries with a Future: How Are Academic Library Usage and Green Demands Changing Building Designs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Michael Wescott

    2010-01-01

    Support for the modular system of building construction, touted in the second half of the 20th century as the best basis for academic library building design, appears to be waning. A study of "green" libraries in 2008 revealed that not only has energy conservation become important, but that spaces designed for users rather than books…

  2. A Five-Year School Building and Future Sites Program 1966-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965

    Five-year school building and site needs and related financial requirements are summarized for Milwaukee's schools. Educational policies concerning the school building program are stated, and consideration is given to factors affecting school board needs such as birth rate, public housing projects, urban renewal, highways, and expressways. School…

  3. The Futures of Indigenous Peoples: 9-11 and the Trajectory of Indigenous Survival and Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the past, present, and future resistance of indigenous peoples to capitalist expansion. The central argument is that the survival of indigenous peoples, their identities, and their cultures, constitutes strong antisystemic resistance against global capitalism and against the deepening and the broadening of modern world-systemic or globalization processes. Furthermore, we argue that recent events often touted as turning points in history—the collapse of the Soviet Union, the 9-11 attack on the twin towers, and even the war on Iraq—are at most “blips on the radar” in a larger trajectory of change and resistance. Rather, the important features of indigenous survival are: (1 Indigenous peoples, despite an immense variety of forms of cultural and social organization, represent non-capitalist forms of organization. Their continued survival challenges the fundamental premises of capitalism and its increasingly global culture. (2 Indigenous people’s challenges to global domination succeed less on economic, political, or military force, and more as fundamental challenges to the underpinnings of the logic of capitalism and the interstate system. (3 In order to learn from these resistance models, it is necessary to ground our understanding in two seemingly antithetical forms of knowledge: (a information arising from indigenous cultures and values and (b research about how the longue duree of the world-system shapes the form and timing of such movements. (4 Indigenous successes may serve as models and/ or inspirations for other forms of resistance. An important task is to discover what is unique to indigenous resistance and to specify what indigenous resistance has in common with other forms of resistance.

  4. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    buildings in Denmark are connected to electricity grids and around half are connected to districtheating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy systems enables them to send and receive energy from these systems. This paper’s objective is to examine how excess heat production from NZEBs...... excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The main findings are that the excess heat from NZEBs can benefit DH systems by decreasing the production from production units utilizing combustible fuels. In DH areas where the heat demand in summer months is already covered by renewable energy...

  5. Partial Prestress Concrete Beams Reinforced Concrete Column Joint Earthquake Resistant On Frame Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, M. D.; Kartini, W.; Lie, F. X. E.

    2018-01-01

    Floor Building that requires a large space such as for the meeting room, so it must remove the column in the middle of the room, then the span beam above the room will be long. If the beam of structural element with a span length reaches 15.00 m, then it is less effective and efficient using a regular Reinforced Concrete Beam because it requires a large section dimension, and will reduce the beauty of the view in terms of aesthetics of Architecture. In order to meet these criteria, in this design will use partial prestressing method with 400/600 mm section dimension, assuming the partial Prestressed Beam structure is still able to resist the lateral force of the earthquake. The design of the reinforcement has taken into account to resist the moment due to the gravitational load and lateral forces. The earthquake occurring on the frame structure of the building. In accordance with the provisions, the flexural moment capacity of the tendon is permitted only by 25% of the total bending moment on support of the beam, while the 75% will be charged to the reinforcing steel. Based on the analysis result, bring ini 1 (one) tendon contains 6 strand with diameter 15,2 mm. On the beam pedestal, requires 5D25 tensile reinforcement and 3D25 for the compression reinforcement, for shear reinforcement on the pedestal using Ø10-100 mm. Dimensional column section are 600/600 mm with longitudinal main reinforcement of 12D25, and transverse reinforcement Ø10-150. At the core of the beam-column joint, use the transversal reinforcement Ø10-100 mm. The moment of Column versus Beam Moment ∑Me > 1.2 Mg, with a value of 906.99 kNm > 832.25 kNm, qualify for ductility and Strong Columns-weak beam. Capacity of contribution bending moment of Strand Tendon’s is 23.95% from the total bending moment capacity of the beam, meaning in accordance with the provisions. Thus, the stability and ductility structure of Beam-Column joint is satisfy the requirements of SNI 2847: 2013 and ACI 318-11.

  6. Sustainability-open : Why every building will be sustainable in the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the initiative “sustainability-open” will be introduced. The aim of the initiative is to take away one of the reasons why buildings and other objects in the built environment are often not designed in a sustainable manner: the availability of clear and insightful software to analyse

  7. Learning about Collaborative Knowledge Building: A Case of Future School in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    So, Hyo-Jeong; Zhang, Xujuan; Tan, Esther

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses the design, enactment and evaluation of a Collaborative Knowledge Building (CKB) workshop, designed to resolve the prevalent problem that Asian students tend to lack the necessary skills and appreciation for collective cognitive responsibility. The study was conducted with

  8. Building a Solid Foundation from Which to Launch Our Future Mathematicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Robin

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to retain a focus on building students' mathematical reasoning and comprehension rather than merely developing superficial understanding through procedural learning. All too often this approach "takes a back seat" because of examination and assessment pressure, where the importance of "How?" supersedes that of…

  9. A suggested guideline for exposure control from natural radioactivity in future buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Shukla, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure to the population. Their concentrations vary by about 2 to 3 orders of magnitude at different geographical locations. This paper proposes three control methodologies for keeping the population exposure as low as reasonably achievable. Tentative recommendations are also included. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs., 2 appendixes

  10. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  11. The National Library of Iran: A New Building and a New Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Ebrahim

    2006-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran's parliament, the Majlis, passed in 1990 a law setting out the functions of its national library. In 2005, the inauguration of the first stage of the new national library building was celebrated as a major national cultural and architectural achievement. This article looks at the origins and evolution of the National…

  12. Building the Capacity of Future Leaders in Economics in West and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the building of leaders of today and tomorrow in West Africa, a region where capacity for economic research and management remains very limited. A recent study by the Programme de Troisième Cycle Interuniversitaire (PTCI) showed that 87% of students stay in the region after graduation and work ...

  13. DEPENDENCE OF DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL DAMAGES DUE TO POSSIBLE EARTHQUAKES ON THE CLASS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF A BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzada R. Zajnulabidova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To determine the damage probability of earthquakes of different intensities on the example of a real projected railway station building having a framework design scheme based on the density function of damage distribution. Methods Uncertainty, always existing in nature, invalidates a deterministic approach to the assessment of territorial seismic hazards and, consequently, seismic risk. In this case, seismic risk assessment can be carried out on a probabilistic basis. Thus, the risk will always be there, but it must be minimised. The task of optimising the reinforcement costs is solved by using the density distribution function for seismic effects of varying intensity, taking into account the degree of building responsibility. Results The distribution functions of the expected damage for a building with a reinforced concrete frame located in a highly seismic region with a repetition of 9-point shocks every 500 years and 10-point shocks once every 5000 years are constructed. A significant effect of the seismic resistance class of a building on the form of the distribution functions is shown. For structures of a high seismic resistance class, not only is the seismic risk reduced, but also the variance of the expected damage. From the graphs obtained, it can be seen that the seismic resistance class significantly affects the damage distribution. At a probability of 0.997, the expected damage for a non-reinforced building will exceed 43%; for a reinforced one it is only 10%. It also follows from the graphs that the variance of the damage magnitude decreases with the growth of the seismic resistance class of the building. This fact is an additional incentive for investing in antiseismic reinforcement of buildings. Conclusion The study shows the expediency of working with the damage density distribution function when managing seismic risk. In this case, it becomes possible to strengthen the building with a specified probability of

  14. Field resistance of transgenic plantain to nematodes has potential for future African food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Changa, Charles; Urwin, Peter E; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce K; Coyne, Danny; Atkinson, Howard J

    2015-01-30

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose losses of up to 70% on plantains and cooking bananas in Africa. Application of nematicides is inappropriate and resistant cultivars are unavailable. Where grown, demand for plantain is more than for other staple crops. Confined field testing demonstrated that transgenic expression of a biosafe, anti-feedant cysteine proteinase inhibitor and an anti-root invasion, non-lethal synthetic peptide confers resistance to plantain against the key nematode pests Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. The best peptide transgenic line showed improved agronomic performance relative to non-transgenic controls and provided about 99% nematode resistance at harvest of the mother crop. Its yield was about 186% in comparison with the nematode challenged control non-transgenic plants based on larger bunches and diminished plant toppling in storms, due to less root damage. This is strong evidence for utilizing this resistance to support the future food security of 70 million, mainly poor Africans that depend upon plantain as a staple food.

  15. Building a Sustainable Future: A Report on the Environmental Protection Agency's Brownfields Sustainability Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes each of the Brownfields Sustainability Pilots and provides findings and recommendations for future projects. It is intended for use by people, communities, organizations, and agencies helping make brownfields more sustainable.

  16. Investigation into crack resistance of building steels during dynamic initiation and propagation of brittle cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, E.M.; Makhutov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities to determine the characteristics of steel crack resistance at the stage of crack initiation and propagation are studied according to the results of the impact bend test of standard samples with a crack, when the P-f oscillograms (loading-deflection) have been recorded. The investigation has been carried out for low-carbon and low-alloyed steels widely applied for building structures. It is shown that during the impact bend testing of standard samples with a crack in brittle and quasibrittle states the time of sample strain before the initiation of unstable crack turns out to be similar to the time of crack propagation. This fact conditions the mode of strain diagram as approximately symmetric as to the maximum load and, consequently, is the reason for the levelling of specific energy of elastic strains and specific energy of crack propagation. During the transition from plastic to brittle fractures with the temperature decrease under conditions of the dynamic loading the rate of the crack propagation vsub(p) increases by two orders, constituting approximately 0.002 from the rate of the elastic waves movement at plastic state and up to 0.25 at brittle ones [ru

  17. Roof windows in low-energy buildings - Analyses of demands and possibilities for future product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Duer, Karsten; Hviid, Christian Anker

     no interaction of air or heat between zones. This showed how improved roof-window frame constructions and heat loss coeffcients of the glazing lower than current standard levels would make it possible to achieve nearly zero- energy consumption with a wider range of options providing sufficient daylighting......As part of an ambitious energy policy and strategy for reducing the use of fossil fuels in the European Union, all new buildings are required to consume `nearly zero-energy' by the end of 2020. This creates a strong need for research in cost-effective solutions and technology that can help balance...... the goal of a very low energy use with good daylighting and a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. Windows play a very large role in both the energy consumption and the indoor environment of buildings. Roof windows are a particularly efficient daylighting source, which certain types of houses depend...

  18. The future resources for eco-building materials: II. Fly ash and coal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui Li; Delong Xu [Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an (China). China State key Laboratory of Western Architecture & Technology

    2009-08-15

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively, the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed, such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation, removal of carbon remains and fine comminution, calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology, and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  19. Community action for sustainable housing: Building a low-carbon future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfang, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new analytical framework of 'grassroots innovations' which views community-led initiatives for sustainable development as strategic green niches with the potential for wider transformation of mainstream society. This framework is applied to a low-carbon, low-impact, community-based sustainable housing initiative in the USA that pioneers straw bale housing techniques within a strong community-building ethos. The project is evaluated according to New Economics criteria of sustainable consumption, and is found to be successful at localising the construction supply chain, reducing ecological footprints, community-building, enabling collective action and building new institutions and systems of provision around housebuilding. However, viewing it as a strategic niche with aim to influence wider society, it is clear that it faces significant challenges in diffusing its ideas and practices beyond the niche. Its model is not necessarily suitable for scaling up or widespread replication; however, the scope for niche lessons to be adopted by mainstream builders is greater, given a supportive policy environment. Recognising the innovative nature of green niches at the policy level could lead to new approaches to governance of bottom-up community action for sustainable development.

  20. Drug development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Kiran; Dawson, Nancy A

    2011-04-01

    Prostate cancer represents a third of all newly diagnosed cancers in men in the USA with an estimated incidence of 192,280 cases and 27,360 deaths in 2009. It continues to be a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and there is an urgent need for new treatments. Historically, systemic therapy options were limited after progression on docetaxel-based chemotherapy. This article reviews current data on the novel therapeutics demonstrating activity in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and their future role in the treatment of this disease with a poor prognosis.

  1. Nuclear proliferation-resistance and safeguards for future nuclear fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Y.; Inoue, N.; Senzaki, M.

    2009-03-01

    Corresponding to the world nuclear security concerns, future nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) should have high proliferation-resistance (PR) and physical protection (PP), while promotion of the peaceful use of the nuclear energy must not be inhibited. In order to accomplish nuclear non-proliferation from NFC, a few models of the well-PR systems should be developed so that international community can recognize them as worldwide norms. To find a good balance of 'safeguard-ability (so-called extrinsic measure or institutional barrier)' and 'impede-ability (intrinsic feature or technical barrier)' will come to be essential for NFC designers to optimize civilian nuclear technology with nuclear non-proliferation, although the advanced safeguards with high detectability can still play a dominant role for PR in the states complying with full institutional controls. Accomplishment of such goal in a good economic efficiency is a future key challenge.

  2. Structural Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Areas of Moderate Seismicity and Assessment of Strategies for Structural Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dominguez-Santos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Moderate magnitude seismic events have occurred during the last decade in non-seismic areas and have highlighted that many existing buildings do not sufficiently resist these types of events. The objective of this work is to illustrate that most buildings dating from 2002–2010 constructed from wide beams, which were designed to previous earthquake resistance codes, do not offer a satisfactory seismic behaviour, and to identify which structural attributes can best help alleviate this problem. In this work the effect of a real earthquake of medium magnitude (Lorca, 2011 on buildings of three, five and eight stories with unidirectional frames of wide-beam concrete was assessed. The methodology included non-linear static (pushover analyses and dynamic response simulations with the aim to understand the effect on the seismic performance of changing some of the geometrical and material parameters. Maximum displacements and capacity curves for the top floor of a set of representative buildings were evaluated and compared. In particular, capacity curves obtained from non-linear static (pushover analysis are compared for different building configurations, as well as the maximum displacements obtained through non-linear dynamic analysis. This paper highlights the seismic vulnerability of buildings constructed between 2002 and 2010 and the results indicate that a higher density of infill walls (walls whose bricks are not part of the main structure is the feature that most significantly improves the seismic behaviour of the structures analysed. Moreover, counterintuitively, incorporating stronger concrete and reinforcing steel and using alternative column arrangements only have a small positive effect on the seismic behaviour of these types of buildings.

  3. Building a Future-Oriented Science Education System in New Zealand: How Are We Doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jane; Bull, Ally

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for deep and radical change to New Zealand's approach to science education. It discusses the implications of recent science education research and policy work, and argues New Zealand still has a long way to go to developing a future-oriented science education system. It explores what needs to change and contains…

  4. The SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the third in the…

  5. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Which Pasts to Build On, What Futures to Contemplate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mala

    2010-01-01

    The paper is a reflection on the pasts and futures of quality assurance in higher education. It poses questions about the correlation between the geographical and political spread of quality assurance on the one hand and the resulting educational benefits on the other; about the divergences between critics and practitioners on the likely impacts…

  6. Building Your Own Scenario: Marketing and Distributive Education, Sex Equity, and Alternative Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Louise; And Others

    This training manual, one in a seris of eight, has been developed to help state and local supervisors and teacher educators in marketing and distributive education to conduct a workshop on sex equity, as it relates to their future programs, for vocational education teachers and administrators in the marketing and distributive education service…

  7. Pre-capacity building in loosely-coupled collaborations: Setting the stage for future initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Hyde

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the benefits and limitations of ‘loosely-coupled’ research collaborations between university faculty and 12 grassroots community-based organisations (CBOs. The authors assert that community-based research projects that develop the knowledge base within CBOs, and can be described as ‘pre-capacity building’ work, can be an important stepping stone to the subsequent development of more formal and strategic capacity-building partnership ventures. However, such projects must be approached carefully with a clear understanding of the ‘threshold dimensions’ that must be met before proceeding with any collaboration. Written as a cautionary tale, the authors identify some of the problems that arise when the threshold stage is poorly executed, and more generally speak to the dangers of initiating even loosely-coupled collaborations in the absence of an explicit and well-established campus commitment to and support for community engagement and partnerships. Keywords: Community capacity-building, community-university partnerships, community research, collaboration

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant HIV: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early years of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART era, HIV with resistance to two or more agents in different antiretroviral classes posed a significant clinical challenge. Multidrug-resistant (MDR HIV was an important cause of treatment failure, morbidity, and mortality. Treatment options at the time were limited; multiple drug regimens with or without enfuvirtide were used with some success but proved to be difficult to sustain for reasons of tolerability, toxicity, and cost. Starting in 2006, data began to emerge supporting the use of new drugs from the original antiretroviral classes (tipranavir, darunavir, and etravirine and drugs from new classes (raltegravir and maraviroc for the treatment of MDR HIV. Their availability has enabled patients with MDR HIV to achieve full and durable viral suppression with more compact and cost-effective regimens including at least two and often three fully active agents. The emergence of drug-resistant HIV is expected to continue to become less frequent in the future, driven by improvements in the convenience, tolerability, efficacy, and durability of first-line HAART regimens. To continue this trend, the optimal rollout of HAART in both rich and resource-limited settings will require careful planning and strategic use of antiretroviral drugs and monitoring technologies.

  9. The Value of Energy Performance and Green Attributes in Buildings: A Review of Existing Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Elizabeth

    2011-09-07

    Labels, certifications, and rating systems for energy efficiency performance and “green” attributes of buildings have been available in the U.S. for over 10 years, and used extensively in the European Union and Australia for longer. Such certifications and ratings can make energy efficiency more visible, and could help spur demand for energy efficiency if these designations are shown to have a positive impact on sales or rental prices. This policy brief discusses the findings and methodologies from recent studies on this topic, and suggests recommendations for future research. Although there have been just a handful of studies within the last 10 years that have investigated these effects, a few key findings emerge: To maximize sales price impact, label or rating information must be disclosed early and visibly in the sales process; The approach to evaluating energy efficiency labels (e.g., ENERGY STAR) and general “green” certifications (e.g., LEED or GreenPoint Rated) may need to be different, depending on the type, vintage and market penetration of the label; Collaborative efforts to promote label adoption and build a large dataset of labeled buildings will be required to produce reliable study results.

  10. Lurgi MegaMethanol technology. Delivering the building blocks for the future fuel and monomer demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzel, T. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes the central role of methanol within a changing environment with respect to feedstock availability as well as steadily growing demand in fuel and monomer demand. The current large-scale production facilities are described with respect to the technological challenges in order to ensure the availability of sufficient methanol for down-stream applications. Different down-stream applications are described which clearly confirm that methanol is the dominant C1-building block due to its chemical flexibility. It is concluded that by means of the implementation of two MTP (Methanol to Propylene) projects in China initiated the era of ''down-stream methanol'' has begun in the industry. (orig.)

  11. PRESENT-DAY AND FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyskiy Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made an overview of the status of production of cement concrete using nanotechnologies. The authors also provide their analysis of domestic and foreign researches into the application of nanotechnologies in the field of building materials. The authors have picked out positive examples of introduction of nano-scale particles into the concrete mix. The process needs continuous monitoring for the composition and the mixing time to be adjustable. The findings have been solely made by local developers of nano-materials and technologies. The authors propose their method of cement consumption reduction through the introduction of nanoparticles and simultaneous grinding of cement. The authors provide a new procedure of treatment of materials that contemplates enhanced mixing processes accompanied by simultaneous grinding of materials and their exposure to the electromagnetic treatment. The experiments completed by the team of authors have proven the efficiency of a combination of two nanotechnologies within one process, including the treatment of wet cement at the final grinding stage of processing to ensure specific cement properties for a specific surface area of 8,000 cm2/g, and the introduction of nano-scale particles into the process of manufacturing of cement compositions. The use of carbon nanotubes in the process of manufacturing of cement concrete can improve its physical and mechanical properties and reduce the cement consumption rate while maintaining the design strength of concrete.

  12. The latin american university of the future that your company is building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Dagnino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of a new project for the Brazilian university, this time it is expanding keeping a little sticky style to the ongoing democratization of the scenario and the constraints and opportunities posed by national and global contexts, is an urgent task of the community left segment university. Opposed to the productivism-scientism-inovacionismo syndrome, and favoring the extension of the channel that may ultimately decrease its dysfunctionality and insularity, revisit the anathema of quality versus relevance, and cause a change in your schedule for Research and Education, the argument proposed has the axis questioning the dogmatic conception of neutrality and Determinism of the still predominant technoscience that segment. Recognizing the need to compete for hegemony with those who advocate a policy of alliances with the business sector, increasingly "financerizado" denationalized, desindustrializado, mimetic and environmentally irresponsible, it is suggested an approach to the Solidarity Economy and its developments. The Sociotechnical Adequacy and the development of social technology would become a vector of university practice (re joining "inaccurate" and "inhuman" around a project aimed at building an inclusive society.

  13. Evaluation of Shear Resisting Capacity of a Prestressed Concrete Containment Building with Steel or Polyamide Fiber Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Youngsun; Park, Junhee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional reinforced concrete (RC) members generally show a rapid deterioration in shear resisting mechanisms under a reversed cyclic load. However, the use of high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composites provides excellent damage tolerance under large displacement reversals compared with regular concrete. Previous experimental studies have indicated that the use of fibers in conventional RC can enhance the structural and functional performance of prestressed concrete containment buildings (PCCBs) in nuclear power plants. This study evaluates the shear resisting capacity for a PCCB constructed using steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) or polyamide fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC). The effects of steel and polyamide fibers on the shear performance of a PCCB were investigated. It was revealed that steel fibers are more effective to enhance the shear resisting capacity of a PCCB than polyamide fibers. The ductility and energy dissipation increase significantly in fiber reinforced PCCBs.

  14. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  15. The connection: schooling, youth development, and community building-The Futures Academy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Henry Louis; McGlynn, Linda Greenough

    2009-01-01

    Universities, because of their vast human and fiscal resources, can play the central role in assisting in the development of school-centered community development programs that make youth development their top priority. The Futures Academy, a K-8 public school in the Fruit Belt, an inner-city neighborhood in Buffalo, New York, offers a useful model of community development in partnership with the Center for Urban Studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The goal of the project is to create opportunities for students to apply the knowledge and skills they learn in the classroom to the goal of working with others to make the neighborhood a better place to live. The efforts seek to realize in practice the Dewey dictum that individuals learn best when they have "a real motive behind and a real outcome ahead."

  16. Forward drive: the race to build the clean car of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motavalli, Jim

    2001-10-15

    This comprehensive account of the past, present and future of the automobile examines the key trends, key technologies and key players involved in the race to develop clean, environmentally friendly vehicles that are affordable and that do not compromise on safety or design. Undertaking a rigorous interrogation of our global dependency on oil, the author demonstrates just how unwise and unnecessary this is in light of current developments such as the fuel cell revolution and the increasing viability of hybrid cars, which use both petrol and electricity - innovations that could signal a new era of clean, sustainable energy. The arguments put forward draw on support from an eclectic range of sources - including industry insiders, scientists, economists and environmentalists - to make for an enlightening read. (Author)

  17. Symposium review: Building a better cow-The Australian experience and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Nguyen, T T T; Axford, M; Nieuwhof, G; Shaffer, M

    2018-02-14

    Genomic selection has led to opportunities for developing new breeding values that rely on phenotypes in dedicated reference populations of genotyped cows. In Australia, it has been applied to 2 novel traits: feed efficiency, which was released in 2015 as feed saved breeding values, and heat tolerance genomic breeding values, released for the first time in 2017. Feed saved is already included in the national breeding objective, which is focused on profitability and designed to be in line with farmer preferences. Our future focus is on traits associated with animal health, either directly or in combination with predictor traits, such as mid-infrared spectral data and, into the future, automated data capture. Although it is common for many evaluated traits to have genomic reliabilities ranging between 60 and 75%, many new, genomic information-only traits are likely to have reliabilities of less than 50%. Pooling of phenotype data internationally and investing in maintenance of reference populations is one option to increase the reliability of these traits; the other is to apply improved genomic prediction methods. For example, advances in the use of sequence data, in addition to gene expression studies, can lead to improved persistence of genomic breeding values across breeds and generations and potentially lead to greater reliabilities. Lower genomic reliabilities of novel traits could reduce the overall index reliability. However, provided these traits contribute to the overall breeding objective (e.g., profit), they are worth including. Bull selection tools and personalized genetic trends are already available, but increased access to economic and automatic capture farm data may see even better use of data to improve farm management and selection decisions. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http

  18. Future secondary school teachers: beginning their professionalization and building their teaching identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Asín

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary school teacher’s initial training is at a standstill after three educational reforms, beginning with the LOGSE (1990 and sixteen years of permanent changes.This confusing situation has continued for too long. At the present moment the urge for a change in higher education to achieve the Bologna Convergence (2010 provides an excellent opportunity to conclude an obsolete phase and open new ways to professionalize upcoming secondary school teachers, who should be the protagonists in the construction of a more flexible and educated society, which guarantees equity in human development.This research is based on the emerging paradigm, a synthesis of all previous efforts. The methodology used has been participative and holistic; we have thus used different instruments such as self filled-in questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, discussion groups, life stories, DAFO and MAREA questionnaires.We first aimed at unveiling teachers’ needs at the beginning of their professional careers and at defining the development of the key competences for good teaching practices, which are necessary to acquire and exercise quality teaching in the future.The contributions from students enrolled in the CAP (Certificado de Aptitud Pedagógica – Certificate of Pedagogical Aptitude and CPP (Curso de Cualificación Pedagógica – Course on Pedagogical Qualification as well as from students at Secondary Education, teachers, members of trade unions, associations of parents, and teachers in several initial teacher training courses are the main sources of information to then reflect on the teaching identity and its professional development.No doubt there are many aspects in which we are interested as regards future teachers, such as:- Teaching trainee- Professional- Curriculum manager- Classroom mediator- Collaborator at school, with the families and the context- A professional capable of regulating the balance of his/her professional competence- Novel

  19. Aliza Shvarts’s Art of Aborting: Queer Conceptions and Resistance to Reproductive Futurism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grahovac

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2008, the Yale Daily News published an article introducing Yale University fine arts student Aliza Shvarts's senior undergraduate art project. In the article, Shvarts announced that as part of her project she had been privately artificially inseminating herself every month during a nine-month period, and performing self-induced miscarriages by ingesting abortifacient drugs each month. The announcement ignited a national controversy, sparking university protests and 'pro-life' outcries across internet communities. Ultimately, the Yale School of Art banned the project from being exhibited. No feminist made an immediate defence of Shvarts's work. Through an in-depth exploration of Shvarts's art project, this essay aims to critically interrogate the politics of reproduction and the rhetoric of futurity in relation to a woman's social and symbolic positioning in a culture that places heterosexual reproduction and the institution of family at the heart of future. I argue that Shvarts's project was an attempt to explore how art could be a means to empty the realm of femininity of its symbolic 'function' within a patriarchal order. By means of her radical refusal of reproduction, manifested in a series of repeated abortions, she staged a resistance to the patriarchal symbolic positioning of a woman – the positioning within which a woman's life is intelligible insofar as it follows the pre-determined reproductive narrative of 'natural' womanhood (birth, marriage, motherhood and death – so that a multitude of new narratives and possibilities could be birthed. I argue that Shvarts is the author of the possibility for imagining the future that is not mapped in advance for a woman – the future in which she is not an 'object' of reproduction but an 'author'. Drawing on Jack J. Halberstam's concept of 'shadow feminism' and Lee Edelman's 'reproductive futurism', I will also suggest that Shvarts's performance provides an invaluable reflection

  20. The Two-Year Colleges' Role in Building the Future Geoscience Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B.

    2014-12-01

    Careers in energy science related fields represent significant job growth in the U.S. Yet post-secondary career and technical programs have not kept pace with demand and energy science curriculum, including fundamental concepts of energy generation and environmental impact, lacks a firm position among general or career and technical education courses. Many of these emerging energy related jobs are skilled labor and entry level technical positions requiring less than a bachelor's degree. These include jobs such as solar/photovoltaic design and installation, solar water and space heating installation, energy management, efficiency and conservation auditor, environmental technician, etc. These energy related career pathways fit naturally within the geosciences discipline. Many of these jobs can be filled by individuals from HVAC, Industrial technology, welding, and electrical degree programs needing some additional specialized training and curriculum focused on fundamental concepts of energy, fossil fuel exploration and use, atmospheric pollution, energy generation, alternative energy sources, and energy conservation. Two-year colleges (2ycs) are uniquely positioned to train and fill these workforce needs as they already have existing career and technical programs and attract both recent high school graduates, as well as non-traditional students including displaced workers and returning veterans. We have established geoscience related workforce certificate programs that individuals completing the traditional industrial career and technical degrees can obtain to meet these emerging workforce needs. This presentation will discuss the role of geosciences programs at 2ycs in training these new workers, developing curriculum, and building a career/technical program that is on the forefront of this evolving industry.

  1. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  2. Soil-Structure Interaction Effect on Fragility Curve of 3D Models of Concrete Moment-Resisting Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Anvarsamarin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the probabilistic generation of collapse fragility curves for evaluating the performance of 3D, reinforced concrete (RC moment-resisting building models, considering soil-structure interaction (SSI by concentration on seismic uncertainties. It considers collapse as the loss of lateral load-resisting capacity of the building structures due to severe ground shaking and consequent large interstory drifts intensified by P-Δ effects as well as the strength and stiffness deterioration of their lateral load carrying systems. The estimation of the collapse performance of structures requires the relation between the intensity measure (IM and the probability of collapse that is determined using the generated collapse fragility curves. Considering a number of 6-, 12-, and 18-story, 3D, RC moment-resisting buildings, two scalar IMs are employed to estimate their collapse fragility curve. On the other hand, the effect of the site soil type on the collapse fragility curves was taken into account by considering the soil-structure interaction. According to the obtained results, adopting the average of spectral acceleration (Saavg intensity measure is more efficient in capturing the effect of the inherent uncertainties of the strong ground motions on the structural response parameters. In addition, considering the SSI for soil type D with shear-wave velocity of 180 m/s to 360 m/s reduces the median of intensity measure (IM = Sa(T1 of fragility curve in 6-, 12-, and 18-story buildings by 4.92%, 22.26%, and 23.03%, respectively.

  3. A virtual observatory in a real world: building capacity for an uncertain future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Gordon; Buytaert, Wouter; Emmett, Bridget; Freer, Jim; Gurney, Robert; Haygarth, Phil; McDonald, Adrian; Rees, Gwyn; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2010-05-01

    Environmental managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to accommodate growing expectations of environmental well-being, while subject to maturing regulation, constrained budgets and a public scrutiny that expects easier and more meaningful access. To support such a challenge requires new tools and new approaches. The VO is a new initiative from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for these new tools and approaches. The VO is at an early stage and we first evaluate the role of existing ‘observatories' in the UK and elsewhere both to learn good practice (and just as valuable - errors) and to define boundaries. A series of exemplar ‘big catchment science questions' are posed - distinguishing between science and society positions - and the prospects for their solution are assessed. The VO vision of being driven by these questions is outlined as are the seven key ambitions namely: i. being driven by the need to contribute to the solution of major environmental issues that impinge on, or link to, catchment science ii. having the flexibility and adaptability to address future problems not yet defined or fully clarified iii. being able to communicate issues and solutions to a range of audiences iv. supporting easy access by a variety of users v. drawing meaningful information from data and models and identifying the constraints on application in terms of errors, uncertainties, etc vi. adding value and cost effectiveness to current investigations by supporting transfer and scale adjustment thus limiting the repetition of expensive field monitoring addressing essentially the same issues in varying locations vii. promoting effective interfacing of robust science with a variety of end users by using terminology or measures familiar to the user (or required by regulation), including financial and carbon accounting, whole life or fixed period costing, risk as probability or as disability adjusted life years

  4. Beyond Disaster Preparedness: Building a Resilience-Oriented Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Madrigano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing citizens’ and communities’ resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models. Reviewed articles spanned a variety of study types, including needs assessments of existing workforce, program evaluations, and reviews/commentaries. A resilience-oriented workforce spans many disciplines and training programs will need to reflect that. It requires a collaborative organizational model that promotes information sharing structures. Leadership models should foster a balance between workforce autonomy and operation as a collective entity. Optimal strategies to develop a resilience-oriented workforce have yet to be realized and future research will need to collect and synthesize data to promote and evaluate the growth of this field.

  5. Future Residential Water Heating Prospects in Brazil: A Scenario Building Ground Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Albuquerque Sgarbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, electricity is the prime energy carrier for bath shower heating purposes. However, since analyses indicate that expansion of the country´s electricity generation capacity shall spruce from an increased non-renewable sources’ stake in detriment to that of hydroelectricity, high electricity consumption rates that spring from home end uses of the kind have drawn the attention of those who are involved with local energy planning. Furthermore, massive use of electric showers in a short timeframe largely drive electricity demands to culminate in peak loads. For water heating purposes, this context has favoured an alternative to electricity, deemed feasible from both an efficiency and energy infrastructure standpoint: promote fuel gas consumption (liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in particular. A scenario methodology is herein employed to map electric shower use related variables and players and assess the future behaviour of the core elements that condition resorting to this technology. Thereafter, strategies and opportunities to promote the rational consumption of the country´s power sources ground on the increased use of fuel gases for residential water heating purposes are discussed.

  6. Helping to build and rebuild secure lives and futures: financial transfers from parents to adult children and grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Jenny; Campbell, Lori; Denton, Margaret; Joshi, Anju; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores intergenerational financial transfers from parents to adult children and grandchildren within a life course perspective. Research on intergenerational financial transfers has been sparse, and little is known about the financial support older Canadians provide to family members or about the meaning of that assistance. Survey data from a convenience sample of older Canadians was analysed to determine the types of financial assistance older persons provide, what motivates them to provide this assistance, and what meanings such transfers have for the older persons themselves. Findings suggest that it is often events and transitions in the lives of adult children that shape the financial assistance that is needed and given within these families. Older parents demonstrate a strong desire to help their children and grandchildren through important or difficult transitions to "build or rebuild secure lives and futures". Parents' assistance is also influenced by their own family history of assistance and their desire to pass on an early inheritance during their lifetime.

  7. Will seasonally dry tropical forests be sensitive or resistant to future changes in rainfall regimes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kara; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Gei, Maria G.; Hulshof, Catherine; Medvigy, David; Pizano, Camila; Salgado-Negret, Beatriz; Smith, Christina M.; Trierweiler, Annette; Van Bloem, Skip J.; Waring, Bonnie G.; Xu, Xiangtao; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2017-02-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are located in regions with alternating wet and dry seasons, with dry seasons that last several months or more. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict substantial changes in rainfall regimes across these regions, but little is known about how individuals, species, and communities in SDTF will cope with the hotter, drier conditions predicted by climate models. In this review, we explore different rainfall scenarios that may result in ecological drought in SDTF through the lens of two alternative hypotheses: 1) these forests will be sensitive to drought because they are already limited by water and close to climatic thresholds, or 2) they will be resistant/resilient to intra- and inter-annual changes in rainfall because they are adapted to predictable, seasonal drought. In our review of literature that spans microbial to ecosystem processes, a majority of the available studies suggests that increasing frequency and intensity of droughts in SDTF will likely alter species distributions and ecosystem processes. Though we conclude that SDTF will be sensitive to altered rainfall regimes, many gaps in the literature remain. Future research should focus on geographically comparative studies and well-replicated drought experiments that can provide empirical evidence to improve simulation models used to forecast SDTF responses to future climate change at coarser spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, Brenna [Hydro Research Foundation, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Linke, Deborah M. [Hydro Research Foundation, Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  9. Resistance to the destruction of concrete in constructions of height buildings at dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail; Berlinova, Marina; Tvorogov, Alexandr

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the criterion of strength of concrete in structures of high-rise buildings under vibration and shock impacts is presented. The idea of an energy approach to ensuring the strength of concrete and the durability of building structures from reinforced concrete under the influence of shock impacts on the life of such structures is presented in a high-rise construction. A method for determining the strength and durability of concrete in load-bearing building structures made of reinforced concrete for irreversible thermodynamic processes has been developed. Dependences that determine the behavior of concrete in reinforced concrete structures of high stores on the load-bearing structures of a building under the influence of damped oscillations from the operation of air transport on the landing site are determined, taking into account the impact arising from its landing.

  10. Resistance and support to electronic government, building a model of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In several countries forces that resist e-government innovations apparently override those that support them. A first step is taken in order to identify organizational processes of resistance and support to e-government innovations. A multi-disciplinary and non-linear innovation model is proposed

  11. A new discrete-element approach for the assessment of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calio, I.; Cannizzaro, F.; Marletta, M.; Panto, B.; D'Amore, E.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study a new discrete-element approach for the evaluation of the seismic resistance of composite reinforced concrete-masonry structures is presented. In the proposed model, unreinforced masonry panels are modelled by means of two-dimensional discrete-elements, conceived by the authors for modelling masonry structures, whereas the reinforced concrete elements are modelled by lumped plasticity elements interacting with the masonry panels through nonlinear interface elements. The proposed procedure was adopted for the assessment of the seismic response of a case study confined-masonry building which was conceived to be a typical representative of a wide class of residential buildings designed to the requirements of the 1909 issue of the Italian seismic code and widely adopted in the aftermath of the 1908 earthquake for the reconstruction of the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria

  12. Infill Walls Contribution on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of a Typical Mid-rise RC Framed Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoiu, Teodora; Popa, Anca

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of the autoclaved aerated concrete infill walls on the progressive collapse resistance of a typical RC framed structure. The 13-storey building located in Brăila (a zone with high seismic risk in Romania) was designed according to the former Romanian seismic code P13-70 (1970). Two models of the structure are generated in the Extreme Loading® for Structures computer software: a model with infill walls and a model without infill walls. Following GSA (2003) Guidelines, a nonlinear dynamic procedure is used to determine the progressive collapse risk of the building when a first-storey corner column is suddenly removed. It was found that, the structure is not expected to fail under the standard GSA loading: DL+0.25LL. Moreover, if the infill walls are introduced in the model, the maximum vertical displacement of the node above the removed column is reduced by about 48%.

  13. Biotic resistance to exotic invasions: its role in forest ecosystems, confounding artifacts, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Andrew M. Liebhold; Qinfeng Guo; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Insu Jo; Kimberly Ordonez; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the ability of communities to resist exotic invasions, has long attracted interest in the research and management communities. However, inconsistencies exist in various biotic resistance studies and less is known about the current status and knowledge gaps of biotic resistance in forest ecosystems. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the...

  14. The National Opportunity for Interoperability and its Benefits for a Reliable, Robust, and Future Grid Realized Through Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-01

    Today, increasing numbers of intermittent generation sources (e.g., wind and photovoltaic) and new mobile intermittent loads (e.g., electric vehicles) can significantly affect traditional utility business practices and operations. At the same time, a growing number of technologies and devices, from appliances to lighting systems, are being deployed at consumer premises that have more sophisticated controls and information that remain underused for anything beyond basic building equipment operations. The intersection of these two drivers is an untapped opportunity and underused resource that, if appropriately configured and realized in open standards, can provide significant energy efficiency and commensurate savings on utility bills, enhanced and lower cost reliability to utilities, and national economic benefits in the creation of new markets, sectors, and businesses being fueled by the seamless coordination of energy and information through device and technology interoperability. Or, as the Quadrennial Energy Review puts it, “A plethora of both consumer-level and grid-level devices are either in the market, under development, or at the conceptual stage. When tied together through the information technology that is increasingly being deployed on electric utilities’ distribution grids, they can be an important enabling part of the emerging grid of the future. However, what is missing is the ability for all of these devices to coordinate and communicate their operations with the grid, and among themselves, in a common language — an open standard.” In this paper, we define interoperability as the ability to exchange actionable information between two or more systems within a home or building, or across and within organizational boundaries. Interoperability relies on the shared meaning of the exchanged information, with agreed-upon expectations and consequences, for the response to the information exchange.

  15. Feminist self-defense and resistance training for college students: a critical review and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidycz, Christine A; Dardis, Christina M

    2014-10-01

    There remains resistance to feminist self-defense and resistance training programming for women, despite (a) documented effectiveness of rape resistance strategies in avoiding rape, (b) consistently high rates of sexual victimization on college campuses, and (c) limited evidence of lasting change in sexual assault perpetration reduction within existing men's prevention programs. The current article seeks to discuss (1) the rationale for feminist self-defense and resistance training for women, (2) key components of feminist self-defense and resistance training, (3) barriers to its implementation, (4) outcomes of self-defense and resistance training programming, and (5) recommendations for future work. Such suggestions include increasing funding for large-scale self-defense and rape resistance outcome research to examine program effectiveness. Specifically, outcome research that examines the role of contextual factors (e.g., alcohol use) and women's victimization histories is needed. Finally, self-defense training and resistance training should be combined with bystander intervention and men's programs with the goal of providing synergistic effects on rape reduction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Experimental study on earthquake resistant components for BWR type reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Hayama, S.; Makita, T.; Tomii, Y.; Kubo, T.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic loading experiments were carried out for three types of seismic shear wall components. A set of fundamental data were obtained through the experimental studies. A maximium use of these data can be made in next stages to evaluate stiffnesses, strength, and so on of the complicated structural systems of a reactor building as well as its load-deflection characteristics. (orig./HP)

  17. Building a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, JoAnne

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear technology offers unique tools in the quest for sustainable development. Such technology is often the best to gather information and provide solutions that would not otherwise be possible or practical: to diagnose and treat disease, to breed better crops and fight insect pests; to assess new sources of fresh water; and to monitor pollution. While many may only think of energy, nuclear technology has a much larger role to play in human development. Where it can make a difference, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides support to 134 Member States for using this technology to solve the important challenges they face. Isotopes, stable and radioactive forms of chemical elements, can be used to 'label' materials under study. Since both stable and radioactive isotopes can be identified and measured using appropriate equipment, labelling is often used in diagnostic medical tests, in studies of underground sources of water, and to trace pollutants, such as heavy metals and pesticides. Stable, non-radioactive, isotopes are used in nutritional studies to trace the metabolism of vitamins and trace minerals in supplements. Other nuclear techniques use radiation which can be focussed into beams and depending on the intensity, can be used to kill cancer cells, to sterilize tissue grafts for burn victims, to sterilize food against insects or disease causing pathogens, to make insects sterile so they cannot reproduce, to induce desirable genetic changes in crops, or to scan body organs for abnormalities

  18. Building a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clyde S.; Hessler, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This poster presentation shows some of the personnel at work in the Materials and Processes Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. They are shown studying materials of all kinds and the processes for manufacturing. The purpose of the poster is to inspire young people to become tomorrow's engineers, scientists, technicians or support specialist at NASA.

  19. The Historical Case for and the Future Study of Antibiotic-Resistant Scrub Typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute, and sometimes fatal, human febrile illness, typically successfully treated using chloramphenicol or one of the tetracyclines. Over the past several years, descriptions of strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi with reduced susceptibility to antibiotics have appeared. Because case-fatality ratios approached 50% during the pre-antibiotic era, antibiotic-resistant scrub typhus is concerning. Herein, we review the data on resistant scrub typhus, describe how the theoretical existence of such resistance is affected by interpretation of treatment outcomes, and propose a plan to further identify whether true drug resistance is present and how to deal with drug resistance if it has evolved. Limited resistance is not unambiguous, if present, and antibiotic resistance in scrub typhus is not a dichotomous trait. Rather, evidence of resistance shows a continuous gradation of increasing resistance. The availability of genomes from isolates of O. tsutsugamushi allows the search for loci that might contribute to antibiotic resistance. At least eighteen such loci occur in all genomes of O. tsutsugamushi examined. One gene (gyrA occurs as a quinolone-resistant form in the genome of all isolates of O. tsutsugamushi. At least 13 other genes that are present in some members of the genus Rickettsia do not occur within O. tsutsugamushi. Even though reports of scrub typhus not responding appropriately to chloramphenicol or a tetracycline treatment have been in the literature for approximately 23 years, the existence and importance of antibiotic-resistant scrub typhus remains uncertain.

  20. Building bridges to operationalise one health – A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Cars

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a complex global health challenge. The recent Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance highlights the importance of adopting One Health approaches that can cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. We report on the early experiences of a multisectoral Sino-Swedish research project that aims to address gaps in our current knowledge and seeks to improve the situation through system-wide interventions. Our research project is investigating antibiotic use and resistance in a rural area of China through a combination of epidemiological, health systems and laboratory investigations. We reflect here on the challenges inherent in conducting long distance cross-disciplinary collaborations, having now completed data and sample collection for a baseline situation analysis. In particular, we recognise the importance of investing in aspects such as effective communication, shared conceptual frameworks and leadership. We suggest that our experiences will be instructive to others planning to develop similar international One Health collaborations.

  1. The effect of moment redistribution on the stability of reinforced concrete moment resisting frame buildings under the ground motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Golpayegani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years some studies have been done on the moment rredistribution in buildings and new methods offered for calculating of redistribution. Observations demonstrated that the combination of moment and shear force is important in analysis of reinforced concrete structures. But little research is done about the effect of redistribution by using moding in software. In order to study the effect of moment redistribution on the stability of RC moment resisting frame structures, four buildings with 4, 7, 10 and 13 story have been considered. In these models, the nonlinear behavior of elements (beam and column is considered by the use of interaction PMM hinges. The average plastic rotation was calculated by performing pushover analysis and storing stiffness matrix for 5 points and then the buckling coefficients were obtained by conducting buckling analysis. By the use of modal analysis natural frequency was calculated and it was attempted to be related the average plastic rotation with the buckling coefficients and the natural frequency.   It could be concluded that increase in the plastic rotation reduce the buckling coefficients to about 96% which this amount of reduction is related to the average plastic rotation. Moreover, the buildings experience instability state when the average plastic rotation reached to 0.006 radian.

  2. Assessment of gamma radiation exposure inside a newly constructed building and a proposed regulatory guideline for exposure control from natural radioactivity in future buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Sadasivan, S.; Sundaram, V.K.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation exposure of the population. The various materials used for constructing a new building were assessed for 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U radioactivity and the external gamma dose rate inside the building was predicted by using the computer code QAD-CGGP. The external dose rate was also measured by a scintillation gamma monitor after the construction of the building. In the building studied, the floor and the ceilings are seen to contribute about 35% each of the total radiation dose inside the building from the natural radioactivity present in the construction materials and the underlying soil; the walls contributed about 15%. A sensitivity analysis assuming extreme conditions of radioactivity concentrations as are normally observed in the Indian context, indicates the possibility of indoor gamma radiation fields varying by two orders of magnitude. The possible control methodologies and recommendations are also discussed for keeping the population exposure as low as reasonable achievable. It is evaluated that radioactivity limits of 370 Bq.kg -1 of radium equivalent and 85 Bq.kg -1 of 226 Ra when applied concurrently, might limit the indoor exposure to reasonably accepted low levels of health risks. (author)

  3. FUTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores the potenti......Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  4. C8-Linked Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Monomers with Inverted Building Blocks Show Selective Activity against Multidrug Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriollo, Paolo; Hind, Charlotte K; Picconi, Pietro; Nahar, Kazi S; Jamshidi, Shirin; Varsha, Amrit; Clifford, Melanie; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz

    2018-02-09

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global concern. Development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is an urgent priority. Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a promising class of antibacterial agents initially discovered and isolated from natural sources. Recently, C8-linked PBD biaryl conjugates have been shown to be active against some MDR Gram-positive strains. To explore the role of building block orientations on antibacterial activity and obtain structure activity relationship (SAR) information, four novel structures were synthesized in which the building blocks of previously reported compounds were inverted, and their antibacterial activity was studied. The compounds showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 0.125-32 μg/mL against MDR Gram-positive strains with a bactericidal mode of action. The results showed that a single inversion of amide bonds reduces the activity while the double inversion restores the activity against MDR pathogens. All inverted compounds did not stabilize DNA and lacked eukaryotic toxicity. The compounds inhibit DNA gyrase in vitro, and the most potent compound was equally active against both wild-type and mutant DNA gyrase in a biochemical assay. The observed activity of the compounds against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains with equivalent gyrase mutations is consistent with gyrase inhibition being the mechanism of action in vivo, although this has not been definitively confirmed in whole cells. This conclusion is supported by a molecular modeling study showing interaction of the compounds with wild-type and mutant gyrases. This study provides important SAR information about this new class of antibacterial agents.

  5. Expediency of application of explosion-relief constructions to ensure explosion resistance of production buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of economic evaluation and selection of explosion-relief constructions (ERC, as well as determination of explosion protection efficiency of buildings and structures provided on a stage of construction. It has been shown that definition of economic efficiency of ERС is the evaluation of its application for buildings with remote or automatically controlled production. It has been determined that an important role in design of explosive industrial facilities is played by selection of the economically feasible and effective materials for ERC. When selecting materials it is necessary to consider probability and yield of explosions. Necessity to create the methods allow considering such probability has been revealed.

  6. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Research Priorities, Accomplishments, and Future Directions of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; Hooper, David C; Kaye, Keith S; Johnson, James R; Clancy, Cornelius J; Thaden, Joshua T; Stryjewski, Martin E; van Duin, David

    2017-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is one of the most pressing challenges in the field of infectious diseases and is one of 4 key areas of unmet medical need identified by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The mission of the Gram-Negative Committee is to advance our knowledge of these challenging infections and implement studies to improve patient outcomes. Studies have fallen primarily into 2 broad categories: prospective cohort studies and interventional trials. Among the observational studies, CRACKLE (Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Enterobacteriaceae) has contributed seminal multicenter data describing risk factors and clinical outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in sentinel US hospitals. Building on this success, CRACKLE II will expand the network to hospitals across the United States and Colombia. Similar protocols have been proposed to include Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (SNAP and POP studies). In addition, the CREST study (Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Solid Organ Transplant Patients) has provided pivotal data on extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and CRE carriage among solid organ transplant recipients to inform management of this vulnerable patient population. Two clinical trials to define novel ways of using an existing antibiotic, fosfomycin, to treat ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (one that has completed enrollment and the other in late protocol development) will determine the clinical efficacy of fosfomycin as step-down oral therapy to treat complicated urinary tract infections. Additional clinical studies and trials using immunotherapeutic or newly approved agents are also in the planning stage, with the main goals of generating actionable data that will inform clinical decision making and facilitate development of new treatment options for highly resistant gram

  7. The rise and future of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits. Unfortunately, companies have not discovered a new commercial herbicide mode-of-action for over 30 years and have already developed or are developing traits for all existing herbicide types with high utility. Glyphosate mixtures and glyphosate trait combinations will be the mainstays of weed management for many growers, but are not going to be enough to keep up with the capacity of weeds to evolve resistance. Glufosinate, auxin, HPPD-inhibiting and other herbicide traits, even when combined with glyphosate resistance, are incremental and temporary solutions. Herbicide and seed businesses are not going to be able to support what critics call the chemical and transgenic treadmills for much longer. The long time without the discovery of a new herbicide mode-of-action and the epidemic of resistant weeds is forcing many growers to spend much more to manage weeds and creating a worst of times, best of times predicament for the crop protection and seed industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlinov Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  9. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  10. Intern doctors’ views on the current and future antibiotic resistance situation of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rozina Hoque,1 Asma Mostafa,2 Mainul Haque3 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Anatomy, Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu, Malaysia Background: Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results: Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion: The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate

  11. Application of phase-changing materials in future buildings. Improvement of energy efficiency and indoor climate; Anvendelse af faseskiftende materialer i fremtidens bygninger. Forbedring af energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, J. (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Lund Jensen, R.; Heiselberg, P. (Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)); Hansen, M.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Dous, C. le (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Uhre Christensen, N. (Ingenioerhoejskolen i AArhus (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was to establish the basis for using phase changing materials (PCM) to improve the temperature conditions during summer in future new buildings. With the implementation of the planned new building codes requiring very low energy consumption (passive houses), it will be necessary for buildings to be comfortable during summer without using extra power for ventilation and mechanical cooling. The project has developed a numerical method to calculate latent heat storage in constructions containing phase changing materials. The calculation method has been implemented in the BSim program. A functionality to include the effect PCMs has also been added to the Be10 calculation program. The project has shown that good energy savings can be achieved for cooling and heating, but the price of the materials means long pay-back periods. (LN)

  12. Building Communities in Resistance, Metelkova City in the Hands of Axt und Kelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi Abram

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with nomadic journeymen and journeywomen from the German guild Axt und Kelle and with their encounter with Metelkova. At the outset, the historical trajectory of German guilds, the constitution of Axt und Kelle and the custom of tramping artisans (i.e., walz are highlighted. The hypothesis that Axt und Kelle make use of re-appropriated spaces (i.e., squats either as a sporadic proactive clientele or they choose such spaces as their annual summer solidarity work camps is defended on a twofold basis: firstly, squats are considered and constructed as a substitute of the previously guaranteed houses of call (i.e., herberge by the classical guilds. Secondly, the guild intentionally constituted itself as a political subject with the mission of empowering communities in resistance. ACC Metelkova City was chosen as a solidarity work camp twice in the early and mid-00s when many emblematic interiors and exteriors were created. Focusing on the non-instrumentalized (own production of knowledge, exchange of experiences and outwardly oriented distribution, the article views the reciprocal interaction between ACC Metelkova City and Axt und Kelle through Mauss’s theory of the gift.

  13. Magnetic Skyrmion as a Nonlinear Resistive Element: A Potential Building Block for Reservoir Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prychynenko, Diana; Sitte, Matthias; Litzius, Kai; Krüger, Benjamin; Bourianoff, George; Kläui, Mathias; Sinova, Jairo; Everschor-Sitte, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the human brain, there is a strong effort to find alternative models of information processing capable of imitating the high energy efficiency of neuromorphic information processing. One possible realization of cognitive computing involves reservoir computing networks. These networks are built out of nonlinear resistive elements which are recursively connected. We propose that a Skyrmion network embedded in magnetic films may provide a suitable physical implementation for reservoir computing applications. The significant key ingredient of such a network is a two-terminal device with nonlinear voltage characteristics originating from magnetoresistive effects, such as the anisotropic magnetoresistance or the recently discovered noncollinear magnetoresistance. The most basic element for a reservoir computing network built from "Skyrmion fabrics" is a single Skyrmion embedded in a ferromagnetic ribbon. In order to pave the way towards reservoir computing systems based on Skyrmion fabrics, we simulate and analyze (i) the current flow through a single magnetic Skyrmion due to the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect and (ii) the combined physics of local pinning and the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect.

  14. What should be considered if you decide to build your mathematical model for predicting the development of bacterial resistance? Recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eArepeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired bacterial resistance is one of the causes of mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases. Mathematical modeling allows us to predict the spread of resistance and to some extent to control its dynamics. The purpose of this review was to examine existing mathematical models in order to understand pros and cons of currently used approaches and to build our own model. During the analysis, seven articles about the mathematical approaches to studying resistance that satisfied the inclusion / exclusion criteria were selected. All models were classified according to the approach used to study resistance in the presence of antibiotic and were analyzed in terms of our research. Some models require modifications associated with the specific of the research. Further work plan of model building is as follows: modify some models, according to our research, check all obtained models on our data, and select the optimal model or several models with the best quality of prediction. After that we would be able to build a model for the development of resistance using the obtained results.

  15. Resistance in the Classroom--From Dysfunctional to Functional: A Future Necessary Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Susanne; Richardson, Nicola Taryn

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on resistance in primary schools, more specific grade five learners as perceived by teachers. A qualitative phenomenological interpretative approach was followed utilising focus group discussions and individual interviews. Participants included 14 teachers, purposefully selected from three private and three public schools in…

  16. The future of antibiotics and resistance: a tribute to a career of leadership by John Bartlett.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad; Gilbert, David N

    2014-09-15

    The ways we have developed, used, and protected antibiotics have led, predictably, to our current crisis of rising antibiotic resistance and declining new treatments. If we want to stave off a postantibiotic era, we need to fundamentally change our approach. We need to challenge long-standing assumptions and cherished beliefs. We need to push through the reflexive resistance and excuses (eg, "that's not how we do things" and "that can't be done") that result from challenging established ways. Excuses abound. Action is needed. Ultimately, we need a coordinated national action plan to combat resistance. Herein we discuss 7 tasks and 3 common themes that cut across those tasks, which are necessary to achieve long-term success in dealing with antibiotics and resistance. These principles derive from many years of dialogue with Dr John Bartlett. The field of infectious diseases, and indeed medicine in general, has benefited immeasurably from his remarkable leadership. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  18. [Back to the Future. Vaccine trials against Ebola in the history of resistance to immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, A M

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Resistances have been linked to the political contexts and the rejection of an oppressive power, either local or foreign, as well as mistakes and scientific uncertainties. The analysis of the historical factors of resistance leads to reverse the question: what convinces people to accept a vaccine trial, despite the obscurities of the immunization processes inside the body? The article hypothesizes that Guineans and West Africans face a dilemma similar to their counterparts in the past, whether or not to rally to an experimental immunization, the results of which are still pending. They may appropriate the Western beliefs about the efficacy of vaccines to their own ways of circumventing misfortune. Further field studies will be required to assess the role of the vaccinal trials and the response to the epidemic in the "convalescence" of these societies, being aware that the trials will not allow a complete assessment of the vaccines, because of the end of the epidemic.

  19. Air Source Heat Pump a Key Role in the Development of Smart Buildings in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile S.; Trifa, Viorel; Bojesen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    , and water heating. ASHP does not have a constant temperature for the primary source like: soil, ground water, or surface water heat pumps but still have a majority in usage. As result, laboratory experiments and tests are faced by the problem of having to handle a wide range of conditions under which...... of energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water production which are provided to residential and commercial buildings. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are widely used conversion technologies all over the world for providing building thermal energy services as: cooling, heating...

  20. Emerging concepts on drug resistance in bladder cancer: Implications for future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Santoni, Matteo; Ciccarese, Chiara; Brunelli, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Santini, Daniele; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cascinu, Stefano; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-10-01

    The combination chemotherapies with methotrexate plus vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin (MVAC or CMV regimens) or gemcitabine plus cisplatin represent the standard as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. In Europe, vinflunine is an option for second-line therapy for patients progressed during first-line or perioperative platinum-containing regimen. Alternative regimens containing taxanes and/or gemcitabine may be valuated case by case. Furthermore, carboplatin should be considered in patients unfit for cisplatin both in the first and second-line setting. Based on these findings, a better comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the development of drug resistance in patients with bladder cancer will represent a major step forward in optimizing patients' outcome. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms and emerging strategies to overcome resistance in patients with advanced urothelial cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary seismic hazard assessment, shallow seismic refraction and resistivity sounding studies for future urban planning at the Gebel Umm Baraqa area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2008-12-01

    Gebel Umm Baraqa Fan, west Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, is one of the most important tourism areas in Egypt. However, it is located on the active Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba Levant transform fault system. Geophysical studies, including fresh water aquifer delineation, shallow seismic refraction, soil characterization and preliminary seismic hazard assessment, were conducted to help in future city planning. A total of 11 vertical electrical soundings (1000-3000 m maximum AB/2) and three bore-holes were drilled in the site for the analysis of ground water, total dissolved solids (TDS) and fresh water aquifer properties. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the resistivity data delineated the fresh water aquifer and determined its hydro-geologic parameters. Eleven shallow seismic refraction profiles (125 m in length) have been collected and interpreted using the generalized reciprocal method, and the resulting depth-velocity models were verified using an advanced finite difference (FD) technique. Shallow seismic refraction effectively delineates two subsurface layers (VP ~ 450 m s-1 and VP ~ 1000 m s-1). A preliminary seismic hazard assessment in Umm Baraqa has produced an estimate of the probabilistic peak ground acceleration hazard in the study area. A recent and historical earthquake catalog for the time period 2200 BC to 2006 has been compiled for the area. New accurate seismic source zoning is considered because such details affect the degree of hazard in the city. The estimated amount of PGA reveals values ranging from 250 to 260 cm s-2 in the bedrock of the Umm Baraqa area during a 100 year interval (a suitable time window for buildings). Recommendations as to suitable types of buildings, considering the amount of shaking and the aquifer properties given in this study, are expected to be helpful for the Umm Baraqa area.

  2. The Major Crimes Task Force-Afghanistan: A Case Study and Examination of Implications for Future FBI Capacity Building Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    ORGANIZATION NA:i\\ IIE (S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORiVIING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING...21 a. Alternative Justice Solutions ..................................................21 b...Start Small and Build on Successes .......................................64 vii c. Three-Part Solution

  3. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  4. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    of the building portfolio remains unchanged. Based on these results, the assumptions and inputs to the assessment are critically reviewed. Thereby, the needs of further research efforts toward more credible and comprehensive assessment are addressed.......This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model...... developed within the KAKUSHIN program; (2) the probabilistic typhoon modeling scheme developed by our group; (3) a fragility model empirically estimated on the basis of the damage report of typhoon Songda in 2004 and the reproduced wind field by a mesoscale meteorological model; JMA-NHM. The main results...

  5. Increased renal resistive index in type 2 diabetes: Clinical relevance, mechanisms and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin

    Type 2 diabetes is a global health challenge. In type 2 diabetes both microvascular (nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy) and macrovascular complications arise. In kidney, renal pathological changes leading to diabetic nephropathy are mainly secondary to atherosclerosis of the intra and extra renal arteries together with microangiopathy of the glomerular capillaries, afferent arterioles and efferent arterioles. Renal resistive index (RRI) is defined as a ratio of the difference between maximum and minimum (end-diastolic) flow velocity to maximum flow velocity derived from the Doppler measurements of main renal and intrarenal (segmental/interlobar) arteries. Renal resistive index is tightly related to renal arteriolosclerosis, and represents an integrated index of arterial compliance, pulsatility and downstream microvascular impedance. In meantime, growing suggest that RRI has also been closely related with atherosclerosis. Most studies performed in type 2 diabetes showed RRI is increased in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we summarize the data regarding RRI with regard to performed studies, pathogenesis and prognosis, especially focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2D). We also review the data regarding the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and RRI. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of the concept of Capacity-building, results achieved during the past years and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaiteur, M.; Camacho, S.

    Capacity-building is one of the key elements for the implementation of space applications programmes, particularly in developing countries. As early as 1982, the work programme of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications was expanded in order to promote education and training by organizing seminars, training courses and workshops in various areas, such as astronomy, telecommunications and Earth observation. In the framework of this Programme, the Office for Outer Space Affairs undertook the initiative, at the beginning of the 1990's, aimed at establishing regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations and located in developing countries. These centres have started their activities between 1995 and 2000 in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The centres are based on the concept that by pooling material and human resources, developing countries can have education and training centres, of an international-level quality. A considerable impetus has been given to capacity-building after the UNISPACE III Conference, in particular in the "Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development". The necessity to enhance capacity-building through the development of human and budgetary resources, the training of teachers, the exchange of teaching methods, materials and experience and the development of infrastructure and policy regulatories. In the process of the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, Action Teams led by Governments were established. One of them was exclusively dealing with capacity-building. Its proposals have been reviewed last June by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and will be examined, among other reports of Action Teams, by the General Assembly in next October. A lot of work has been done during the past years and have produced very important results. But there is still an important gap in capacity-building between space

  7. Plotting Inequalities, Building Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Adam; Brew, Bridget; Proctor, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Media depictions of San Francisco show idyllic images of fog pouring under the Golden Gate Bridge or happy tourists riding cable cars, but rarely the mostly nonwhite neighborhoods of the east side. San Francisco public schools have a bad track record of mimicking this masquerade, with very low numbers of African American and Latina/o students…

  8. Renal Denervation for Treating Resistant Hypertension: Current Evidence and Future Insights from a Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Castro Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate blood pressure control represents an important goal for all physicians due to the complications of hypertension which reduce patients' quality of life. A new interventional strategy to reduce blood pressure has been developed for patients with resistant hypertension. Catheter-based renal denervation has demonstrated excellent results in recent investigations associated with few side effects. With the growing diffusion of this technique worldwide, some medical societies have published consensus statements to guide physicians how to best apply this procedure. Questions remain to be answered such as the long-term durability of renal denervation, the efficacy in patients with other sympathetically mediated diseases, and whether renal denervation would benefit patients with stage 1 hypertension.

  9. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  10. A randomized trial of a peer resistance skill building game for Hispanic early adolescent girls: Impact and feasibility of DRAMA-RAMA™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Hughes, Charles; Hecht, Michael; Peragallo, Nilda; Nickerson, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research suggests that adolescents can use peer resistance skills to avoid being pressured into risky behavior, such as early sexual behavior. Avatar-based Virtual Reality (AVR) technology offers a novel way to build these skills. OBJECTIVES Study aims were to: evaluate the feasibility of an AVR peer resistance skill building game (DRAMA-RAMA™); explore the impact of game play on peer resistance self-efficacy; and assess how positively the game was perceived. METHOD 45 low income early adolescent Hispanic girls were randomly assigned to either the intervention (DRAMA-RAMA™) or comparison game (Wii Dancing with the Stars™ [Wii DWTS™]) condition. All participants were offered a 5 session curriculum that included peer resistance skill content before playing their respective game for 15 minutes, once a week, for two weeks. Participants completed electronic surveys assessing demographics, peer resistance self-efficacy, and sexual behavior at baseline, after game play, and at 2 months. They also completed a paper-pencil game experience questionnaire immediately after playing their game. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square, and analyses of covariance. RESULTS The separate analyses of covariance showed a significant game effect at post-test for the peer resistance self-efficacy measure (F = 4.21, p DRAMA-RAMA™ was rated as positively as the Wii DWTS™ (p ≥ .26). DISCUSSION This randomized control trial provides initial support for the hypothesis that playing an AVR technology game can strengthen peer resistance skills, and early adolescent Hispanic girls will have a positive response to this game. PMID:23150043

  11. Forest Science and forest policy in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East: Building Bridges to a sustainable future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Guldin; Niels Elers Koch; John A. Parrotta; Christian Gamborg; Bo J. Thorsen

    2004-01-01

    Making forest policies that help bridge from the current situation to a sustainable future requires sound scientific information. Too often, scientific information is available, yet policy makers do not use it. At a workshop in Denmark, attendees reviewed case studies where forest science influenced forest policies and identified six major reasons for success. Three...

  12. Engaging communities and climate change futures with Multi-Scale, Iterative Scenario Building (MISB) in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Murphy; Carina Wyborn; Laurie Yung; Daniel R. Williams; Cory Cleveland; Lisa Eby; Solomon Dobrowski; Erin Towler

    2016-01-01

    Current projections of future climate change foretell potentially transformative ecological changes that threaten communities globally. Using two case studies from the United States Intermountain West, this article highlights the ways in which a better articulation between theory and methods in research design can generate proactive applied tools that enable...

  13. Important Tenders and Contracts to be Placed in the Near Future - Concrete and Masonry Construction Work for the Control Station and Part of the Annex Laboratory Wing and the Corridor which Connects them to the Main SC Building

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    1955-01-01

    Important Tenders and Contracts to be Placed in the Near Future - Concrete and Masonry Construction Work for the Control Station and Part of the Annex Laboratory Wing and the Corridor which Connects them to the Main SC Building

  14. Past, Present, and Future of Antibacterial Economics: Increasing Bacterial Resistance, Limited Antibiotic Pipeline, and Societal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luepke, Katherine H; Suda, Katie J; Boucher, Helen; Russo, Rene L; Bonney, Michael W; Hunt, Timothy D; Mohr, John F

    2017-01-01

    Growing antimicrobial resistance and a dwindling antibiotic pipeline have resulted in an emerging postantibiotic era, as patients are now dying from bacterial infections that were once treatable. The fast-paced "Golden Age" of antibiotic development that started in the 1940s has lost momentum; from the 1980s to the early 2000s, there was a 90% decline in the approval of new antibiotics as well as the discovery of few new novel classes. Many companies have shifted away from development due to scientific, regulatory, and economic hurdles that proved antibiotic development to be less attractive compared with more lucrative therapeutic areas. National and global efforts are focusing attention toward potential solutions for reinvigorating the antibiotic pipeline and include "push" incentives such as public-private partnerships and "pull" incentives such as reimbursement reform and market exclusivity. Hybrid models of incentives, global coordination among stakeholders, and the appropriate balance of antibiotic pricing, volume of drug used, and proper antimicrobial stewardship are key to maximizing efforts toward drug development to ensure access to patients in need of these therapies. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Securing a Future: Cree Hunters' Resistance and Flexibility to Environmental Changes, Wemindji, James Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S. Sayles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the adaptive responses of northern aboriginal peoples include examples of purposive modification and management of ecologically favorable areas to increase resource productivity. Practices include clearing of trees, burning of berry patches and construction of fish weirs. This paper examines the adaptive capacity of the northern aboriginal community of Wemindji, east coast James Bay, in relation to long term landscape changes induced by coastal uplift processes. Associated changes are noticeable within a human lifetime and include the infilling of bays, the merger of islands with the mainland, as well as shifts in vegetative and wildlife communities. In response, generations of Cree hunters have actively modified the landscape using a variety of practices that include the construction of mud dykes and the cutting of tuuhiikaan, which are corridors in the coastal forest, to retain and enhance desirable conditions for goose hunting. We provide an account of the history, construction, and design of these features as well as the motivations and social learning that inform them. We reveal a complex and underappreciated dynamic between human resistance and adaptation to environmental change. While landscape modifications are motivated by a desire to increase resource productivity and predictability, they also reflect an intergenerational commitment to the maintenance of established hunting places as important connections with the past. Our findings support a revised perspective on aboriginal human agency in northern landscape modification and an enhanced role for aboriginal communities in adaptive planning for environmental change.

  16. Intrathecal IgG Synthesis: A Resistant and Valuable Target for Future Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Bonnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal IgG synthesis is a key biological feature of multiple sclerosis (MS. When acquired early, it persists over time. A growing body of evidence suggests that intrathecal Ig-secreting cells may be pathogenic either by a direct action of toxic IgG or by locally secreting bystander toxic products. Intrathecal IgG synthesis depends on the presence of CNS lymphoid organs, which are strongly linked at anatomical level to cortical subpial lesions and at clinical level to the impairment slope in progressive MS. As a consequence, targeting CNS lymphoid lesions could be a valuable new target in MS, especially during the progressive phase. As intrathecal IgGs are end-products of these lymphoid lesions, intrathecal IgG synthesis may be considered as a specific marker of the persistence of these inflammatory lesions. Here we review the effect upon intrathecal IgG synthesis of all drugs ever used in MS. Except for steroids, all these therapeutic strategies, including rituximab, failed to decrease intrathecal IgG synthesis, with the exception of a questionable incomplete action of natalizumab. Thus, IgG synthesis is a robust marker of persistent intrathecal inflammation and its complete normalization should be one of the goals in future therapeutic strategies.

  17. The significance of curing in the future corrosion resistance of concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, W.

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel in contact with fresh concrete is covered by a layer of passivating oxydes due to the alkaline nature of the pore solution. The presence of oxygen plays an important role in this passivation process as well as in the corrosión one when is developped due to the ingress of aggressives, such as, chloride ions. In the present paper, results are commented on the behaviour found when oxygen is limited due to the concrete curing conditions, in a completely saturated chamber. Surprisely, the results indicate that the oxygen availability during the curing has a marked influence on the future corrosion beabieviour This allows to deduce that the mechanisms involved are not so simple as was currently accepted and that new specific tests are needed to clarify the controversial points.

    Cuando el acero se pone en contacto con el hormigón fresco, debido a la naturaleza alcalina de éste, el acero se recubre de una capa de óxidos pasivantes, que lo mantienen constantemente protegido. En este proceso juega un papel preponderante la presencia del oxígeno, que resulta también esencial para el desarrollo de los procesos de corrosión, cuando hay agresivos presentes (por ejemplo los cloruros. En el presente trabajo se comentan resultados de los cambios que se aprecian, tanto en el proceso de pasivación como de corrosión, cuando el acceso de oxígeno se limita, circunstancia que se produce cuando el hormigón se cura en condiciones de saturación de agua. Los resultados muestran que la disponibilidad de oxígeno durante el curado tiene una marcada influencia en la resistencia futura a la corrosión lo, que indica que los mecanismos no son tan evidentes como se pensaba y se necesitarán ensayos futuros específicos para aclarar todos los aspectos que ahora aparecen como contradictorios

  18. Review of existing instrumentation and evaluation of possibilities for research and development of instrumentation to determine future levels of radon at a proposed building site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The rate at which radon enters houses from the soil depends on the pressure differential between the house and the soil, the resistance of the soil to gas movement, and the radon release rate of the soil near the house. The pressure differential between house and soil is caused by wind forces and temperature differences, which depend on the size of the building and the season, and are therefore almost independent of the site location. The soil resistance (permeability) and radon release rate are site specific, and a computer study of radon movement through the soil suggested that these parameters could be combined to give a Radon Index Number (RIN) for a site that would be proportional to the radon entry rate into a typical house. Regional RIN estimates would be produced using existing airborne gamma survey maps to estimate average soil radon release rate, plus agricultural soil classification maps to estimate permeability. Area RIN estimates would be produced using portable gamma spectroscopy equipment to estimate soil radon release rates over an area, plus simple soil grain size analysis techniques to estimate permeability. Site RIN estimates would be produced using laboratory techniques to measure both the radon release rate and the permeability of several undisturbed soil core samples taken at depths over the site. These would provide the most accurate value of RIN possible for a given site

  19. Building Evidence-based Practice in AAC Display Design for Young Children: Current Practices and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Jennifer J; Wilkinson, Krista M

    2015-06-01

    Each time a practitioner creates or modifies an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) display for a client, that practitioner must make a series of decisions about which vocabulary concepts to include, as well as physical and organizational features of the display. Yet, little is known about what factors influence the actual decisions and their outcomes. This research examined the design factors identified as priorities by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when creating AAC displays for young children (age 10 years and under), and their rationale for the selection of these priorities. An online survey gathered ratings and comments from 112 SLPs with experience in AAC concerning the importance of a variety of factors related to designing an aided AAC display. Results indicated that some decisions were supported by existing research evidence, such as choosing vocabulary, collaborating with key stakeholders, and supporting partner modeling. Other decisions highlight areas for future research, including use of visual scene display layouts, symbol background color, and supports for motor planning.

  20. Endotypes of allergic diseases and asthma: An important step in building blocks for the future of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Agache

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries from basic science research in the last decade have brought significant progress in knowledge of pathophysiologic processes of allergic diseases, with a compelling impact on understanding of the natural history, risk prediction, treatment selection or mechanism-specific prevention strategies. The view of the pathophysiology of allergic diseases developed from a mechanistic approach, with a focus on symptoms and organ function, to the recognition of a complex network of immunological pathways. Several subtypes of inflammation and complex immune-regulatory networks and the reasons for their failure are now described, that open the way for the development of new diagnostic tools and innovative targeted-treatments. An endotype is a subtype of a disease condition, which is defined by a distinct pathophysiological mechanism, whereas a disease phenotype defines any observable characteristic of a disease without any implication of a mechanism. Another key word linked to disease endotyping is biomarker that is measured and evaluated to examine any biological or pathogenic processes, including response to a therapeutic intervention. These three keywords will be discussed more and more in the future with the upcoming efforts to revolutionize patient care in the direction of precision medicine and precision health. The understanding of disease endotypes based on pathophysiological principles and their validation across clinically meaningful outcomes in asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, atopic dermatitis and food allergy will be crucial for the success of precision medicine as a new approach to patient management.

  1. Tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking in automatic building-up of copper and copper base alloys in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, V.R.; Andronik, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studied was the tendency of the 18-8 type corrosion-resistant steel to cracking during automatic building-up of copper and bronze in argon. The investigation was carried out on the 0kh18n10t steel in argon. It had been established, that the degree of copper penetration into the steel inceases with the increase in the time of the 0Kh18n10t steel contact with liquid copper. Liquid copper and copper base alloys have a detrimental effect on mechanical properties of the steel under external tensile load during intercontant. It is shown that in building-up of copper base alloys on the steel-0Kh18n10t, tendency of the steel to cracking decreases with increase in stiffness of a surfaced weld metal plate and with decrease in building-up energy per unit length. The causes of macrocracking in steel at building-up non-ferrous metals are explained. The technological procedures to avoid cracking are suggested

  2. Future Premature Mortality Due to O3, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and Primary PM in Europe — Sensitivity to Changes in Climate, Anthropogenic Emissions, Population and Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Geels

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important environmental factor associated with health impacts in Europe and considerable resources are used to reduce exposure to air pollution through emission reductions. These reductions will have non-linear effects on exposure due, e.g., to interactions between climate and atmospheric chemistry. By using an integrated assessment model, we quantify the effect of changes in climate, emissions and population demography on exposure and health impacts in Europe. The sensitivity to the changes is assessed by investigating the differences between the decades 2000–2009, 2050–2059 and 2080–2089. We focus on the number of premature deaths related to atmospheric ozone, Secondary Inorganic Aerosols and primary PM. For the Nordic region we furthermore include a projection on how population exposure might develop due to changes in building stock with increased energy efficiency. Reductions in emissions cause a large significant decrease in mortality, while climate effects on chemistry and emissions only affects premature mortality by a few percent. Changes in population demography lead to a larger relative increase in chronic mortality than the relative increase in population. Finally, the projected changes in building stock and infiltration rates in the Nordic indicate that this factor may be very important for assessments of population exposure in the future.

  3. Very-low-frequency resistivity, self-potential and ground temperature surveys on Taal volcano (Philippines): Implications for future activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, J.; Vargemezis, G.; Johnston, M. J. S.; Sasai, Y.; Reniva, P.; Alanis, P.

    2017-06-01

    Taal volcano is one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the Philippines. Thirty-three eruptions have occurred through historical time with several exhibiting cataclysmic phases. Most recent eruptions are confined to Volcano Island located within the prehistoric Taal collapse caldera that is now filled by Taal Lake. The last eruptive activity from 1965 to 1977 took place from Mt. Tabaro, about 2 km to the southwest of the Main Crater center. Since this time, episodes of seismic activity, ground deformation, gas release, surface fissuring, fumarole activity and temperature changes are recorded periodically around the main crater, but no major eruption has occurred. This period of quiescence is the third longest period without eruptive activity since 1572. In March 2010, a campaign based on Very-Low-Frequency (VLF) resistivity surveys together with repeated surveys of self-potential, ground temperature and fissure activity was intensified and the results compared to a large-scale Electrical Resistivity Tomography experiment. This work fortunately occurred before, within and after a new seismovolcanic crisis from late April 2010 to March 2011. The joint analysis of these new data, together with results from previous magnetotelluric soundings, allows a better description of the electrical resistivity and crustal structure beneath the Main Crater down to a depth of several kilometers. No indication of growth of the two geothermal areas located on both sides of the northern crater rim was apparent from 2005 to March 2010. These areas appear controlled by active fissures, opened during the 1992 and 1994 crises, that dip downward towards the core of the hydrothermal system located at about 2.5 km depth beneath the crater. Older mineralized fissures at lower elevations to the North of the geothermal areas also dip downward under the crater. Repeated self-potential and ground temperature surveys completed between 2005 and 2015 show new geothermal and hydrothermal activity in

  4. The Changing Challenges of Transformational Resistance. A Response to "Building the Dream: Transformational Resistance, Community-Based Organizations, and the Civic Engagement of Latinos in the New South"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    A long-time researcher of "education in the New Latino Diaspora" considers how ephemeral the demographic and sociopolitical contexts were for the endeavors captured in "Building the Dream" but concurs with the aptness of considering the five focal students' participation in a local Spanish radio program as acts of…

  5. P-Glycoprotein Mediated Multidrug Resistance Reversal by Phytochemicals: A Review of SAR & Future Perspective for Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Safiulla Basha; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    A major impediment for cancer chemotherapy is the development of multidrug-resistance (MDR). Continuous use of chemotherapeutic drugs during cancer therapy induces the expression of PGlycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1), an ATP dependant transporter, which in turn reduces the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs leading to MDR. Extensive research over the years has identified several potential P-gp inhibitors, both synthetic as well as natural origin, to overcome the MDR during cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the cellular pathways involved and transcription factors regulating the expression of P-gp. A number of phytochemicals are reported to inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 expression; the structure-activity relationship (SAR) among the phytochemicals for P-gp inhibition and the effect of these phytochemicals on cellular signaling pathways regulating P-gp expression are discussed in detail. Moreover, structural biology and mutagenesis studies on P-gp along with docking studies throw light on the structural requirements for P-gp inhibition. Insight provided in the review about the phytochemicals molecular mechanism and SAR could catalyze the design of potent P-gp inhibitors in the future and could help to overcome MDR in cancer chemotherapy.

  6. Ethics for pandemics beyond influenza: Ebola, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and anticipating future ethical challenges in pandemic preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell J; Silva, Diego S

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has raised several novel ethical issues for global outbreak preparedness. It has also illustrated that familiar ethical issues in infectious disease management endure despite considerable efforts to understand and mitigate such issues in the wake of past outbreaks. To improve future global outbreak preparedness and response, we must examine these shortcomings and reflect upon the current state of ethical preparedness. To this end, we focus our efforts in this article on the examination of one substantial area: ethical guidance in pandemic plans. We argue that, due in part to their focus on considerations arising specifically in relation to pandemics of influenza origin, pandemic plans and their existing ethical guidance are ill-equipped to anticipate and facilitate the navigation of unique ethical challenges that may arise in other infectious disease pandemics. We proceed by outlining three reasons why this is so, and situate our analysis in the context of the EVD outbreak and the threat posed by drug-resistant tuberculosis: (1) different infectious diseases have distinct characteristics that challenge anticipated or existing modes of pandemic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery, (2) clear, transparent, context-specific ethical reasoning and justification within current influenza pandemic plans are lacking, and (3) current plans neglect the context of how other significant pandemics may manifest. We conclude the article with several options for reflecting upon and ultimately addressing ethical issues that may emerge with different infectious disease pandemics.

  7. VS30 – A site-characterization parameter for use in building Codes, simplified earthquake resistant design, GMPEs, and ShakeMaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    VS30, defined as the average seismic shear-wave velocity from the surface to a depth of 30 meters, has found wide-spread use as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified earthquake resistant design as implemented in building codes worldwide. VS30 , as initially introduced by the author for the US 1994 NEHRP Building Code, provides unambiguous definitions of site classes and site coefficients for site-dependent response spectra based on correlations derived from extensive borehole logging and comparative ground-motion measurement programs in California. Subsequent use of VS30 for development of strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and measurement of extensive sets of VS borehole data have confirmed the previous empirical correlations and established correlations of SVS30 with VSZ at other depths. These correlations provide closed form expressions to predict S30 V at a large number of additional sites and further justify S30 V as a parameter to characterize site response for simplified building codes, GMPEs, ShakeMap, and seismic hazard mapping.

  8. Combining indoors thermo-hygric survey, thermal imaging and Electrical Resistivity Tomography through GIS for the characterization of moisture in historic buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Garcia-Morales, Soledad; Lopez-Gonzalez, Laura; Ortiz de Cosca, Raquel Otero

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the combination, through a GIS, of environmental indoors thermo-hygric parameters and Electrical Resistivity Tomography in the hermit of "Humilladero", a small historic building in the city of Avila (Spain). The Hermit of "humilladero" was built 1548 - 1550 and it underwent several refurbishment works throughout its history until the present day. The hermit is formed by two rooms and a basement: The hermit per se, a sacristy which was added at a later stage towards the east of the hermit and the basement excavated under the sacristy in 1990. The south wall is nowadays half buried by the adjacent street pavement and a staircase attached to the east wall. The walls are built with granite ashlars and the whole building displays severe moisture-related damage, including granular disaggregation of mortars and some ashlars. The most affected areas are the ones buried under the street towards the south and the staircase towards the east where liquid water appears from time to time due to infiltrations through the ground. A mesh of thermo-hygric measurements of the indoors environment of the hermit was carried out to detect the humidity focal points, in addition to Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Infrared thermography on the walls. All these data was uploaded to a GIS (ArcGIS) together with a photogrammetric model of the decayed areas. The combination of the information in the GIS improved decay maps and allowed a better diagnosis of the building moisture distribution and causes. Research funded by Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914 and CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the equipment from RedLAbPAt Network

  9. Future design of one-family houses - What does the new building code of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning mean?; Smaahusens framtida utformning - Hur paaverkar Boverkets nya byggregler?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Heier, Johan

    2010-02-15

    As of 2010 the new building regulations concerning energy and power demand for new buildings. The new requirements mean a tightening of all buildings that use electricity for heating. In order to reduce power demand for electricity-heated houses as require maximum installed electricity capacity and energy requirements for purchased amount will be lower in houses with electric heating than in houses that use other heat sources. This report examines how the construction may be affected of the new building rules and the systems which may become dominant in private homes come. A villa with a different insulation standard simulated at four different locations from Malmoe in the south, to Kiruna in the north and the energy consumption of the different heating systems was then calculated using manufacturers' data. Two different insulation standards and a passive house simulated with and without heat recovery in the ventilation system. The results show that the traditional exhaust ventilation air heat pumps can not cope, both in terms of energy and power, except possibly in southern Sweden in a well insulated house. A condensing exhaust air heat pump might fulfil requirements if it meets with the manufacturer promises. An exhaust air/soil heat pump can also be close to the limit in central Sweden. The heating options that meet the new energy requirements by a comfortable n all climate zones are condensing exhaust air heat pump, borehole ground source heat pump, district heating heating (FTX -ventilation heat recovery - needed in northern Sweden), pellet stove with FTX and passive house. The electricity-based heating option that gives the lowest use of electricity is borehole heat pump and the passive option. These systems are all far below the limits required by BBR. Heating with pellets or district heating alone (without FTX or solar support) can not meet the energy requirements with sufficient margin elsewhere than in Malmoe. It requires additional steps that can be

  10. Building the Dream: Transformational Resistance, Community-Based Organizations, and the Civic Engagement of Latinos in the New South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Eleanor A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how a group of Latino youth living in the Southeast experienced, adapted to, and resisted oppressive social structures within their community through their involvement with youth media. Through the content analysis of a teen radio show produced by and for Latino youth, in conjunction with semistructured interviews and…

  11. Space Architecture: Building The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Constance

    1999-01-01

    There's been a good deal of flag-waving over the last five years about technology-or rather, a certain terror of technology that underlies almost all recent talk of the global avant-garde. Don't be fooled: the cool, clinical praise of the cyborg and the virtual realm is no more than critical bravado. It's an existential machismo in the world of semiotics which forces the contemporary philosopher to ante up, to get theoretically comfortable with an anti-sensual world of possibilities to which we all respond-let's be frank-with profound discomfort. Does this flag-waving about media, Y2K, robotics and biotechnology serve to cover a pervasive, cross-cultural mesh of fear? Or are we waving our surrender to a process we ourselves have set in motion? Let's look at the medium of a flag-the image and its underlying message.

  12. Landsat: building a strong future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Conceived in the 1960s, the Landsat program has experienced six successful missions that have contributed to an unprecedented 39-year record of Earth Observations that capture global land conditions and dynamics. Incremental improvements in imaging capabilities continue to improve the quality of Landsat science data, while ensuring continuity over the full instrument record. Landsats 5 and 7 are still collecting imagery. The planned launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission in December 2012 potentially extends the Landsat record to nearly 50 years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million Landsat images. All USGS Landsat data are available at no cost via the Internet. The USGS is committed to improving the content of the historical Landsat archive though the consolidation of Landsat data held in international archives. In addition, the USGS is working on a strategy to develop higher-level Landsat geo- and biophysical datasets. Finally, Federal efforts are underway to transition Landsat into a sustained operational program within the Department of the Interior and to authorize the development of the next two satellites — Landsats 9 and 10.

  13. Montage in future building practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    In this essay Charlotte Bundgaard describes the vision of Le Corbusier's Dom-ino project as an icon of the modernist dream, strongly connected with its contemporary industrial possibilies. She proceeds to examine a number of other projects from the 1920's to the 1970's that are also based...... is standardised, and this has given us the means to produce a radically different architecture...

  14. Estimating the future burden of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya; Hill, Andrew; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; van der Walt, Martie; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Tupasi, Thelma E; Caoili, Janice C; Gler, Maria Tarcela; Volchenkov, Grigory V; Kazennyy, Boris Y; Demikhova, Olga V; Bayona, Jaime; Contreras, Carmen; Yagui, Martin; Leimane, Vaira; Cho, Sang Nae; Kim, Hee Jin; Kliiman, Kai; Akksilp, Somsak; Jou, Ruwen; Ershova, Julia; Dalton, Tracy; Cegielski, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are emerging worldwide. The Green Light Committee initiative supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 90 countries. We used estimates from the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study to predict MDR and XDR tuberculosis trends in four countries with a high burden of MDR tuberculosis: India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa. We calibrated a compartmental model to data from drug resistance surveys and WHO tuberculosis reports to forecast estimates of incident MDR and XDR tuberculosis and the percentage of incident MDR and XDR tuberculosis caused by acquired drug resistance, assuming no fitness cost of resistance from 2000 to 2040 in India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa. The model forecasted the percentage of MDR tuberculosis among incident cases of tuberculosis to increase, reaching 12·4% (95% prediction interval 9·4-16·2) in India, 8·9% (4·5-11·7) in the Philippines, 32·5% (27·0-35·8) in Russia, and 5·7% (3·0-7·6) in South Africa in 2040. It also predicted the percentage of XDR tuberculosis among incident MDR tuberculosis to increase, reaching 8·9% (95% prediction interval 5·1-12·9) in India, 9·0% (4·0-14·7) in the Philippines, 9·0% (4·8-14·2) in Russia, and 8·5% (2·5-14·7) in South Africa in 2040. Acquired drug resistance would cause less than 30% of incident MDR tuberculosis during 2000-40. Acquired drug resistance caused 80% of incident XDR tuberculosis in 2000, but this estimate would decrease to less than 50% by 2040. MDR and XDR tuberculosis were forecast to increase in all four countries despite improvements in acquired drug resistance shown by the Green Light Committee-supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Additional control efforts beyond improving acquired drug resistance rates are needed to stop the spread of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in countries with a high burden of MDR

  15. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    Coral reefs are globally threatened by climate change-related ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). To date, slow-response mechanisms such as genetic adaptation have been considered the major determinant of coral reef persistence, with little consideration of rapid-response acclimatization mechanisms. These rapid mechanisms such as parental effects that can contribute to trans-generational acclimatization (e.g. epigenetics) have, however, been identified as important contributors to offspring response in other systems. We present the first evidence of parental effects in a cross-generational exposure to temperature and OA in reef-building corals. Here, we exposed adults to high (28.9°C, 805 µatm P(CO2)) or ambient (26.5°C, 417 µatm P(CO2)) temperature and OA treatments during the larval brooding period. Exposure to high treatment negatively affected adult performance, but their larvae exhibited size differences and metabolic acclimation when subsequently re-exposed, unlike larvae from parents exposed to ambient conditions. Understanding the innate capacity corals possess to respond to current and future climatic conditions is essential to reef protection and maintenance. Our results identify that parental effects may have an important role through (1) ameliorating the effects of stress through preconditioning and adaptive plasticity, and/or (2) amplifying the negative parental response through latent effects on future life stages. Whether the consequences of parental effects and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization are beneficial or maladaptive, our work identifies a critical need to expand currently proposed climate change outcomes for corals to further assess rapid response mechanisms that include non-genetic inheritance through parental contributions and classical epigenetic mechanisms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Analysis by the Residual Method for Estimate Market Value of Land on the Areas with Mining Exploitation in Subsoil under Future New Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz-Lason, Monika

    2017-12-01

    This paper attempts to answer some of the following questions: what is the main selling advantage of a plot of land on the areas with mining exploitation? which attributes influence on market value the most? and how calculate the mining influence in subsoil under future new building as market value of plot with commercial use? This focus is not accidental, as the paper sets out to prove that the subsoil load bearing capacity, as directly inferred from the local geotechnical properties with mining exploitation, considerably influences the market value of this type of real estate. Presented in this elaborate analysis and calculations, are part of the ongoing development works which aimed at suggesting a new technology and procedures for estimating the value of the land belonging to the third category geotechnical. Analysed the question was examined both in terms of the theoretical and empirical. On the basis of the analysed code calculations in residual method, numerical, statistical and econometric defined results and final conclusions. A market analysis yielded a group of subsoil stabilization costs which depend on the mining operations interaction, subsoil parameters, type of the contemplated structure, its foundations, selected stabilization method, its overall area and shape.

  17. Seismic resistance of equipment and building service systems: review of earthquake damage design requirements, and research applications in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjei, R.E.; Chakravartula, B.C.; Yanev, P.I.

    1979-01-01

    The history of earthquake damage and the resulting code design requirements for earthquake hazard mitigation for equipment in the USA is reviewed. Earthquake damage to essential service systems is summarized; observations for the 1964 Alaska and the 1971 San Fernando, California, earthquakes are stressed, and information from other events is included. USA building codes that reflect lessons learned from these earthquakes are discussed; brief summaries of widely used codes are presented. In conclusion there is a discussion of the desirability of adapting advanced technological concepts from the nuclear industry to equipment in conventional structures. (author)

  18. Impact of antibiotic resistance in the management of ocular infections: the role of current and future antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Bertino Jr

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Bertino Jr1,21College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, N Y, USA; 2Principal, Bertino Consulting, Schenectady, NY, USAPurpose: This article reviews the effects of the increase in bacterial resistance on the treatment of ocular infections.Design: Interpretive assessment.Methods: Literature review and interpretation.Results: Ocular bacterial infections include conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, blepharitis, orbital cellulitis, and dacryocystitis. Treatment for most ocular bacterial infections is primarily empiric with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are effective against the most common bacteria associated with these ocular infections. However, the widespread use of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics has resulted in a global increase in resistance among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to a number of the older antibiotics as well as some of the newer fluoroquinolones used to treat ophthalmic infections. Strategies for the prevention of the increase in ocular pathogen resistance should be developed and implemented. In addition, new antimicrobial agents with optimized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that have low toxicity, high efficacy, and reduced potential for the development of resistance are needed.Conclusions: New antimicrobial agents that treat ocular infections effectively and have a low potential for the development of resistance could be a part of strategies to prevent the global increase in ocular pathogen resistance.Keywords: ocular infections, emerging pathogen drug resistance, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  19. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with techno......Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...

  20. Estimating the effects of air pollution on buildings and structures: The US experience since 1985 and some lessons for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    Damage to the built environment has always been the foster child of the environmental movement in the United States. Although the Clean Air Act includes damage to materials as one of the welfare effects to be considered when setting secondary air quality standards, the main activity by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in this discipline seems to be the periodic review of literature required to assemble the official documents needed to review these standards. The one important exception was the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), which included a materials damage research activity amounting to a few percent of its total $500 million budget. The 1990 NAPAP State of Science and Technology Report includes three of its twenty-seven chapters on this topic, in addition to portions of the chapter on economic valuation methods. The 1990 NAPAP Integrated Assessment Report debated the economic importance of damage to galvanized steel and to carbonate stone buildings, discussed confounding and mitigating factors for damage to paints, and listed some priorities for assessment of damage to cultural resources. However, in contrast to NAPAP`s views, one independent assessment was that {open_quotes}The NAPAP study found that, at current levels, the major negative effects of acid deposition are probably reduced visibility and accelerated deterioration of outdoor cultural resources{close_quotes}. Since the 1990 reports and the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, NAPAP has contracted to a fraction of its former size. NAPAP now produces a biennial Report to Congress; release of the 1994 report is reported to be imminent. This paper will attempt to review what was accomplished by NAPAP with respect to economic assessment of materials damage and the supporting research and will then go on to postulate some guidelines for future assessments.

  1. Non-sectarian scenario experiments in socio-ecological knowledge building for multi-use marine environments: Insights from New Zealand's Marine Futures project

    KAUST Repository

    Le Heron, Richard

    2016-01-29

    The challenges of managing marine ecosystems for multiple users, while well recognised, has not led to clear strategies, principles or practice. The paper uses novel workshop based thought-experiments to address these concerns. These took the form of trans-disciplinary Non-Sectarian Scenario Experiments (NSSE), involving participants who agreed to put aside their disciplinary interests and commercial and institutional obligations. The NSSE form of co-production of knowledge is a distinctive addition to the participatory and scenario literatures in marine resource management (MRM). Set in the context of resource use conflicts in New Zealand, the workshops assembled diverse participants in the marine economy to co-develop and co-explore the making of socio-ecological knowledge and identify capability required for a new generation of multi-use oriented resource management. The thought-experiments assumed that non-sectarian navigation of scenarios will resource a step-change in marine management by facilitating new connections, relationships, and understandings of potential marine futures. Two questions guided workshop interactions: what science needs spring from pursuing imaginable possibilities and directions in a field of scenarios, and what kinds of institutions would aid the generation of science knowledge, and it application to policy and management solutions. The effectiveness of the thought- experiments helped identify ways of dealing with core problems in multi-use marine management, such as the urgent need to cope with ecological and socio-economic surprise, and define and address cumulative impacts. Discussion focuses on how the workshops offered fresh perspectives and insights into a number of challenges. These challenges include building relations of trust and collective organisation, showing the importance of values-means-ends pathways, developing facilitative legislation to enable initiatives, and the utility of the NSSEs in informing new governance and

  2. Growth differentiation factor 15 predicts future insulin resistance and impaired glucose control in obese nondiabetic individuals: results from the XENDOS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Tibor; Guba-Quint, Anja; Torgerson, Jarl; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Haefliger, Carolina; Bobadilla, Maria; Wollert, Kai C

    2012-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress-responsive cytokine that is increased in obesity and established type 2 diabetes. We assessed whether GDF-15 can predict future insulin resistance and impaired glucose control in obese nondiabetic individuals. Plasma GDF-15 concentrations were measured with an automated electrochemiluminescent immunoassay at baseline and after 4 years in 496 obese nondiabetic individuals (52% men, median age 48 years, median body mass index (BMI) 37.6 kg/m(2)) enrolled in the XENical in the prevention of Diabetes in Obese subjects (XENDOS) trial. The median GDF-15 concentration at baseline was 869 ng/l (interquartile range 723-1064 ng/l). GDF-15 was related to body weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) (all P < 0.01). Changes in GDF-15 from baseline to 4 years were related to changes in body weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and HOMA-IR (all P < 0.05). Baseline GDF-15 was associated with the risk to have prediabetes or diabetes at 4 years by univariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) FOR 1 unit increase in ln GDF-15, 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-6.1; P<0.001), and after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, treatment allocation (orlistat vs placebo), BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and glucose control at baseline (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.7; P=0.026). Similarly, baseline GDF-15 was independently associated with HOMA-IR at 4 years (P=0.024). This first longitudinal study of GDF-15 in a large cohort of obese individuals indicates that GDF-15 is related to abdominal obesity and insulin resistance and independently associated with future insulin resistance and abnormal glucose control.

  3. Role of Bacterioferritin & Ferritin in M. tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Drug Resistance: A Future Perspective by Interactomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the most successful and deadliest human pathogen. Aminoglycosides resistance leads to emergence of extremely drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Iron is crucial for the biological functions of the cells. Iron assimilation, storage and their utilization is not only involved in pathogenesis but also in emergence of drug resistance strains. We previously reported that iron storing proteins (bacterioferritin and ferritin were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. In this study we performed the STRING analysis of bacterioferritin & ferritin proteins and predicted their interactive partners [ferrochelatase (hemH, Rv1877 (hypothetical protein/probable conserved integral membrane protein, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (hemE trigger factor (tig, transcriptional regulatory protein (MT3948, hypothetical protein (MT1928, glnA3 (glutamine synthetase, molecular chaperone GroEL (groEL1 & hsp65, and hypothetical protein (MT3947]. We suggested that interactive partners of bacterioferritin and ferritin are directly or indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, homeostasis, iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, and stresses.

  4. Beyond conventional antibiotics for the future treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: two novel alternatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre

    2012-08-01

    The majority of antibiotics currently used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections target bacterial cell wall synthesis or protein synthesis. Only daptomycin has a novel mode of action. Reliance on limited targets for MRSA chemotherapy, has contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Two alternative approaches to the treatment of S. aureus infection, particularly those caused by MRSA, that have alternative mechanisms of action and that address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance are cationic host defence peptides and agents that target S. aureus virulence. Cationic host defence peptides have multiple mechanisms of action and are less likely than conventional agents to select resistant mutants. They are amenable to modifications that improve their stability, effectiveness and selectivity. Some cationic defence peptides such as bactenecin, mucroporin and imcroporin have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against MRSA. Antipathogenic agents also have potential to limit the pathogenesis of S aureus. These are generally small molecules that inhibit virulence targets in S. aureus without killing the bacterium and therefore have limited capacity to promote resistance development. Potential antipathogenic targets include the sortase enzyme system, the accessory gene regulator (agr) and the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitors of these targets have been identified and these may have potential for further development.

  5. Impact resistance of materials for guards on cutting machine tools--requirements in future European safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, D; Trapp, R P

    2000-01-01

    Guards on machine tools are meant to protect operators from injuries caused by tools, workpieces, and fragments hurled out of the machine's working zone. This article presents the impact resistance requirements, which guards according to European safety standards for machine tools must satisfy. Based upon these standards the impact resistance of different guard materials was determined using cylindrical steel projectiles. Polycarbonate proves to be a suitable material for vision panels because of its high energy absorption capacity. The impact resistance of 8-mm thick polycarbonate is roughly equal to that of a 3-mm thick steel sheet Fe P01. The limited ageing stability, however, makes it necessary to protect polycarbonate against cooling lubricants by means of additional panes on both sides.

  6. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Research Priorities, Accomplishments, and Future Directions of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doernberg, Sarah B; Lodise, Thomas P; Thaden, Joshua T; Munita, Jose M; Cosgrove, Sara E; Arias, Cesar A; Boucher, Helen W; Corey, G Ralph; Lowy, Franklin D; Murray, Barbara; Miller, Loren G; Holland, Thomas L

    2017-03-15

    Antimicrobial resistance in gram-positive bacteria remains a challenge in infectious diseases. The mission of the Gram-Positive Committee of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is to advance knowledge in the prevention, management, and treatment of these challenging infections to improve patient outcomes. Our committee has prioritized projects involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) due to the scope of the medical threat posed by these pathogens. Approved ARLG projects involving gram-positive pathogens include (1) a pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics study to evaluate the impact of vancomycin dosing on patient outcome in MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI); (2) defining, testing, and validating innovative assessments of patient outcomes for clinical trials of MRSA-BSI; (3) testing new strategies for "step-down" antibiotic therapy for MRSA-BSI; (4) management of staphylococcal BSIs in neonatal intensive care units; and (5) defining the impact of VRE bacteremia and daptomycin susceptibility on patient outcomes. This article outlines accomplishments, priorities, and challenges for research of infections caused by gram-positive organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Resistance Mechanisms and the Future of Bacterial Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (FabI) Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Rock, Charles O

    2016-03-01

    Missense mutations leading to clinical antibiotic resistance are a liability of single-target inhibitors. The enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) inhibitors have one intracellular protein target and drug resistance is increased by the acquisition of single-base-pair mutations that alter drug binding. The spectrum of resistance mechanisms to FabI inhibitors suggests criteria that should be considered during the development of single-target antibiotics that would minimize the impact of missense mutations on their clinical usefulness. These criteria include high-affinity, fast on/off kinetics, few drug contacts with residue side chains, and no toxicity. These stringent criteria are achievable by structure-guided design, but this approach will only yield pathogen-specific drugs. Single-step acquisition of resistance may limit the clinical application of broad-spectrum, single-target antibiotics, but appropriately designed pathogen-specific antibiotics have the potential to overcome this liability. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Discovery and development of new antibacterial agents targeting Gram-negative bacteria in the era of pandrug resistance: is the future promising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Malcolm G P; Bush, Karen

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria continue to pose a threat, with many infections caused by these pathogens being virtually untreatable. A number of new antibacterial agents are in late stage clinical development to treat these infections. Drugs in known classes such as new quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and β-lactams have been designed to evade many of the known resistance mechanisms, whereas newer drug classes include novel β-lactamase inhibitors in combination with new or approved β-lactams, and a peptidomimetic that have entered full clinical development. The establishment of public-private partnerships and an increase in pharmaceutical interest in antibacterial R&D are encouraging signs for the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What should be considered if you decide to build your own mathematical model for predicting the development of bacterial resistance? Recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepeva, Maria; Kolbin, Alexey; Kurylev, Alexey; Balykina, Julia; Sidorenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Acquired bacterial resistance is one of the causes of mortality and morbidity from infectious diseases. Mathematical modeling allows us to predict the spread of resistance and to some extent to control its dynamics. The purpose of this review was to examine existing mathematical models in order to understand the pros and cons of currently used approaches and to build our own model. During the analysis, seven articles on mathematical approaches to studying resistance that satisfied the inclusion/exclusion criteria were selected. All models were classified according to the approach used to study resistance in the presence of an antibiotic and were analyzed in terms of our research. Some models require modifications due to the specifics of the research. The plan for further work on model building is as follows: modify some models, according to our research, check all obtained models against our data, and select the optimal model or models with the best quality of prediction. After that we would be able to build a model for the development of resistance using the obtained results.

  10. Building a commercial enterprise : FY01-05 financial plan update : investing in the future of passenger rail : long-term capital plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, the nations transportation system is at a crossroads. After : building highway and aviation networks that are the envy of the world, increasing gridlock threatens to undermine the success of those investments and the ...

  11. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12 ENFIR), 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  12. Earthquake risk assessment of building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, probabilistic risk analysis tools have been applied to assess the performance of new and existing building structural systems. Structural design and evaluation of buildings and other facilities with regard to their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes requires special considerations that are not normally a part of such evaluations for other occupancy, service and environmental loads. This paper reviews some of these special considerations, specifically as they pertain to probability-based codified design and reliability-based condition assessment of existing buildings. Difficulties experienced in implementing probability-based limit states design criteria for earthquake are summarized. Comparisons of predicted and observed building damage highlight the limitations of using current deterministic approaches for post-earthquake building condition assessment. The importance of inherent randomness and modeling uncertainty in forecasting building performance is examined through a building fragility assessment of a steel frame with welded connections that was damaged during the Northridge Earthquake of 1994. The prospects for future improvements in earthquake-resistant design procedures based on a more rational probability-based treatment of uncertainty are examined

  13. Delivering a sustainable future for offices in Greece in the context of climate change: The case-study of a public office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannikopoulos, Charalampos

    The iggo's has been the warmest decade globally leading to a dramatic climate change due to the j greenhouse effect and the consequent global warming. Allowing this trend to continue the planet is going to face a catastrophic climate change without precedent with various impacts. One of the most significant aims in the combat against climate change is the reduction of carbon dioxide and j other greenhouse gases emissions that are responsible for global warming. Under the Kyoto protocol, the developed countries need to reduce their GHGs emissions to 1990 levels by 2012. Energy consumption for building-related services in the European Union accounts for approximately 50% of the total energy consumption and the resulting C02 emissions (Richarz et al 2007). Hence, at first sight the best policy for a decrease is by improving the energy performance of new and existing buildings. The question to be solved, however, is which improvements at buildings could reduce energy consumption and accordingly C02 emissions In this context, the analysis of the energy consumption and the respective carbon emissions over a public large-scale existing office building in Greece can result in a comprehensive j understanding of how energy efficiency-upgrades can be critical when combating climate change. This analysis is made using thermal analysis software and extracting results about energy consumption that can be compared to the real data collected from the Building Energy Management System. Afterwards, potential improvements in the building envelope in terms of a more efficient control of solar gains are tested on the model and finally, photovoltaics are applied in order to generate zero-carbon electricity. The energy-efficiency upgrades suggested have achieved a total reduction in energy used for j heating and cooling by 11.9%, with the reduction in cooling far exceeding the respective reduction in heating. Consequently, 193 MWh that are equivalent to 117 tons of C02 are saved annually

  14. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    , and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark...

  15. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    for the possibilities of a sustainable building design: orientation and access to infrastructure are important factor. And the building design is decisive in making the city truly compact: dense in activities. In future, the interaction between the technical infrastructure, the buildings and their users will become......The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...

  16. Prospective future introduction of reduction of energy use in buildings in the Arctic regions – How might it affect the indoor climate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    , the new Low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, provides good indoor air, thermal quality and reduced energy consumption. Using measurement data from both buildings, this paper discusses the impact of various issues, such as low indoor relative humidity, temperature variations, and high indoor humidity......Existing residential buildings in Arctic Greenland often have problems with draughts, uncomfortably low temperatures indoors, and inadequate ventilation. The standard wooden house 18D provides low thermal comfort and poor indoor air quality and has high energy consumption. On the other hand...... production, the use of buildings in the extreme Arctic climate with high density of inhabitants, problems with air leakages and overheating creating by solar radiation and heating system, and other issues affecting health of inhabitants. Looking at these issues leads to interesting findings in terms...

  17. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  18. Inheritance as Intimate, Implicated Publics: Building Practices of Remembrance with Future Teachers in Response to Residential School Survivor Testimonial Media and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I contextualize and outline my use of testimonial literature, including orature, by residential school survivors in a preservice course focused on building practices of witness-­as-study (Simon & Eppert, 2005). My theorization of the course curriculum and pedagogy draws on key texts by Roger Simon as a means of proposing…

  19. Future use of IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1999-01-01

    problems with visions of future developments in IT in building. Need for change in business processes in order to maximise the benefits of IT......problems with visions of future developments in IT in building. Need for change in business processes in order to maximise the benefits of IT...

  20. Comparative homology model building and docking evaluation for RNA III inhibiting peptide of Multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain MRSA252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevada, Vishal; Patel, Rajesh; Patel, Bhoomi; Chaudhari, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    Since last several years, infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is challenging to cure using conventional antibiotics. The organism is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that can cause serious diseases not only in humans but also in animals, such as various skin infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and toxin shock syndrome. This bacterium causes such diseases by producing macromolecules such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). This organism had developed the multidrug resistance by acquiring MEC-A gene. This account for made organism to come into the category of Superbug. Several studies showed that, the toxin production is induced by AIP and RAP via the phosphorylation of TRAP. TRAP is a 21 kDa protein and was believed to be associated with the membrane via SvrA Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that TRAP is histidine phosphorylated in a signal transduction pathway that is activated by RAP. The inhibition of TRAP could be done by RIP (RNAIII-inhibiting peptide). The structure for RIP is still undiscovered to be used as inhibitor. Present work has been carried out to get the structural insight with various online and offline homology modeling techniques such as SWISS-MODEL, MODBASE, GENO3D, CPHmodels and I-TASSER for getting unknown structural information target of RNAIII-activating protein from Staphylococcus aureus strain MRSA252 origin for their future exploration as a target in drug discovery process against MRSA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Inventory building of phages against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wounds of patients with severe burn and related characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z C; Deng, L Y; Gong, Y L; Yin, S P; Jiang, B; Huang, G T; Peng, Y Z; Hu, F Q

    2016-09-20

    To build inventory of phages against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU and analyze related characteristics. In 2014 and 2015, 131 strains of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii were isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU from one hospital in Chongqing. In 2015, 98 strains of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii were isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU from 6 hospitals in Guangdong province. Above-mentioned 229 strains were collected for conducting experiments as follows: (1) Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of strains isolated from Chongqing and Guangdong province was analyzed. (2) Sewage co-culture method was applied for isolation of phages with above-mentioned strains and sewage from Chongqing and Guangdong province. Numbers of isolated phages and times of successful isolation and unsuccessful isolation were recorded. (3) The most prevalent subtypes of strains from Chongqing and Guangdong province in 2015 were collected, and their phages respectively underwent cross infection with all strains from Chongqing and those from Guangdong province. The lysis ability of phage was observed when phage underwent cross infection with the same subtype of strain or not the same, and the lytic ratio was calculated. (4) Fluid of phage in one type was randomly selected and equally divided into 3 parts, and its titer was determined by double dilution method. Then each part of phage fluid was subdivided into 3 small parts, which were cultured with LB fluid medium and respectively stored under the condition of -20 ℃, 4 ℃, and room temperature. After being stored for 1 month and 2 months, the titer of phage was determined for evaluating stability of phage. Data were processed with Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance. (1) The major type of strains from Chongqing in 2014 was ST368 (45%, 31/69), and major types of strains from Chongqing

  2. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  3. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12. ENFIR), the 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and the 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  4. Continuing to Build a Community Consensus on the Future of Human Space Flight: Report of the Fourth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (AM IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Baker, John; Beaty, David; Carberry, Chris; Craig, Mark; Davis, Richard M.; Drake, Bret G.; Cassady, Joseph; Hays, Lindsay; Hoffman, Stephen J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    To continue to build broadly based consensus on the future of human space exploration, the Fourth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars (AM IV), organized by Explore Mars, Inc. and the American Astronautical Society, was held at the Double Tree Inn in Monrovia, CA., December 68, 2016. Approximately 60 invited professionals from the industrial and commercial sectors, academia, and NASA, along with international colleagues, participated in the workshop. These individuals were chosen to be representative of the breadth of interests in astronaut and robotic Mars exploration.

  5. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  6. Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Jefferson County Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfler, Anne; Riggan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures"™ in Education program in Jefferson County Public Schools (JCPS). As described in the CPRE proposal and research design, the purpose was to closely…

  7. PROJECT FUTURE IN SOCIO AFFECTIVE DIMENSION: HOW TO BUILD THE PERCEPTIONS OF STUDENTS SECONDARY EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL AND HIGH SCHOOL IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Frassetto de Araujo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to understand how the "future project" regarding the socio-affective dimension is built by high school students in Portugal and in Brazil. The project was based on the concept of culture and adolescence as a cultural construction. The definition of future project was adopted in the above mentioned dimension characterized by defining affections and passions. Through focus groups with adolescents it was possible to analyze their narratives about the future project on the socio-affective dimension; to get to know the speeches produced by them on issues regarding sexuality, gender and and sexual diversity. The survey found out that most adolescents had projects for their future. Moreover, it pointed out the differences that permeate several boys’ and girls’ behaviors. It was concluded that the questioning of these issues from ethical questions that allow teenagers to reflect on their relationships among peers, in the community, with family, responsibility and criticality is essential. And education is central to this process.

  8. Impact of future urban form on the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from residential, commercial and public buildings in Utsunomiya, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Tabushi, Shoichi; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2010-01-01

    Energy-saving technologies' applicability to making cities more environmentally sustainable can be strongly influenced by the city's form, building uses and their density pattern. Technological developments have clearly shown specific urban forms to be more conducive to installing certain mitigation technologies. In this study, the capacity for implementation and impacts on energy savings and subsequent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential of mitigation technologies such as photovoltaic cells (PV) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies were analysed with respect to three potential urban forms (high density centralised, medium density averaged and low density de-centralized) for Utsunomiya City, Japan. Given current building use patterns, scenarios for 2030 and 2050, showed the medium density averaged form, which benefits from both PV and CHP technologies, to outperform the other forms, resulting in an energy savings and GHG reduction potential of 27.6% in 2030 and 67.6% in 2050. Interestingly, GHG reduction in 2050 was primarily attributable to PV, while CHP technology had the greater influence in 2030. Despite the limitation of the analysis, the study provides a useful insight, highlighting the relationship between urban forms and GHG reduction potential by two energy-saving technologies.

  9. Ecological effectivity is the future opportunity for building materials. Today, modern windows and facades ensure energy efficiency and supply recyclable materials for tomorrow; Die Zukunftschance fuer Baustoffe ist Oekoeffektivitaet. Moderne Fenster und Fassaden sorgen heute fuer Energieeffizienz und liefern Wertstoffe fuer morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunkhorst, Rolf [Schueco International KG, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The challenges of the future are in a secure and ecologically/economically sensible use of resources and materials. Already today, the environmental compatibility of building products and an enhanced potential of resources are announced and unavoidable in the future. Thus, the classical economization of resources at buildings by means of enhanced energy efficiency and securing of a healthy working as well as living environment maintain their significance.

  10. Direct Current as an Integrating Platform for ZNE Buildings with EVs and Storage: DC Direct Systems – A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [California Inst. for Energy and the Environment, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vossos, Vagelis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kloss, Margarita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Gerald [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Rich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Cost effective zero net energy (ZNE) schemes exist for many types of residential and commercial buildings. Yet, today’s alternating current (AC) based ZNE designs may be as much as 10% to 20% less efficient, more costly, and more complicated than a design based on direct current (DC) technologies. An increasing number of research organizations and manufacturers are just starting the process of developing products and conducting research and development (R&D) efforts. These early R&D efforts indicate that the use of DC technologies may deliver many energy and non-energy benefits relative to AC-based typologies. DC ZNE schemes may provide for an ideal integrating platform for natively DC-based onsite generation, storage, electric vehicle (EV) charging and end-use loads. Emerging empirical data suggest that DC end-use appliances are more efficient, simpler, more durable, and lower cost. DC technologies appear to provide ratepayers a lower cost pathway to achieve resilient ZNE buildings, and simultaneously yield a plethora of benefits. This paper draws from the current research effort entitled "Direct Current as an Integrating and Enabling Platform," co-led by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), the California Institute for Energy and the Environment (CIEE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and funded under the California Energy Commission’s Energy Program Investment Charge (CEC EPIC). The first phase of this EPIC research is focused on assembling and summarizing known global performance information on DC and DC-AC hybrid end-use appliances and power systems. This paper summarizes the information and insights gained from this research effort.

  11. Requirements for the coatings of a nuclear power plant containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.; Haekkae-Roennholm, E.

    2001-06-01

    The report presents the criteria for the inside coatings of nuclear power plant containment buildings including: radiation resistance, decontamination, chemical resistance in accident situations and fire resistance

  12. APPRAISAL OF ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF FIBROUS LINING IN THERMAL GASPLASMA FURNACES AND FURNACES OF RESISTANCE OF MACHINE-BUILDING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolskij

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out calculations showed that partial modernization of thermal furnaces of machine building production by means of replacement of chamotte by fibrous fettling is economically reasonable and has rather short period of payback.

  13. Frost/thaw cycling resistance of back filling building materials for ground heat pipes; Frost-Tau-Wechselbestaendigkeit von Hinterfuellbaustoffen fuer Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Lutz [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Fachgebiet Geotechnik, Hoexter (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Backfilling materials for geothermal wells must meet certain specifications concerning groundwater protection, system efficiency, and long-term availability. Lately, the focus has shifted to the freezing and thawing resistance. The contribution presents a novel method of investigation which combines standard methods of measurement to assess the sealing properties and freeze/thaw cycle resistance of backfilling materials. (orig.)

  14. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2015-01-01

    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists of the descri......This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...... of the description of 5 main technologies: condensing boilers, heat pumps, ventilation systems, lighting and photovoltaic systems. For each technology chapter there is the same content list: an introduction, a brief technology description, some advantages and disadvantages, market penetration and utilisation, energy...

  15. Future through Resistance to Desertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Degli Esposti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to the city by new citizens is instrumental to economic cycles but the latter does not seem interested in dealing with fast and dramatic urbanization. With regards to the demands of global competition, I believe these are highly tainted by distorted views of human relationships and society, whereby with the case of city design, it is often bound to sinister interests and short term perspectives. I find it interesting to see how certain problems posed by contemporary urban dynamics can be solved with more logical design associated to small scale design. Architecture is one of the most exciting disciplines, where humanistic and scientific expertise still manage to live together, despite the extreme demand for specialization of our times.

  16. After the oil peak - How do we build preparedness with divergent visions of the future?; Efter oljetoppen - Hur bygger vi beredskap naer framtidsbilderna gaar isaer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmfrid, Hillevi; Haden, Andrew

    2006-04-15

    This report was written to highlight important issues regarding the preparedness of Swedish society for a potential scarcity of crude oil and possible rapid increases in energy prices. The report consists of nine chapters covering the following topics: Chapter 1 introduces and describes the purpose of the report. Chapter 2 summarizes the available information related to the future availability of conventional crude oil and describes the theory of oil production 'peak'. Chapter 3 examines estimates of future oil demand using IEA global demand forecasts. Chapter 4 considers the question: 'when will oil production peak'? We examine the assumptions behind the various prognoses. Chapter 5 offers a broad overview of the importance of oil consumption for society. The chapter highlights the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROEI) as it pertains to fossil and renewable energy sources. The EROEI of conventional crude oil has historically been very high. This is not true of many alternative fuels. In addition to discussing its various current uses, we consider the implications of oil consumption for the current economic order and for international political relations. Chapter 6 deals specifically with the role of oil in the Swedish food system, and the Swedish forestry system, which together comprise the Swedish 'green sector'. As of this writing, much attention is focused on agriculture and forestry as future energy sources for society. At the same time, we know that agriculture and forestry, as practiced today, are large consumers of fossil fuels. How this paradox can be resolved is a central question for modern societies, and implies significant changes for agriculture and forestry systems, and their associated industries. As an illustration, we offer baseline calculations of the amount of land that would need to be dedicated to raw material production for biofuels, given the current productivity of Sweden's agriculture and

  17. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  18. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  19. 20 Years of Achievement and Future Challenge for International Capacity Building Regarding Safeguards and SSAC at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senzaki, M.; Naoi, Y.; Kuribayashi, T.; Okumura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Developing human resources in the fields of nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards is critical to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The shortfall of human resources in such fields presents a serious challenge. It has, therefore, become important to urgently develop human resources and thereby to ensure. With a long experience in practicing Japan's nuclear non-proliferation policy, JAEA has been contributing since the 1990s to international human-resource development. More than 300 people from about 40 countries have joined the training courses organized by the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of JAEA. These courses use lectures, workshops, group discussions, and facility tours to teach knowledge of the basic concepts of IAEA safeguards, SSAC requirements, and safeguards tools to government officials who are responsible for safeguards implementation and to operators who are engaged in nuclear-material accounting and control. Based on Japan's statement at the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, ISCN was established in December 2010. ISCN places top priority on providing support for the development of future leaders, the development of legal and regulatory infrastructure, and the fostering of nuclear non-proliferation culture. For further advancement, ISCN also examines the current situations of the Asian nations that ISCN supports, based on discussions made between the Japanese government and the IAEA. It works on formulating new training courses that focus on specific themes, such as NDA training and table-top exercises for CA under the AP, identified through needs surveys. ISCN is committed to the development of human resources in the field of safeguards and work closely with governmental organizations in Japan and with other Asian countries, the IAEA, US DOE, European Commission, FNCA, and APSN. (author)

  20. BUILDING BETTER LAW: HOW DESIGN THINKING CAN HELP US BE BETTER LAWYERS, MEET NEW CHALLENGES, AND CREATE THE FUTURE OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ursel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal profession faces increasing challenges to the relevance, utility, and acceptance of law and the rule of law as tools of social organization that are important and essential to human beings. Often the issues which challenge law and legal systems seem perennial, obstinate, and intractable. In order to remain relevant to the societies it serves, the law needs to innovate. We need to find new ways of thinking about law as a human designed and deliberate system of social organization. In this context, adopting an innovation mindset is an important starting point. “Design thinking” offers us a description and practice of an innovation mindset that can be and is employed in a variety of professional contexts. This article is an introduction to design thinking, its challenges, and its possibilities for law. It postulates that in fact design thinking as a concept and as a set of techniques is particularly well suited for use in law, and that we actually employ many of its techniques already. The article argues that by bringing these techniques into sharper focus, we can both recognize how we are in some ways using them already, and more importantly, how they can be deployed in even more useful and innovative ways to “build better law” at all scales of the legal endeavour, from individual service to legal systems.    La profession juridique doit relever des défis croissants liés à la pertinence, à l’utilité et à l’acceptation du droit et de la règle de droit comme outils d’organisation sociale qui sont importants, voire essentiels pour l’être humain. Les problèmes qui minent le droit et les systèmes juridiques semblent souvent permanents, tenaces et insolubles. Pour que le droit demeure pertinent à l’endroit des sociétés qu’il dessert, nous devons lui donner un souffle nouveau et trouver de nouvelles façons de le considérer comme un système d’organisation sociale conçu par l’être humain et mûrement r

  1. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  2. Auxiliary buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, I.; Lestyan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear power station represents a complicated and a particular industrial project. Consequently, the design of the auxiliary buildings serving the power station (offices, kitchen, refreshment room, workshops, depots, water treatment plant building, boiler houses, etc.) requires more attention than usual. This chapter gives a short survey of the auxiliary buildings already completed and discusses the problems of their design, location and structure. (author)

  3. Gateway to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    "Gateway to the Future" pairs a painting of a gateway constructed from children's building blocks with an ink drawing of a personal symbol on a collaged background. The main objective of this lesson is to create a metaphoric artwork about moving from the present through a symbolic portal to the future. So, space--foreground, middle ground, and…

  4. Shear Tests and Calculation of Shear Resistance with the PC Program RFEM from Thin Partition Walls of Brick in Old Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korjenic Sinan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the shear capacity of partition walls in old buildings based on shear tests which were carried out under real conditions in an existing building. There were experiments conducted on different floors and in each case, the maximum recordable horizontal force and the horizontal displacement of the respective mortar were measured. At the same time material studies and material investigations were carried out in the laboratory. The material parameters were used for the calculation of the precise shear capacity of each joint. In the shear tests, the maximum displacement of a mortar joint was determined at a maximum of two to four millimetres. Furthermore, no direct linear relationship between the theoretical load (wall above it and the shear stress occurred could be detected in the analysis of the experiment, as it was previously assumed.

  5. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available have controllable internal blinds and external solar shading which can be used to maximise internal daylight quality and avoid glare and solar gain. • Ecological: Green building envelopes aim to support the development of ecosystems and plant... problems such as large solar heat gains which can only be solved through mechanical plant. • Large sections: 1:10 sections of building envelopes are very useful in understanding the design of a building envelope and should be developed early...

  6. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  7. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  8. Building a profitable practice for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, K H

    2000-01-01

    The success of the dental practice may be based in the skills of the dentist and staff, but it will take additional qualities to create the stand-out dental office. This practice will be dedicated to employee retention and training, outstanding customer service and attention from every staff member, and a focus on creating revenue through the best utilization of the dentist's time and staff experience. This successful office will also exercise cost containment and take advantage of marketing opportunities.

  9. Technology and society building our sociotechnical future

    CERN Document Server

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2009-01-01

    Technological change does not happen in a vacuum; decisions about which technologies to develop, fund, market, and use engage ideas about values as well as calculations of costs and benefits. This anthology focuses on the interconnections of technology, society, and values. It offers writings by authorities as varied as Freeman Dyson, Laurence Lessig, Bruno Latour, and Judy Wajcman that will introduce readers to recent thinking about technology and provide them with conceptual tools, a theoretical framework, and knowledge to help understand how technology shapes society and how society shapes technology. It offers readers a new perspective on such current issues as globalization, the balance between security and privacy, environmental justice, and poverty in the developing world. The careful ordering of the selections and the editors' introductions give Technology and Society a coherence and flow that is unusual in anthologies. The book is suitable for use in undergraduate courses in STS and other disciplines...

  10. Healthcare 2025 : buildings for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare in Europe is changing. Many countries are introducing reforms, and creating more competition and an open healthcare market. Product pricing is becoming normal; in some cases, such as the Netherlands, capital costs are becoming a component of charges. Experiments with public/private

  11. [Sustainability and hygiene of building: future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolongo, Stefano; Buffoli, Maddalena; Oppio, Alessandra; Petronio, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple factors influence individuals' health status. Their impact is difficult to quantify as it is their interaction. Aim of the current work is to develop guidelines to support designers to promote health in the residential environment and to apply them through an evaluation system to certify the level of health performance. Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with the Local Health Authorities of Milan and Empoli through analysis of needs performance and numerous multidisciplinary meetings, has produced a design guide (Healthy Design Guide - HeDe) and an evaluation system to certify the level of health performance. This system was tested on the Milan metropolitan area. The experiment was carried out on a sample of 30 private residences, with an overall floor area ranging between 90 and 150 square meters, new or recently renovated. The tool works but at the same time it also shows that too often design choices are made for aesthetic or economic reasons rather than a real need for health and wellness. It is becoming increasingly important to strengthen synergies and multidisciplinary collaborations to achieve shared performance indications and to make a systematic review of the regulatory tools to protect public health.

  12. Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Preparing young Americans with science and technology skills has been on the forefront of educational reform for several years, and Extension has responded. Robotics projects have become a natural fit for 4-H clubs, with members' experiences ranging from using Lego® Mindstorms® and other "purchase and assemble" robotics kits to building…

  13. Removing Barriers, Building Futures: Educating Homeless Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Christina

    2012-01-01

    A lack of stable housing creates challenges for students who want to participate in daily school activities, including: (1) getting to school; (2) accessing laundry or shower facilities; (3) finding a place to study or do homework; and (4) staying awake in class because of inadequate sleep the night before. Despite these and the other challenges,…

  14. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  15. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of potential responses to future high levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral drug-naive populations beginning treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With continued roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, evidence is emerging of increasing levels of transmitted drug-resistant HIV. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different potential public health responses to substantial......-effectiveness threshold. Results from our model will help inform WHO recommendations on monitoring of HIV drug resistance in people starting ART. FUNDING: WHO (with funds provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), CHAIN (European Commission)....

  16. Proceedings of SAFESUST Workshop: A roadmap for the improvement of earthquake resistance and eco-efficiency of existing buildings and cities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The global population now exceeds seven billion. This means that during the past 250 years or so, it has increased tenfold that of the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century, which is believed to have been 700 million. Eighty percent of the global population lives in developing regions, which means that the consumption of resources and energy will increase enormously in the future. Resources and energy are some of the most fundamental elements for the daily life of humankind. In recent...

  17. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  18. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  19. Solar energy in buildings solved by building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudikova, B.; Faltejsek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Building lead us to use renewable energy sources for all types of buildings. The use of solar energy is the alternatives that can be applied in a good ratio of space, price, and resultant benefits. Building Information Modelling is a modern and effective way of dealing with buildings with regard to all aspects of the life cycle. The basis is careful planning and simulation in the pre-investment phase, where it is possible to determine the effective result and influence the lifetime of the building and the cost of its operation. By simulating, analysing and insert a building model into its future environment where climate conditions and surrounding buildings play a role, it is possible to predict the usability of the solar energy and establish an ideal model. Solar systems also very affect the internal layout of buildings. Pre-investment phase analysis, with a view to future aspects, will ensure that the resulting building will be both low-energy and environmentally friendly.

  20. Smoothing of geoelectrical resistivity profiles in order to build a 3D model: A case study from an outcropping limestone block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Krisztina; Kovács, Gábor

    2014-05-01

    Geoelectrical imaging is one of the most common survey methods in the field of shallow geophysics. In order to get information from the subsurface electric current is induced into the ground. In our summer camp organized by the Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University we have carried out resistivity surveys to get more accurate information about the lithology of the Dorog basin located in the Transdanubian range, Middle Hungary. This study focused on the outcropping limestone block located next to the village Leányvár in the Dorog basin. The main aim of the research is the impoundment of the subsurface continuation of the limestone outcrop. Cable problems occurred during field survey therefore the dataset obtained by the measurement have become very noisy thus we had to gain smoothed data with the appropriate editing steps. The goal was to produce an optimized model to demonstrate the reality beneath the subsurface. In order to achieve better results from the noisy dataset we changed some parameters based on the description of the program. Whereas cable problems occurred we exterminated the bad datum points visually and statistically as well. Because of the noisiness we increased the value of the so called damping factor which is a variable parameter in the equation used by the inversion routine responsible for smoothing the data. The limitation of the range of model resistivity values based on our knowledge about geological environment was also necessary in order to avoid physically unrealistic results. The purpose of the modification was to obtain smoothed and more interpretable geoelectric profiles. The geological background combined with the explanation of the profiles gave us the approximate location of the block. In the final step of the research we created a 3D model with proper location and smoothed resistivity data included. This study was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA NK83400) and was realized

  1. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  2. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  3. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  4. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...... on the review of the most of the existing ZEB definitions and the various approaches towards possible ZEB calculation methodologies. It presents and discusses possible answers to the abovementioned issues in order to facilitate the development of a consistent ZEB definition and a robust energy calculation......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...

  5. Building membrane nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Membrane nanopores--hollow nanoscale barrels that puncture biological or synthetic membranes--have become powerful tools in chemical- and biosensing, and have achieved notable success in portable DNA sequencing. The pores can be self-assembled from a variety of materials, including proteins, peptides, synthetic organic compounds and, more recently, DNA. But which building material is best for which application, and what is the relationship between pore structure and function? In this Review, I critically compare the characteristics of the different building materials, and explore the influence of the building material on pore structure, dynamics and function. I also discuss the future challenges of developing nanopore technology, and consider what the next-generation of nanopore structures could be and where further practical applications might emerge.

  6. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available ? Capacity building in developed nations ? renewal stage HOW can capacity be developed and maintained? Through mentoring , training, education, physical projects, the infusion of financial and other resources and more importantly the motivation...

  7. Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.): Collaborative Action Education in Building and Guiding the Future Under-represented Geosciences Workforce Through Tribal Foundations, Mentorship and Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Inter-Tribal Student Services (I.S.S.) was created as an Indian Self-Determination Organization to meet the every growing Tribal and under-represented minorities (URM) geosciences workforce needs. I.S.S. is one of only a few Indian Self-Determined Organizations in the U.S. with a distinct focused on buidling the Tribal and URM geosciences and natural resources workforces. In past three years, I.S.S has worked in partnership with U.S. colleges/universities, state/federal agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs), private and International organizations and most importantly U.S. Tribal Nations to ensure emerging high school students, undergraduates, graduate students and post doctorates have the opportunities for training in supportive and unique environments, navigational mentoring, and broad professional development to build and practice the skills required for blue-collar, scientific, and managerial positions. I.S.S. has been highly successful in filling workforce opportunities within the broad range of geosciences positions. I.S.S. students are proficient in understanding and maneuvering the complex landscapes of interdisciplinary research, multidisciplinary multi-partner projects, traditional/western philosophies as well as being highly proficient in all areas of problem solving and communications. Research and on-site projects have heightened the educational experiences of all participants, in addition to addressing a perplexing geosciences challenge grounded in a Tribal environment. A number of the I.S.S. participants and students have found geosciences positions in Tribes, state/federal agencies, enterprize as well as International organizations. I.S.S. practices and has infused all research and projects with intergenerational teaching/learning, participation solution-focused initiatives, and holistic/multicultural mentoring. The presentation will highlight the vision, design, implementation, outcomes and future directions of I.S.S and participants.

  8. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  9. Efficient Risk Determination of Risk of Road Blocking by Means of MMS and Data of Buildings and Their Surrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Kazuhito; Hatake, Shuhei

    2016-06-01

    Massive earthquake named "Tonankai Massive earthquake" is predicted to occur in the near future and is feared to cause severe damage in Kinki District . "Hanshin-Awaji Massive Earthquake" in 1995 destroyed most of the buildings constructed before 1981 and not complying with the latest earthquake resistance standards. Collapsed buildings blocked roads, obstructed evacuation, rescue and firefighting operations and inflicted further damages.To alleviate the damages, it is important to predict the points where collapsed buildings are likely block the roads and to take precautions in advance. But big cities have an expanse of urban areas with densely-distributed buildings, and it requires time and cost to check each and every building whether or not it will block the road. In order to reduce blocked roads when a disaster strikes, we made a study and confirmed that the risk of road blocking can be determined easily by means of the latest technologies of survey and geographical information.

  10. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... the Buildings Technologies Program-Building Energy Codes Program Manager, U.S. Department of Energy... hotel, motel, and other transient residential building types of any height as commercial buildings for... insulation and length requirements Skylight definition change Penalizing electric resistance heating in the...

  11. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  12. Environmental Scanning, Futures Research, Strategic Foresight and Organizational Future Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Bade, Manuel

    to adjacent research disciplines. Through such integration and linkage research should produce better recommendations for managers on how to build an organizational future orientation, drive organizational adaptation, and make their firms robust towards external discontinuous change....

  13. Next-generation sequencing-based user-friendly platforms for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis: A promise for the near future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinger, David L; Colman, Rebecca E; Engelthaler, David M; Rodwell, Timothy C

    2016-12-01

    Since 2002, there has been a gradual worldwide 1.3% annual decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB). This is an encouraging statistic; however, it will not achieve the World Health Organization's goal of eliminating TB by 2050, and it is being compounded by the persistent global incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) acquired by transmission and by treatment pressure. One key to effectively control tuberculosis and the spread of multiresistant strains is accurate information pertaining to drug resistance and susceptibility. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to effectively change global health and the management of TB. Industry has focused primarily on using NGS for oncology diagnostics and human genomics, but the area in which NGS can rapidly impact health care is in the area of infectious disease diagnostics in low- and middle-income countries. To date, there has been a failure as a community to capitalize on the potential of NGS, especially at the reference laboratory level where it can provide actionable information pertaining to treatment options for patients. The rapid evolution of knowledge about the genetic foundations of tuberculosis drug resistance makes sequencing a versatile technology platform for providing rapid, accurate, and actionable results for treating this disease. No "plug-and-play" and "end-to-end" NGS solutions exist that provide clinically relevant sequence data from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genome from primary clinical samples (e.g., sputum) in high-burden country reference laboratories, which is where they are most needed. However, such a system-based solution is underdeveloped by Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND), in collaboration with partners from academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. The solution is modular and is designed and developed to perform targeted amplicon sequencing directly from a patient's primary sputum sample. This solution will initially allow

  14. Next-generation sequencing-based user-friendly platforms for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis: A promise for the near future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Dolinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002, there has been a gradual worldwide 1.3% annual decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB. This is an encouraging statistic; however, it will not achieve the World Health Organization's goal of eliminating TB by 2050, and it is being compounded by the persistent global incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB acquired by transmission and by treatment pressure. One key to effectively control tuberculosis and the spread of multiresistant strains is accurate information pertaining to drug resistance and susceptibility. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has the potential to effectively change global health and the management of TB. Industry has focused primarily on using NGS for oncology diagnostics and human genomics, but the area in which NGS can rapidly impact health care is in the area of infectious disease diagnostics in low- and middle-income countries. To date, there has been a failure as a community to capitalize on the potential of NGS, especially at the reference laboratory level where it can provide actionable information pertaining to treatment options for patients. The rapid evolution of knowledge about the genetic foundations of tuberculosis drug resistance makes sequencing a versatile technology platform for providing rapid, accurate, and actionable results for treating this disease. No “plug-and-play” and “end-to-end” NGS solutions exist that provide clinically relevant sequence data from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genome from primary clinical samples (e.g., sputum in high-burden country reference laboratories, which is where they are most needed. However, such a system-based solution is underdeveloped by Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND, in collaboration with partners from academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. The solution is modular and is designed and developed to perform targeted amplicon sequencing directly from a patient's primary sputum sample. This solution

  15. CGH Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looking ahead, we have three major future directions that we believe will help us push forward in achieving NCI’s goal of advancing global cancer research, building expertise, and leveraging resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide.

  16. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  17. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...

  18. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  19. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  20. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  1. Rise of the build infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Abdurachmanov, David; Mendez, David

    2014-01-01

    CMS Offline Software, CMSSW, is an extremely large software project, with roughly 3 millions lines of code, two hundreds of active developers and two to three active development branches. Given the scale of the problem, both from a technical and a human point of view, being able to keep on track such a large project, bug free, and to deliver builds for different architectures is a challenge in itself. Moreover the challenges posed by the future migration of CMSSW to multithreading also require adapting and improving our QA tools. We present the work done in the last two years in our build and integration infrastructure, particularly in the form of improvements to our build tools, in the simplification and extensibility of our build infrastructure and the new features added to our QA and profiling tools. Finally we present our plans for the future directions for code management and how this reflects on our workflows and the underlying software infrastructure.

  2. South African medical students’ perceptions and knowledge about antibiotic resistance and appropriate prescribing: Are we providing adequate training to future prescribers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman,

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Education of medical students has been identified by the World Health Organization as an important aspect of antibiotic resistance (ABR containment. Surveys from high-income countries consistently reveal that medical students recognise the importance of antibiotic prescribing knowledge, but feel inadequately prepared and require more education on how to make antibiotic choices. The attitudes and knowledge of South African (SA medical students regarding ABR and antibiotic prescribing have never been evaluated. Objective. To evaluate SA medical students’ perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, and the perceived quality of education relating to antibiotics and infection. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey of final-year students at three medical schools, using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires recorded basic demographic information, perceptions about antibiotic use and ABR, sources, quality, and usefulness of current education about antibiotic use, and questions to evaluate knowledge. Hard-copy surveys were administered during whole-class lectures. Results. A total of 289 of 567 (51% students completed the survey. Ninety-two percent agreed that antibiotics are overused and 87% agreed that resistance is a significant problem in SA – higher proportions than those who thought that antibiotic overuse (63% and resistance (61% are problems in the hospitals where they had worked (p<0.001. Most reported that they would appreciate more education on appropriate use of antibiotics (95%. Only 33% felt confident to prescribe antibiotics, with similar proportions across institutions. Overall, prescribing confidence was associated with the use of antibiotic prescribing guidelines (p=0.003, familiarity with antibiotic stewardship (p=0.012, and more frequent contact with infectious diseases specialists (p<0.001. There was an overall mean correct score of 50% on the knowledge

  3. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youngjib

    The emerging energy crisis in the building sector and the legislative measures on improving energy efficiency are steering the construction industry towards adopting new energy efficient design concepts and construction methods that decrease the overall energy loads. However, the problems of energy efficiency are not only limited to the design and construction of new buildings. Today, a significant amount of input energy in existing buildings is still being wasted during the operational phase. One primary source of the energy waste is attributed to unnecessary heat flows through building envelopes during hot and cold seasons. This inefficiency increases the operational frequency of heating and cooling systems to keep the desired thermal comfort of building occupants, and ultimately results in excessive energy use. Improving thermal performance of building envelopes can reduce the energy consumption required for space conditioning and in turn provide building occupants with an optimal thermal comfort at a lower energy cost. In this sense, energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis for existing building envelopes are key enablers for improving energy efficiency. Since proper retrofit decisions of existing buildings directly translate into energy cost saving in the future, building practitioners are increasingly interested in methods for reliable identification of potential performance problems so that they can take timely corrective actions. However, sensing what and where energy problems are emerging or are likely to emerge and then analyzing how the problems influence the energy consumption are not trivial tasks. The overarching goal of this dissertation focuses on understanding the gaps in knowledge in methods for building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis, and filling these gaps by devising a new method for multi-modal visual sensing and analytics using thermography and Building Information Modeling (BIM). First, to address the challenges in scaling and

  4. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  5. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  6. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  7. Cambodia: Buildings for People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waibel, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Cambodia has a long tradition of vernacular architecture where initial building practices took climate conditions into account, currently there is only limited knowledge and awareness about the subject of sustainable buildings among stakeholders of the real estate sector. The Cambodian city of Phnom Penh is witnessing a construction boom and the lack of attention given to sustainability issues threatens dire consequences in the not so distant future. This research note discusses various approaches and measures to promote sustainable buildings in Cambodia. It will be concluded that successful policies towards increasing sustainability need to be less technocratic, less top-down, more inclusive thereby taking into account the behavioural dimension and aspirations of the urban citizens. To achieve a viable implementation with a sustained impact a trans-disciplinary and holistic approach incorporating innovative methods and expertise from various fields should be pursued. Thereby, the vision of “buildings for people” may serve as impetus to enhance the quality of life of Cambodia’s urban citizens.

  8. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  9. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  10. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch

    2009-01-01

    on the development. Among the most important are missing ontologies both on business and Web/Internet service levels as well as their interrelations, poor user involvement in needs and requirements formulations on new ICT tools as well as in continuous user involvement in design and evaluation of new user...... to be increased. The paper presents a roadmap for development of future Integrated Building Design Systems (IBDS) with end-user participation. Methods for development of tools supporting creative and innovative building design with end-user participation is taking into account, including methods for capture...

  11. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  12. Towards a behavioral vaccine: exposure to accessible temptation when self-regulation is endorsed enhances future resistance to similar temptations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Cara; de Ridder, Denise; de Vet, Emely; Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    Access to temptation is blamed for the rising prevalence of obesity in children. A popular way to counter this is to restrict physical access to temptation. As restrictions cannot be widely applied and may have adverse long-term effects, we examine whether accessible temptations in situations that endorse self-regulation train self-regulation. Specifically, we design a method that enhances children's self-regulatory skills in the long term. In two studies, participants were exposed to temptation in phase one and their self-regulatory skills were measured in phase two. In Study 1, we endorsed self-regulation in the presence of accessible temptation for four consecutive days and measured consumption on the fifth day. In Study 2, we exposed children to temptation similarly and, in addition, manipulated temptation strength to show that being tempted is crucial for the skill to develop. Next, we measured saliva and preferences. The findings suggest that exposure to temptation in a situation that supports self-regulation leads to better resistance to temptations in later contexts of accessible temptation in girls, but not boys. Our findings suggest that interventions aiming at strengthening children's self-regulatory skills through controlled exposure to temptation might be a productive long-term strategy to reduce consumption of unhealthy food. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Complete biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) response to sipuleucel-T with enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a case report with implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Julie N; Drake, Charles G; Beer, Tomasz M

    2013-02-01

    To describe the case of a patient with castration-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer who achieved a complete and durable biochemical response after treatment with sipuleucel-T while continuing with enzalutamide and to explore the immunologic basis for such a response. We obtained serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements and bone scans to assess the patient's response to enzalutamide followed by the addition of sipuleucel-T. Using preclinical and clinical data, we describe his response through known immunobiologic mechanisms. This patient's PSA level became undetectable during treatment with enzalutamide and began to increase again after 14 months. He opted for treatment with sipuleucel-T, while continuing with the enzalutamide. This resulted in another complete PSA response 6 months after exposure to sipuleucel-T. Sipuleucel-T typically does not produce significant PSA reductions, and, to the best of our knowledge, only 1 previous report of a durable complete PSA response in a patient with metastatic disease has been published. The timing of this response supports an immune mechanism. The biologic rationale for the combination, coupled with the clinical result observed in our patient, provides a basis for studies of the combination of sipuleucel-T and enzalutamide. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Future trends in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection: An in-depth review of newer antibiotics active against an enduring pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A M; David, M Z; Garau, J; Gottlieb, T; Mazzei, T; Scaglione, F; Tattevin, P; Gould, I M

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a major public health problem. Vancomycin and teicoplanin have been in clinical use for several decades but their drawbacks are well described. In the last 10 years, several antibiotics have been made available for clinical use. Daptomycin and linezolid have been extensively used during this period. Other agents such as ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, tedizolid and telavancin have been approved by regulatory agencies since 2009. Many others, such as the newer tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, oxazolidinones and pleuromutilins, are in various stages of development. In addition, an ongoing multicentre trial is investigating the role of combination of vancomycin or daptomycin with β-lactam antibiotics. This review discusses the role of the newer antibiotics, reflecting the views of the 6th MRSA Consensus Conference meeting of the International Society of Chemotherapy MRSA Working Group that took place in 2016. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commercial Building Partners Catalyze Energy Efficient Buildings Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Fueling Our Future with Efficiency, Pacific Grove, CA, August 12,-17, 2012, Government or Federal Purpose Rights License ...could work with local businesses, leasing groups, or franchises to extend this project model and use the funding model. Acknowledgements The

  16. Evaluation of the resistance to progressive collapse of monolithic reinforced concrete frame buildingswith separate amplified floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domarova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors propose a simplified method of dynamic analysis of the resistance to progressive collapse of a fragment of the building bearing system with amplified floors. This method is based on representing the building bearing system as a dynamic model with a denumerable number of degrees of freedom, in which the resistance of the system is provided mainly by the behavior of the columns. The degrees of freedom number is determined by the number of floors «hanging» to amplified floors. Thecontribution of slabs in the total system resistance is not taken into account. Stress-strain state of the columns is determined by the non-linear resistance diagram, including three stages: elastic, elastic with cracks and plastic stage connected with plastic yield in the steel of the columns. The criterion of sustainability to the progressive collapse is relative strain of steel of the undestroyed columns. A numerical example of the calculation of the building resistance to progressive collapse in case of sudden destruction of one vertical element based on proposed theoretical method is offered. A model with two numbers of degrees was considered. The suggested method allows estimating the strength, deformability and stability of monolithic reinforced concrete frame buildings with separate amplified floors. In the future it is intended to complicate the model by the accounting for the influence of deformation and constructive solution of the slabs on the stiffness characteristics of the model as a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom.

  17. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technological, and socioeconomic futures in a regional integrated-assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Page Kyle, G.; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of building stock, commercial equipment, and household appliances can have a major positive impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Sub-national regions such as the U.S. states wish to increase energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions, or adapt to climate change. Evaluating sub-national policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the large uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change itself may undercut such policies. However, assessing all of the uncertainties of large-scale energy and climate models by performing thousands of model runs can be a significant modeling effort with its accompanying computational burden. By applying fractional–factorial methods to the GCAM-USA 50-state integrated-assessment model in the context of a particular policy question, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy can greatly reduce computational burden in the presence of uncertainty and reveal the important drivers for decisions and more detailed uncertainty analysis. - Highlights: • We evaluate building energy codes and standards for climate mitigation. • We use an integrated assessment model and fractional factorial methods. • Decision criteria are energy use, CO2 emitted, and building service cost. • We demonstrate sensitivity analysis for three states. • We identify key variables to propagate with Monte Carlo or surrogate models

  18. Perspective on Out & Equal Workplace Advocates Building Bridges Model: A Retrospect of the Past, Present, and Future of Training Impacting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Employees in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Pat; Gedro, Julie

    2009-01-01

    As early as 1983, a group of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgenders (LGBTs) in the San Francisco Bay Area met with the United Way to discuss the needs of the community in the workplace. In 1986, the United Way authorized a board-level task force on LGBT issues, which looked at health and human care concerns. In 1990, Building Bridges was formed…

  19. Schools for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén; Bertelsen, Eva

    This presentation concerns a recent shift in the understanding of school buildings, their design and functioning. A development already established in the Danish field of primary school, and a development seemingly moving towards the level of tertiary education (universities and university colleges......). Prominent in this shift – across the levels of education – stands an understanding of school buildings as capable of changing e.g. educational cultures. As an understanding of space as productive gain ground in newer school build, the architectural design is meant to both manage and transform the schools...... in direction of future demands to schooling. This transformation can be seen as a manifestation of historical shifts in how space is perceived in a pedagogical context: from seeing space as supportive to see it as an agent of change. Moreover this shift seems to feature a shift in who is defining...

  20. Queering Aging Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn J. Sandberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential for cultural gerontology to extend its ideas of diversity in aging experiences by opening space to rethink conceptions of successful aging futures. We propose a ‘queering’ of aging futures that disrupts the ways that expectations of a good later life and happy aging are seen to adhere to some bodies and subjectivities over others. Drawing on feminist, queer, and crip theories, we build on existing critiques of ‘successful aging’ to interrogate the assumptions of heteronormativity, able-bodiedness and able-mindedness that shape the dividing lines between success and failure in aging, and which inform attempts to ‘repair’ damaged futures. Conclusions suggest that recognizing diversity in successful aging futures is important in shaping responses to the challenges of aging societies, and presents an opportunity for critical cultural gerontology to join with its theoretical allies in imagining more inclusive alternatives.

  1. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interface to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.

  2. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put......There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  3. The Application of Intelligent Building Technologies to Space Hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper reports that over the last few years Intelligent Building technologies have matured and standardised. It compares the functions of command and control systems in future large space facilities such as space hotels to those commonly found in Intelligent Buildings and looks at how Intelligent Building technologies may be applied to space hotels. Many of the functions required in space hotels are the same as those needed in terrestrial buildings. The adaptation of standardised, low cost, Intelligent Building technologies would reduce capital costs and ease development of future space hotels. Other aspects of Intelligent Buildings may also provide useful models for the development and operation of space hotels.

  4. Knowledge transfer from building operation to construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how knowledge that derives from operation and maintenance of buildings can be stored and transferred in order to be reused in a future building project? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is theoretically based on knowledge management with a particular focus on interde...

  5. Goodbye Passive House, Hello Energy Flexible Building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; LaRoche, P.; Schiler, M.

    2016-01-01

    The volume uptake of highly energy-efficient buildings is challenged by transformations in the energy system and the introduction of demand response strategies. In the near future buildings will be able to manage their demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and

  6. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous opportunities are available in primary care for alleviating the crisis of increasing antibiotic resistance. Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection (ARI) will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures such as physical barriers and hand...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....... antibiotic prescribing are a major factor in the prescribing for ARIs. Professional interventions with educational components are effective, although they have modest effects, and are expensive. GPs' perceptions - that mistakenly assume as a default that patients want antibiotics for their ARIs - are often...

  7. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  8. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    Future contingents are contingent statements about the future — such as future events, actions, states etc. To qualify as contingent the predicted event, state, action or whatever is at stake must neither be impossible nor inevitable. Statements such as “My mother shall go to London” or “There...... will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one......, ‘future contingents’ could also refer to future contingent objects. A statement like “The first astronaut to go to Mars will have a unique experience” could be analyzed as referring to an object not yet existing, supposing that one day in the distant future some person will indeed travel to Mars...

  9. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    Future contingents are contingent statements about the future — such as future events, actions, states etc. To qualify as contingent the predicted event, state, action or whatever is at stake must neither be impossible nor inevitable. Statements such as “My mother shall go to London” or “There...... will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one......, ‘future contingents’ could also refer to future contingent objects. A statement like “The first astronaut to go to Mars will have a unique experience” could be analyzed as referring to an object not yet existing, supposing that one day in the distant future some person will indeed travel to Mars...

  10. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  11. EFFECTIVE CHEMICALLY BONDED BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Николаевич Золотухин

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical and physical-and-chemical preconditions for creation of the production technology of chemically bonded building materials and products based on phosphogypsum are presented. The methodology and production technology of chemically bonded lime-and-sandy phosphogypsum material (LSPM with the use of modern computerized differential scanning calorimetry are developed and offered. The structure of LSPM is examined. The conceptions of making building composites on the basis of dispersed materials are proved and updated. It was found out that at the definite thickness of water film on the surface of disperse materials, in the thermodynamically unstable state, in the presence of external fields, heightened temperatures and definite pH, cheap water-resistant chemically bonded building composites on the basis of dispersed materials can be made. The results of the LSPM studies showed that such material is effective for forming of low- and middle-quality wall small-piece blocks, partition slabs and bulkheads.

  12. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Meriel

    1995-01-01

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  13. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  14. Building a Systematic Data Base for the Future. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Peter Smith questions how well we follow up after school shootings in order to diagnose causes and enhance future prevention. Sommer, Leuschner, and Scheithauer (2014) have assembled data from 126 cases available in the English and German research literature and suggested important risk categories. Notably, there are a large…

  15. Building resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-04-01

    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  16. Futurism in Spanish Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Gülümser İLKER

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century, a group of authors, poets and artists known as “Vanguardistas” (modernists paved the way for modern movements in art and literature in Spain. Inspired by the Italian poet Filippo Tomasso Marinetti, the Futurism movement quickly showed its influence in Spain as well as other countries. It rose to prominence due to its original and dynamic perceptions as well as its appreciation of modernism. As the world is constantly changing, old traditions, lifestyles, outdated ideas as well as previous attitudes, perceptions, styles and movements in literature and art should be abandoned in favor of newer, more original and current ones. This point of view is especially clear in the works of Ramón Gómez de la Serna. Italian Futurism suggests that previous ideas, literary styles and lifestyles cannot have strong links with the present and it is a challenge that makes it difficult to open the doors for the future. Based on this idea and adding different points of view, the Spanish writers aimed at building an original Futurism with its roots in the past but focusing on the future. Spanish intellectuals protested the oppression and censorship of the ruling order in that period, benefiting from the innovative style and perceptions of Futurism in literature.

  17. Building Energy Asset Score for Building Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for building owners.

  18. Dealing with Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest roadblocks to addressing instructional rigor in schools is the resistance to change that is displayed by teachers, students, parents, and other building and district leaders. Every person deals differently with change. Some are more accepting, others more resistant. No change is successful if the people being asked to change…

  19. Future Textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Degn; Jensen, Hanne Troels Fusvad; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Magasinet Future Textiles samler resultaterne fra projektet Future Textiles, der markedsfører området intelligente tekstiler. I magasinet kan man læse om trends, drivkræfter, udfordringer samt få ideer til nye produkter inden for intelligente tekstiler. Områder som bæredygtighed og kundetilpasning...

  20. Response of a 14-story Anchorage, Alaska, building in 2002 to two close earthquakes and two distant Denali fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recorded responses of an Anchorage, Alaska, building during four significant earthquakes that occurred in 2002 are studied. Two earthquakes, including the 3 November 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, with epicenters approximately 275 km from the building, generated long trains of long-period (>1 s) surface waves. The other two smaller earthquakes occurred at subcrustal depths practically beneath Anchorage and produced higher frequency motions. These two pairs of earthquakes have different impacts on the response of the building. Higher modes are more pronounced in the building response during the smaller nearby events. The building responses indicate that the close-coupling of translational and torsional modes causes a significant beating effect. It is also possible that there is some resonance occurring due to the site frequency being close to the structural frequency. Identification of dynamic characteristics and behavior of buildings can provide important lessons for future earthquake-resistant designs and retrofit of existing buildings. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  2. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  3. New build: Materials, techniques, skills and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Jacqueline; Dainty, Andrew R.J.; Gibb, Alistair G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to secure, sustainable, low-energy systems will have a significant effect on the way in which we design and construct new buildings. In turn, the new buildings that are constructed will play a critical role in delivering the better performance that would be expected from such a transition. Buildings account for about half of UK carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production. So it is urgent to ensure that energy is used efficiently in existing buildings and that new building stock is better able to cope with whatever the future holds. Most energy used in buildings goes towards heating, lighting and cooling, but a growing percentage is consumed by domestic appliances, computers and other electrical equipment. Actual energy consumption is the product of a number of factors, including individual behaviours and expectations, the energy efficiency of appliances and the building envelope. This review focuses on the third of these, the building itself, and its design and construction. It discusses the issues faced by the construction industry today, suggesting that major changes are needed relating to materials, techniques, skills and innovation. It moves on to consider future advances to 2050 and beyond, including developments in ICT, novel materials, skills and automation, servitisation (the trend for manufacturers to offer lifetime services rather than simple products), performance measurement and reporting, and resilience. We present a vision of the new build construction industry in 2050 and recommendations for policy makers, industry organisations and construction companies

  4. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    Cultural Heritage sites are in the current practice, defined as everything you find on a site within a delimited selected area. Written sources and guidelines for the preservation of the cultural heritage, written by the public authorities or professionals describe them as places that tell a story......, and they indicate the importance of this story to be preserved. The professionals, who cooperate on the preservation efforts for the cultural environments today, all emphasizes the communication of the story, but using different approaches towards the processes of reading, interpreting and communicating. The role...... of architects and planners is primarily to reconcile the conservation prospects with the future use of buildings and sites. They intermediary the site through selections of the narratives, and in practice the restoration or transformation projects becomes a communication of the selected story, utilized...

  5. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Today, indoor mold and moisture, and their associated health effects, are a society-wide problem. The economic consequences of indoor mold and moisture are enormous. Their global dimension has been emphasized in several recent international publications, stressing that the most important means...... as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... roles of water and materials, Health, including a state-of-the-art description of the health-related effects of indoor molds, and Strategies, integrating remediation, prevention and policies....

  6. Determining the Most Robust Dimensional Structure of Categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Across Subgroups of Persons With Spinal Cord Injury to Build the Basis for Future Clinical Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Stucki, Gerold; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the most robust dimensional structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant to spinal cord injury (SCI) across subgroups of lesion level, health care context, sex, age, and resources of the country. DESIGN: A mu...... one. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that a 2-dimensional structure separating body functions and body structures from the activity and participation categories should serve as a basis for developing clinical measures in SCI in the future....

  7. Potential Retrofit of Existing Sultan Ismail Parliament Building, Johor to Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Mohd Norazam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of retrofitting an existing building towards green building was introduced to move towards greener development. This paper investigates the benefits of retrofitting an existing building to green building. The potential retrofit of the existing Sultan Ismail Parliament building was also determined and later the elements of the building to be retrofitted were proposed. The Sultan Ismail Parliament building is one of the newest development that serves as the Johor state administrative center under Iskandar Malaysia. Therefore, this paper focuses on whether the existing building has fulfilled all of the green building elements. A set of questionnaire was distributed to the targeted respondents who were the engineers, architects, technicians, staffs and those who were involved in the development of the Sultan Ismail Parliament building. A total of 60 respondents was involved. Based on the analyzed data, it shows that the existing building has fulfilled only one of the green building elements which is the Indoor Environmental Quality. The items that scored 3.5 and above mean index under this element include the daylight glare is not bothering, the ventilation in the building is adequate, inspections are done regularly, smoking regulation is implemented and the number of openings of windows and doors is sufficient. While it shows that other elements were only partially fulfilled. The criteria that achieved below 3.5 mean index values is considered to be the potential elements that could be used for future retrofitting initiative.

  8. Non-Linear Pushover Analysis of Flatslab Building by using Sap2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Soni Priya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent earthquakes in which many concrete structures have been severely damaged or collapsed, have indicated the need for evaluating the seismic adequacy of existing buildings. About 60% of the land area of our country is susceptible to damaging levels of seismic hazard. We can’t avoid future earthquakes, but preparedness and safe building construction practices can certainly reduce the extent of damage and loss. In order to strengthen and resist the buildings for future earthquakes, some procedures have to be adopted. One of the procedures is the static pushover analysis which is becoming a popular tool for seismic performance evaluation of existing and new structures. By conducting this push over analysis, we can know the weak zones in the structure and then we will decide whether the particular part is retrofitted or rehabilitated according to the requirement. In this paper we are performing the push over analysis on flat slabs by using most common software SAP2000.Many existing flat slab buildings may not have been designed for seismic forces. Hence it is important to study their response under seismic conditions and to evaluate seismic retrofit schemes. But when compared to beam-column connections, flat slabs are becoming popular and gaining importance as they are economica.

  9. Sustainable Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  10. Upgrading the seismic capacity of existing RC buildings using buckling restrained braces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abou-Elfath

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many existing RC buildings do not meet the lateral strength requirements of current seismic codes and are vulnerable to significant damage or collapse in the event of future earthquakes. In the past few decades, buckling-restrained braces have become increasingly popular as a lateral force resisting system because of their capability of improving the strength, the stiffness and the energy absorbing capacity of structures. This study evaluates the seismic upgrading of a 6-story RC-building using single diagonal buckling restrained braces. Seismic evaluation in this study has been carried out by static pushover analysis and time history earthquake analysis. Ten ground motions with different PGA levels are used in the analysis. The mean plus one standard deviation values of the roof-drift ratio, the maximum story drift ratio, the brace ductility factors and the member strain responses are used as the basis for the seismic performance evaluations. The results obtained in this study indicate that strengthening of RC buildings with buckling restrained braces is an efficient technique as it significantly increases the PGA capacity of the RC buildings. The results also indicate the increase in the PGA capacity of the RC building with the increase in the amount of the braces.

  11. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  12. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, W. N. F. W. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A.

    2014-02-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed.

  13. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basir, W N F W A; Setan, H; Majid, Z; Chong, A

    2014-01-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed

  14. Imagining a better future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is the outcome of work done on utopias of mobility, discussing different utopian visions from architects, planners, activists and mobility researchers. The work has raised a number of questions on why utopias are important in activating and building different futures. Though...... it is crucial to address the increasing social and environmental problems of contemporary urban societies with a certain element of ‘realism’ (whatever that may mean), the position taken in this paper is rather that we must find new ways of imagining ‘that which is not’. Within mobilities research only recently...

  15. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  16. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...

  17. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  19. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  20. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  1. Research report of fiscal 1997. Research on building up of a NEDO vision (summary of subsidy researches and their future direction); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. NEDO vision no sakutei ni muketa chosa (kofukin chosa no matome to kongo no hosaku ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The planning department of NEDO is required to control development sections, and present the basic policy of activities. The department has thus carried out the following subsidy researches: medium/long-range introduction of new energies, study on the NEDO vision, excavation of concrete project seeds and effective use of its result, systematic preparation of basic data on new energy and energy saving. These subsidy researches sums to 480 for the first 17 years. The department now summarized each previous research data for easy understanding, and constructed the system which can systematically arrange data on future subsidy researches. The department also facilitated building up of the NEDO vision by proposing the direction of future subsidy researches, and prepared a database of the subsidy research reports. The trend of the researches was analyzed by systematically classifying the research results, and an easy retrieval system was constructed by giving retrieval codes to each data. The basic direction of a future research policy and effective use of research results is proposed. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Haberin Geleceği: Gazetelerle İlgili Bilgi Hizmetlerinin Yapılanması ve Kullanımı / The Future of News: Building and Using Information Services in Connection with Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. İnci Önal

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to specify the current stand and future of information services in providing news. Libraries and archives that collect newspapers, and supply services to let the readers to have quick and easy access to their contents, increase their activities and in conjunction to this, their experience. As an initial step of the present research, by methods of interviewing and administering questionnaires, Ankara branch office responsible of six nationwide distributed daily newspapers were investigated. Data were compiled about the present situation, provided services, problems to be confronted, and work plans. According to the evaluations, it seems that the developments in information technologies would also impose important tasks to librariesin case of disseminating newspaper information.

  3. Future of palliative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Bhatnagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A ′need-supply′ and ′requirement-distribution mismatch′ along with a continuingneed explosion are the biggest hurdles faced by palliative medicine today. It is the need of the hour to provide an unbiased, equitable and evidence-based palliative care to those in need irrespective of the diagnosis, prognosis, social and economic status or geographical location. Palliative care as a fundamental human right, ensuring provision throughout the illness spectrum, global as well as region-specific capacity building, uniform availability of essential drugs at an affordable price, a multidisciplinary team approachand caregiver-support are some of the achievable goals for the future. This supplanted with a strong political commitment, professional dedication and ′public-private partnerships′ are necessaryto tackle the existing hurdles and the exponentially increasing future need. For effectively going ahead it is of utmost importance to integrate palliative medicine into medical education, healthcare system and societal framework.

  4. A survey of Danish earthen heritage for sustainable building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup; Vestergaard, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Earthen buildings were common in Denmark up until circa 1880, after which the number of such buildings declined. Today earthen buildings are considered as examples of sustainable architecture, nevertheless there are only few contemporary Danish earthen buildings. The first part of this paper...... to contribute to future sustainable building....... investigates heritage uses of earthen building with a view to exploring the factors that led to their decline. To achieve this, the paper will present a literature study and a case study. The second part of this paper comments on the extent to which the earthen heritage techniques have the potential...

  5. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    International involvement in particle physics is what the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) is all about. At the latest Future Perspectives meeting at Brookhaven from 5-10 October (after a keynote speech by doyen Viktor Weisskopf, who regretted the emergence of 'a nationalistic trend'), ICFA reviewed progress and examined its commitments in the light of the evolving world particle physics scene. Particular aims were to review worldwide accelerator achievements and plans, to survey the work of the four panels, and to discuss ICFA's special role in future cooperation in accelerator construction and use, and in research and development work for both accelerators and for detectors

  6. Future Savvy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Adam

    -tank forecasts, consultant reports, and stock-market guides. These resources are crucial, but they are also of very mixed quality. How can decision-makers know which predictions to take seriously, which to be wary of, and which to throw out entirely? Future Savvy provides analytical filters to judging predictive......There's no shortage of predictions available to organizations looking to anticipate and profit from future events or trends. Apparently helpful forecasts are ubiquitous in everyday communications such as newspapers and business magazines, and in specialized sources such as government and think...... material of all types, including providing a battery of critical tests to apply to any forecast to assess its validity, and judge how to fit it into everyday management thinking. The book synthesizes information assessment skills and future studies tools into a single template that allows managers to apply...

  7. Energy Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    foresight and public and stakeholder engagement are used to reflect on?and direct?the impacts of new technology. In this essay we draw on our experience of anticipatory governance, in the shape of the ?NanoFutures? project on energy futures, to present a reflexive analysis of engagement and deliberation. We...... draw out five tensions of the practice of deliberation on energy technologies. Through tracing the lineages of these dilemmas, we discuss some of the implications of these tensions for the practice of civic engagement and deliberation in a set of questions for this community of practitioner-scholars....

  8. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  9. 105-C Building characterization survey data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the 105-C Facility Characterization Survey data collected during the period of July 1, 1994, through September 30, 1994. The scope of the report is limited to the characterization of the 105-C Facility and surrounding site. Conclusions and recommendations regarding courses of future action are beyond the scope of this report. The survey data in this report reflects the current conditions and status of the 105-C Building, and is intended to be used in support of future decontamination and decommissioning activities. The survey was organized and implemented to evaluate the four parameters relating to the current condition of the facility. These parameters concern the physical conditions of the 105-C Building from a personnel safety standpoint; the radiological status throughout the building; identification of the hazardous materials located in the building; and identification of subsurface obstacles left in the path of proposed excavations

  10. Toward a Psychology of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A; Dodds, Agnes E

    2018-03-01

    Resistance is all around us in contemporary life. It is an everyday phenomenon of personal and cultural life, as the Chaudhary et al. (2017) volume establishes with theoretical analyses and empirical examples from diverse cultural contexts. Resistance functions in the dynamics of person-by-culture encounters when one party takes an opposing position. With the purpose of working towards a unified approach to resistance, the authors in this volume lay down the foundations for a psychology of resistance as an everyday phenomenon. As a basis for analyzing the role of resistance in the dialectical processes of change, the volume presents resistance as: personal and social, oppositional, intentional and future-oriented, transformational and developmental. We see different positions opening up a debate about whether resistance is a particular, intentional and oppositional phenomenon, or is the basic process of all dialectical transformational change. Further resistance to either position is consistent with moving forward in the development of a psychology of resistance.

  11. Empirical mode decomposition and k-nearest embedding vectors for timely analyses of antibiotic resistance trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Teodoro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major worldwide public health concern. In clinical settings, timely antibiotic resistance information is key for care providers as it allows appropriate targeted treatment or improved empirical treatment when the specific results of the patient are not yet available. OBJECTIVE: To improve antibiotic resistance trend analysis algorithms by building a novel, fully data-driven forecasting method from the combination of trend extraction and machine learning models for enhanced biosurveillance systems. METHODS: We investigate a robust model for extraction and forecasting of antibiotic resistance trends using a decade of microbiology data. Our method consists of breaking down the resistance time series into independent oscillatory components via the empirical mode decomposition technique. The resulting waveforms describing intrinsic resistance trends serve as the input for the forecasting algorithm. The algorithm applies the delay coordinate embedding theorem together with the k-nearest neighbor framework to project mappings from past events into the future dimension and estimate the resistance levels. RESULTS: The algorithms that decompose the resistance time series and filter out high frequency components showed statistically significant performance improvements in comparison with a benchmark random walk model. We present further qualitative use-cases of antibiotic resistance trend extraction, where empirical mode decomposition was applied to highlight the specificities of the resistance trends. CONCLUSION: The decomposition of the raw signal was found not only to yield valuable insight into the resistance evolution, but also to produce novel models of resistance forecasters with boosted prediction performance, which could be utilized as a complementary method in the analysis of antibiotic resistance trends.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  13. Bitcoin futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Søren Bundgaard

    2018-01-01

    Med introduktionen af et futures-marked er Bitcoin-eksponering blevet tilgængelig for en bredere gruppe af investorer, som hidtil ikke har kunnet eller villet tilgå det underliggende marked for Bitcoin. Artiklen finder, at kontrakterne umiddelbart favoriserer spekulanter på bekostning af hedgers og...

  14. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  15. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  16. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

  17. Detection of Cavities Using Pole-Dipole Resistivity Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elawadi, Eslam; El-Qady, Gad; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Using pole-dipole array, electrical resistivity survey was conducted to investigate the subsurface under a subsiding building located in Kita Kyushu area, Japan. The resistivity measurements were acquired along two traverse lines and interpreted using a g

  18. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  19. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  20. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  1. Two Italian pupils building an MRPC muon chamber in CERN’s Building 29

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For several months, Italian secondary school pupils have been coming to CERN each week and heading for Building 29. They are participating in the EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, the aim of which is to carry out a real-life experiment in search of large atmospheric showers using muon detectors located in their schools. In this hall at CERN they are helping to build and test muon chambers - MRPCs (Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers).

  2. New approaches to building plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.; Keuter, D.; Fici, J.; Hucik, S.; Kim, S. H.; Esteve, B.; Hiwano, M.

    2004-01-01

    We are here today with a group of representatives from a good number of the companies capable of building nuclear power plants to hold a roundtable discussion on a subject of importance, namely New approaches to building plants. I would mention that despite the hard times suffered by our industry, a significant number of Main Suppliers have stayed in business, along with an important associated industry in the fields of equipment goods, engineering and construction. In fact, not only has it been possible to maintain the high level of technology and experience achieved, but also to update and improve it. While navigating this sea of troubles our companies have continued to provide and efficient support to nuclear power plants in operation, develop solutions to upgrade them, build the few new power plants demanded by the market and create advanced designs for new programmes. It has not been easy, but the results are there for everyone to see. Our industry is prepared to tackle new projects based on the lessons learned from the construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants worldwide, and the efforts of firms and authorities around the world to prepare for the launching of future generations of power plants. The conclusion is that we can count on an industry that is alive, healthy and has a large potential for growth, and which is convinced that there is a need for nuclear energy and that the conditions for its future revival are swiftly improving

  3. Green buildings as a part of the infrastructure: Supporter, symbol or stranger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2002-01-01

    Building green has to balance between fitting into the specific local conditions and being different from them. But being too different leads to conflicts – too much adaptation destroys the greenness of the building. In relation to infrastructure, it is argued that green buildings can have the role...... as supporter, symbol or stranger. Through three case studies of green buildings in Denmark the relation between buildings and infrastructure is explored, and discussed in relation to the future role of green buildings....

  4. Green buildings as a part of the infrastructure: Supporter, symbol or stranger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2002-01-01

    Building green has to balance between fitting into the specific local conditions and being different from them. But being too different leads to conflicts – too much adaptation destroys the greenness of the building. In relation to infrastructure, it is argued that green buildings can have the ro...... as supporter, symbol or stranger. Through three case studies of green buildings in Denmark the relation between buildings and infrastructure is explored, and discussed in relation to the future role of green buildings....

  5. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  6. Towards Sustainable Building: Case Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marinoiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the actual situation of the green buildings in our country but also the degree in which the real estate developers are involved in such projects. The study was conducted by combining a wide variety of sources, such as regulations, position papers, as well as articles and research reports. The results of the research show that the market for green buildings in Romania is at an early stage of development however, there are prerequisites for its development. In the future, green building will become the standard in the construction industry.

  7. Preindustrial versus postindustrial Architecture and Building Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    out how living conditions, landscape and topology, how climate and the possibility to use local materials for construction and how actual building technology influences the design, the economy, the comfort and the energy use. Analysis involves architectural, technical and comfort matters...... will characterize a future building stock and to which level buildings are expected to operate in relation to the actual demands of zero energy performance and better indoor living comfort. In that way we will be aware of the great evolution in our ways of managing the physical frame of our daily life....

  8. Bringing buildings to the carbon marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, H. [University of California, Berkeley Institute of Urban and Regional Development (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The built environment has an essential role to play in the transition to a lowcarbon future envisaged in the Kyoto Protocol: buildings account for one-third to half of all energy consumption in developed countries. As yet, however, market-based policy tools have had little bearing on the construction professions. This paper examines the relevant issues and suggests a role for market-based mechanisms in overcoming some deep-seated barriers to the uptake of energyefficiency measures in buildings. Finally, it uses case study examples of lowenergy building projects in California to illustrate the potential for innovative use of market-based mechanisms in this field. (orig.)

  9. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  10. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  11. Drawing Futures

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Drawing Futures brings together international designers and artists for speculations in contemporary drawing for art and architecture. Despite numerous developments in technological manufacture and computational design that provide new grounds for designers, the act of drawing still plays a central role as a vehicle for speculation. There is a rich and long history of drawing tied to innovations in technology as well as to revolutions in our philosophical understanding of the world. In re...

  12. Future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Topics presented concerning the future developments in risk analysis are: safety goals, US severe accident policy, code developments, research programs, analyses and operation action, linking with the deterministic analyses. Principle consideration in risk is defined as protection of both general population, and nearby residents. The principal goal should be consistent with risk of other man-caused activities, the cost benefit after minimum safety levels are achieved, and proportional to benefits to be gained

  13. Relationships and Authentic Collaboration: Perceptions of a Building Leadership Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tonya

    2015-01-01

    This research examined perceptions of a Building Leadership Team (BLT) regarding the school climate, collegial relationships, camaraderie, and team-building skills among certified faculty. Participants' perceptions changed from resistance accession once a clear understanding of authentic collaboration developed through five job-embedded…

  14. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, William L.

    1979-04-01

    A bibliography of published papers describing models, measurement techniques, apparatus, and data for the thermal performance of whole buildings and building envelope systems has been collected (aggregate energy consumption of whole buildings, performance of HVAC equipment, and solar technologies are not included). Summary descriptions of the content of each citation are provided. Measurements on whole buildings or on systems other than walls are sparse. However, new and recently completed measurement facilities are increasing these capabilities. Measurements under dynamic conditions are difficult to accomplish and few reliable data exist. Some analogs have been explored experimentally and analytically. Citations on analytical models are selective and concentrate on methodology that forms the basis of computer programs for whole-building energy analysis. Interesting future directions include new approaches to dynamic measurements, both in the laboratory and in the field, for envelope systems and for whole buildings.

  15. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  16. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  17. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  18. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  19. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  20. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  1. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  2. Building Blueprints: Making Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Depicts how Cornell University renovated its civil engineering and architecture building to include space for musical performances, teaching, and rehearsals. The article highlights the facility's contemporary design, which also compliments the form and massing of the original building. (GR)

  3. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  4. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  5. State Capitol Buildings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  6. Energy performance in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'O, Giuliano; Galante, Annalisa; Pitera, Luca

    2006-01-01

    The adoption of the building sector regulations strongly oriented to the energy sustainability becomes more effective, also on the economic plan, if placed by one spread of the energetic certification of the buildings [it

  7. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  8. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  9. [The Future of Vo-Ag Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Daniel D.

    U.S. agriculture has built its reputation on the best agricultural education system in the world. However, its greatness only provides a solid foundation on which to build an even better future. Some things that must be done to meet the challenge of the future are the following: (1) change the stereotypes of what farming is; vocational agriculture…

  10. Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes cross-industrial best practices and future trends in the context of the contemporary resource based competitive advantage model of the firm. It identifies key managerial levers, tools and systems that can be used to build and sustain a Hi-Technology company’s core competences in order to facilitate a more innovative, collaborative 21st century corporate culture. A qualitative and quantitative assessment is made of how a firm’s leadership, human capital management, organizational culture, design and systems can all collectively merge to create a more dynamic and responsive organization which is far more adept at building unique resources and capabilities, which can then be leveraged to create new market opportunities with high competitive entry barriers.

  11. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  12. Management Of Building Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Niko Majdandzic; Tadija Lovric; Vido Peric

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have shown the concept of logistic support in management in building production and in building of objects, which is realised in Enterprise resource Planning – ERP system ERPINSG, developed in Informatic firm Informatic engineering – ININ in Slavonski Brod, and in cooperation with scientists of catedra for informatics of Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and users from building firms.

  13. Dutch Building Decree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    On the 1 October 1992 a change in the Dutch building legislation took effect: the revised Housing Act, the Building Decree and the technical documents related to this legislation came into force. This publication contains an English translation of the Building Decree. In order to give an idea of the

  14. Library Buildings and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringdulph, Robert E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Six articles discuss library buildings and construction: (1) library buildings and their parts; (2) the North Campus Library of California State University at Long Beach in 1995; (3) new structures for teaching libraries; (4) construction standards for California public libraries; (5) Sick (Library) Building Syndrome; and (6) using focus-group…

  15. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  16. Building founding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Seiya; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1996-01-01

    The lower portion of a reactor building is buried at a level of a base rock. In the step of building construction, the base rock around the building is dug of keeping a construction space. The base rock present between the digging line and the building is replaced with an artificial base rock comprising aggregates and cement having a building constraining force substantially equal with that of the lower supporting base rock to obtain constraining force for the side portion of the building. The building itself is made of concrete steels. As the material for replacing the base rock between the digging line and the building, non-reinforced concrete having no steels may provide sufficient function. The burying depth is determined so as to align the surface of the base rock with the level of the base floor of the building. With such procedures, since it is not necessary to increase the area of the lower portion of the building, the amount of the materials for the building can be reduced. In addition, the earthquakes stability can be ensured without changing the shape of the building. (I.N.)

  17. Building peace education in the Islamic educational context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nimer, Mohammed; Nasser, Ilham

    2017-04-01

    Following the events of 9/11, many misconceptions entered the policy-making platform with regard to the need for education reforms in the Muslim world. Based upon Western cultural and societal norms and increased scepticism of the role of religion in violence, these assumptions have triggered a strong wave of calls for a top-down approach to reform formal state schools in predominantly Muslim countries, These calls often meet with resistance at national and community levels. This article seeks to examine these misconceptions and investigate why educational reform efforts through top-down frameworks which are especially motivated by countering violent extremism or terrorism have had only limited success. Many major international intergovernmental organisations, non-governmental organisations and governments have invested time and effort into education measures aiming to build peace and coexistence in Muslim countries, but they have been unable to build a relationship of trust with community leaders and school authorities. The authors argue that the main reason for defiance is reformers' failure to closely examine the cultural context of their chosen setting and work with existing tools and local institutions. Illustrating their point with a case study of an intervention carried out in informal Qur'anic schools in Niger, West Africa, the authors offer an alternative method which fosters changes from within. They argue that this model has a better chance of sustainability and could thus be used as the basis for future interventions.

  18. Carbon footprint of construction using industrialised building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P. Y.; Yahya, K.; Aminudin, E.; Zakaria, R.; Haron, Z.; Mohamad Zin, R.; Redzuan, A. A. H.

    2017-11-01

    Industrialised Building System (IBS) is more sustainable to the environment as compared to the conventional construction methods. However, the construction industry in Malaysia has low acceptance towards IBS due to the resistance to change and also lack of awareness towards sustainability development. Therefore, it is important to study the amount carbon footprint produced by IBS during its manufacturing and construction stage, and also the amount of carbon footprint produced by one meter square of gross floor area of IBS construction using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to ease future research through the comparison of the carbon footprint of IBS with the conventional building system. As a result, a case study on a residential type of construction in the vicinity of Johor Bahru, Malaysia was carried out to obtain the necessary data and result. From the data analysis, the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for a residential type IBS construction based on the raw materials and resources involved to manufacture and construct IBS components is 0.127 tonnes fossil CO2Eq per meter square. Raw material that contributed to the most amount of carbon footprint is Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), followed by steel bars, autoclaved aerated blocks and diesel. The LCA data acquired will be very useful in implementing IBS in the residential type construction. As a result, the awareness towards sustainable construction using IBS can be improved.

  19. Future Climate Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambell, C. G.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this report provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the following reports: ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]), ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504]), ''Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170012]), and ''Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170013]). Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one available forecasting method for establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The selection of different methods is directly dependent on the available evidence used to build a forecasting argument. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. While alternative analyses are possible for the case presented for Yucca Mountain, the evidence (data) used would be the same and the conclusions would not be expected to drastically change. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past climates resulting in a different future climate analog. Other alternative

  20. Future Climate Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. G. Cambell

    2004-09-03

    This report documents an analysis that was performed to estimate climatic variables for the next 10,000 years by forecasting the timing and nature of climate change at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The future-climate estimates are based on an analysis of past-climate data from analog meteorological stations, and this report provides the rationale for the selection of these analog stations. The stations selected provide an upper and a lower climate bound for each future climate, and the data from those sites will provide input to the following reports: ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]), ''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504]), ''Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170012]), and ''Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170013]). Forecasting long-term future climates, especially for the next 10,000 years, is highly speculative and rarely attempted. A very limited literature exists concerning the subject, largely from the British radioactive waste disposal effort. The discussion presented here is one available forecasting method for establishing upper and lower bounds for future climate estimates. The selection of different methods is directly dependent on the available evidence used to build a forecasting argument. The method used here involves selecting a particular past climate from many past climates, as an analog for future climate. While alternative analyses are possible for the case presented for Yucca Mountain, the evidence (data) used would be the same and the conclusions would not be expected to drastically change. Other studies might develop a different rationale or select other past

  1. Classifying new anti-tuberculosis drugs: rationale and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tiberi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs is important as it helps the clinician to build an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases that do not fulfil the criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines, the choice of drugs was based on efficacy and toxicity in a step-down manner, from group 1 first-line drugs and groups 2–5 second-line drugs, to group 5 drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence. In the revised WHO classification, exclusively aimed at managing drug-resistant cases, medicines are again listed in hierarchical order from group A to group D. In parallel, a possible future classification is independently proposed. The aim of this viewpoint article is to describe the evolution in WHO TB classification (taking into account an independently proposed new classification and recent changes in WHO guidance, while commenting on the differences between them. The latest evidence on the ex-group 5 drugs is also discussed.

  2. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from......This report provides a summary of the national input from Denmark to the EPISCOPE project supported by Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the EU. The strategic objective of EPISCOPE was to make the energy refurbishment processes in the European housing sector more transparent and effective...... enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...

  3. Future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Croce, A.

    1991-01-01

    According to George Woodwell, founder of the Woods Hole Research Center, due the combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation and accelerated respiration, the net annual increase of carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, to the 750 billion tonnes already present in the earth's atmosphere, is in the order of 3 to 5 billion tonnes. Around the world, scientists, investigating the probable effects of this increase on the earth's future climate, are now formulating coupled air and ocean current models which take account of water temperature and salinity dependent carbon dioxide exchange mechanisms acting between the atmosphere and deep layers of ocean waters

  4. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  5. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of potential responses to future high levels of transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral drug-naive populations beginning treatment: modelling study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec; Revill, Paul; Pillay, Deenan; Lundgren, Jens D; Bennett, Diane; Raizes, Elliott; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; De Luca, Andrea; Vitoria, Marco; Barcarolo, Jhoney; Perriens, Joseph; Jordan, Michael R; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    With continued roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, evidence is emerging of increasing levels of transmitted drug-resistant HIV. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different potential public health responses to substantial levels of transmitted drug resistance. We created a model of HIV transmission, progression, and the effects of ART, which accounted for resistance generation, transmission, and disappearance of resistance from majority virus in the absence of drug pressure. We simulated 5000 ART programmatic scenarios with different prevalence levels of detectable resistance in people starting ART in 2017 (t0) who had not previously been exposed to antiretroviral drugs. We used the model to predict cost-effectiveness of various potential changes in policy triggered by different prevalence levels of resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) measured in the population starting ART. Individual-level resistance testing before ART initiation was not generally a cost-effective option, irrespective of the cost-effectiveness threshold. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of US$500 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), no change in policy was cost effective (ie, no change in policy would involve paying less than $500 per QALY gained), irrespective of the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI resistance, because of the increased cost of the policy alternatives. At thresholds of $1000 or higher, and with the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI resistance greater than 10%, a policy to measure viral load 6 months after ART initiation became cost effective. The policy option to change the standard first-line treatment to a boosted protease inhibitor regimen became cost effective at a prevalence of NNRTI resistance higher than 15%, for cost-effectiveness thresholds greater than $2000. Cost-effectiveness of potential policies to adopt in response to different levels of pretreatment HIV drug

  6. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  7. The future of antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance continues to spread even as society is experiencing a market failure of new antibiotic research and development (R&D). Scientific, economic, and regulatory barriers all contribute to the antibiotic market failure. Scientific solutions to rekindle R&D include finding new screening strategies to identify novel antibiotic scaffolds and transforming the way we think about treating infections, such that the goal is to disarm the pathogen without killing it or modulate the host response to the organism without targeting the organism for destruction. Future economic strategies are likely to focus on ‘push’ incentives offered by public-private partnerships as well as increasing pricing by focusing development on areas of high unmet need. Such strategies can also help protect new antibiotics from overuse after marketing. Regulatory reform is needed to re-establish feasible and meaningful traditional antibiotic pathways, to create novel limited-use pathways that focus on highly resistant infections, and to harmonize regulatory standards across nations. We need new antibiotics with which to treat our patients. But we also need to protect those new antibiotics from misuse when they become available. If we want to break the cycle of resistance and change the current landscape, disruptive approaches that challenge long-standing dogma will be needed. PMID:25043962

  8. Thermal build-up, decay and retention responses to local therapeutic application of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency: A prospective randomised crossover study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Binoy; Watson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency-based electrophysical agents are widely used in therapy-related clinical practice for their thermal effects, mainly relieving pain and inflammation and improving tissue extensibility. The most commonly used and researched are shortwave therapies that operate at 27.12 MHz. Although relatively new, electrophysical agents employing much lower frequencies have also emerged. Capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency employing 448 kHz is one such therapy. This laboratory-based study was aimed to investigate the skin thermal responses to 448 kHz radiofrequency-based therapy in healthy adults. In a two-group randomised crossover study, 15 volunteers attended two modes (capacitive and resistive) of 448 kHz radiofrequency-based therapy (using 'Indiba Activ 902') administered locally to the lower thigh region. Starting at minimum, the intensity was increased incrementally until thermal discomfort was felt. Participants reported three time points: thermal onset, definite thermal sensation, and onset of thermal discomfort. Local skin temperature was measured before, immediately post-treatment and up to 45 min post-treatment. Both capacitive and resistive modes of therapy significantly increased the skin temperature and sustained it over the 45-min follow-up. There was statistically significant difference between the thermal response patterns produced by the two modes. Peak post-treatment temperatures attained were not significantly different between the two; however, the retention rate at follow-up was significantly higher for the resistive mode. This study confirms that radiofrequency-based therapy at 448 kHz can significantly increase and sustain skin temperature. The study also provides useful baseline data for further research in the low frequency ranges of radiofrequency-based therapy that remain largely unexplored.

  9. Greece is the future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douzinas, Costas; Risager, Bjarke Skærlund

    2014-01-01

    Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas.......Austerity and popular resistance are essential to a political diagnosis for contemporary Europe. Political developments in Greece will show whether the future of Europe is one of neoliberal restructuring or one of a democratic socialist alternative. An interview with Costas Douzinas....

  10. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...... of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive...... results. In the broader sense, however, there is a limited used of available methods and technologies. Barriers for the use of sustainable building operation have been identified, and related to different types of ownership (social housing, private rented, owner-occupied and private co-ops). The survey...

  11. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  12. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed....... The paper demonstrates measures for the improvement of the thermal insulation of the building with solid brick walls. Durable customised measures are shown. The customised measures are required not to change the overall exterior architecture as the building is considered to contribute to the uniqueness...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  13. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....

  14. Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Klaus; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    Thsi paper describes recent efforts made by the Danish Building Research Institute regarding the integration of a life cycle assessment (LCA) method into a whole building hygro-thermal simulation tool. The motivation for the work is that the increased requirements to the energy performance...... of buildings (as expressed in EU Directive 2002/91/EC), may in the future be supplemented by requirements to the environmental impact of buildings. This can be seen by the fact that EU recently has given EN mandate to prepare standards for environmental assessment of buildings (CEN/TC 350)....

  15. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  16. Future Talks,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Defeyt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des matériaux modernes et les difficultés qui la caractérisent étaient l’objet du colloque international Future Talks, organisé par Die Neue Sammlung, The International Design Museum, les 22 et 23 octobre 2009 à Munich. Conservateurs-restaurateurs spécialisés, représentants des  institutions muséales les plus prestigieuses d’Europe et d’outre-Atlantique ainsi que chercheurs en sciences appliquées y ont présenté leurs travaux et recherches. En matière de design, d’art moderne e...

  17. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  18. Risk, Resilience, and Alternative Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    of its work around the production of The Global Risks Report. The paper discusses the The Global Risks Report and the models of alternative futures outlined in the report, as examples of organizational scenario-building. The report draws on expertise available within the different communities...... that the scenarios articulate a particular form of 'anticipatory knowledge', geared to contribute to the shaping of political priorities and agendas. The scenarios aim to shape perceptions of what constitute 'global problems', and how they might best be addressed and governed. Hence, they contribute...... to the anticipatory governance of WEF, i.e. governance geared to integrate imaginaries of the future into regulatory processes....

  19. ISOLDE - Accelerating Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) was first developed in Copenhagen in the late 50s. The technique was taken to CERN in the 60s and the CERN facility was given the name ISOLDE. The method is based on energetic protons hitting a solid target. The reaction products produced through spallation, fission and fragmentation are heated out in the form of an electrically neutral gas. In the subsequent steps the gas is ionized, accelerated and magnetically separated to produce isotopically pure beams for experiments in nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics, solid state physics and for medical applications. An overview will be given of the physics at ISOLDE as well as over the techniques used to produce the necessary isotopes. Furthermore, a part of the talk will be dedicated to the future plans at ISOLDE including the proposal to build a next generation radioactive beam facility at CERN. The talk ends with a guided visit to the ISOLDE facility. Prerequisite knowledge: None.

  20. Catalyseurs et procédés catalytiques utilisés dans la production des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Situation actuelle et futur Catalysts and Catalytic Processes Used for the Production of the Major Petrochemical Building Blocks. Present Situation and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitiaux J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La pétrochimie représente une part modeste du marché des catalyseurs, mais les dix dernières années ont vu des améliorations substantielles des catalyseurs et des procédés utilisés. Ces améliorations ont permis de mieux répondre à la demande en grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Cette évolution est bien illustrée par les hydrogénations, autour du vapocraquage destiné à produire des oléfines, par le reformage catalytique et les procédés satellites destinés à produire des aromatiques et par les nouveaux procédés de déshydrogénation, métathèse, oligomérisation. . . qui permettent de mieux équilibrer le marché des oléfines. Petrochemicals account for a modest share of the market for catalysts, but there have been substantial improvements in the catalysts and processes used in the last ten years. These improvements have brought about a better response to the demand for major petrochemical building blocks. This trend is clearly illustrated by hydrogenations in the field of steam cracking to produce olefins, by catalytic reforming and satellite processes to produce aromatics, and by new processes such as dehydrogenation, metathesis and oligomerization which provide better balance to the market for olefins.

  1. Building the Sustainable Library at Macquarie University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    This article explores a number of current issues and challenges in sustainability, both of and in academic libraries of the future, using as a case study the new library opened at Macquarie University, Sydney in 2011. Issues covered include sustainable design and operation of library buildings, sustainability in relation to library collections,…

  2. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  3. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  4. Designing the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friso de Zeeuw

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has a tradition in public spatial planning and design. In the past 20 years, we have seen an increasing role for the market in this field, and more recently, growing attention for sustainability. Sustainability has become an economic factor. Not only at the building level, but also on the level of large-scale area development projects. More and more local governments have high ambitions for sustainable development. Increasingly, during project development, buildings are developed on a sustainable basis. Most of the time, the focus in this approach is on energy. However, sustainability also comprises social aspects. Energy measures have a direct relation to an economic factor such as investment costs, and payback time can be calculated. The economic aspects of social sustainability are more complex. Therefore, for all sustainability development projects, especially in large-scale projects planned over a longer period, it is necessary to make presumptions, which are less reliable as the planning period is extended. For future larger-scale developments, experience in the Netherlands points to two design approaches: ‘backcasting’, or using a growth model (or a combination of these two. The power of design is the ability to imagine possible scenarios for the future. The layer approach helps to integrate sustainability into public spatial planning. And more specifically, Urban Design Management (UDM supports an integrative and collaborative approach also on the operational level of a project in which public and market partners work together. This article outlines how design, based on these approaches, can contribute to sustainable development based on the ‘new playing field’, where spatial problems should be solved in networks. Dutch projects in Almere (Benoordenhout and Rijswijk are used to illustrate this approach.

  5. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  6. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management......The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids...

  7. Re-conceiving building design quality: A review of building users in their social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kelly J; Evans, James; Karvonen, Andrew; Whitley, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Considerable overlap exists between post-occupancy research evaluating building design quality and the concept of 'social value', popularised by its recent application to issues of the public realm. To outline this potential research agenda, the paper reviews design quality research on buildings in relation to users and their social context where the term 'social context' refers to building user group dynamics, a combination of organisational cultures, management strategies, and social norms and practices. The review is conducted across five key building types, namely housing, workplaces, healthcare, education, and the retail/service sector. Research commonalities and gaps are identified in order to build a more comprehensive picture of the design quality literature and its handling of users in their social context. The key findings concerning each building type are presented visually. It is concluded that the design quality field comprises a patchwork of relatively isolated studies of various building types, with significant potential for theoretical and empirical development through interdisciplinary collaboration. Users tend to be conceived as anonymous and autonomous individuals with little analysis of user identity or interaction. Further, the contextual impact of user group dynamics on the relationship between building design and building user is rarely addressed in the literature. Producing a more nuanced understanding of users in situ is proposed as an important area for future design quality research.

  8. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  9. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  10. The wind resistance of asphalt roofing shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Craig Robert

    Asphalt shingle roofing is the leading cause of hurricane wind-related insured losses in residential buildings. Damage statistics generated from recent hurricanes indicate shingle roofs sustain damage in wind velocities below design-level with damage frequency increasing with shingle roof age. The objective of this dissertation is the identification of primary mechanisms triggering the failure of shingle roof systems in wind. The research goal is to reduce future shingle roof wind damage and improve our ability to predict asphalt shingle wind resistance. Five studies comprising this dissertation addressed the adhesive consistency and strength of aged asphalt shingles, system-level wind resistance, and the load model underpinning the ASTM D7158 wind test standard. The most significant and unexpected finding was partially unsealed shingles on field, hip, and ridge locations on Florida and Texas homes. Location on the shingle's sealant strip where unsealed and failure mode were consistent at each location. Total quantity of partially unsealed shingles in the field of the roof significantly increased with age, aligning with damage statistics. Full-scale wind tunnel tests demonstrate partially unsealed shingles are more vulnerable than fully sealed due to increased distributed force on sealant strip and concentrated force at the adhered and non-adhered interface. Uplift resistance was measured in artificially and naturally aged shingles. For artificially aged shingles, one of three products evaluated had statistically significant decreases in mean uplift resistance as exposure time increased. However, resistance was above design-level at all exposure test intervals. Naturally aged shingles also had resistance above design-level. Combined results demonstrate that reduced uplift capacity can occur, but high initial bond strength promotes long-term uplift resistance. Wind loads exerted on the shingles sealant strip load path were directly measured on fully sealed and

  11. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional and econo......Today the dying and the bereaved attend memorialization both online and offline. Cemeteries, urns, coffins, graves, memorials, monuments, websites, social network sites, applications and software services, form technologies that are influenced by discourse, culture, public, professional...... and economic power. They constitute parts of an intricately weaved and interrelated network of practices and designs dealing with death, mourning, memorialization and remembrance. The paper presents findings from two research projects; the 2015 exhibition Death: The Human Experience at Bristol Museum and Art...... Gallery (bristolmuseums.org.uk) and the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 held by the Centre for Death and Society and Arnos Vale Cemetery in Bristol (futurecemetery.org). Grounded in sociological theory on death and memorialization technologies, ethnographic fieldwork and survey results (n=348...

  12. Quintessence Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Brax, P.; Martin, J.; Riazuelo, A.

    2001-01-01

    A short review of some of the aspects of quintessence model building is presented. We emphasize the role of tracking models and their possible supersymmetric origin. A short review of some of the aspects of quintessence model building is presented. We emphasize the role of tracking models and their possible supersymmetric origin. A short review of some of the aspects of quintessence model building is presented. We emphasize the role of tracking models and their possible supersymmetric o...

  13. Technical Management for Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'auto...

  14. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  15. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  16. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  17. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  18. Building a meaningful future for young people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    2008-10-01

    Transitioning to adulthood is challenging for young people who have a mental illness or substance use disorder, especially those who are transitioning from institutional care. For young people with serious mental illnesses to succeed in the adult world, they need more than treatment.These youth need to be truly integrated into their communities. They need jobs that offer skills, dignity, independence, and peers. They need a responsible and caring older adult who can help them to make better choices, learn from their mistakes, and applaud their successes, no matter how small. Community providers can create these opportunities through their own programs or appropriate community collaborations.

  19. Motuca healthy municipality project: building together a better future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Falvo, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Municipality of Motuca and the School of Public Health at the University of São Paulo set up in 2002 the Motuca Healthy Municipality project with the aim of improving the population's health and quality of life. The project used a participatory and holistic approach, which addressed the social determinants and structural inequities, and called for strategies of community empowerment, social participation, intersectoral networking and good governance. All local and public actors from rural and urban areas were consulted and participated in the project to collect information on the living conditions and challenges to better wellbeing. This participatory methodology allowed in turn developing cultural and socially appropriate initiatives to improve local governance and standards of living on a long-term basis. Although there is still the challenge to maintain the momentum and reenergize the efforts, the project serves as a model for further efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of participatory intervention and research methodologies to promote health and well-being in communities.

  20. Building materials for a sustainable future – cement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (12%), 4. Timber and wood (10%), 5. Tiles and sanitary ware (9%), 6. plastics (4%), 7.non-ferrous metals (4%), 8. glass (3%). Four companies account for more than 80% of cement produced in South Africa. These are AfriSam South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Natal...

  1. Aspects of retrievability regarding future strategy and confidence building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, B.P.; Vate, L. van de

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 the Dutch Government issued the official statement that geological storage of high toxic waste (among which radioactive waste) will only be permitted under the condition of retrievability. This boundary condition opened a wide variety of new aspects. Not only of technical and safety nature but also meant a stimulant to reopen the social-ethical debate, not in the least because retrievability offered a variety of objectives to be purchased. The rigid political ordination with respect to retrievability was induced by two former technical reports, one of the Council for Environmental and Nature Research named 'On top or deep down' and a second carried out by the Delft Technical University Mining Faculty, ordered by the 'Research Commission for Radioactive Waste Disposal'. Both reports concluded that in rock salt - at that time the chosen host rock in the Netherlands - a retrievable option was feasible. The report from the Delft University concluded that a period of 100 years was almost certain to be guaranteed, most likely considerably longer in conjunction with maintenance capacities. Since 1995 the new Research Commission on Radioactive Waste Disposal has focussed its activities very clearly on two subjects, retrievability and clay, the latter as an alternative host rock. Besides a series of technical aspects with respect to the retrievable option, much attention was paid to the strategic consequences of this option. In the first place the question of which objectives can be purchased. Seven major objectives were identified, which are: 1. Removal in case of unexpected calamities; 2. Removal - eventually of waste with special characteristics - in order to subject to transmutation processes; 3. Removal in favour of economical reuse; 4. Monitoring to validate the results of modelling studies and other computations in a 'one to one' situation in space and time in the original geological and mining-technical setting; 5. To redesign details of the mining concept at the hand of monitoring results and practical experiments; 6. To enable a procedure of chronological part-decisions with respect to 'go - no go'; 7. Feeding the 'rolling present' concept of NEA with the most relevant information to bring a final decision on definite closure to the highest level of security

  2. Building a Sustainable Future: Ecological Design in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Miho

    2011-01-01

    It is no surprise that many environmental education programs include outdoor experiences as a foundational part of their curriculum; after all, who better to teach ecological lessons than nature itself? In contrast, there are inherent challenges to teaching environmental education while restricted inside a classroom. The average student currently…

  3. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended…

  4. Building and Maintaining Healthy Organizations: The Key to Future Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    A diamond mine manned by brutalized slave labor or an inhumane sweatshop that manufactures dresses using child workers may be “successful,” but...recall such publicized issues as global warming, sweatshop labor, rain forest destruction), special-interest activism, and rising popular expectations

  5. Georgia Public Expenditure Review : Building a Sustainable Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This Public Expenditure Review (PER) was prepared at the request of the Ministry of Finance of Georgia; its analysis of public spending is designed to inform the Georgian authorities on the fiscal policies that support growth and equity. As Georgia strives to meet the challenges of a fluid global economic environment, this PER is intended to support the government’s efforts to secure macro...

  6. Building and Maintaining Healthy Organizations: The Key to Future Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Lloyd J

    2000-01-01

    ...." In recognition that there are certain commonalities among all organizational, institutional, and bureaucratic entities, whether civilian or military, the symposium construed the term organization in the broadest way...

  7. Mentoring in the Library: Building for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marta K.

    2011-01-01

    Mentorship is essential to the health of any institution; sharing knowledge and experience transforms managers into stronger leaders and helps less senior employees improve their job skills. Noted reference librarian and researcher Lee offers librarians at all levels both her experience and her ideas about establishing a formal mentoring process…

  8. Investing for the future: capacity building in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu André

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, at the request of UNHCR , the French NGO Forum Réfugiés led two missions to help strengthen local capacity in Morocco to provide legal advice and assistance for asylum seekers and refugees.

  9. Investing for the future: capacity building in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu André; France Charlet

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, at the request of UNHCR , the French NGO Forum Réfugiés led two missions to help strengthen local capacity in Morocco to provide legal advice and assistance for asylum seekers and refugees.

  10. Building bridges: future directions for medical error disclosure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Annegret F; Beckman, Howard; Mazor, Kathleen M; Paul, Norbert; Ramsey, Joanne V

    2013-09-01

    The disclosure of medical errors has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. However, the research to date has lacked interdisciplinary dialog, making translation of findings into medical practice challenging. This article lays out the disciplinary perspectives of the fields of medicine, ethics, law and communication on medical error disclosure and identifies gaps and tensions that occur at these interdisciplinary boundaries. This article summarizes the discussion of an interdisciplinary error disclosure panel at the 2012 EACH Conference in St. Andrews, Scotland, in light of the current literature across four academic disciplines. Current medical, ethical, legal and communication perspectives on medical error disclosure are presented and discussed with particular emphasis on the interdisciplinary gaps and tensions. The authors encourage interdisciplinary collaborations that strive for a functional approach to understanding and improving the disclosure of medical errors with the ultimate goal to improve quality and promote safer medical care. Interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to reconcile the needs of the stakeholders involved in medical error disclosure. A particular challenge is the effective translation of error disclosure research into practice. Concrete research questions are provided throughout the manuscript to facilitate a resolution of the tensions that currently impede interdisciplinary progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  12. Building rural wireless networks: lessons learnt and future directions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available these seeds was bartered for maize and used to feed the en- tire family of parents, four children and five relatives during 2006. During the following season his sunflower production has increased ten-fold. • Data entry services: A USA-based company needed.... • The environment in Macha is harsh and a large number of computers are damaged or their hard drives fail due to power interruptions, high temperatures and dust. • Internet connectivity for the entire village is approxi- mately 1.5 Mbps and costs Macha...

  13. Building the future: youth and citizenship in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Villas Boas Sá Rego

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of youth policies is currently a national and international concern, for the participation of young people in the political arena and in water resources management is relatively small. The Macaé and Das Ostras Rivers Basins Committee, responsible for managing the 8th Hydrographic Region of Rio de Janeiro State, considers it essential to extend the mobilization and social participation to implement integrated, decentralized, participatory and democratic water management, encouraging youth participation, and promoting the formation and training of new actors. Based on a process perspective, which considers the complexity of the socio-environmental reality, this study reports some actions and projects developed for young people both at national and international levels. The intention is to also present the proposal of Education for environmental and water resources management of the Macaé and Das Ostras Rivers Basins Committee, which, guided by a critical and transformative perspective, aims to provide tools and enable the construction of knowledge indispensable for the strengthening of democracy and citizenship.

  14. Refocusing--Building a Future for Entrepreneurial Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Galloway, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The field of entrepreneurship has struggled with fundamental questions concerning the subject's nature and purpose. To whom and to what means are educational and training agendas ultimately directed? Such questions have become of central importance to policy makers, practitioners and academics alike. There are suggestions that university business…

  15. Roofs of the future: rooftop greenhouses to improve buildings metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Valladares, Oriol; Nadal, Ana; Sanyé-Mengual, E.; Llorach Massana, Pere; Cuerva Contreras, Eva; Sanjuan Demás, David; Muñoz, Pere; Oliver Solà, Jordi; Planas Rodríguez, Carla; Rovira, Maria Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Ancient civilizations had agriculture production in their metropolis but modern urban planning separated agriculture from cities, such as Chandigarh by Le Corbusier. At present, FAO estimates that urban agriculture produces food for a quarter of world’s population, reducing food transport, package and waste impact among others and improving food safety. Meanwhile, city governments and citizens are reinventing their roofs usage in order to take more advantage of them. Rooftop Greenhouses ...

  16. The scientific building blocks for business coaching: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Contribution: The building blocks for business coaching as a relatively new and emerging science within the field of business leadership have been defined. This will contribute to the articulation of concepts within this discipline by future researchers and practitioners.

  17. Building Robust Planning and Execution Systems for Virtual Worlds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dini, Don M; van Lent, Michael; Carpenter, Paul; Iyer, Kumar

    2006-01-01

    .... To enable future researchers to build more complete systems, and avoid possible serious system failure, we identify the major technical problems any implementer of such a system would have to face...

  18. Research Support Facility - Zero Energy Building Moves Closer to Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The DOE's Research Support Facility showcases high-performance design features, passive energy strategies, and renewable energy. It is a prototype for future large-scale net-zero energy buildings.

  19. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  20. Building Thermal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation is meant to be an overview of the model building process It is based on typical techniques (Monte Carlo Ray Tracing for radiation exchange, Lumped Parameter, Finite Difference for thermal solution) used by the aerospace industry This is not intended to be a "How to Use ThermalDesktop" course. It is intended to be a "How to Build Thermal Models" course and the techniques will be demonstrated using the capabilities of ThermalDesktop (TD). Other codes may or may not have similar capabilities. The General Model Building Process can be broken into four top level steps: 1. Build Model; 2. Check Model; 3. Execute Model; 4. Verify Results.