WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistant construction techniques

  1. Use of 222Rn-resistant techniques in new home construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.E. Jr.; Cote, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the status of the use of 222 Rn-resistant construction techniques in new home construction in the eight Zone 1 counties of North Carolina. Zone 1 counties have an average predicted indoor 222 Rn screening potential greater than 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi L -1 ). To facilitate a response from builders, a brief survey form was designed and printed on the back of a self-addressed, postage-paid postcard. This survey form was mailed to 460 home builders in the Zone 1 counties. The response rate was 17%, which can be compared to the 4.9% response rate obtained in a national survey conducted by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center. In their survey, 62% of the responding builders reported that they had built some or many homes in 1996 using construction techniques to reduce the entry of radon into homes, but only 10% of the builders reported using these techniques for many homes. The National Association of Home Builders survey determined that, nationally, 30% of homes built in Zone 1 counties had 222 Rn venting features. There is the potential for bias in the results of their survey (as well as in the results of the National Association of Home Builders survey) since the response rates were low

  2. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  3. Influence of Different Techniques of Laboratory Construction on the Fracture Resistance of Fiber-Reinforced Composite (FRC) Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellakwa, Ayman E; Shortall, Adrian C; Marquis, Peter M

    2004-11-15

    The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate optimal pontic and retainer fiber positions for Polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) restorations. In series I notch disc specimens were used to mimic loading cuspal regions of pontics. Four groups (n=15/group; codes A to D) were prepared from Artglass composite. Groups A to C were reinforced with polyethylene fibers, and group D was an unreinforced control. Fibers were positioned either around (A), beneath the notch (B), or at the disc base (C). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h before testing to failure (CHS=1mm/min) in a universal testing machine. Mean torque to failure values ranked [P C = D. In series II five groups of three unit bridges (n =5/group; codes A to E) were prepared from Artglass dental composite without (group A) or with (groups B to E) different Connect fiber reinforcement locations/techniques. Bridges were cemented using 2 bond resin cement to a standardized substructure. After storage, as per series I, bridges were loaded mid-pontic region to failure. One-way ANOVA showed no significant (P=0.08) difference between test groups. The research hypothesis was that notched disc and 3 unit bridge test techniques would discriminate equally between fiber-reinforced specimens and an unreinforced composite control was rejected.

  4. Magnetic Nondestructive Testing Techniques of Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Er-gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel is a kind of ferromagnetic material, which is extensively applied in such fields as buildings, bridges, railways, machines and lifeline engineering etc. Those engineering structures built of constructional steel will unavoidably experience some damages during their service lifetime, thus which will influence the distribution regularity of internal forces in structures, result in over-stresses, cause the local failure of structures, and even lead to collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it is a pressing topic to study how to directly evaluate the real-time stressed states of structural members, damages and steel characteristics in present structural health monitoring and diagnosing fields. And the achievements of this research will be of theoretical significance and of application value of engineering. This paper summarizes varieties of new magnetic nondestructive testing techniques used in constructional steel, respectively investigates the testing principles, characteristics and application for the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique, magnetic acoustic emission technique, magnetic flux leakage technique, magnetic memory technique and magnetic absorption technique, and points out the problems present in the application of these new techniques to actual testing and the further research objective.

  5. PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS FROM TUBE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdujafar I. Akaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the research is to find optimal design solutions for the erection of buildings that will ensure their reliability and durability, compliance with environmental requirements, fire resistance and earthquake resistance. In this regard, the task is to determine the advantages and prospects of erecting earthquake resistant buildings from tube concrete constructions, since they are distinct in constructive, technological and economic efficiency when are used as vertical load-bearing struts of high-rise buildings. Method The technique for calculating the strength of normal sections of eccentrically-compressed tube concrete elements uses a nonlinear deformation model, taking into account the joint operation of the steel shell and the concrete core under the conditions of triaxial compression. Results In the article the review of the newest world experience of using tube concrete as vertical load-bearing structures for public facilities from the standpoint of earthquake resistant construction is given. The international practices of public facility construction ranging in height from 100 to 600 m with the use of tube concrete technology, including regions with dangerous natural and man-made conditions, have been studied. The structural, operational and technological advantages and disadvantages of tube concrete technology are analysed. Methods for calculating the strength of concrete tube elements in the case of central compression are considered: according to the so-called deformation theory, the state of total destruction of both concrete and tube fluidity attained at maximum pressure are indicated by the beginning of "tube flow on the longitudinal axis". The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are shown. Factors constraining the introduction and wider application of tube concrete constructions in Russia are considered. Conclusion While the advantages of concrete tube constructions in their extensive

  6. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ON THE BOSPORUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yazicioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bosporus is a unique place with its traditional architecture. The construction of new buildings along the Bosporus coast line are forbidden and only reconstructions of demolished original historic buildings are possible. Since 1984 legal authorities act different legislations about these reconstructions. Until 2005 the legislation gives permission for the usage of any structural material unless the overall appearance is the same as the original building. But after 2005 the legislation changed and the usage of original structural material became mandatory. The underlying reason of this is to protect the originality and authenticity of the Bosporus buildings both with their appearances and construction techniques. But the practical output became promoting the constructers for making the reconstructions without following the approved reconstruction projects or changing the reconstructions afterwards. In this paper structural system, external wall, window, and roof alternatives for reconstructions are compared and contrasted by evaluating the performance requirements. Examples of inappropriate reconstructions are documented and a tentative proposal is made for the reconstructions of the Bosporus region.

  7. Noise Abatement Techniques for Construction Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    The primary objective of this work was to transfer technology developed in the area of truck noise reduction to that of construction equipment. Included is information gathered from previous contracts, surveys of manufacturers, a noise impact ranking...

  8. Buffer construction technique using granular bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryoichi; Asano, Hidekazu; Toguri, Satohito; Mori, Takuo; Shimura, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Takeshi; Uyama, Masao; Noda, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Buffer construction using bentonite pellets as filling material is a promising technology for enhancing the ease of repository operation. In this study, a test of such technology was conducted in a full-scale simulated disposal drift, using a filling system which utilizes a screw conveyor system. The simulated drift, which contained two dummy overpacks, was configured as a half-cross-section model with a height of 2.22 m and a length of 6.0 m. The average dry density of the buffer obtained in the test was 1.29 Mg/m 3 , with an angle of repose of 35 to 40 degrees. These test results indicate that buffer construction using a screw conveyor system for pellet emplacement in a waste disposal drift is a promising technology for repositories for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  9. Materials and techniques for model construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The problems confronting the designer of models for cryogenic wind tunnel models are discussed with particular reference to the difficulties in obtaining appropriate data on the mechanical and physical properties of candidate materials and their fabrication technologies. The relationship between strength and toughness of alloys is discussed in the context of maximizing both and avoiding the problem of dimensional and microstructural instability. All major classes of materials used in model construction are considered in some detail and in the Appendix selected numerical data is given for the most relevant materials. The stepped-specimen program to investigate stress-induced dimensional changes in alloys is discussed in detail together with interpretation of the initial results. The methods used to bond model components are considered with particular reference to the selection of filler alloys and temperature cycles to avoid microstructural degradation and loss of mechanical properties.

  10. Technique for Reduction of Environmental Pollution from Construction Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Klimenko, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research on the negative impact construction wastes have on the urban environment and construction ecological safety are described. The research results are based on the statistical data and indicators calculated with the use of environmental pollution assessment in the restoration system of urban buildings technical conditions. The technique for the reduction of environmental pollution from construction wastes is scientifically based on the analytic summary of scientific and practical results for ecological safety ensuring at major overhaul and current repairs (reconstruction) of the buildings and structures. It is also based on the practical application of the probability theory method, system analysis and disperse system theory. It is necessary to execute some stages implementing the developed technique to reduce environmental pollution from construction wastes. The stages include various steps starting from information collection to the system formation with optimum performance characteristics which are more resource saving and energy efficient for the accumulation of construction wastes from urban construction units. The following tasks are solved under certain studies: basic data collection about construction wastes accumulation; definition and comparison of technological combinations at each system functional stage intended for the reduction of construction wastes discharge into the environment; assessment criteria calculation of resource saving and energy efficiency; optimum working parameters of each implementation stage are created. The urban construction technique implementation shows that the resource saving criteria are from 55.22% to 88.84%; potential of construction wastes recycling is 450 million tons of construction damaged elements (parts).

  11. male constructions and resistance to women in the military1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    MALE CONSTRUCTIONS AND RESISTANCE. TO WOMEN IN ... of sexuality and their participation in command or combat roles as having dire consequences in ... changes. The concept of warrior hero has been crucial in the construction of notions of national security to facilitate the mobilisation of hegemonic masculinity.

  12. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  13. Critical analysis of procurement techniques in construction management sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Suman Tiwari Suresh; Chan, Shiau Wei; Faraz Mubarak, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last three decades, numerous procurement techniques have been one of the highlights of the Construction Management (CM) for ventures, administration contracting, venture management as well as design and construct. Due to the development and utilization of those techniques, various researchers have explored the criteria for their choice and their execution in terms of time, cost and quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of giving an account on the relationship between the procurement techniques and the progressed related issues, for example, supply chain, sustainability, innovation and technology development, lean construction, constructability, value management, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as well as e-procurement. Through chosen papers from the reputable CM-related academic journals, the specified scopes of these issues are methodically assessed with the objective to explore the status and trend in procurement related research. The result of this paper contributes theoretically as well as practically to the researchers and industrialist in order to be aware and appreciate the development of procurement techniques.

  14. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...

  15. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  16. Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the difference in readings is much. Hence, the use of this system is limited to shallow investigations where the target depth is not more than fifty metres (50m). Efforts are being made to improve on its performance. Keywords: Design and construction, resistivity meter and field testing. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  17. Construction and performance of a prototype multigap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. H.; Hong, B.; Hong, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a prototype multigap resistive plate chamber made of glass plates. A time resolution of 580 ps with a detection efficiency above 95 % was achieved at the working high-voltage plateau with cosmic ray muons

  18. Implementation of lean construction techniques for minimizing the risks effect on project construction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Hamed Issa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction projects involve various risk factors which have various impacts on time objective that may lead to time-overrun. This study suggests and applies a new technique for minimizing risk factors effect on time using lean construction principles. The lean construction is implemented in this study using the last planner system through execution of an industrial project in Egypt. Evaluating the effect of using the new tool is described in terms of two measurements: Percent Expected Time-overrun (PET and Percent Plan Completed (PPC. The most important risk factors are identified and assessed, while PET is quantified at the project start and during the project execution using a model for time-overrun quantification. The results showed that total project time is reduced by 15.57% due to decreasing PET values, while PPC values improved. This is due to minimizing and mitigating the effect of most of the risk factors in this project due to implementing lean construction techniques. The results proved that the quantification model is suitable for evaluating the effect of using lean construction techniques. In addition, the results showed that average value of PET due to factors affected by lean techniques represents 67% from PET values due to all minimized risk factors.

  19. Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction : ACES Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a structural material is widened and – despite the higher material costs – overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well. Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by...

  20. Geotechnical techniques for the construction of reactive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day; O'Hannesin; Marsden

    1999-06-30

    One of the newest and most promising remediation techniques for the treatment of contaminated groundwater and soil is the reactive barrier wall (commonly known as PRB for permeable reactive barrier or reactive barrier). Although a variety of treatment media and strategies are available, the most common technique is to bury granular iron in a trench so that contaminated groundwater passes through the reactive materials, the contaminants are removed and the water becomes 'clean'. The principal advantages of the technique are the elimination of pumping, mass excavation, off-site disposal, and a very significant reduction in costs. The use of this technology is now becoming better known and implemented. Special construction considerations need to be made when planning the installation of reactive barriers or PRBs to ensure the design life of the installation and to be cost-effective. Geotechnical techniques such as slurry trenching, deep soil mixing, and grouting can be used to simplify and improve the installation of reactive materials relative to conventional trench and fill methods. These techniques make it possible to reduce the hazards to workers during installation, reduce waste and reduce costs for most installations. To date, most PRBs have been installed to shallow depths using construction methods such as open trenching and/or shored excavations. While these methods are usable, they are limited to shallow depths and more disruptive to the site's normal use. Geotechnical techniques are more quickly installed and less disruptive to site activities and thus more effective. Recently, laboratory studies and pilot projects have demonstrated that geotechnical techniques can be used successfully to install reactive barriers. This paper describes the factors that are important in designing a reactive barrier or PRB installation and discusses some of the potential problems and pitfalls that can be avoided with careful planning and the use of geotechnical techniques

  1. Additive manufacturing techniques for the production of tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carlos; Puppi, Dario; Chiellini, Federica; Chiellini, Emo

    2015-03-01

    'Additive manufacturing' (AM) refers to a class of manufacturing processes based on the building of a solid object from three-dimensional (3D) model data by joining materials, usually layer upon layer. Among the vast array of techniques developed for the production of tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds, AM techniques are gaining great interest for their suitability in achieving complex shapes and microstructures with a high degree of automation, good accuracy and reproducibility. In addition, the possibility of rapidly producing tissue-engineered constructs meeting patient's specific requirements, in terms of tissue defect size and geometry as well as autologous biological features, makes them a powerful way of enhancing clinical routine procedures. This paper gives an extensive overview of different AM techniques classes (i.e. stereolithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, melt-extrusion-based techniques, solution/slurry extrusion-based techniques, and tissue and organ printing) employed for the development of tissue-engineered constructs made of different materials (i.e. polymeric, ceramic and composite, alone or in combination with bioactive agents), by highlighting their principles and technological solutions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Methods and techniques for decontamination design and construction of facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Cohen, S.

    1986-01-01

    TECHNICATOME and STMI have jointly solved a wide range of problems specific to decontamination from the very design studies up to operation. TECHNICATOME has brought its expertise in the design and construction of nuclear facilities concerned in particular with decontamination and radwaste management. STMI is an experienced operator with expertise in designing tools and developing advanced techniques in the same fields. The expertise of both companies in this field cumulated for many years has resulted in developing techniques and tools adapted to most of the decontamination problems including specific cases [fr

  3. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  4. High precision survey and alignment techniques in accelerator construction

    CERN Document Server

    Gervaise, J

    1974-01-01

    Basic concepts of precision surveying are briefly reviewed, and an historical account is given of instruments and techniques used during the construction of the Proton Synchrotron (1954-59), the Intersecting Storage Rings (1966-71), and the Super Proton Synchrotron (1971). A nylon wire device, distinvar, invar wire and tape, and recent automation of the gyrotheodolite and distinvar as well as auxiliary equipment (polyurethane jacks, Centipede) are discussed in detail. The paper ends summarizing the present accuracy in accelerator metrology, giving an outlook of possible improvement, and some aspects of staffing for the CERN Survey Group. (0 refs).

  5. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    A survey of radon levels in New York State homes indicates that approximately 4.4 percent of the homes have long-term living area radon concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of four pCi/l. The project addressed the effectiveness of techniques to reduce the radon level in existing homes and to prevent the occurrence of high radon concentrations in new homes. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of radon reduction techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations of more than the current EPA guidelines of four pCi/l. At the same time, radon-resistant construction techniques were demonstrated in homes under construction to provide guidelines for houses being built in areas with a danger of high radon levels. The project demonstrated new radon mitigation techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations exceeding four pCi/l; assessed the value of previously installed radon reduction procedures, and demonstrated new radon-resistant construction methods

  6. A technique for predicting steel corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V. F.; Sokolov, R. A.; Neradovskiy, D. F.; Muratov, K. R.

    2018-01-01

    Research works were carried out to develop a technique with the aim to increase the lifetime of steel items used in corrosive media. The possibility to monitor corrosion parameters of steel samples is analyzed on the basis of magnetic properties obtained by means of a magnetic structuroscope DIUS-1.15M designed by the Institute of Metal Physics of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMP UB RAS).

  7. Sparse Jacobian construction for mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    We apply the automatic differentiation tool OpenAD toward constructing a preconditioner for fully implicit simulations of mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), used in modeling tokamak fusion devices. Our simulation framework employs a fully implicit formulation in time, and a mapped finite volume spatial discretization. We solve this model using inexact Newton-Krylov methods. Of critical importance in these iterative solvers is the development of an effective preconditioner, which typically requires knowledge of the Jacobian of the nonlinear residual function. However, due to significant nonlinearity within our PDE system, our mapped spatial discretization, and stencil adaptivity at physical boundaries, analytical derivation of these Jacobian entries is highly nontrivial. This paper therefore focuses on Jacobian construction using automatic differentiation. In particular, we discuss applying OpenAD to the case of a spatially-adaptive stencil patch that automatically handles differences between the domain interior and boundary, and configuring AD for reduced stencil approximations to the Jacobian. We investigate both scalar and vector tangent mode differentiation, along with simple finite difference approaches, to compare the resulting accuracy and efficiency of Jacobian construction in this application. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Application of value engineering technique in construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changbing

    2003-01-01

    The author introduces how to apply the theories and methods of the value engineering in construction project. In the construction of a test device of the thermal hydrodynamic process, the authors have greatly reduced the construction cost and shortened the construction period by using the value engineering analyzing method. The application of value engineering in the project management is innovative. This practice indicates that the value engineering is important in many construction projects

  9. Site Characterization during Bridge Foundation Construction Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra V. Varnavina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallow underground water-filled cavity was encountered in limestone bedrock during the construction of a new column footing for the Gasconade River Bridge over Interstate 44. Five electrical resistivity tomography (ERT profiles and borehole control were acquired in immediate proximity to the existing and the new column footings in order to assess the integrity of the rock beneath the foundation columns and characterize the encountered cavity. Two parallel southwest- northeast trending fracture zones were identified on the acquired ERT profiles and competent rock was differentiated from more extensively fractured rock. The volumetric extent of the void was mapped based on the interpretation of the ERT, borehole and injected grout data. A conceptual model for the development of the water-filled cavity was proposed.

  10. New-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization for radon reduction in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Witter, K.A.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Construction of a school in Fairfax County, Virginia, is being carefully monitored since elevated indoor radon levels have been identified in many existing houses near the site. Soil gas radon concentrations measured prior to pouring of the slabs were also indicative of a potential radon problem should the soil gas enter the school; however, subslab radon measurements collected thus far are lower than anticipated. Radon-resistant features have been incorporated into construction of the school and include the placing of at least 100 mm of clean coarse aggregate under the slab and a plastic film barrier between the aggregate and the slab, the sealing of all expansion joints, the sealing or plugging of all utility penetrations where possible, and the painting of interior block walls. In addition, the school's heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system has been designed to operate continuously in overpressurization to help reduce pressure-driven entry of radon-containing soil gas into the building. Following completion, indoor radon levels in the school will be monitored to determine the effectiveness of these radon-resistant new-construction techniques and HVAC overpressurization in limiting radon entry into the school

  11. Construction accident narrative classification: An evaluation of text mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Ubeynarayana, C U

    2017-11-01

    Learning from past accidents is fundamental to accident prevention. Thus, accident and near miss reporting are encouraged by organizations and regulators. However, for organizations managing large safety databases, the time taken to accurately classify accident and near miss narratives will be very significant. This study aims to evaluate the utility of various text mining classification techniques in classifying 1000 publicly available construction accident narratives obtained from the US OSHA website. The study evaluated six machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes (NB), and found that SVM produced the best performance in classifying the test set of 251 cases. Further experimentation with tokenization of the processed text and non-linear SVM were also conducted. In addition, a grid search was conducted on the hyperparameters of the SVM models. It was found that the best performing classifiers were linear SVM with unigram tokenization and radial basis function (RBF) SVM with uni-gram tokenization. In view of its relative simplicity, the linear SVM is recommended. Across the 11 labels of accident causes or types, the precision of the linear SVM ranged from 0.5 to 1, recall ranged from 0.36 to 0.9 and F1 score was between 0.45 and 0.92. The reasons for misclassification were discussed and suggestions on ways to improve the performance were provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-18

    This advisory circular (AC) contains guidelines and procedures for the design : and construction of skid-resistant pavement, pavement evaluation with friction : measuring equipment, and maintenance of high skid-resistant pavements. 45p.

  13. Construction and performance studies of large resistive Micromegas quadruplets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00508881; Iengo, Paolo; Bianco, Michele; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Kuger, Fabian; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Wotschack, Jorg; Vergain, Maurice; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Degrange, Jordan; Schott, Matthias; Lin, Tai-Hua; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Dudder, Andreas Christian

    2015-01-01

    In view of the use of Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system, two detector quadruplets with an area of 0.3 m$^2$ per plane serving as prototypes for future ATLAS chambers have been constructed. They are based on the resistive-strip technology and thus spark tolerant. The detectors were built in a modular way. The quadruplets consist of two double-sided readout panels and three support (or drift) panels equipped with the micromesh and the drift electrode. The panels are bolted together such that the detector can be opened and cleaned, if required. Two of the readout planes are equipped with readout strips inclined by 1.5 degree. In this talk, we present the results of detailed performance studies based on X-Ray and cosmic ray measurements as well as measurements with 855 MeV electrons at the MAMI accelerator. In particular, results on reconstruction efficiencies, track resolution and gain homogeneity is presented.

  14. Construction and Performance Studies of Large Resistive Micromegas Quadruplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, E.; Iengo, P.; Bianco, M.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Kuger, F.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Vergain, M.; Wotschack, J.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; De Oliveira, R.; Schott, M.; Lin, Tai-Hua; Valderanis, C.; Düdder, A.

    2018-02-01

    In view of the use of Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system, two detector quadruplets with an area of 0.3 m2 per plane serving as prototypes for future ATLAS chambers have been constructed. They are based on the resistive-strip technology and thus spark tolerant. The detectors were built in a modular way. The quadruplets consist of two double-sided readout panels and three support (or drift) panels equipped with the micromesh and the drift electrode. The panels are bolted together such that the detector can be opened and cleaned, if required. Two of the readout planes are equipped with readout strips inclined by 1.5 degree. In this talk, we present the results of detailed performance studies based on X-Ray and cosmic ray measurements as well as measurements with 855 MeV electrons at the MAMI accelerator. In particular, results on reconstruction efficiencies, track resolution and gain homogeneity is presented.

  15. Construction and Performance Studies of Large Resistive Micromegas Quadruplets

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Edoardo Maria; The ATLAS collaboration; Kuger, Fabian; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Iengo, Paolo; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Wotschack, Jorg; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Dudder, Andreas Christian

    2015-01-01

    In view of the use of micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system, two detector quadruplets with an area of 0.5 m2 per plane serving as prototypes for future ATLAS chambers have been constructed. They are based on the resistive-strip technology and thus spark tolerant. The detectors were built in a modular way. The quadruplets consist of two double-sided readout panels and three support (or drift) panels equipped with the micromesh and the drift electrode. The panels are bolted together such that the detector can be opened and cleaned, if required. Two of the readout planes are equipped with readout strips inclined by 1.5 degree. In this talk, we present the results of detailed performance studies based on X-Ray measurements, cosmic ray- and test-beam measurements at the MAMI accelerator that have been conducted in the past months. In particular, results on reconstruction efficiencies, track resolution and gain homogeneity will be presented.

  16. Applying lean techniques in the delivery of transportation infrastructure construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    It is well documented that construction productivity has been declining since the 1960s. Additionally, studies have shown that only : 40% of construction workers time is considered to be value-added work. Interest in the use of Lean techniques ...

  17. Thermal resistance and conductivity of recycled construction and demolition waste (RCDW concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Julio Apolonio Callejas

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, studies to reuse construction and demolition waste are a special issue because a large amount of this material has been delivered to the public landfills and in illegal places. Some researchers have suggested reusing this material in building elements, such as bricks or blocks. It is possible to find a lot of researches in physical/mechanical characterization, while little effort has been made to characterize recycled construction and demolition waste blocks (RCDW for their thermal properties. The aim of this work was to characterize the RCDW thermal resistance and conductivity in order to provide subsidies for a building's thermal performance analysis. The hot-box method was adapted, together with measuring techniques with a heat-flow meter to determine the RCDW thermal properties. The results indicated that the RCDW block overall thermal resistance and thermal conductivity in the solid region was within the intervals of 0.33≤RT≤0.41m2KW-1 and 0.60≤l≤0.78Wm-1K-1, respectively. The lower resistance and conductivity values are justified by the presence of aggregate with a lower density and lower thermal conductivity than the natural aggregate.

  18. Karst topography : noninvasive geophysical detection methods and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection : methods and current karst construction practices and to recommend the best practices for use by the Virginia : Department of Transpor...

  19. Evaluation of vibration limits and mitigation techniques for urban construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The overriding purpose of this research was to develop a comprehensive framework to address : vibration issues prior to and during construction, including calculation of anticipated ground : vibrations during project design, condition surveys of stru...

  20. Techniques of constructions of variations of mixed Hodge structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kasuya, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We give a way of constructing real variations of mixed Hodge structures over compact K\\"ahler manifolds by using mixed Hodge structures on Sullivan's $1$-minimal models of certain differential graded algebras associated with real variations of Hodge structures.

  1. Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique for Engineering Site Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem A. Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineering site investigation is crucial to characterize the subsurface soil of proposed construction sites. Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging ERI technique pro- vides useful information about the subsurface geology and the condition along profiles. In this paper, numerical and field studies using 2D ERI technique were adopted for engineer- ing site investigation purposes. The Wenner-Schlumberger array was implemented along three parallel profiles at the construction site of Diyala University, northeast of Baghdad city, to detect buried utilities (pipes left over in the area. A synthetic resistivity model of a buried pipe was designed to discuss and validate the field results. The 2D ERI sections of the model resolve clearly the buried structure, even with 5% noise level. Interpretation of the field data showed that 2D ERI technique was effective in delineating the buried pipes. The vertical and horizontal sensitivity of the Wenner-Schlumberger array for sub- surface resistivity variations made it possible to determine the position and geometry of the buried structures. The current work demonstrates the usefulness of the ERI technique as a complementary tool for engineering site investigation .

  2. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  3. High frequency induction of RNA-mediated resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus using inverted repeat constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The application of RNA-mediated resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by using single transgene constructs generally results in only a small portion of resistant individuals. Inverted repeat constructs encoding self-complementary double-stranded RNA have been demonstrated a potential way to

  4. A plastic micropump constructed with conventional techniques and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1999-01-01

    A plastic micropump which can be produced using conventional production techniques and materials is presented. By applying well-known techniques and materials, economic fabrication of micropumps for various applications is feasible even at low production volumes. The micropump is capable of pumping

  5. Surface Erosion Control Techniques on Newly Constructed Forest Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; John Wilhoit; Robert Rummer; Bryce Stokes

    1999-01-01

    A newly constructed forest road was treated with three erosion control treatments: wood excelsior erosion mat, native grass species, and exotic grass species. The study evaluates treatment methods on the basis of sediment reduction and runoff volume reduction compared to no treatment. The erosion mat treatment was most effective in mitigating erosion losses with a 98...

  6. Techniques to construct New Zealand elk-proof fence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Bryant; Jack W. Thomas; Mary M. Rowland

    1993-01-01

    An elk-proof fence was built in 1987 at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. The 25,000-acre research enclosure holds several hundred Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni V. Bailey) and Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus Rafinesque) year round. The fence, constructed with high...

  7. A New Technique for Personality Scale Construction. Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Paul E.; Darlington, Richard B.

    Most methods of personality scale construction have clear statistical disadvantages. A hybrid method (Darlington and Bishop, 1966) was found to increase scale validity more than any other method, with large item pools. A simple modification of the Darlington-Bishop method (algebraically and conceptually similar to ridge regression, but…

  8. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will describe the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. We will describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This will include the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device

  9. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzick, A.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. The authors describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This includes the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device

  10. I Hate Chicken Breast: A Tale of Resisting Stories and Disembodied Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In this performance autoethnography, the author explores the simultaneity of telling and resisting stories of lived experience. In the process, the author constructs the notion of "resisting stories" as autoethnographic narratives that both resist and demand telling in the process of making themselves public. In the process the author engages in a…

  11. Construction techniques for short iron-free dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for economically fabricating short, wire-wound, steering magnets with maximum length, cosine-distributed, axial elements. This method utilizes multifunctional tooling to precisely flat-wind two-layer dipole halves that are subsequently reformed and encapsulated into semicylindrical form with confinement of the end turns into thin, half discs normal to the magnet axis. This paper addresses the magnet fabrication in detail, highlighting the inherent quality control features of the tooling, overall construction costs, and contemplated manufacturing enhancements

  12. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  13. Constructive alignment: From professional teaching technique to governance of profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Ola; Friberg, Gustav Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    -philosophical orientation. We strive for integration between historical processes and social practices. From the theoretical point of departure in the concept of epistemic drift, we want to investigate the changes and ambivalences that are the consequences when epistemic criteria developed in one social jurisdiction...... for the conceptualization of constructive alignment (CA) later in the 1990s, the concept that is the object of analysis. As the text moves on, it will be shown how CA gradually merge with a managerial form of learning outcome, in various policy contexts on European, national (Sweden) and university levels. We describe how...... CA became institutionalized as the most common pedagogical model in Swedish TLHE courses. Against this background of historical processes – the theoretical pedagogical foundation of CA, Bologna policies in Europe and Swedish higher education policies and national institutionalization of CA – we...

  14. Volume holographic imaging endoscopic design and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Isela D; Han, Wanglei; Gordon, Michael; Rice, Photini; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2017-05-01

    A reflectance volume holographic imaging (VHI) endoscope has been designed for simultaneous in vivo imaging of surface and subsurface tissue structures. Prior utilization of VHI systems has been limited to ex vivo tissue imaging. The VHI system presented in this work is designed for laparoscopic use. It consists of a probe section that relays light from the tissue sample to a handheld unit that contains the VHI microscope. The probe section is constructed from gradient index (GRIN) lenses that form a 1:1 relay for image collection. The probe has an outer diameter of 3.8 mm and is capable of achieving 228.1 ?? lp / mm resolution with 660-nm Kohler illumination. The handheld optical section operates with a magnification of 13.9 and a field of view of 390 ?? ? m × 244 ?? ? m . System performance is assessed through imaging of 1951 USAF resolution targets and soft tissue samples. The system has also passed sterilization procedures required for surgical use and has been used in two laparoscopic surgical procedures.

  15. New head gradient coil design and construction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, William B; Harris, Chad T; Scholl, Timothy J; Parker, Dennis L; Goodrich, K Craig; Dalrymple, Brian; Van Sass, Frank; Chronik, Blaine A

    2014-05-01

    To design and build a head insert gradient coil to use in conjunction with body gradients for superior imaging. The use of the boundary element method to solve for a gradient coil wire pattern on an arbitrary surface allowed us to incorporate engineering changes into the electromagnetic design of a gradient coil directly. Improved wire pattern design was combined with robust manufacturing techniques and novel cooling methods. The finished coil had an efficiency of 0.15 mT/m/A in all three axes and allowed the imaging region to extend across the entire head and upper part of the neck. The ability to adapt an electromagnetic design to necessary changes from an engineering perspective leads to superior coil performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Citizen Action Can Help the Code Adoption Process for Radon-Resistant New Construction: Decatur, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adopting a code requiring radon-resistant new construction (RRNC) in Decatur, Alabama, took months of effort by four people. Their actions demonstrate the influence that passionate residents can have on reversing a city council’s direction.

  17. Male Constructions and Resistance to women in the Military ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that a masculinised institution like the military presents an exaggerated picture of hegemonic masculinities, and particularly emphasising physical fitness as one of the multiple ways in achieving masculinity, this paper provides an overview of how men in the military construct women's role in the military.

  18. Fire Resistance of Concrete Constructions with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a series of full-scale tests made as documentation for extending the field of application of the reduced cross section method from the structural codes to constructions based on expanded clay aggregate. As a special result the tests verify that slabs with a short...

  19. Research, Development and Application of High Performance Earthquake Resistant Precast System as Green Construction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjaman Hari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a topic that emerges in the world construction as a response to climate change issue. Building construction stage is a stage in sustainable development. Construction concept that confirm to the concept is referred to as green construction. Precast concrete construction is a construction system that meets green construction criteria, because applies the usage of material and construction method that optimize energy consumption and minimize environment impact during construction. This paper describe the qualitative and quantitative research in precast structures as green construction in Indonesia. Qualitative research was conducted on the assessment criteria of Green Building Council of Indonesia (2012-2014. The quantitative researches are in energy consumption and environmental influence of several construction systems which were conducted at low cost housing construction in Batam (2011-2012. Finally the research (2013-2014 and application (2015-2017 of high performance earthquake resistant precast concrete structure at low cost in Indonesia is described. The result of this research is expected to be a contribution to all construction stakeholders, in order to start to consider optimization of energy consumption in construction, and to become part of sustainable earth movement.

  20. E-Learning System Using Segmentation-Based MR Technique for Learning Circuit Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system using the mixed reality (MR) technique for technical experiments involving the construction of electronic circuits. The proposed system comprises experimenters' mobile computers and a remote analysis system. When constructing circuits, each learner uses a mobile computer to transmit image data from the…

  1. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  2. Detection of Cavities Using Pole-Dipole Resistivity Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elawadi, Eslam; El-Qady, Gad; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Using pole-dipole array, electrical resistivity survey was conducted to investigate the subsurface under a subsiding building located in Kita Kyushu area, Japan. The resistivity measurements were acquired along two traverse lines and interpreted using a g

  3. Construction of spaces of kinematic quantum states for field theories via projective techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okołów, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We present a method of constructing a space of quantum states for a field theory: given phase space of a theory, we define a family of physical systems each possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom, next we define a space of quantum states for each finite system, finally using projective techniques we organize all these spaces into a space of quantum states which corresponds to the original phase space. This construction is kinematic in this sense that it bases merely on the structure of the phase space of a theory and does not take into account possible constraints on the space. The construction is a generalization of a construction by Kijowski—the latter one is limited to theories of linear phase spaces, while the former one is free of this limitation. The method presented in this paper enables to construct a space of quantum states for the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity. (paper)

  4. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam

    Resistivity imaging (RI) is a promising approach to obtaining continuous profile of soil subsurface. This method offers simple technique to identify moisture variation and heterogeneity of the investigated area. However, at present, only qualitative information of subsurface can be obtained using RI. A study on the quantification of geotechnical properties has become important for rigorous use of this method in the evaluation of geohazard potential and construction quality control of landfill liner system. Several studies have been performed to describe electrical resistivity of soil as a function of pore fluid conductivity and surface conductance. However, characterization tests on pore water and surface charge are not typically performed in a conventional geotechnical investigation. The overall objective of this study is to develop correlations between geotechnical parameters and electrical resistivity of soil, which would provide a mean to estimate geotechnical properties from RI. As a part of the study, multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop practically applicable models correlating resistivity with influential geotechnical parameters. The soil samples considered in this study were classified as highly plastic clay (CH) and low plasticity clay (CL) according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Based on the physical tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, kaolinite was identified as the dominant mineral with some traces of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron. Electrical resistivity tests were conducted on compacted clays and undisturbed samples under varied geotechnical conditions. The experimental results indicated that the degree of saturation substantially influenced electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity decreased as much as 11 times from initial value for the increase of degree of saturation from 23 to 100% in the laboratory tests on compacted clays. In case of

  5. HUMAN RESISTANCE TO THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of implementing information technology (IT often fails to bring the intended result because the human dimension is not given adequate consideration. Yet despite some evidence of failure, little has been written on the nature of human performance, compared to abundant resources about technical and procedural aspects, as it applies to the ideals of the IT philosophy. To combat people’s deficiencies, this paper focuses mainly on the question why people resist IT. It explores sources of human resistance to the use of IT. A survey is the conducted to personnel working for construction companies to examine the resistance sources. The result reveals personal money, habit, and threat to information security as most dominant sources for such resistance, instead of fear of employment instability as many previous researches have discussed. The paper discusses the resistances and suggests possible solutions to deal with them.

  6. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  7. Overview on Techniques to Construct Tissue Arrays with Special Emphasis on Tissue Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of new histopathological staining techniques (histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization) and the discovery of thousands of new genes, mRNA, and proteins by molecular biology, the need grew for a technique to compare many different cells or tissues on one slide in a cost effective manner and with the possibility to easily track the identity of each specimen: the tissue array (TA). Basically, a TA consists of at least two different specimens per slide. TAs differ in the kind of specimens, the number of specimens installed, the dimension of the specimens, the arrangement of the specimens, the embedding medium, the technique to prepare the specimens to be installed, and the technique to construct the TA itself. A TA can be constructed by arranging the tissue specimens in a mold and subsequently pouring the mold with the embedding medium of choice. In contrast, preformed so-called recipient blocks consisting of the embedding medium of choice have punched, drilled, or poured holes of different diameters and distances in which the cells or tissue biopsies will be deployed manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. The costs of constructing a TA differ from a few to thousands of Euros depending on the technique/equipment used. Remarkably high quality TAs can be also achieved by low cost techniques. PMID:27600339

  8. Economic aspect comparison between steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete technique in reactor containment wall construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Sriyana

    2008-01-01

    Construction costs of nuclear power plant were high due to the construction delays, regulatory delays, redesign requirement, and difficulties in construction management. Based on US DOE (United States Department of Energy) study in 2004, there were thirteen advanced construction technologies which were potential to reduce the construction time of nuclear power plant. Among these technologies was the application of steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) on reactor containment construction. The conventional reinforced concrete (RC) technique were built in place and require more time to remove framework since the external form is temporary. Meanwhile, the SC technique offered a more efficient way to placing concrete by using a permanent external form made of steel. The objective of this study was to calculate construction duration and economic comparison between RC and SC technique. The result of this study showed that SC technique could reduce the construction time by 60% and 29,7% cost reduced compare to the RC technique. (author)

  9. The use of production management techniques in the construction of large scale physics detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, A.; Chevenier, G.; Estrella, F.

    1999-01-01

    The construction process of detectors for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is large scale, heavily constrained by resource availability and evolves with time. As a consequence, changes in detector component design need to be tracked and quickly reflected in the construction process. With similar problems in industry engineers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so-called Workflow Management Software (WfMS) to coordinate production work processes. However, PDM and WfMS software are not generally integrated in industry. The scale of LHC experiments, like CMS, demands that industrial production techniques be applied in detector construction. This paper outlines the major functions and applications of the CRISTAL system (Cooperating Repositories and an Information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) in use in CMS which successfully integrates PDM and WfMS techniques in managing large scale physics detector construction. This is the first time industrial production techniques have been deployed to this extent in detector construction

  10. The use of production management techniques in the construction of large scale physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bazan, A; Estrella, F; Kovács, Z; Le Flour, T; Le Goff, J M; Lieunard, S; McClatchey, R; Murray, S; Varga, L Z; Vialle, J P; Zsenei, M

    1999-01-01

    The construction process of detectors for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is large scale, heavily constrained by resource availability and evolves with time. As a consequence, changes in detector component design need to be tracked and quickly reflected in the construction process. With similar problems in industry engineers employ so-called Product Data Management (PDM) systems to control access to documented versions of designs and managers employ so- called Workflow Management software (WfMS) to coordinate production work processes. However, PDM and WfMS software are not generally integrated in industry. The scale of LHC experiments, like CMS, demands that industrial production techniques be applied in detector construction. This paper outlines the major functions and applications of the CRISTAL system (Cooperating Repositories and an information System for Tracking Assembly Lifecycles) in use in CMS which successfully integrates PDM and WfMS techniques in managing large scale physics detector ...

  11. Optimal Control Techniques for ResistiveWall Modes in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Mitchell Dobbs Pearson

    Tokamaks can excite kink modes that can lock or nearly lock to the vacuum vessel wall, and whose rotation frequencies and growth rates vary in time but are generally inversely proportional to the magnetic flux diffusion time of the vacuum vessel wall. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability is pressure limiting in tokamaks and is called the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM). Future tokamaks that are expected to operate as fusion reactors will be required to maximize plasma pressure in order to maximize fusion performance. The DIII-D tokamak is equipped with electromagnetic control coils, both inside and outside of its vacuum vessel, which create magnetic fields that are small by comparison to the machine's equilibrium field but are able to dynamically counteract the RWM. Presently for RWM feedback, DIII-D uses its interior control coils using a classical proportional gain only controller to achieve high plasma pressure. Future advanced tokamak designs will not likely have the luxury of interior control coils and a proportional gain algorithm is not expected to be effective with external control coils. The computer code VALEN was designed to calculate the performance of an MHD feedback control system in an arbitrary geometry. VALEN models the perturbed magnetic field from a single MHD instability and its interaction with surrounding conducting structures using a finite element approach. A linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control, or H 2 optimal control, algorithm based on the VALEN model for RWM feedback was developed for use with DIII-D's external control coil set. The algorithm is implemented on a platform that combines a graphics processing unit (GPU) for real-time control computation with low latency digital input/output control hardware and operates in parallel with the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS). Simulations and experiments showed that modern control techniques performed better, using 77% less current, than classical techniques when using coils external to

  12. General aspects of slip from technique in the construction of containment structure of the Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilak, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes one of the modern techniques of construction methods, i.e. use of slip form technique. Important features in adopting the above technique and its impact on construction aspects and design parameters in respect of containment structure are briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Preventing Construct Subsidence Following Cervical Corpectomy: The Bump-stop Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kenneth Aaron; Griffith, Matthew; Mottern, Edward T; Gloystein, David M; Devine, John G

    2018-02-01

    Cervical corpectomy is a viable technique for the treatment of multilevel cervical spine pathology. Despite multiple advances in both surgical technique and implant technology, the rate of construct subsidence can range from 6% for single-level procedures to 71% for multilevel procedures. In this technical note, we describe a novel technique, the bump-stop technique, for cervical corpectomy. The technique positions the superior and inferior screw holes such that the vertebral bodies bisect them. This allows for fixation in the dense cortical bone of the endplate while providing a buttress to corpectomy cage subsidence. We then discuss a retrospective case review of 24 consecutive patients, who were treated using this approach, demonstrating a lower than previously reported cage subsidence rate.

  14. Case study: Proposed application of project management techniques for construction of nuclear power plant in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahirah Abdul Rahman; Phongsakorn Prak Tom; Wan Abd Hadi Wan Abu Bakar; Shaharum Ramli

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses the techniques of project management for the construction of nuclear power plants that can be used in Malaysia. Nuclear power reactors are expected to apply is the categories of Gen III + reactor where it is safer and more modern than the first generation of reactors built in the 1970s. The objective of this study is that the construction of this reactor to be completed by the stipulated time and not exceed the cost estimates. In addition, project management is also able to meet all the specifications and achieve the quality standard. In this study, the techniques used in project management to ensure the success of construction projects of nuclear power plants are a Gantt Chart, CPM/ PERT and Microsoft Project. From the study, found that these techniques can assist in facilitating the management of the project for the construction of nuclear power plants to ensure that the estimated time and cost can be managed more effectively as well as quality of care. (author)

  15. [Construction of the subtracted cDNA libraries related to artemisinin-resistance of Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Zhu-chun; Wang, Jing-yan

    2004-06-01

    To construct the subtracted cDNA libraries related to artemisinin-resistance of Plasmodium berghei using suppression subtractive hybridization PCR (SSH PCR). Total RNA was extracted from the artemisinin-sensitive (NS) and artemisinin-resistant (AR) strains of Plasmodium berghei K173. The cDNA synthesis followed the protocol of super SMART cDNA synthesis kit. Taking the NS as driver, AR as tester and reverse, two subtractions were performed by SSH PCR. Enriched different expressed cDNA was cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct subtractive libraries. The subtracted cDNA libraries of NS-AR and AR-NS contained 395 and 506 positive clones respectively. The PCR results of 108 clones picked randomly from each library showed 100 and 104 positive inserts contained in the plasmids respectively, and distributing in 250-2000 bp. The successful construction of the subtracted cDNA libraries related to artemisinin-resistance of P. berghei enable us to identify the different expressed genes involved in the resistance mechanism.

  16. [Construction of suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-hong; Zhao, Tong-yan; Dong, Yan-de

    2006-08-01

    To construct the suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus. Total RNA was extracted from the deltamethrin-resistant (R-lab) and -sensitive (S-lab) isolates, mRNA was obtained after purification. Double stranded cDNAs were synthesized after reverse transcription. Two subtractions were performed by suppression subtractive hybridization with S-lab as tester and R-lab as driver or S-lab as driver and R-lab as tester. Enriched different expressed cDNA was cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct subtractive libraries. The subtracted cDNA libraries contained 580 and 477 positive clones respectively. The PCR results of 150 clones picked randomly from each library showed that the positive ratio of constructed cDNA libraries was 93%, with a length of cDNA fragments ranged from 150bp to 750bp. The suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Ae. albopictus is constructed.

  17. Identification of Tools and Techniques to Enhance Interdisciplinary Collaboration During Design and Construction Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda; Silverman, Susan R; Evans, Jennie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect the perceptions of design professionals and clinicians regarding design process success strategies and elements of interprofessional engagement and communication during healthcare design and construction projects. Additional objectives were to gather best practices to maximize clinician engagement and provide tools and techniques to improve interdisciplinary collaboration for future projects. Strategies are needed to enhance the design and construction process and create interactions that benefit not only the project but the individuals working to see its completion. Meaningful interprofessional collaboration is essential to any healthcare design project and making sure the various players communicate is a critical element. This was a qualitative study conducted via an online survey. Respondents included architects, construction managers, interior designers, and healthcare personnel who had recently been involved in a building renovation or new construction project for a healthcare facility. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed for themes, and descriptive statistics were used to provide insight into participant demographics. Information on the impressions, perceptions, and opportunities related to clinician involvement in design projects was collected from nurses, architects, interior designers, and construction managers. Qualitative analysis revealed themes of clinician input, organizational dynamics, and a variety of communication strategies to be the most frequently mentioned elements of successful interprofessional collaboration. This study validates the need to include clinician input in the design process, to consider the importance of organizational dynamics on design team functioning, and to incorporate effective communication strategies during design and construction projects.

  18. Construct validity of the resistance training skills battery in children aged 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lawson, Chelsey; Hurst, Josh; Tallis, Jason; Jones, Victoria; Eyre, Emma L J

    2018-01-19

    The current study sought to examine the construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), a movement screen purported to assess resistance training skill in children. Children aged 7-10 years (n = 27, 21 males, 6 females) undertook measures of resistance training skill via the RTSBc, motor competence and muscular fitness. Using a median split for RTSBc scores, children were categorised as high or low resistance training competence. Univariate ANCOVAs, controlling for maturation, were used to examine whether measures of muscular fitness and motor competence scores differed as a function of RTSBc competence. Children who were classified as high for resistance training competence had significantly better motor competence (P = .001) and significantly faster 10 m sprint speed (P = .001). However, medicine ball throw and standing long jump scores as well as peak and average isokinetic muscle strength did not differ as a function of RTSBc (P > 0.05). In all cases maturation was significant as a covariate. This study is the first to demonstrate construct validity of the RTSBc as a measure of general motor competence and sprint speed, but not strength, in children aged 7-10 years.

  19. The use of modern measurement techniques for designing pro ecological constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorowski, Michał; Gapiński, Bartosz; Szymański, Maciej; Rękas, Artur

    2017-10-01

    In the paper some possibilities of application modern length and angle metrology techniques to design constructions that support ecology were presented. The paper is based on a project where a lighter bus and train car seat was developed. Different options were presented including static and dynamic photogrammetry, computed tomography and thermography. Research related with dynamic behaviour of designed structures gave input to determine deformation of a seat and passengers sitting on it during communication accidents. Works connected to strength of construction elements made it possible to optimize its dimensions maintaining proper durability. Metrological actions taken in relation to production machines and equipment enabled to better recognize phenomena that take place during manufacturing process and to correct its parameters, what in turns also contributed to slim down the construction.

  20. Effect of STOP technique on safety climate in a construction company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Ebrahim; Maleki, Afshin; Dehestaniathar, Saeed; Ebrahemzadih, Mehrzad

    2015-01-01

    Safety programs are a core part of safety management in workplaces that can reduce incidents and injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Safety Training Observation Program (STOP) technique as a behavior modification program on safety climate in a construction company. This cross-sectional study was carried out on workers of the Petrochemical Construction Company, western Iran. In order to improve safety climate, an unsafe behavior modification program entitled STOP was launched among workers of project during 12 months from April 2013 and April 2014. The STOP technique effectiveness in creating a positive safety climate was evaluated using the Safety Climate Assessment Toolkit. 76.78% of total behaviors were unsafe. 54.76% of total unsafe acts/ at-risk behaviors were related to the fall hazard. The most cause of unsafe behaviors was associated with habit and unavailability of safety equipment. After 12 month of continuous implementation the STOP technique, 55.8% of unsafe behaviors reduced among workers. The average score of safety climate evaluated using of the Toolkit, before and after the implementation of the STOP technique was 5.77 and 7.24, respectively. The STOP technique can be considered as effective approach for eliminating at-risk behavior, reinforcing safe work practices, and creating a positive safety climate in order to reduction incidents/injuries.

  1. Construction techniques and working principles of external cathode Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, Francisco Xavier

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the construction technique and working principles of the external cathode Geiger-Mueller counter are described in detail. During the analysis of the behavior of these counters a new phenomena was observed, related to an increase int he background rate with the applied voltage. The experiments have also shown that the pulse amplitude of those counters decreases exponentially with the counting rate. The counters built with the techniques described in this paper has shown plateaus of about 1400 V with slope of 0,8%/100 V. (author)

  2. [cDNA libraries construction and screening in gene expression profiling of disease resistance in wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng; Kong, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Yue; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Jia, Ji-Zeng

    2002-09-01

    A wheat line, Bai Nong 3217/Mardler BC5F4 with resistance to powdery mildew, was used to construct a conventional cDNA library and a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library from wheat leaves inoculated by Erysiphe graminis DC. Three hundred and eighty-seven non-redundant ESTs from the conventional cDNA library and 760 ESTs from the SSH cDNA library were obtained, and the ESTs similarity analysis using BLASTn and BLASTx were conducted by comparing these ESTs with sequences in GenBank. The results showed that the redundancy of some kinds of genes such as photosynthesis related genes and ribosome related genes was higher in the conventional cDNA library but the varieties and quantities of disease resistance genes were less than those in the SSH cDNA library. The SSH cDNA library was found to have obvious advantages in gene expression profiling of disease resistance such as simple library construction procedure, rich specific DRR (disease-resistance-related) genes and decreased sequencing amount. To acquire genes that were involved in the powdery mildew resistance of wheat, hybridization with high-density dots membranes was used to screen the two libraries. The result showed that the method was relatively simple in operation, and the membranes could be used for many times. But some problems also existed with this screening method. For instance, a large amount of mRNA and radioactive isotope were needed and the hybridization procedure must be repeated several times to obtain stable hybridization results. About 54.1% function-known ESTs in the SSH cDNA library were identified to be DRR genes by screening. There were 247 clones of the SSH cDNA library that had positive signal in the repeated hybridizations with the pathogen uninfected probe. The identified DRR genes distributed in the whole procedure of powdery mildew resistance, but mainly focused on the SAR (systemic of acquired resistance).

  3. Construction techniques of the high resolution lead / scintillating fibre electromagnetic calorimeter for the KLOE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, M.; Bisogni, G.; Ceccarelli, A.

    1997-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the KLOE experiment is a lead-scintillating fibre sampling device. This calorimeter is arranged as a 'barrel', closed at both ends with an 'end-cap'. The barrel consists in 24 modules defining a cylinder, 4.3 long, with 4 m inner diameter. Each end-cap consists of 32 modules running vertically along the chords of the circle inscribed into the barrel. In this paper the calorimeter construction techniques are described

  4. Impact resistance of sustainable construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced geogrid concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muda, Z C; Usman, F; Beddu, S; Alam, M A; Mustapha, K N; Birima, A H; Sidek, L M; Rashid, M A; Malik, G; Zarroq, O S

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete slab with geogrid reinforcement of 300mm × 300mm size with 20mm, 30mm and 40 mm thick casted with different geogrid orientation and boundary conditions subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance the slab thickness, boundary conditions and geogrid reinforcement orientation. Test results indicate that the used of the geogrid reinforcement increased the impact resistance under service (first) limit crack up to 5.9 times and at ultimate limit crack up to 20.1 times against the control sample (without geogrid). A good linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against the slab thickness. The orientation of the geogrid has minor significant to the crack resistance of the OPS concrete slab. OPS geogrid reinforced slab has a good crack resistance properties that can be utilized as a sustainable impact resistance construction materials.

  5. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  6. a technique for identification of intrinsic resistance of maize varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    research materials and financial support during the period of this study. Thanks are extended to the technical staff in the. Department for their assistance during data collection. REFERENCES. Abebe F, Tefera T, Mugo S, Beyene Y and. Vidal S 2009 Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

  7. Use of electrical resistivity technique for engineering site investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of moderately thick (1.5 – 16.5m) clay has been established in this area; therefore the use of raft foundation and/or any other foundation that is commensurate with civil engineering standard is suggested for high rise structures. Keywords: bedrock integrity, transverse unit resistance, foundation. Global Journal ...

  8. A novel abutment construction technique for rapid bridge construction : controlled low strength Materials (CLSM) with full-height concrete panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...

  9. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  10. An Overview of the Use of Absolute Dating Techniques in Ancient Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the chronology of historical buildings is a tricky issue, as usually there are not historical documents that allow the assessment of construction phases, and some materials are hardly reliable for the use of dating techniques (e.g., stone. However, in the last two decades, important advances on the use of absolute dating methods on building materials have increased the possibilities of reconstructing building chronologies, although some advances are still scarcely known among archaeologists and architects. Recent studies performed on several kinds of mortars, fired bricks, mud-bricks, and even stone surfaces have shown that it is possible to date them. Both radiocarbon and luminescence dating have been the most frequently used techniques but others such as archaeomagnetism can also be used in some cases. This paper intends to give an overview of the recent achievements on the use of absolute dating techniques for building materials.

  11. Construction techniques and operation principles of Geiger-Mueller counters using external cathode (Mazetype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, F.X.

    1988-01-01

    The construction techniques for external cathode (Maze) and internal cathode Geiger-Muller counters are described, showing the operation principles and the used material nature. More than 200 counter types were evaluated analysing their characteristics. The influence of several types of guard-rings was studied, for optimizing counter operation conditions. Plateaus of the order of 700 V with slope of 0,3%/100 V for the net counting rate, and 1400 V with a slope of 0,8/100 V for total counts using total pressure of 10 cmHg, were obtained. A counter for β detection, using blown glass window in one of the edges of the cylinder was constructed. Counters of long life using materials such as, mica, adhesive glues, etc., were obtained. The results shown that the best counter operation occurs when it is empty in a vacuum of 10 -5 mmHg. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Construction and use of an optical semi-automatic titrator employing the technique of reflectance photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hoon

    2001-01-01

    An optical semi-automatic titrator was constructed employing the technique of the reflectance spectrometry and was tested for the determination of the end points of the acid-base, precipitation, and EDTA titrations. And since the current optical semi-automatic titrator built on the principle of the reflectance spectrometry could be successfully used even for the determination of the end of the end point in the precipitation titration where the solid particles are formed during the titration process, it was found to be feasible that a completely automated optical titrator would be designed and built based on the current findings

  13. The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. The Use of Information Technology Techniques in the Construction Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Ahmed Memon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector together with service, manufacturing, agriculture and mining sectors is the main contributors of the Pakistan\\'s GDP (Gross Domestic Product and economic growth. It is also a key indicator in determining the economic performance of the country. As the issues of globalization and trades deregulation, stringer requirements of time, cost, quality and advancement of technologies have become more critical, the sector has to find ways to enhance its operational efficiency and effectiveness. IT (Information Technology as a key enabler has been recognized to be an inseparable tool to sustain business and become more competitive. This paper gives an overview of the current status of IT application and presents the significant results from PCI (Pakistan Construction Industry. The result of survey also highlights the challenges to the construction industry of Pakistan before implementing the IT techniques. A statistical method \\'Average Index\\' is used to analyze the collected data and statistical hypothesis testing is conducted to know the difference between the parameters. The survey produced knowledge about the use of computers, hardware and software, communication and strategies for the use of IT. The use of spread sheets, word processor, CAD (Computer Aided Drafting in general has increased and the use of model based CAD software has increased among the major key players of construction industry. The use of project webs and electronic trade in the industry is not started properly. From the analysis it is concluded that construction firms in Pakistan are mostly using manual procedures and the use of IT seems to be at the inception stage

  15. Constructing a Soil Class Map of Denmark based on the FAO Legend Using Digital Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Minasny, Budiman; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Soil mapping in Denmark has a long history and a series of soil maps based on conventional mapping approaches have been produced. In this study, a national soil map of Denmark was constructed based on the FAO–Unesco Revised Legend 1990 using digital soil mapping techniques, existing soil profile...... observations and environmental data. This map was developed using soil-landscape models generated with a decision tree-based digital soil mapping technique. As input variables in the model, more than 1170 soil profile data and 17 environmental variables including geology, land use, landscape type, area...... of wetlands, digital elevation model and its derivatives were compiled. The predicted map showed that Podzols and Luvisols were the most frequent soil groups, covering almost two-thirds of the area of Denmark. Geographically, Podzols occupied a major portion of western Denmark, where the soils have developed...

  16. Detection of multidrug resistance using molecular nuclear technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Although the outcome of cancer patients after cytotoxic chemotherapy is related diverse mechanisms, multidrug resistance (MDR) for chemotherapeutic drugs due to cellular P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) is most important factor in the chemotherapy failure to cancer. A large number of pharmacologic compounds, including verapamil, quinidine, tamoxifen, cyclosporin A and quinolone derivatives have been reported to overcome MDR. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are available for the detection of Pgp and MRP-mediated transporter. {sup 99}m-Tc-MIBI and other {sup 99}m-Tc-radiopharmaceuticals are substrates for Pgp and MRP, and have been used in clinical studies for tumor imaging, and to visualize blockade of Pgp-mediated transport after modulation of Pgp pump. Colchicine, verapamil and daunorubicin labeled with {sup 11}C have been evaluated for the quantification of Pgp-mediated transport with PET in vivo and reported to be feasible substrates with which to image Pgp function in tumors. Leukotrienes are specific substrates for MRP and N-({sup 11}C)acetyl-leukotriene E4 provides an opportunity to study MRP function non-invasively in vivo. SPECT and PET pharmaceuticals have successfully used to evaluate pharmacologic effects of MDR modulators. Imaging of MDR and reversal of MDR with bioluminescence in a living animal is also evaluated for future clinical trial. We have described recent advances in molecular imaging of MDR and reviewed recent publications regarding feasibility of SPECT and PET imaging to study the functionality of MDR transporters in vivo.

  17. Internet Memes as a Field of Discursive Construction of Identity and Space of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Marinkov Pavlović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Internet memes as a form of viral content that spreads via the network varying a basic concept while constructing and deconstructing different identities. If memes are understood as a discursive field in the completely new world of social media, in which different groups, their attitudes, ideologies and interests are represented more clearly and more directly than ever before through the appropriation of popular contents and images, then this form of viral content can be also viewed as a space of resistance and criticism in which identities are decentralized and ready for change.

  18. Use of non-standardised micro-destructive techniques in the characterization of traditional construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Theodoridou, Magdalini; Modestou, Sevasti; Fournari, Revecca; Dagrain, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of material properties and the diagnosis of their state of weathering and conservation are three of the most important steps in the field of cultural heritage preservation. Several standardised experimental methods exist, especially for determining the material properties and their durability. However, they are limited in their application by the required size of test specimens and the controlled laboratory conditions needed to undertake the tests; this is especially true when the materials under study constitute immovable parts of heritage structures. The current use of other advanced methods of analysis, such as imaging techniques, in the aforementioned field of research offers invaluable results. However, these techniques may not always be accessible to the wider research community due to their complex nature and relatively high cost of application. This study presents innovative applications of two recently developed cutting techniques; the portable Drilling Resistance Measuring System (DRMS) and the scratch tool. Both methods are defined as micro-destructive, since they only destroy a very small portion of sample material. The general concept of both methods lies within the forces needed to cut a material by linear (scratch tool) or rotational (DRMS) cutting action; these forces are related to the mechanical properties of the material and the technological parameters applied on the tool. Therefore, for a given testing configuration, the only parameter influencing the forces applied is the strength of the material. These two techniques have been used alongside a series of standardised laboratory tests aiming at the correlation of various stone properties (density, porosity, dynamic elastic modulus and uniaxial compressive strength). The results prove the potential of both techniques in assessing the uniaxial compressive strength of stones. The scratch tool has also been used effectively to estimate the compressive strength of mud bricks. It

  19. Importance of material evaluation prior to the construction of devices for in vitro techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jessica; Halter, Beat; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2013-11-01

    The development and validation of new in vitro methods in the field of toxicology have gained more importance in recent years due to stricter guidelines for animal testing, especially in the European Union. Consequently, advances in the construction of technical devices for the exposure of cell or tissue cultures to test substances are necessary. Here, to obtain reliable results, it is important to exclusively use materials that do not interfere with the cell viability. Thus, similar to the biomaterials testing of medical devices which is regulated in the Directive 93/42/EEC, the biocompatibility of the materials has to be verified prior to the construction of such devices. We present here a novel approach for biomaterials testing which allows the quantitative and qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity of material samples. Stainless steel and silicone are often used for laboratory equipment, due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. However, our results highlight that some types of silicone may have adverse effects on cultured cells. Moreover, special methods for the surface treatment of metals may also be a critical factor for in vitro devices. Therefore, the testing of all materials coming in contact with cell cultures is highly recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. A new construction technique for tissue-engineered heart valves using the self-assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Catherine; Ruel, Jean; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Laterreur, Véronique; Vallières, Karine; Tondreau, Maxime Y; Lacroix, Dan; Germain, Lucie; Auger, François A

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering appears as a promising option to create new heart valve substitutes able to overcome the serious drawbacks encountered with mechanical substitutes or tissue valves. The objective of this article is to present the construction method of a new entirely biological stentless aortic valve using the self-assembly method and also a first assessment of its behavior in a bioreactor when exposed to a pulsatile flow. A thick tissue was created by stacking several fibroblast sheets produced with the self-assembly technique. Different sets of custom-made templates were designed to confer to the thick tissue a three-dimensional (3D) shape similar to that of a native aortic valve. The construction of the valve was divided in two sequential steps. The first step was the installation of the thick tissue in a flat preshaping template followed by a 4-week maturation period. The second step was the actual cylindrical 3D forming of the valve. The microscopic tissue structure was assessed using histological cross sections stained with Masson's Trichrome and Picrosirius Red. The thick tissue remained uniformly populated with cells throughout the construction steps and the dense extracellular matrix presented corrugated fibers of collagen. This first prototype of tissue-engineered heart valve was installed in a bioreactor to assess its capacity to sustain a light pulsatile flow at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Under the light pulsed flow, it was observed that the leaflets opened and closed according to the flow variations. This study demonstrates that the self-assembly method is a viable option for the construction of complex 3D shapes, such as heart valves, with an entirely biological material.

  1. Carbon footprint comparison of innovative techniques in the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, E.E.; Leegwater, G.A.; Vos-Effting, S.E. de; Wit, M.S. de

    2015-01-01

    The ambition of European countries to reduce their national greenhouse gas emissions, has been translated in the Netherlands in green procurement policy of the national road administration. An increasing amount of innovative techniques and approaches in road infrastructure construction and

  2. Testing of wooden construction elements with ultrasonic echo technique and x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstab, A.; Krause, M.; Osterloh, K.

    2008-01-01

    Damages inside of wooden construction components (e.g. interior rot) or at inaccessible surfaces represent a special problem, since they are difficult to recognize from the outside, they can even cause a sudden failure of the component. As a result the research, it could be proved that ultrasonic echo technique can be used on wood both with longitudinal and transverse waves. Further more the different influences of the wood fibres on the sound velocity of the longitudinal and transverse waves is pointed out on the basis results of measurements. The efficiency of the ultrasonic echo technique is shown on wooden specimens. The combination of ultrasonic echo technique and radiography resulted in a very substantial reduction of possible misinterpretations of damage. There it is possible to detect the damage from the undamaged side of the specimen by ultrasound echo. The spread of the damage can be obtained with mobile x-ray measurements. Finally the results show, that ultrasonic methods are more sensitive starting decay and cracks parallel to the surface.

  3. Effect of veneering technique on the fracture resistance of zirconia fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, M S; Witkowski, S; Strub, J R; Att, W

    2013-01-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of zirconia 3-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) frameworks veneered with different veneering materials and techniques before and after artificial ageing. Forty-eight zirconia 3-unit FDPs, representing a missing first molar, were adhesively cemented on human teeth. The zirconia frameworks were randomly distributed according to the veneering materials and techniques into three groups, each containing 16 samples: group LV (layering technique/Vintage ZR), group LZ (layering technique/ZIROX) and group PP (CAD/CAM and press-over techniques/PressXZr). Half of each group was artificially aged through dynamic loading and thermocycling to simulate 5 years of clinical service. Afterwards, all specimens were tested for fracture resistance using compressive load. An analysis of variance (anova) was used to assess the effect of veneering ceramic and artificial ageing on fracture resistance (P veneered with the layering technique (P veneered with the CAD/CAM and press-over techniques. All tested systems have the potential to withstand occlusal forces applied in the posterior region. The combination of the CAD/CAM and press-over techniques for the veneering process improved the overall stability after artificial ageing, relative to the layering technique. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  5. Aircraft wing weight build-up methodology with modification for materials and construction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, P.; Labell, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An aircraft wing weight estimating method based on a component buildup technique is described. A simplified analytically derived beam model, modified by a regression analysis, is used to estimate the wing box weight, utilizing a data base of 50 actual airplane wing weights. Factors representing materials and methods of construction were derived and incorporated into the basic wing box equations. Weight penalties to the wing box for fuel, engines, landing gear, stores and fold or pivot are also included. Methods for estimating the weight of additional items (secondary structure, control surfaces) have the option of using details available at the design stage (i.e., wing box area, flap area) or default values based on actual aircraft from the data base.

  6. The Technique for the Numerical Tolerances Estimations in the Construction of Compensated Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, V V

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to the cells manufacturing precision and tining in the multi-cells accelerating structures construction came from the required accelerating field uniformity, based on the beam dynamics demands. The standard deviation of the field distribution depends on accelerating and coupling modes frequencies deviations, stop-band width and coupling coefficient deviations. These deviations can be determined from 3D fields distribution for accelerating and coupling modes and the cells surface displacements. With modern software it can be done separately for every specified part of the cell surface. Finally, the cell surface displacements are defined from the cell dimensions deviations. This technique allows both to define qualitatively the critical regions and to optimize quantitatively the tolerances definition.

  7. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  8. Molecular detection of drug resistance in microbes by isotopic techniques: The IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, L.; Boussaha, A.; Padhy, A.K.; Khan, B.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports various programmes on the uses of radionuclide techniques in the management of human communicable diseases. An important issue, being addressed through several technology transfer projects, is the detection of drug resistance in microbes by radioisotope based molecular-biology diagnostic procedures. The techniques employed include dot blot hybridisation with P-32 labelled oligonucleotide probes to detect point mutations, associated with drug resistance, in microbial genes amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular methods have been used for the detection of drug resistance in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Radioisotope based molecular-biology methods have been demonstrated to have comparative advantages in being sensitive, specific, cost-effective, and suitable for application to large-scale molecular surveillance for drug resistance. (author)

  9. Application of a Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique on Constructability Problems of Site on Very Soft Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Ko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of the Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL technique on the constructability problems of site on very soft soil. The main objective of this study was to investigate the constructability and application of two ground improvement methods, such as the forced replacement method and the deep mixing method. The comparison between the results of CEL analyses and field investigations was performed to verify the CEL modelling. The behavior of very soft soil and constructability with methods can be appropriately investigated using the CEL technique, which would be useful tools for comprehensive reviews in preliminary design.

  10. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  11. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe; Dance, David A B; Davong, Viengmon; Tann, Pisey; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Turner, Paul; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015, Nic Fhogartaigh et al.

  12. Screening for resistance to purple seed stain Cercospora kikuchii by seed inoculation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.H.; Oh, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to establish a mass-screening technique for resistance to purple seed stain disease in soybean. Seeds sterilized in 1 : 10,000 mercuric chloride for 1 minute and transferred to Petridishes containing 20ml water agar plus 50 ppM of the sodium salt of 2,4-D were inoculated by placing a small agar cube containing fungal mycelium on the seed coat of each seed. A positive correlation betweeen natural infection of purple seed stain and purple discoloration by seed inoculation technique was highly significant and by this technique, some native soybean collections and introduced varieties were tested for resistance to the disease. Most of the soybean varieties tested were susceptible except for the varieties Hill, Harosoy and Sac, resistant comparatively.

  13. Soil Structure Evaluation Across Geologic Transition Zones Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine C Anukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes the electrical resistivity values obtained using 2-D Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI technique to evaluate the subsurface lithology across different geological units. The primary objective was to determine the effect of subsurface lithology on the integrity of a road pavement, which had developed cracks and potholes at various locations. The dipole-dipole configuration was utilized and a total of nine traverses were established in the study area, whose geology cuts across both the basement and sedimentary complexes. The inverted resistivity section obtained showed significant variation in resistivity along established traverses and also across the different rock units, with the resistivity value ranging from about 4 ohm-m to greater than 7000 ohm- m. The lithology as interpreted from the resistivity section revealed the presence topsoil, clay, sandy clay, sand, sand stones/basement rocks, with varying vertical and horizontal arrangements to a depth of 40m. Results suggest that the geologic sequence and structure might have contributed to the observed pavement failure. The capability of the 2D ERI as an imaging tool is observed, especially across the transition zones as depicted in this study. The study further stressed the ability of this technique if properly designed and implemented, to be capable of providing a wealth of information that could complement other traditional geotechnical and geologic techniques.

  14. Research, Development and Application of High Performance Earthquake Resistant Precast System as Green Construction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurjaman Hari; Hariandja Binsar; Suprapto Gambiro; Faizal Lutfi; Sitepu Haerul

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable construction is a topic that emerges in the world construction as a response to climate change issue. Building construction stage is a stage in sustainable development. Construction concept that confirm to the concept is referred to as green construction. Precast concrete construction is a construction system that meets green construction criteria, because applies the usage of material and construction method that optimize energy consumption and minimize environment impact during ...

  15. Construction of an integrated map and location of a bruchid resistance gene in mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis poses a serious threat to the production and storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata. Mapping bruchid resistance (Br will provide an important basis for cloning the responsible gene(s and elucidating its functional mechanism, and will also facilitate marker-assisted selection in mung bean breeding. Here, we report the construction of the genetic linkage groups of mung bean and mapping of the Br1 locus using an RIL population derived from a cross between Berken, a bruchid-susceptible line, and ACC41, a bruchid-resistant line. A total of 560 markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups, with 38.0% of the markers showing distorted segregation. The lengths of the linkage groups ranged from 45.2 to 117.0 cM with a total coverage of 732.9 cM and an average interval of 1.3 cM between loci. Br1 was located on LG9 between BM202 (0.7 cM and Vr2-627 (1.7 cM. Based on 270 shared SSR markers, most of the linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. These results should further accelerate the genetic study of this crop.

  16. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  17. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Xiping Wang; Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    The resistance drilling technique has been in focus for assessing the specific gravity (SG) of young Eucalyptus trees from plantations for pulpwood production. Namely, the data of 50 34-month-old and 50 62-monthold trees from Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations was evaluated, while...

  18. Fatigue limits of titanium-bar joints made with the laser and the electric resistance welding techniques: microstructural characterization and hardness properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Morri, Alessandro; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Tebbel, Florian; Marchetti, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue behavior of the titanium bars is of utmost importance for the safe and reliable operation of dental implants and prosthetic constructions based on these implants. To date, however, only few data are available on the fatigue strength of dental prostheses made with electric resistance welding and laser welding techniques. This in-vitro study highlighted that although the joints made with the laser welding approach are credited of a superior tensile strength, joints made with electric resistance welding exhibited double the minimum fatigue strength with respect to the joints made with laser welding (120 vs 60 N).

  19. The construction technique of the high granularity and high transparency drift chamber of MEG II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Miccoli, A.; Panareo, M.; Pinto, C.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    The MEG experiment searches for the charged lepton flavor violating decay, μ +→ e+γ. MEG has already determined the world best upper limit on the branching ratio BRfeed-through technique as wire anchoring system could hardly be implemented and therefore it was necessary to develop new wiring strategies. The number of wires and the stringent requirements on the precision of their position and on the uniformity of the wire mechanical tension impose the use of an automatic system to operate the wiring procedures. This wiring robot, designed and built at the INFN Lecce and University of Salento laboratories, consists of: ṡ a semiautomatic wiring machine with a high precision on wire mechanical tensioning (better than 0.5 g) and on wire positioning (20 μ m) for simultaneous wiring of multiwire layers; ṡ a contact-less infrared laser soldering tool; ṡ an automatic handling system for storing and transporting the multi-wire layers. The drift chamber is currently under construction at INFN and should be completed by the end of summer 2017 to be then delivered to PSI for commissioning.

  20. Detection of metallic and plastic landmines using the GPR and 2-D resistivity techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwaly, M.

    2007-12-01

    Low and non-metallic landmines are one of the most difficult subsurface targets to be detected using several geophysical techniques. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) performance at different field sites shows great success in detecting metallic landmines. However significant limitations are taking place in the case of low and non-metallic landmines. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) technique is tested to be an alternative or confirmation technique for detecting the metallic and non-metallic landmines in suspicious cleared areas. The electrical resistivity responses using forward modeling for metallic and non-metallic landmines buried in dry and wet environments utilizing the common electrode configurations have been achieved. Roughly all the utilized electrode arrays can establish the buried metallic and plastic mines correctly in dry and wet soil. The accuracy differs from one array to the other based on the relative resistivity contrast to the host soil and the subsurface distribution of current and potential lines as well as the amplitude of the noises in the data. The ERI technique proved to be fast and effective tool for detecting the non-metallic mines especially in the conductive environment whereas the performances of the other metal detector (MD) and GPR techniques show great limitation.

  1. On radiation stability of the advanced for nuclear technique of the construction oxides material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukadirova, I.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Al 2 O 3 oxide (as some metal oxides) is one of the prospective high-k electro-insulators and construction oxides materials, in particular, for the ceramics fuel material and the first wall of thermonuclear reactor. Besides, this oxide is used widely as an active element or substrate for lasers and MOS systems, as a film coating and receiver of IR-radiation. From here this work is aimed at investigation of radiation stability of the physical properties and structure of Al 2 O 3 oxide after irradiation to a high fluence in the reactor. In this connection the peculiarities of radiation effect on lattice parameters (a,c), form and position of several reflections, reflection coefficient and frequency of valence and deformation oscillations of Al-O bonds, electric characteristics of the oxide were studied with techniques of X-diffraction, dielectric and IR-reflection spectroscopy. For example, this communication presents the results on X-ray structure investigation of σ after irradiation to high neutron doses (F). X-diffraction patterns were obtained using a roentgen diffractometer. Particular attention was paid to dynamics of form and positions some representative reflexes. The diffraction patterns showed essential changes of peak intensity and position depending upon F, the Bragg angle 2 Θ decreases with an increase in dose, the lattice parameters of crystals ( a, c ) was undergone anisotropy expansion, at very high dose of change this parameters is not so much as Δc= 0,0038 nm and Δa = 0,0014 nm. Besides, it is shown that at these doses some halo appears at the diffraction patterns. The mechanism of atom displacement out of lattice knots plays the main role in radiation damage of crystals irradiated to high doses. The optical characteristics - a reflection coefficient and frequency of valence (736, 614 cm -1 ) and deformation (464 cm -1 ) oscillations of Al-O bonds of the oxide were studied with techniques of IR-reflection spectroscopy in region of

  2. A new technique in constructing closed-form solutions for nonlinear PDEs appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotounakos D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new unique technique in constructing closed-form solutions for several nonlinear partial differential systems appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics. The obtained solutions include fewer arbitrary functions than needed for general solutions, fact that permits us to specify them according to the initial state, or the geometry, of each specific problem under consideration. In order to apply the before mentioned technique we construct closed-form solutions concerning the gas-dynamic equations with constant pressure, the dynamic equations of an ideal gas in isentropic flow, and the two-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flow.

  3. Technique for Determination of Rational Boundaries in Combining Construction and Installation Processes Based on Quantitative Estimation of Technological Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, E. V.; Mukhametzyanov, Z. R.; Razyapov, R. V.

    2017-11-01

    The problems of the existing methods for the determination of combining and technologically interlinked construction processes and activities are considered under the modern construction conditions of various facilities. The necessity to identify common parameters that characterize the interaction nature of all the technology-related construction and installation processes and activities is shown. The research of the technologies of construction and installation processes for buildings and structures with the goal of determining a common parameter for evaluating the relationship between technologically interconnected processes and construction works are conducted. The result of this research was to identify the quantitative evaluation of interaction construction and installation processes and activities in a minimum technologically necessary volume of the previous process allowing one to plan and organize the execution of a subsequent technologically interconnected process. The quantitative evaluation is used as the basis for the calculation of the optimum range of the combination of processes and activities. The calculation method is based on the use of the graph theory. The authors applied a generic characterization parameter to reveal the technological links between construction and installation processes, and the proposed technique has adaptive properties which are key for wide use in organizational decisions forming. The article provides a written practical significance of the developed technique.

  4. Decoupling pipeline influences in soil resistivity measurements with finite element techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, R. N.; Azoor, R. M.; Zhang, C.; Kodikara, J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Periodic inspection of pipeline conditions is an important asset management strategy conducted by water and sewer utilities for efficient and economical operations of their assets in field. The Level 1 pipeline condition assessment involving resistivity profiling along the pipeline right-of-way is a common technique for delineating pipe sections that might be installed in highly corrosive soil environment. However, the technique can suffer from significant perturbations arising from the buried pipe itself, resulting in errors in native soil characterisation. To address this problem, a finite element model was developed to investigate the degree to which pipes of different a) diameters, b) burial depths, and c) surface conditions (bare or coated) can influence in-situ soil resistivity measurements using Wenner methods. It was found that the greatest errors can arise when conducting measurements over a bare pipe with the array aligned parallel to the pipe. Depending upon the pipe surface conditions, in-situ resistivity measurements can either be underestimated or overestimated from true soil resistivities. Following results based on simulations and decoupling equations, a guiding framework for removing pipe influences in soil resistivity measurements were developed that can be easily used to perform corrections on measurements. The equations require simple a-prior information on the pipe diameter, burial depth, surface condition, and the array length and orientation used. Findings from this study have immediate application and is envisaged to be useful for critical civil infrastructure monitoring and assessment.

  5. The use of tissue culture techniques with irradiation to improve potato resistance to late blight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    A mutation breeding program was conducted to improve potato (Solanum tuberosum) resistance to late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. In vitro cultured explants from potato cvs. Draga, Diamant, Spunta were irradiated with gamma ray doses 25, 30, and 35 Gy. Growing shoots were cut and re-cultured every 2 weeks until the 4 t h generation (MV 4 ) to make sure no chimeral tissues still existed in the mutant material. Plantlets were subsequently propagated to obtain enough explants for in vitro selection pressure. Around 3000 plantlets from the three cultivars were subjected to selection pressure using co-culture technique. MV 4 explants were incubated in jars, containing MS medium, with mycelia of P. infestans. Surviving plantlets were propagated and re-incubated with the pathogen for three consecutive generations. Resistant plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to pots and grown under glasshouse conditions. Plants were later inoculated, at the adult stage, with sporangial suspension. Cultivar Draga produced the highest number of resistant plants. Ten plants of Draga appeared to be resistant to late blight whereas only one plant from each of the other 2 cultivars was resistant. Mutant plants varied in number of produced minitubers from 13 to 70, Also, weight of these minitubers varied from less than 1 to 35 grams. Selected mutant lines will undergo further testing under field conditions for P. infestans resistance and other agronomic characteristics. (author)

  6. Ecological Network Construction Based on Minimum Cumulative Resistance for the City of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With economic growth and the improvement of the urbanization level, human activities have constantly interfered with landscape patterns, resulting in serious threats to regional ecological security. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution and optimization of the landscape patterns. Based on three TM images from 1990, 2000, and 2010, and selected landscape pattern indexes, the changes in the landscape pattern of Nanjing in the past twenty years were studied based on landscape ecology theory using Remote Sensing (RS and a Geographical Information System (GIS. The ecological network was built on the basis of extracted ecological nodes and the minimum cumulative resistance. The results show that changes in the landscape pattern of the city of Nanjing were notable. Class-level indexes indicate that the farmland landscape area decreased and the degree of patch fragmentation increased. The construction land area increased, and it tended to show dispersed distribution. The proportion of forest land increased and the shape of patches became more complex. The proportion of water firstly showed a decrease, followed by an increase, and the shape of the water became more regular. Landscape-level indexes indicate that biological diversity and the degree of fragmentation increased. Spatial heterogeneity of the natural landscape increased, and the patch shape of each landscape type developed similarly. The results also call for stepping-stones to enhance the connectivity and optimization of the ecological network, which will help improve ecological services and improve the landscape pattern of the city.

  7. Effect on in vitro fracture resistance of the technique used to attach lithium disilicate ceramic veneer to zirconia frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, M; Schweiger, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S

    2014-02-01

    This in vitro study should assess the fracture resistance of veneered zirconia-based crowns with either luted or fused veneer. Thirty-two identical zirconia frameworks (IPS e.max ZirCAD; Ivoclar/Vivadent), were constructed (inLab 3.80; Sirona Dental Systems). All frameworks were veneered with CAD/CAM-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max CAD; Ivoclar/Vivadent). For half the crowns (n=16) the veneer was luted to the framework (Multilink Implant; Ivoclar/Vivadent); for the other it was fused (IPS e.max Crystall./Connect; Ivoclar/Vivadent). Half of the specimens were then loaded until failure without artificial aging; the other half underwent artificial aging before assessment of the ultimate load. To compare the two techniques further, finite element analysis (FEA) and fractographic assessment using SEM and EDX analysis were conducted. Statistical assessment was performed by use of non-parametric tests. Initial fracture forces were higher in the fusion group (mean: 1388±190 N versus 1211±158 N). All specimens were insensitive to artificial aging. FEA showed that tensile stresses in the veneer at the frame-veneer interface were much higher for crowns with luted veneer; this may be the reason for their lower fracture resistance. Fractographic analysis revealed that both fused and luted specimens had cohesive and adhesive fracture patterns which resulted in partial delamination of the veneer. Fused crowns are superior to luted crowns. Comparison of fracture resistance with the maximum loads which may occur clinically (Fmax=600 N on one tooth) suggests both techniques might be used clinically, however. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  9. Constructing Knowledge via a Peer Interaction in a CAS Environment with Tasks Designed from a Task-Technique-Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Fernando; Kieran, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Our research project aimed at understanding the complexity of the construction of knowledge in a CAS environment. Basing our work on the French instrumental approach, in particular the Task-Technique-Theory (T-T-T) theoretical frame as adapted from Chevallard's Anthropological Theory of Didactics, we were mindful that a careful task design process…

  10. Evaluation of two gene-silencing constructs for resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl viruses in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah Chouchane, S; Gorsane, F; Nakhla, M K; Salus, M; Martin, C T; Maxwell, D P; Marrakchi, M; Fakhfakh, H

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into intact plant leaves of N. benthamiana was used to test the efficiency of two virus-based silencing constructs conferring resistance to the closely related begomoviruses. The constructs contained the most conserved sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene and replication-associated protein (Rep) gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Sicily strain) (TYLCSV-[Sic]). Both constructs formed a hairpin structure that enhanced the post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. When agro-infiltrated plants were challenged separately with infectious viruses TYLCSV-[Sic] and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the plants showed resistance to TYLCSV-[Sic], but not to the related TYLCV.

  11. Mutation breeding through in vitro culture techniques for resistance to cocoa swollen shoot virus disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu Ampomah, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) disease is epidemic in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Ghana, but there is no resistant material in the genetic resources available. In order to widen the genetic variability in this crop, efforts were made to apply conventional mutation breeding and in combination with in vitro culture technique. Gamma irradiation with doses less than 100 Gy were applied to pollen, beans and vegetative buds, and more than 1,000 M 2 /F 1 or M 1 V 3 plants for each experiments were screened for CSSV resistance by patch grafting method. The results indicated that it is feasible to use vegetative buds and in vitro culture to generate the desired variation. Some promising CSSV resistant clones are under further testing. In vitro culture conditions are also reported. (author). 7 refs, 7 tabs

  12. Techniques for Minimizing and Monitoring the Impact of Pipeline Construction on Coastal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Mulroy; John R. Storrer; Vincent J. Semonsen; Michael L. Dungan

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes specific measures recently employed for protection of riparian resources during construction of an oil and gas pipeline that crossed coastal reaches of 23 perennial and intermittent streams between Point Conception and Gaviota in Santa Barbara County, California. Flumes were constructed to maintain stream flow; anchored straw bales and silt fences...

  13. A Technique for Evaluating Heterodera glycines Development in Susceptible and Resistant Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrendt, J M; Lewis, S A; Shipe, E R

    1992-03-01

    A technique was developed to evaluate Heterodera glycines development in susceptible and resistant soybean. Roots of 3-day-old soybean were exposed to infective juveniles of H. glyci.nes in sand for 8 hours followed by washing and transfer to hydroponic culture. The cotyledons and apical meristem were removed and plants were maintained under constant light, which resulted in a dwarfed plant system. After 15 or 20 days at 27 C, nematodes were rated for development. Emerged males were sieved from the culture water and females were counted directly from the roots. Nematodes remaining in the roots were rated for development after staining and clearing the tissues. The proportion of nematodes at each stage of development and the frequency of completed molts for each stage were calculated from these data. This technique showed that resistance to H. glycines was stage related and did not affect males and females equally in all resistant hosts. The resistance of plant introduction PI 209332 primarily affected development of third and fourth-stage juveniles; 'Pickett' mainly affected second and third-stage juveniles, whereas PI 89772 affected all stages. Male development was markedly affected in PI 89772 and 'Pickett' but not in PI 209332.

  14. Mutation breeding for disease resistance using in-vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Breeding for disease resistance is a major aspect of plant breeding, which may take at least 20% of a plant breeder's time, effort and budget. Nevertheless, numerous resistance problems remain unsolved and present major constraints to the production of food, feed, fiber and industrial commodities. The application of novel biotechnology and genetic engineering will extend the possibilities of conventional plant breeding. Therefore a meeting of experts in plant protection, plant breeding and in-vitro culture technology was convened by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in Vienna. The experts were asked to discuss and give advice on prospects of biotechnology, especially plant in-vitro cultures, to contribute towards improved chances of success in mutation breeding for disease resistance. The plant breeder, in searching for resistance to a particular pathogen, like for any other desirable character, needs genetic variation to begin with. In addition he needs an appropriate screening method to detect the desired character. Science has developed so fast that it is now time to apply the existing knowledge of biotechnology to practical problems in agriculture, also in developing countries. In the near future this may be true also for novel techniques of genetic engineering. The usefulness and feasibility of the application of in-vitro techniques for these purposes varies with crops and pathogens, but also depends on the strength of plant breeding and plant pathology and the facilities available in a particular country. The members of the Advisory Group attempted to discuss the various aspects and to reach sound conclusions

  15. Fracture Resistance of Premolars Restored by Various Types and Placement Techniques of Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horieh Moosavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the fracture resistance of premolars with mesioocclusodistal preparations restored by different resin composites and placement techniques. Sixty premolars were randomly divided into two groups based on type of composite resin: Filtek P60 or Nulite F, and then each group was separated into three subgroups: bulk, centripetal, and fiber insert according to the type of placement method (n=10. Single-bond adhesive system was used as composite bonding according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were restored in Groups 1, 2, and 3 with Filtek P60 and in Groups 4, 5, and 6 with Nulite F. After being stored 24 hours at 37∘C, a 4 mm diameter steel sphere in a universal testing machine was applied on tooth buccal and lingual cusps at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Groups 3 and 6 showed higher fracture resistance than Groups 1, 2, 4, and 5. Among the placement techniques, the fiber insert method had a significant effect, but the type of composite was ineffective. The insertion technique in contrast to the type of material had a significant influence on the fracture resistance of premolar teeth.

  16. Assessment of the reliability of reproducing two-dimensional resistivity models using an image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Kehinde S; Nawawi, Mohd Nm; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Sabri, Ali Idriss Aboubakar; Adiat, Kola Abdulnafiu

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to combine the results of geophysical images obtained from three commonly used electrode configurations using an image processing technique in order to assess their capabilities to reproduce two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity models. All the inverse resistivity models were processed using the PCI Geomatica software package commonly used for remote sensing data sets. Preprocessing of the 2-D inverse models was carried out to facilitate further processing and statistical analyses. Four Raster layers were created, three of these layers were used for the input images and the fourth layer was used as the output of the combined images. The data sets were merged using basic statistical approach. Interpreted results show that all images resolved and reconstructed the essential features of the models. An assessment of the accuracy of the images for the four geologic models was performed using four criteria: the mean absolute error and mean percentage absolute error, resistivity values of the reconstructed blocks and their displacements from the true models. Generally, the blocks of the images of maximum approach give the least estimated errors. Also, the displacement of the reconstructed blocks from the true blocks is the least and the reconstructed resistivities of the blocks are closer to the true blocks than any other combined used. Thus, it is corroborated that when inverse resistivity models are combined, most reliable and detailed information about the geologic models is obtained than using individual data sets.

  17. Geophysical investigation of earth dam using the electrical tomography resistivity technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lemos Camarero

    Full Text Available Abstract Dams are structures that dam rivers and streams for a variety of purposes. These structures often need to be sturdy to withstand the force of the impoundment and the high values of accumulated water load. The constant maintenance of these structures is essential, since a possible accident can lead to damage of catastrophic proportions. This research presents an alternative cheap and quick application for investigating water seepage in earth dams, through the application of the DC resistivity geophysical method from the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT technique in Wenner array. Three ERT lines were placed parallel to the longitudinal axis of a dam formed by clay soil from the decomposition of diabase. The data are presented in 2D and pseudo-3D geophysical images with electrical resistivity values modeled. Based on the physical principle of electrolytic conduction, that is, decrease in electrical resistance in materials or siliceous minerals in moisture conditions as compared to the material in the dry state, the results revealed low-resistivity zones restricted to some points, associated with water infiltration in the transverse direction of the dam. The absence of evidence as water upwelling on the front of the dam together with geophysical evidence indicate saturation restricted to some points and low probability at the present time, for installation of piping processes.

  18. Evaluation of vibration limits and mitigation techniques for urban construction : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Construction activities such as pile driving and : dynamic compaction of loose soils induce ground : and structure vibrations. Their effects may annoy : local populations, disturb sensitive equipment, or : reduce structures serviceability and dura...

  19. Holographic interferometry - a nondestructive inspection technique for early detection of construction element damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachutka, H.; Fritzsch, W.; Gruenewald, K.

    1977-01-01

    After a short introduction into the fundamentals of holographic interferometry, the application of this process to non-destructive material testing is explained. Practical examples of qualitative and quantitative deformation measurements carried out on building elements of different materials as well as on metallic and nonmetallic combinations show the possibilities of early recognition of manufacturing flaws and weak points due to the construction and also the determination of construction material characteristic coefficients. (orig.) [de

  20. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Weisner, Stefan E B; Ehde, Per Magnus; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-04-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.

  2. Microgravity and Electrical Resistivity Techniques for Detection of Caves and Clandestine Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, N. C.; Croft, L. A.; Cesin, G. L.; Wilson, S.

    2006-05-01

    The Center for Cave and Karst Studies, CCKS, has been using microgravity to locate caves from the ground's surface since 1985. The geophysical subsurface investigations began during a period when explosive and toxic vapors were rising from the karst aquifer under Bowling Green into homes, businesses, and schools. The USEPA provided the funding for this Superfund Emergency, and the CCKS was able to drill numerous wells into low-gravity anomalies to confirm and even map the route of caves in the underlying limestone bedrock. In every case, a low-gravity anomaly indicated a bedrock cave, a cave with a collapsed roof or locations where a bedrock cave had collapsed and filled with alluvium. At numerous locations, several wells were cored into microgravity anomalies and in every case, additional wells were drilled on both sides of the anomalies to confirm that the technique was in fact reliable. The wells cored on both sides of the anomalies did not intersect caves but instead intersected virtually solid limestone. Microgravity also easily detected storm sewers and even sanitary sewers, sometimes six meters (twenty feet) beneath the surface. Microgravity has also been used on many occasions to investigate sinkhole collapses. It identified potential collapse areas by detecting voids in the unconsolidated material above bedrock. The system will soon be tested over known tunnels and then during a blind test along a section of the U.S. border at Nogales, Arizona. The CCKS has experimented with other geophysical techniques, particularly ground penetrating radar, seismic and electrical resistivity. In the late 1990s the CCKS started using the Swift/Sting resistivity meter to perform karst geophysical subsurface investigations. The system provides good depth to bedrock data, but it is often difficult to interpret bedrock caves from the modeled data. The system typically used now by the CCKS to perform karst subsurface investigations is to use electrical resistivity traverses

  3. Determination of bending moment resistance of t-type joints constructed with wood biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kahvand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate effects of wood species (Beech and Fir, number of connectors (1 and 2, size of biscuit (10 and 20 and type of adhesives (Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc, polyurethane (PU and urea-formaldehyde (UF on bending moment resistance of joints fabricated with biscuit. Results have shown that member of joint, number of connector, size of biscuit and type of adhesive had significant effect on the bending moment resistance. Bending moment resistance of joints made of Beech wood were stronger than joints made of Fir ones. Bending moment resistance has increased, with the increase of size and number of biscuit. Performance of joints with PU adhesive had better than PVA and UF. Highest bending moment resistance were obtained from joints glued with PU adhesive, size of biscuit 20 and 2 connectors. The results also indicated that joints made with biscuit and glued with PU had higher resistance than wooden dowel joints.

  4. Learning from tradition. Construction techniques and repair of historical buildings in the area of Brescia: some examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Scala

    2016-06-01

    The essay focuses on the area of Brescia where, in spite of significant transformations over time of buildings and territory, many examples of traditional architecture still exist. The aim of the paper is also to suggest, by presenting some case studies, a strategy for conservation which proposes a dialogue between traditional methods, technological innovations and economic sustainability of interventions. Keywords: Traditional architecture, Brescia, Sustainability, Construction techniques, Protection

  5. Feasibility Study on UAV-assisted Construction Surplus Soil Tracking Control and Management Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieh Haur, Chen; Kuo, Lin Sheng; Fu, Chen Ping; Li Hsu, Yeh; Da Heng, Chen

    2018-01-01

    Construction surplus soil tracking management has been the key management issue in Taiwan since 1991. This is mainly due to the construction surplus soils were often regarded as disposable waste and were disposed openly without any supervision, leading to environmental pollution. Even though the surplus soils were gradually being viewed as reusable resources, some unscrupulous enterprises still dump them freely for their own convenience. In order to dispose these surplus soils, site offices are required to confirm with the soil treatment plant regarding the approximate soil volume for hauling vehicle dispatch. However, the excavated soil volume will transform from bank volume to loose volume upon excavation, which may differ by a certain speculative coefficient (1.3), depending on the excavation site and geological condition. For managing and tracking the construction surplus soils, local government authorities frequently performed on-site spot check, but the lack of rapid assessment tools for soil volume estimation increased the evaluation difficulty for on-site inspectors. This study adopted unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in construction surplus soil tracking and rapidly acquired site photography and point cloud data, the excavated soil volume can be determined promptly after post-processing and interpretation, providing references to future surplus soil tracking management.

  6. Fracture resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment of dental implant system with injection molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guangyuan; Wang, Dashan

    2013-11-01

    Zirconia powder in nanometers can be fabricated into inter-joined abutment of dental implant system with the injection shaping technique. This study was to detect the resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment with different angle loading for clinical applications. The inter-joined abutments were shaped with the technique of injection of zirconia powder in nanometers. Sixty Osstem GSII 5 × 10 mm implants were used with 30 zirconia abutments and 30 Osstem GSII titanium abutments for fixation using 40 N torque force. The loading applications included 90°, 30°, and 0° formed by the long axis of abutments and pressure head of universal test machine. The fracture resistances of zirconia and titanium abutments were documented and analyzed. The inter-joined zirconia abutments were assembled to the Osstem GSII implants successfully. In the 90° loading mode, the fracture resistance of zirconia abutment group and titanium abutment group were 301.5 ± 15.4 N and 736.4 ± 120.1 N, respectively. And those in the 30° groups were 434.7 ± 36.1 N and 1073.1 ± 74 N, correspondingly. Significant difference in the two groups was found using t-test and Wilcoxon test. No damage on the abutments of the two groups but S-shaped bending on the implants was found when the 0° loading was 1300-2000 N. Through the assembly of Zirconia abutments and implants, all the components presented sufficient resistance acquired for the clinical application under loadings with different angle. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  8. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Optimization of wetland substrates and hydraulic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Su, Hao-Chang; Hu, Li-Xin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-09-15

    This study aimed to assess removal potential of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted Cyperus alternifolius L. with different design parameters. Twelve CWs with three hydraulic loading rates (HLR 10, 20 and 30cm/day) and four substrates (oyster shell, zeolite, medical stone and ceramic) were set up in order to select the best optimized wetland. The result showed that 7 target antibiotics compounds including erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, monensin, ofloxacin, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and novobiocin were detected, and all selected 18 genes (three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), three quinolone resistance genes (qnrB, qnrD and qnrS) and four chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, fexA, fexB and floR)) and two integrase genes (int1 and int2) were positively detected in the domestic wastewaters. The aqueous removal rates of the total antibiotics ranged from17.9 to 98.5%, while those for the total ARGs varied between 50.0 and 85.8% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. After considering their aqueous removal rates in combination with their mass removals, the CW with zeolite as the substrate and HLR of 20cm/day was selected as the best choice. Combined chemical and biological analyses indicate that both microbial degradation and physical sorption processes were responsible for the fate of antibiotics and ARGs in the wetlands. The findings from this study suggest constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacteriophage Technique for Assessing Viral Removal in Constructed Wetland and Detention Pond Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi, CM Davies, HJ Bavor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland and detention pond as a treatment system was applied for stormwater management in two adjacent areas in western Sydney. F-specific RNA and somatic coliphages were used as a model for assessing two systems for removal of viral pollution, fate, behavior and survival of viruses in the sediment. Water samples were collected weekly in sterile containers and sediment samples were collected three times using a box dredge sampler via a boat at the inlet, middle and outlet areas of the systems. F-specific RNA coliphages were enumerated using the double layer plaque assay (ISO 1995 with Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as a host. Survival test continued 28 d for each sub-sample. Viral removal in constructed wetland was more effective than the detention pond system. Survival of somatic coliphages in the inlet and middle of the systems was similar. Slope of declining for outlet of two systems was very slow and completely stable in whole of test duration. Constructed wetland may offer an attractive alternative to stormwater management for reducing the load of disease-causing viruses to the receiving waters.

  10. Determination of withdrawal resistance of staple joints constructed with various members of upholstered furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid Kazemi Najafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of joints members type (oriented strand lumber, plywood and poplar wood (Populusdeltoides, penetration deeps of staple (12 and 17mm and adhesives (with and without adhesive on face and edge withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated with staple. Experimental specimens under withdrawal load test of face and edge consisted of two principal structural members, main member and a secondary member which were joined together by one staple. The results showed that joint member, penetration deeps and adhesive significantly influence on the withdrawal resistance. Staple withdrawal resistance in the face was higher than that in the edge. Staple holding resistance increased with the increase of penetration deep and the withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated by adhesive was higher than those without adhesive. The joints made by oriented strand lumber exhibited better performance than other two members and joints made with poplar wood had higher resistance than plywood joints. The highest face (2326N and edge (1265N withdrawal resistances were obtained from joints prepared from oriented strand lumber with adhesive and17mm penetration deeps.

  11. Experimental Study on Rebar Corrosion Using the Galvanic Sensor Combined with the Electronic Resistance Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunze; Li, Kaiqiang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Lujia; Wang, Xiaona; Huang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new kind of carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) galvanic sensor system was developed for the study of rebar corrosion in different pore solution conditions. Through the special design of the CS and SS electronic coupons, the electronic resistance (ER) method and zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) technique were used simultaneously for the measurement of both the galvanic current and the corrosion depth. The corrosion processes in different solution conditions were also studied by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and the measurements of polarization curves. The test result shows that the galvanic current noise can provide detailed information of the corrosion processes. When localized corrosion occurs, the corrosion rate measured by the ER method is lower than the real corrosion rate. However, the value measured by the LPR method is higher than the real corrosion rate. The galvanic current and the corrosion current measured by the LPR method shows linear correlation in chloride-containing saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The relationship between the corrosion current differences measured by the CS electronic coupons and the galvanic current between the CS and SS electronic coupons can also be used to evaluate the localized corrosion in reinforced concrete. PMID:27618054

  12. An approach to delineate the contaminated groundwater in landfill based on Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Dalila Desa; Lakam Mejus; Mohd Tadza Abdul Rahman; Kamarudin Samuding; Roslanzairi Mostapa; Mod Omar Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The occurrence of contaminated groundwater can often be recognized by a decrease in formation of resistivity values, since the latter is primarily dependent on the resistivity of the pore water. Landfills can be considered as one of major source of contamination that contributes to air, land and water pollution. Landfills are supposed to have a protective bottom layer (barrier layer) to prevent contaminants from getting into the groundwater that exist almost everywhere underground. However, if there is no layer or if it is cracked, water percolating through landfills produces leachate can make their way down into the groundwater system. In geophysical studies, the various properties of materials on earth are known as the anomaly of the Earth's sub surface. It is important to understand which physical properties are associated with, and effective for, a particular target and geophysical method. This paper reviews the needs of geophysical field for mapping subsurface geology and features occurance. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) technique has been chosen for it has become one of the promising methods in order to obtain preliminary information of subsurface variance materials based on their physical properties. (author)

  13. Application of Geoelectrical Resistivity Technique for Groundwater Explorationin Lower Ponnaiyar Sub-Watershed, Tamilnadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongothai, S.; Sridhar, N.

    2017-07-01

    GeoelectricalResistivity survey was carried out in Lower Ponnaiyar Sub-watershed, to intercept the sub-surface lithology and groundwater prospective zones. Twenty Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) of the Schlumberger configuration were performed with an AB/2 separation 100 m. The acquired geoelectric data were interpreted with curve matching and computer iteration using Inverse Slope software. The results showed the presence of six geoelectric layers comprising Alluvium, Sand, Silt, Clay, Clayey sand and Hard Rock. The investigations also revealed the range of resistivityvalues from - 40 to 400 Ωm, while the depth of aquifer ranged between 6 and 100 m. The prospective for theoccurrence of groundwater in the Lower Ponnaiyar watershed was categorized as high, good, moderate and low by interpreting the sub-surface geophysical studies. The groundwater recharge structures like percolation pond, check dam have to be constructed in the moderate and low zones of groundwater potential so as to augment the groundwater resources.

  14. Application of VPN technique in the construction of public health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianming; Deng, Yongzhi; Lu, Zhuxun; Li, Shukai; Wang, Guoping; Lu, Suqin

    2005-01-01

    Data communication and sharing of five level network of Public Health Information System, i.e. nation, province, district (city), county, and town, as far as to the countryside level were described, and how to apply the three solutions, i.e. Access VPN, Intranet VPN, and Extranet VPN of VPN technique to achieve the appropriation of the public network was also presented.

  15. Construction and measurement techniques for the APS LEUTL project RF beam position monitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, A.

    1999-04-20

    The design, construction, and assembly procedure of 24 rf beam position monitors used in the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line and linear accelerator (linac) are described. Beam stability as well as beam positioning capabilities are essential to the LEUTL project. A design objective of the LEUTL facility is to achieve better than 1-{micro}m resolution. The highest care was used in the mechanical fabrication and assembly of the BPM units. The latest experimental results using these BPMs are presented.

  16. Materials and construction techniques for cryogenic wind tunnel facilities for instruction/research use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. F.; Roper, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the cryogenic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are presented to provide a starting point for the design of an instructional/research wind tunnel facility. The advantages of the cryogenic concept are discussed, and operating envelopes for a representative facility are presented to indicate the range and mode of operation. Special attention is given to the design, construction and materials problems peculiar to cryogenic wind tunnels. The control system for operation of a cryogenic tunnel is considered, and a portion of a linearized mathematical model is developed for determining the tunnel dynamic characteristics.

  17. Hydrodynamic modelling of free water-surface constructed storm water wetlands using a finite volume technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Scholz, Miklas; Tondar, Mohammad-Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors in designing free water-surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) is the hydraulic efficiency (λ), which depends primarily on the retention time of the polluted storm water. Increasing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at various flow levels will increase λ of the overall constructed wetland (CW). The effects of characteristic geometric features that increase HRT were explored through the use of a two-dimensional depth-average hydrodynamic model. This numerical model was developed to solve the equations of continuity and motions on an unstructured triangular mesh using the Galerkin finite volume formulation and equations of the k-ε turbulence model. Eighty-nine diverse forms of artificial FWS CW with 11 different aspect ratios were numerically simulated and subsequently analysed for four scenarios: rectangular CW, modified rectangular CW with rounded edges, different inlet/outlet configurations of CW, and surface and submerged obstructions in front of the inlet part of the CW. Results from the simulations showed that increasing the aspect ratio has a direct influence on the enhancement of λ in all cases. However, the aspect ratio should be at least 9 in order to achieve an appropriate rate for λ in rectangular CW. Modified rounded rectangular CW improved λ by up to 23%, which allowed for the selection of a reduced aspect ratio. Simulation results showed that CW with low aspect ratios benefited from obstructions and optimized inlet/outlet configurations in terms of improved HRT.

  18. New protocol for construction of eyeglasses-supported provisional nasal prosthesis using CAD/CAM techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Ciocca, DDS, PhD; Massimiliano Fantini, MechE, PhD; Francesca De Crescenzio, IE, PhD; Franco Persiani, Eng, PhD; Roberto Scotti, MD, DDS

    2010-01-01

    A new protocol for making an immediate provisional eyeglasses-supported nasal prosthesis is presented that uses laser scanning, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing procedures, and rapid prototyping techniques, reducing time and costs while increasing the quality of the final product. With this protocol, the eyeglasses were digitized, and the relative position of the nasal prosthesis was planned and evaluated in a virtual environment without any try-in appointment. This innovati...

  19. Design, construction and quality control of resistive-Micromegas anode boards for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuger, F.; Iengo, P.

    2018-02-01

    For the upcoming upgrade of the forward muon stations of the ATLAS detector, 1280m2 of Micromegas chambers have to be constructed. The industrialization of anode board production is an essential precondition. Design and construction methods of these boards have been optimized towards mass production. In parallel quality control procedures have been developed and established. The first set of large size Micromegas anode boards has finally been produced in industries and demonstrates the feasibility of the project on full-scale.

  20. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure, or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter. Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  1. Foliar symptoms recovery: developing scoring technique for assessment of soybean resistance to CPMMV (Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zubaidah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a commodity that has an important role as the source of protein, but its production is affected by various factors including disease. CpMMV (Cowpea mild mottle virus is one of the most damaging viruses that cause soybean disease. CpMMVs belong to the group of Carlavirus that are transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci. The use of CpMMV resistant plants as biological control can prevent viral diseases. Indonesia has many soybean germplasm from many regions and introduction from other countries that need to be evaluated for CpMMV. The assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV is not available yet, but it is still based on other virus diseases. The specific assessment of plant resistance is important because some diseases can cause certain symptoms, depends on the resistance and the kinds of plants that are infected. This paper presents the assessment technique for soybean resistance to CpMMV infection, which can be used for various purposes and studies. One of the benefits is to find out soybean resistance to CpMMV or other objectives. This resistance assessment is not only based on leaves symptoms, but also based on the phenomenon of foliar symptoms recovery. Keywords: CpMMV, foliar symptoms recovery, scoring technique, soybean resistance.

  2. Protocol for chromosome-specific probe construction using PRINS, micromanipulation and DOP-PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO Z. PASSAMANI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chromosome-specific probes have been widely used in molecular cytogenetics, being obtained with different methods. In this study, a reproducible protocol for construction of chromosome-specific probes is proposed which associates in situ amplification (PRINS, micromanipulation and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR. Human lymphocyte cultures were used to obtain metaphases from male and female individuals. The chromosomes were amplified via PRINS, and subcentromeric fragments of the X chromosome were microdissected using microneedles coupled to a phase contrast microscope. The fragments were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP. The probes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedure to highlight these specific regions in the metaphases. The results show one fluorescent red spot in male and two in female X chromosomes and interphase nuclei.

  3. Protocol for chromosome-specific probe construction using PRINS, micromanipulation and DOP-PCR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamani, Paulo Z; Carvalho, Carlos R; Soares, Fernanda A F

    2018-01-01

    Chromosome-specific probes have been widely used in molecular cytogenetics, being obtained with different methods. In this study, a reproducible protocol for construction of chromosome-specific probes is proposed which associates in situ amplification (PRINS), micromanipulation and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). Human lymphocyte cultures were used to obtain metaphases from male and female individuals. The chromosomes were amplified via PRINS, and subcentromeric fragments of the X chromosome were microdissected using microneedles coupled to a phase contrast microscope. The fragments were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP. The probes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure to highlight these specific regions in the metaphases. The results show one fluorescent red spot in male and two in female X chromosomes and interphase nuclei.

  4. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D.; Cardoso, S.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P.

    2015-06-01

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  5. Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravelo Arias, S. I.; Ramírez Muñoz, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Valencia, Avda. de la Universitat, s/n, 46100-Burjassot (Spain); Cardoso, S. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); Ferreira, R. [INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal); Freitas, P. [INESC Microsystems and Nanotechnologies (INESC-MN) and Institute for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, R. Alves Redol 9, Lisbon 1000-029 (Portugal); INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, Braga 4715-31 (Portugal)

    2015-06-15

    The work shows a measurement technique to obtain the correct value of the four elements in a resistive Wheatstone bridge without the need to separate the physical connections existing between them. Two electronic solutions are presented, based on a source-and-measure unit and using discrete electronic components. The proposed technique brings the possibility to know the mismatching or the tolerance between the bridge resistive elements and then to pass or reject it in terms of its related common-mode rejection. Experimental results were taken in various Wheatstone resistive bridges (discrete and magnetoresistive integrated bridges) validating the proposed measurement technique specially when the bridge is micro-fabricated and there is no physical way to separate one resistive element from the others.

  6. Genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from tuberculosis patients in Iran using MIRU-VNTR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Dokht Khosravi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is considered as one of the most important infectious diseases in the world, and recent rise and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strains, have made the matter worsened. Due to the importance of TB prevalence in Iran, this study was designed to investigate the genetic diversity among MDR strains of MTB by MIRU-VNTR typing scheme. A total of 88 drug resistant M. tuberculosis isolates belong to pulmonary TB cases were collected from several TB reference centers of Iran. Drug susceptibility testing for Isoniazid and Rifampin was performed using the agar proportion method and MDR isolates were underwent genotyping by using 12-locus- based MIRU-VNTR typing. On performing proportion method, 22 isolates were identified as MDR. By typing of MDR isolates using 12-loci MIRU-VNTR technique, high diversity were demonstrated in MDR strains and these were classified into 20 distinct MIRU-VNTR genotypes. MIRU loci 10 and 26 were the most discriminatory loci with 8 and 7 alleles respectively; while MIRU loci 2, 20, 24 and 39 were found to be the least discriminatory with 1–2 alleles each. We noticed a mixed infection in isolate 53, as this isolate comprised simultaneous two alleles in MIRU loci 40, 10, 16 and 39. In conclusion, this result represents MIRU-VNTR typing as a useful tool for studying genetic diversity of MDR-MTB in regional settings, and will help the health sectors to construct a preventive program for MDR-TB. Additionally, it can detect mixed infection which can facilitate management of treatment.

  7. Acoustic puncture assist device versus loss of resistance technique for epidural space identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Mittal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The conventional techniques of epidural space (EDS identification based on loss of resistance (LOR have a higher chance of complications, patchy analgesia and epidural failure, which can be minimised by objective confirmation of space before catheter placement. Acoustic puncture assist device (APAD technique objectively confirms EDS, thus enhancing success, with lesser complications. This study was planned with the objective to evaluate the APAD technique and compare it to LOR technique for EDS identification and its correlation with ultrasound guided EDS depth. Methods: In this prospective study, the lumbar vertebral spaces were scanned by the ultrasound for measuring depth of the EDS and later correlated with procedural depth measured by either of the technique (APAD or LOR. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics; the concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis with 95% confidence limits. Results: Acoustic dip in pitch and descent in pressure tracing on EDS localisation was observed among the patients of APAD group. Analysis of concordance correlation between the ultrasonography (USG depth and APAD or LOR depth was significant (r ≥ 0.97 in both groups. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a mean difference of 0.171cm in group APAD and 0.154 cm in group LOR. The 95% limits of agreement for the difference between the two measurements were − 0.569 and 0.226 cm in APAD and − 0.530 to 0.222 cm in LOR group. Conclusion: We found APAD to be a precise tool for objective localisation of the EDS, co-relating well with the pre-procedural USG depth of EDS.

  8. Associations of trunk fat depots with insulin resistance, β cell function and glycaemia--a multiple technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule-Rao, Anjali; Joglekar, Charudatta; Patkar, Deepak; Chinchwadkar, Manoj; Bhat, Dattatreya; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Uradey, Bhagyashree; Yajnik, Chittaranjan; Yudkin, John

    2013-01-01

    Central (truncal) adiposity is associated strongly with insulin resistance and diabetes. There are very few reports comparing methods of trunk fat measurement in their ability to predict glycaemia and insulin resistance. We report a comparative analysis of different trunk fat measurements in predicting glycaemia and insulin resistance in middle aged Indian men. Trunk fat measurements were performed using anthropometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT) on 128 men. Additional measurements were taken to characterise insulin resistance (Matsuda index) and beta cell function (Insulinogenic Index), glycaemia (fasting and 120 min glucose concentrations). Using residual approach we compared the ability of different trunk fat measurement techniques to predict insulin resistance, beta cell function and glycaemia. There was a strong association between trunk fat measures from each technique with glycaemia and insulin resistance indices but not with the Insulinogenic Index. Insulin resistance and glycaemia, were best predicted using anthropometric measurements, notably by waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Neither MRI measures of trunk or visceral fat nor DXA trunk fat added significantly. CT liver density contributed to some extent to predict insulin resistance and 120 min glucose after anthropometric measurements. Our results suggest that, in Indian men, anthropometric measurements are good predictors of glycaemia and insulin resistance. Other complex measurements such as MRI, DXA and CT make only a small addition to the prediction. This finding supports the application of anthropometry for determining trunk fat in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  9. \\mathscr{H}_2 optimal control techniques for resistive wall mode feedback in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Mitchell; Hanson, Jeremy; Bialek, Jim; Navratil, Gerald

    2018-04-01

    DIII-D experiments show that a new, advanced algorithm enables resistive wall mode (RWM) stability control in high performance discharges using external coils. DIII-D can excite strong, locked or nearly locked external kink modes whose rotation frequencies and growth rates are on the order of the magnetic flux diffusion time of the vacuum vessel wall. Experiments have shown that modern control techniques like linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control require less current than the proportional controller in use at DIII-D when using control coils external to DIII-D’s vacuum vessel. Experiments were conducted to develop control of a rotating n  =  1 perturbation using an LQG controller derived from VALEN and external coils. Feedback using this LQG algorithm outperformed a proportional gain only controller in these perturbation experiments over a range of frequencies. Results from high βN experiments also show that advanced feedback techniques using external control coils may be as effective as internal control coil feedback using classical control techniques.

  10. Expansion Techniques of Embedding Audio Watermark Data Rate for Constructing Ubiquitous Acoustic Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modegi, Toshio

    We are proposing “Ubiquitous Acoustic Spaces”, where each sound source can emit some address information with audio signals and make us automatically access to its related cyber space, using handheld devices such as cellphones. In order to realize this concept, we have considered three types of extraction methods, which were an acoustic modulation, an audio fingerprint, and an audio watermark technique. Then we have proposed a novel audio watermarking technique, which enables contactless asynchronous detection of embedded audio watermarks through speaker and microphone devices. However its embedding data rate was around 10 [bps], which was not sufficient for embedding generally used URL address texts. Therefore, we have extended the embedding frequency range and proposed a duplicated embedding algorithm, which uses both previously proposed frequency division method and temporal division method together. By these improvements, possible embedding data rate could be extended to 61.5 [bps], and we could extract watermarks through public telephone networks, even from a cell phone sound source. In this paper, we describe abstracts of our improved watermark embedding and extracting algorithms, and experimental results of watermark extraction precision on several audio signal capturing conditions.

  11. Layer-by-Layer technique employed to construct multitask interfaces in polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Sá Vitorino

    Full Text Available Abstract The properties of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites are closely related to the fiber-matrix interface. Interfacial treatments to improve mechanical properties are usually limited to enhance interfacial adhesion. In this work, Layer-by-Layer (LbL technique was introduced to build a novel interface in polymer composites. Different numbers of bilayers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate with carbon nanotubes were deposited through LbL on the surface of woven glass fibers (GFs. Polypropylene composites containing the modified GFs were prepared by compression molding. Thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy proved that multilayers of polymers with carbon nanotubes could be deposited on GFs surface. Mechanical tests on composites with modified GFs revealed an increase in Flexural Modulus and toughness. The overall results attested that the LbL technique can be used to design interfaces with different compositions to perform diverse tasks, such as to improve the stiffness of composites and to encapsulate active nanocomponents.

  12. New protocol for construction of eyeglasses-supported provisional nasal prosthesis using CAD/CAM techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Fantini, Massimiliano; De Crescenzio, Francesca; Persiani, Franco; Scotti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    A new protocol for making an immediate provisional eyeglasses-supported nasal prosthesis is presented that uses laser scanning, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing procedures, and rapid prototyping techniques, reducing time and costs while increasing the quality of the final product. With this protocol, the eyeglasses were digitized, and the relative position of the nasal prosthesis was planned and evaluated in a virtual environment without any try-in appointment. This innovative method saves time, reduces costs, and restores the patient's aesthetic appearance after a disfiguration caused by ablation of the nasal pyramid better than conventional restoration methods. Moreover, the digital model of the designed nasal epithesis can be used to develop a definitive prosthesis anchored to osseointegrated craniofacial implants.

  13. Effect of nutritional rehabilitation on acquired growth hormone resistance in malnourished children using radioisotopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.; Nour Eldin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify the influence of nutrition on growth hormone resistance in children who were suffering from prologed protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The plasma levels of glucose and serum levels of insulin, free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), free teraiodothyronine (FT 4 ), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were analyzed by radioisotopic techniques in 7 children with marasmus (mean age 5.29 1.01) and 14 children with unexplained short stature (stunted) (mean age 6.21 1.72) before and after nutritional rehabilitation. At the basal condition of laboratory investigations, the GH level was significantly higher in the two malnourished groups compared to control (P< 0.01), whereas, plasma glucose levels and insulin concentrations did not differ significantly between the two malnourished groups and the control

  14. Accelerating plant DNA barcode reference library construction using herbarium specimens: improved experimental techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Dong, Wenpan; Shi, Shuo; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Liu, Yanlei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Hongkun; Gao, Peng; Zhou, Shiliang

    2015-11-01

    A well-covered reference library is crucial for successful identification of species by DNA barcoding. The biggest difficulty in building such a reference library is the lack of materials of organisms. Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource of materials. In this study, we demonstrate that it is likely to build such reference libraries using the reconstructed (self-primed PCR amplified) DNA from the herbarium specimens. We used 179 rosaceous specimens to test the effects of DNA reconstruction, 420 randomly sampled specimens to estimate the usable percentage and another 223 specimens of true cherries (Cerasus, Rosaceae) to test the coverage of usable specimens to the species. The barcode rbcLb (the central four-sevenths of rbcL gene) and matK was each amplified in two halves and sequenced on Roche GS 454 FLX+. DNA from the herbarium specimens was typically shorter than 300 bp. DNA reconstruction enabled amplification fragments of 400-500 bp without bringing or inducing any sequence errors. About one-third of specimens in the national herbarium of China (PE) were proven usable after DNA reconstruction. The specimens in PE cover all Chinese true cherry species and 91.5% of vascular species listed in Flora of China. It is very possible to build well-covered reference libraries for DNA barcoding of vascular species in China. As exemplified in this study, DNA reconstruction and DNA-labelled next-generation sequencing can accelerate the construction of local reference libraries. By putting the local reference libraries together, a global library for DNA barcoding becomes closer to reality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  16. The Role of Vernacular Construction Techniques and Materials for Developing Zero-Energy Homes in Various Desert Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farajallah Alrashed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hot desert regions, like Saudi Arabia, are very challenging in terms of building energy consumption. The role of the housing sector in the country is critical as it accounts for half of the total national electricity consumption. It is important to apply sustainable energy concepts in this sector, and the application of Zero-Energy Homes (ZEHs could be an appropriate option in this regard. In ZEHs, the energy demand needs to be reduced significantly before employing renewable energy, and a way to achieve that is through applying vernacular construction techniques and materials. This study aims to investigate the role of courtyard, mushrabiyah and adobe construction for the development of ZEHs in the five main Saudi climatic zones represented by Dhahran, Guriat, Riyadh, Jeddah and Khamis Mushait. A base house is designed, modelled and compared with measured electricity values. The comparison between the base house and the houses adapted with these techniques and materials is undertaken based on the annual electricity demand and the maximum power demand, and findings reveal that mushrabiyah can reduce them by 4% and 3%, respectively, while adobe can reduce them by 6% and 19%, respectively. Courtyards are found to be not helpful in terms of energy saving.

  17. The use of production management techniques in the construction of a large high energy physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, St.

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of a particle detector can be divided into 4 periods: designing, engineering drawing, manufacturing and operation-maintenance. Some computer systems and software deal with the management of the designing and engineering drawing, others deal with data acquisition and processing, but no systems exist for the manufacturing phase where particular solutions are proposed every time a problem arises. New-generation detectors that are to be set for the experiments at the future LHC (large hadron collider) will be 10 times more complex than the today detectors and be expected to operate for around 15 years. This complexity associated with a longer operating life implies an efficient and evolutive information system to handle the manufacturing phase. In this work the author has applied the techniques of production management to the manufacturing phase of the compact muon solenoid (CMS), he assigned 3 purposes: 1) to propose a modelling of the description of each component and of its manufacturing process, 2) to develop a graphic software allowing to view the assembling of the different components of the detector, and 3) to evaluate the resource of production of such a device, it means to balance demand with capacity and to optimize the use of production means. (A.C.)

  18. A new contact electric resistance technique for in-situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films on metals in electrolytes at high temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Marichev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Surface films play a major role in corrosion assisted cracking. A new Contact Electric Resistance (CER) method has been recently developed for in situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films. The method has been upgraded for high temperature high pressure application. The technique can be used for any electrically conductive material in any environment including liquid, gas or vacuum. The technique has been used to determine in situ the electric resistance of films on metals during adsorption of water and anions, formation and destruction of oxides and hydrides, electroplating of metals and to study the electric resistance of films on semiconductors. The resolution of the CER technique is 10 -9 Ω, which corresponds to about 0.03 monolayers of deposited copper during electrochemical deposition Cu/Cu 2+ . Electric resistance data can be measured with a frequency of the order of one hertz, which enables one to follow in situ the kinetics of surface film related processes. The kinetics of these processes and their dependence on the environment, temperature, pH and electrochemical potential can be investigated

  19. Elimination of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine wastewater in the vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Liu, Chaoxiang; Zheng, Jiayu; Huang, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhu, Gefu

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigated the efficiency of two vertical flow constructed wetlands characterized by volcanic (CW1) and zeolite (CW2) respectively, at removing three common antibiotics (ciprofloxacin HCl, oxytetracycline HCl, and sulfamethazine) and tetracycline resistance (tet) genes (tetM, tetO, and tetW) from swine wastewater. The result indicated that the two systems could significantly reduce the wastewater antibiotics content, and elimination rates were in the following sequence: oxytetracycline HCl>ciprofloxacin HCl>sulfamethazine. The zeolite-medium system was superior to that of the volcanic-medium system vis-à-vis removal, perhaps because of the differing pH values and average pore sizes of the respective media. A higher concentration of antibiotics accumulated in the soil than in the media and vegetation, indicating that soil plays the main role in antibiotics removal from wastewater in vertical flow constructed wetlands. The characteristics of the wetland medium may also affect the antibiotic resistance gene removal capability of the system; the total absolute abundances of three tet genes and of 16S rRNA were reduced by 50% in CW1, and by almost one order of magnitude in CW2. However, the relative abundances of target tet genes tended to increase following CW1 treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expediency of application of explosion-relief constructions to ensure explosion resistance of production buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of economic evaluation and selection of explosion-relief constructions (ERC, as well as determination of explosion protection efficiency of buildings and structures provided on a stage of construction. It has been shown that definition of economic efficiency of ERС is the evaluation of its application for buildings with remote or automatically controlled production. It has been determined that an important role in design of explosive industrial facilities is played by selection of the economically feasible and effective materials for ERC. When selecting materials it is necessary to consider probability and yield of explosions. Necessity to create the methods allow considering such probability has been revealed.

  1. Green and Efficient Processing of Cinnamomum cassia Bark by Using Ionic Liquids: Extraction of Essential Oil and Construction of UV-Resistant Composite Films from Residual Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mohit J; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-12-14

    There is significant interest in the development of a sustainable and integrated process for the extraction of essential oils and separation of biopolymers by using novel and efficient solvent systems. Herein, cassia essential oil enriched in coumarin is extracted from Cinnamomum cassia bark by using a protic ionic liquid (IL), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), through dissolution and the creation of a biphasic system with the help of diethyl ether. The process has been perfected, in terms of higher biomass dissolution ability and essential oil yield through the addition of aprotic ILs (based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C 4 mim) cation and chloride or acetate anions) to EAN. After extraction of oil, cellulose-rich material and free lignin were regenerated from biomass-IL solutions by using a 1:1 mixture of acetone-water. The purity of the extracted essential oil and biopolymers were ascertained by means of FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS techniques. Because lignin contains UV-blocking chromophores, the oil-free residual lignocellulosic material has been directly utilized to construct UV-light-resistant composite materials in conjunction with the biopolymer chitosan. Composite material thus obtained was processed to form biodegradable films, which were characterized for mechanical and optical properties. The films showed excellent UV-light resistance and mechanical properties, thereby making it a material suitable for packaging and light-sensitive applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDONESIAN-ENGLISH CROSS LANGUAGE PLAGIARISM DETECTION SYSTEM USING FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiy Firdaus Alfikri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross language plagiarism detection is an important task since it can protect person intellectual property right. Since English is the most popular international language, we proposed an Indonesian-English cross language plagiarism detection to handle such problem in Indonesian-English domain where the suspected plagiarism document is written in Indonesian and the source document is written in English. To minimize translation error, we build the system by translating the Indonesian document into English and then compare the translated document with the English document collection. The detection system consists of preprocess component, heuristic retrieval component, and detailed analysis component. The main technique used in retrieval process is fingerprinting which can extract lexical features from text which is suitable to be used to detect plagiarism done using literal translation method. In this paper, we also propose additional methods to be implemented in heuristic retrieval component to increase the performance of the system: phrase chunking, stop word removal, stemming, and synonym selection. We evaluated system’s performance and the effects of additional methods to system’s performance, provided several data test sets which represents a plagiarism type. From the experiments, we concluded that the system works on 83.33% of test cases. We also concluded that mainly all additional methods except the phrase chunking have good effects in enhancing the system accuracy. Deteksi plagiarisme lintas bahasa merupakan hal yang penting untuk melindungi hak kekayaan intelektual. Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa internasional yang paling populer, karenanya peneliti mengusulkan deteksi plagiarisme lintas bahasa Indonesia-Inggris untuk menangani masalah tersebut di mana domain dokumen yang diduga plagiat ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan dokumen sumber ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris. Untuk meminimalkan kesalahan terjemahan, peneliti membangun

  3. Developing Tobacco Lines Resistant to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum L.) by Anther Culture Technique for the Aegean Region

    OpenAIRE

    GENCER, A. Saniye

    2014-01-01

    The anther culture technique as a biotechnological application was combined with conventional breeding methods in order to improve tobacco varieties' resistant to powdery mildew prevailing in the Aegean region of Turkey. For this, resistance was transferred to two varieties from a genitor by the backcross method leading to derive haploid plants from the cultured anthers of BC1 plants firstly, and dihaploid plants by acenaphthene or colchicine treatments secondly. A total of 14 dihapl...

  4. Switching EKF technique for rotor and stator resistance estimation in speed sensorless control of IMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gokasan, Metin [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty, 34390 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R{sub r}{sup '} and stator, R{sub s} resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R{sub r}{sup '} and R{sub s} is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R{sub r}{sup '} or R{sub s} estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods. (author)

  5. Construction and expression of recombinant prokaryotic vector PGEX-4T-1-BC006151 correlated with multidrug resistant of lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun LI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The drug resistance to chemotherapeutics is one of the important causes of low survival rate of lung cancer patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that BC006151 is a gene correlated with multidrug resistance of adenocarcinoma of lung. The aim of this study is to clone the BC006151 gene, and to construct recombinant prokaryotic vector PGEX-4T-1-BC006151, and to express it in E. coli BL21. Methods The primer was designed with restriction endonuclease position, then amplified BC006151 by RT-PCR, cleaved BC006151 cDNA and PGEX-4T-1 by BamH and EcoR I. linked it with PGEX-4T-1. Then the two fragments were linked by T4DNA. The post-linked vector was transformed into E. coli. DH5 and then expressed. Transformed the recombinant plasmids containing the correct clone into E. coli BL21 and protein was highly effective expressed. The production of GST fusion protein was identifisd by SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting. Results The sequence of BC006151 was amplified and identified with that published in GenBank. The prokaryotic expression plasmid PGEX-4T-1-BC006151 was constructed successfully. And a new fusion protein with relative molecular mass of 13 KD was highly effectively expressed in E. coli. Conclusion The BC006151 gene correlated with multidrug resistance of lung adenocarcinoma is successfully cloned and expressed, which is helpful for the preparation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

  6. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Li-Xin; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Land Surveying in the Analysis of Underground Construction Impact on the Warsaw Scarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the II Underground Line construction’s impact on the Warsaw Scarp with the use of the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI, also known as the electrical resistivity tomography and further total station position measurements.The underground passes under the scarp perpendicular in the area of Dynasy Street 6, in Down-town district.The electrical resistivity imaging was performed for recognition of the geological structure and a potential land slide surface or zone.The gradient system was used during the prospection. In these analyses, the longitudinal section was 40 m long, and the depth of survey amounted to 6 m. In the case of the 200 m long transverse section, the resulted depth of survey was 30 m.The geophysical image of the longitudinal section,does not contain loosening soil zones,which could indicates lip surface.Next, total station measurements, which were tied to the archival geodetic observations’ results, were carried out. The aim of the measurements was to verify the activity of the horizontal and vertical displacements. The TBM excavation process led to summary vertical displacements up to approx. 24 mm and horizontal displacements amounting to approx. 13 mm. To sum up, the current land surveys reveals minor under ground line’ s construction impact on the scarp displacement. Nevertheless, the sensitive urban environment requires further monitoring, especially that the operation loads can result in displacement rate change.

  8. Quantifying the improvement of surrogate indices of hepatic insulin resistance using complex measurement techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Hattersley

    Full Text Available We evaluated the ability of simple and complex surrogate-indices to identify individuals from an overweight/obese cohort with hepatic insulin-resistance (HEP-IR. Five indices, one previously defined and four newly generated through step-wise linear regression, were created against a single-cohort sample of 77 extensively characterised participants with the metabolic syndrome (age 55.6 ± 1.0 years, BMI 31.5 ± 0.4 kg/m(2; 30 males. HEP-IR was defined by measuring endogenous-glucose-production (EGP with [6-6(2H(2] glucose during fasting and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps and expressed as EGP*fasting plasma insulin. Complex measures were incorporated into the model, including various non-standard biomarkers and the measurement of body-fat distribution and liver-fat, to further improve the predictive capability of the index. Validation was performed against a data set of the same subjects after an isoenergetic dietary intervention (4 arms, diets varying in protein and fiber content versus control. All five indices produced comparable prediction of HEP-IR, explaining 39-56% of the variance, depending on regression variable combination. The validation of the regression equations showed little variation between the different proposed indices (r(2 = 27-32% on a matched dataset. New complex indices encompassing advanced measurement techniques offered an improved correlation (r = 0.75, P<0.001. However, when validated against the alternative dataset all indices performed comparably with the standard homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (r = 0.54, P<0.001. Thus, simple estimates of HEP-IR performed comparable to more complex indices and could be an efficient and cost effective approach in large epidemiological investigations.

  9. Biological protein-resistance layer construction of recombinant hirudin on polymethyl methacrylate IOL surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwen; Jiao, Yan; Ren, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the surface of intraocular len material PMMA was first aminated for activation on which some polar groups generated such as C-N, COO(-), -OH, NH3(+), etc. Then the anticoagulant drugs recombinant hirudin (rH) was grafted with amido bonds to look forward to resist the adsorption of nonspecific protein or cells in tear, even the cataract. The detailed analysis and discussion about the grafting quantity, molography, wettability, electric charges, chemical structure, and the dynamic adsorption of protein Fn on the material surface were carried on by the technology of ultraviolet photometric, contact angle, solid Zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance. The surface with a certain amount of rH modification existed more hydrophilic due to the amphiphilic structure than before, on which the protein adsorption was the most unstable. The results indicated that the rH modification improved the resistance of PMMA to nonspecific adsorption of protein Fn to achieve the expectative effect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Resistance to the destruction of concrete in constructions of height buildings at dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail; Berlinova, Marina; Tvorogov, Alexandr

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the criterion of strength of concrete in structures of high-rise buildings under vibration and shock impacts is presented. The idea of an energy approach to ensuring the strength of concrete and the durability of building structures from reinforced concrete under the influence of shock impacts on the life of such structures is presented in a high-rise construction. A method for determining the strength and durability of concrete in load-bearing building structures made of reinforced concrete for irreversible thermodynamic processes has been developed. Dependences that determine the behavior of concrete in reinforced concrete structures of high stores on the load-bearing structures of a building under the influence of damped oscillations from the operation of air transport on the landing site are determined, taking into account the impact arising from its landing.

  11. SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE USED IN THE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT TALL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Aliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of high-strength concrete based on experience both with domestic and foreign concretes has led to the production of a self-consolidating concrete (SCC formula. Method. Raw materials sourced from the Chechen Republic were used in the SUBconcrete formula, based on materials having different classes of compressive strength as well as the incorporation of polycarboxylate as an additive. Results. An investigation was carried out on natural and technogenic raw materials from the Chechen Republic and other regions of the country. Compositions of high-grade SCC with a compressive strength of B100 and higher are achieved with an integrated approach using both natural and man-made raw materials. The formulae of the basic concrete reinforcing technology are examined together with their physico-mechanical properties. The results of the study of locally sourced concrete, as well as that purchased from "Pavlovskgranit" and OOO "Progress" for testing from the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, are provided. Of the various manufacturers' cements investigated, the highest quality Portland cement CEM I 4.5N was selected from the Tula cement manufacturers in the town of Chiri-Yurt. The fillers used were microsilica sourced from the Novokuznetsk plant, inactivated MP-1 mineral powder produced in Kaluga and fly ash sourced from Nevinnomyssk. Conclusion. The results of the studies show that the raw material potential of our country allows for the production of self-consolidating concrete from class B 25 to B100 and higher for use in monolithic construction, including high-rise. The concrete compositions arrived at are characterised by their high physical and mechanical properties and can be used in high-rise concrete construction sites operating in earthquake-prone areas. 

  12. Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Allen C S; Loo, Jacky F C; Yu, Samuel; Kong, S K; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia coli str.DH5α (DH5α), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. Results showed that the technique of TRPS is sensitive and accurate relative to widely used methods, with a lower detection limit of cell concentration measurement of 5 × 10⁵ cells/ml; at the same time, the mean coefficient of variation from TRPS was within 2 %. The growth of BSU168 and DH5α in liquid cultures was studied by TRPS, optical density (OD), and colony plating. Compared to OD measurement, TRPS-measured concentration correlates better with colony plating (R = 0.85 vs. R = 0.72), which is often regarded as the gold standard of cell concentration determination. General agreement was also observed by comparing TRPS-derived cell volume measurements and those determined from microscopy. We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time.

  13. Application of bioassay technique to determine onduty herbicide resistance in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, F. A. A.; Ismail, B. S.; Bajrai, F. S. M.

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the resistance of OnDuty herbicide in paddy soil with different concentrations by using a broadleaf plant, Brassica juncea. The herbicide was used in the Clearfield® Production System that was adopted in Malaysia to overcome problems mainly caused by weedy rice. Evaluation of herbicide half-life was based on bioassay technique with different concentrations, i.e 0% (control), 50% (half dose), 100% (recommended dose) and 200% (double dose). The study was done in three replicates and followed the Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Results showed that there was a correlation between the amount of herbicide doses and degradation period. The highest half-life value was shown by root inhibition in the double dose concentration of 33 days half-life, followed by the recommended dose with 23 days half-life. Meanwhile, the half dose treatment indicated a half-life value of 17 days for root and 11 days for shoot. Therefore, application of herbicides should follow the recommended dose as the degradation period will not be too long, hence providing maximum effectiveness of the herbicide to overcome weed infestation problems.

  14. EXIGENCES TECHNIQUES DANS LA CONSTRUCTION ET REGLEMENTATION : ETUDE D’UN EXEMPLE DE LOGEMENT COLLECTIF A AIN-SMARA (ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BENRACHI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La construction d’un édifice de qualité standard et répondant aux exigences techniques est   obtenue grâce au développement du savoir-faire et au respect des règles de l’art et de la réglementation en vigueur.  Une étude détaillée sur les  exigences techniques et le respect de la réglementation  d’un logement en collectif  nouvellement construit et inhabité à Ain-Smara, nous a montré  qu’il y a une satisfaction pour certaines d'entre-elles et une non-conformité pour d’autres. Il en résulte que le degré de satisfaction de ce logement est inférieur à celui recommandé dans le cadre de la réglementation, ce qui diminue sa qualité par rapport au standard exigé.

  15. Statistical techniques to construct assays for identifying likely responders to a treatment under evaluation from cell line genomic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Erich P; Fridlyand, Jane; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Yue, Peng; Shi, Xiaoyan; Dornan, David; Burington, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Developing the right drugs for the right patients has become a mantra of drug development. In practice, it is very difficult to identify subsets of patients who will respond to a drug under evaluation. Most of the time, no single diagnostic will be available, and more complex decision rules will be required to define a sensitive population, using, for instance, mRNA expression, protein expression or DNA copy number. Moreover, diagnostic development will often begin with in-vitro cell-line data and a high-dimensional exploratory platform, only later to be transferred to a diagnostic assay for use with patient samples. In this manuscript, we present a novel approach to developing robust genomic predictors that are not only capable of generalizing from in-vitro to patient, but are also amenable to clinically validated assays such as qRT-PCR. Using our approach, we constructed a predictor of sensitivity to dacetuzumab, an investigational drug for CD40-expressing malignancies such as lymphoma using genomic measurements of cell lines treated with dacetuzumab. Additionally, we evaluated several state-of-the-art prediction methods by independently pairing the feature selection and classification components of the predictor. In this way, we constructed several predictors that we validated on an independent DLBCL patient dataset. Similar analyses were performed on genomic measurements of breast cancer cell lines and patients to construct a predictor of estrogen receptor (ER) status. The best dacetuzumab sensitivity predictors involved ten or fewer genes and accurately classified lymphoma patients by their survival and known prognostic subtypes. The best ER status classifiers involved one or two genes and led to accurate ER status predictions more than 85% of the time. The novel method we proposed performed as well or better than other methods evaluated. We demonstrated the feasibility of combining feature selection techniques with classification methods to develop assays

  16. Construction and measurement of the pre-series twin aperture resistive quadrupole magnet for the LHC beam cleaning insertions

    CERN Document Server

    de Rijk, G; Boter, E; Clark, G S; Hans, O; Racine, M; Salinas, A

    2002-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires 48 twin aperture resistive quadrupoles in the beam cleaning insertions. Canada is contributing these magnets to CERN in the framework of the TRIUMF-LHC collaboration contracts. A pre-series magnet was produced by Canadian industry and delivered in March 2001. This magnet incorporates important design changes that resulted from experience with a prototype magnet. The construction of this pre-series magnet and the measurements made at ALSTOM and at CERN are reported. A comparison is made between high precision pole distance measurements and the magnetic measurements performed with a rotating coil mole. Conclusions for series production and possibilities for multipole corrections are outlined. (6 refs).

  17. Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late blight resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with the field experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato.

  18. Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late blight resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Nowakowska

    Full Text Available Late blight (LB caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant. In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with the field experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato.

  19. Sofia intermediate catheter and the SNAKE technique: safety and efficacy of the Sofia catheter without guidewire or microcatheter construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Jeremy J; Wong, Johnny Hy; Mofaff, Adrienne M; Telischak, Nicholas A; Dodd, Robert L; Marks, Michael P; Do, Huy M

    2018-04-01

    Neurointerventional surgeries (NIS) benefit from supportive endovascular constructs. Sofia is a soft-tipped, flexible, braided single lumen intermediate catheter designed for NIS. Sofia advancement from the cervical to the intracranial circulation without a luminal guidewire or microcatheter construct has not been described. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new Sofia Non-wire Advancement techniKE (SNAKE) for advancement of the Sofia into the cerebral circulation. Consecutive patients who underwent NIS using Sofia were identified. Patient information, SNAKE use, and patient outcome were determined from electronic medical records. Sofia advancement to the cavernous internal carotid artery or the V2/V3 segment junction of the vertebral artery was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included arterial vasospasm and arterial dissection. 263 Patients (181 females, 69%) who underwent a total of 305 NIS using Sofia were identified. SNAKE (SNAKE+) was used in 187 procedures (61%). Two hundred and ninety-three procedures (96%) were technically successful, which included 184 SNAKE+ NIS and 109 SNAKE- NIS. Primary outcome was achieved in all SNAKE+ procedures, but not in five SNAKE- procedures (2%). No arterial dissections were identified among 305 interventions. In the intracranial circulation, a single SNAKE+ patient (0.5%) had non-flow limiting arterial vasospasm involving the petrous internal carotid. Three SNAKE+ patients (1.6%) and one SNAKE- patient (0.8%) demonstrated external carotid artery branch artery vasospasm during dural arteriovenous fistula or facial arteriovenous malformation treatment. SNAKE is a safe and effective technique for Sofia advancement. Sofia is a highly effective and safe intermediate catheter for a variety of NIS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Layer Farms in Northern Jordan Using Microbroth Dilution and Disc Diffusion Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Alaboudi, Akram R; Osaili, Tareq M; Obaidat, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen of significant public health importance. This pathogen is associated with human infection and has been isolated from mammals and birds. Ninety-two cloacal C. jejuni isolates were identified from 35 layer farms in Northern Jordan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disc diffusion techniques with variable suggested breakpoints. Using MIC and EUCAST cut-off values, the study revealed a significantly high resistance level (100%) among the layers' isolates against ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. A relatively high resistance (41%) toward gentamicin and amoxicillin and low resistance to nalidixic acid (21%), erythromycin (14%), and florfenicol (6.5%) were also found. This high level of resistance may indicate abuses in the handling of antibiotics, which may require stricter control in the local layer industry. A good agreement between the 2 techniques used was demonstrated and the disc diffusion technique could be used as a rapid screening test for antimicrobial susceptibility of C. jejuni to many antibiotics using specific Campylobacter breakpoints. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. [Investigation of Antibiotic Resistance of Indigenous Bacteria and Abundance of Class I Integron in Matrix of Constructed Wetlands of Different Configurations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiao-bei; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jian-hua; Man, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Environmental indigenous bacteria (Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas) were isolated from 9 different constructed wetlands (CWs) in summer and winter. The antibiotic resistance analysis of the isolated bacteria was conducted by Kirby-Bauer disc agar diffusion method. And the quantitative PCR assay was used to quantify the abundance of class I integron (int1) in the matrix of CWs. The results indicated that over 84% of isolates among the 522 Staphylococcus strains and 543 Pseudomonas strains had antibiotic resistance and above 68% of isolates had multi-antibiotic resistance, the average of MRI index was 0.22. Antibiotic resistance of indigenous bacteria in CWs was at the same resistance level of human or animal bacteria in certain environment, indicating that indigenous bacteria from constructed wetlands had relatively high level of resistance. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas strains had higher resistances to Ampicillin (AMP) and Sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and extremely low resistance rates of lower than 3% to Tetracycline (TE), Gentamicin (CN) and Ciprofloxacin (CIP). To Ceftazidime (CAZ) and Chloramphenicol (C), the two kinds of indigenous bacteria showed distinctly different resistances. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of intl in CWs was 1.14 x 10(5)-5.66 x 10(5) copies · g(-1), and its relative abundance was 0.54%-3.68%. Both of season and wetland type had important impact on antibiotic resistance and abundance of int1. The antibiotic resistance rate and the multiple resistance index (MRI) for the indigenous bacteria and the abundance of int1 in summer were higher than those in winter. Among three types of CWs, the antibiotic resistance rate and the MRI value were the highest in the downward vertical flow, while the int1 abundance was the highest in the sub-surface flow. The research indicated that indigenous bacteria acquired antibiotic resistance due to long term exposure to antibiotics of certain concentrations and antibiotic-resistant intestinal

  2. Evaluation of the potential of applying composting/bioremediation techniques to wastes generated within the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, V; Garg, A; Aldred, D; Hobbs, G; Smith, R; Tothill, I E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the viability of reducing landfill requirements to satisfy EC Landfill Directive requirements by applying composting/bioremediation techniques to the construction and demolition (C&D) industry waste stream at laboratory scale. The experimental study was carried out in nine test rigs to examine different wood mixtures; untreated timber, creosote treated timber and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber. Several experimental variables affecting the process were characterised and optimised. These include the best nitrogen additive and optimum moisture content required for composting. Poultry manure was found to be the best nitrogen additive. The optimum moisture content was decreased after the addition of poultry manure. The composting/bioremediation process was evaluated through monitoring the microbial activity, carbon dioxide emissions and toxicity examination of the composted product. A typical temperature profile suggested that untreated and CCA treated mix could be classified as hot composting whereas creosote treated mix could be classified as cold composting. The paper reports on the results obtained during this investigation.

  3. The effects of different bending techniques on corrosion resistance and nickel release of superelastic orthodontic NiTi archwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujeerapaiboon, N.; Anuwongnukroh, N.; Dechkunakorn, S.; Jariyaboon, M.

    2017-04-01

    Bending superelastic NiTi archwire is indicated in some stages of orthodontic treatment. The difference in bending techniques may affect corrosion resistance and nickel release. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance and nickel release after different bending techniques of NiTi archwires. Preform-curved NiTi archwires were used as a template for bending and used as a control group. 0.016×0.022 inches superelastic NiTi archwires were bent to curve-shape by cold bending, DERHT bending and cold bending then DERHT technique. Potentiodynamic polarization technique was used to measure corrosion behavior of the wires. Corrosion potential (ECORR), corrosion density (ICORR), and breakdown potential of each wire were determined. In addition, the amount of nickel release in the solution after the test was inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Although, the results showed that ECORR and ICORR were not statistically significantly different among all groups, the difference in breakdown potential and nickel release were observed. Similar corrosion resistance and nickel release were presented in the preform-curved NiTi archwires, cold bending, and cold bending then DERHT group. The DERHT bending group showed the lowest breakdown potential and highest nickel release.

  4. Investigate the electrical and thermal properties of the low temperature resistant silver nanowire fabricated by two-beam laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Cang; Dong, Xian-Zi; Liu, Jie; Lu, Heng; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    A two-beam laser fabrication technique is introduced to fabricate the single silver nanowire (AgNW) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The resistivity of the AgNW is (1.31 ± 0.05) × 10-7 Ω·m, which is about 8 times of the bulk silver resistivity (1.65 × 10-8 Ω·m). The AgNW electrical resistance is measured in temperature range of 10-300 K and fitted with the Bloch-Grüneisen formula. The fitting results show that the residue resistance is 153 Ω, the Debye temperature is 210 K and the electron-phonon coupling constant is (5.72 ± 0.24) × 10-8 Ω·m. Due to the surface scattering, the Debye temperature and the electron-phonon coupling constant are lower than those of bulk silver, and the residue resistance is bigger than that of bulk silver. Thermal conductivity of the single AgNW is calculated in the corresponding temperature range, which is the biggest at the temperature approaching the Debye temperature. The AgNW on PET substrate is the low temperature resistance material and is able to be operated stably at such a low temperature of 10 K.

  5. Construction of three-dimensional liver tissue models by cell accumulation technique and maintaining their metabolic functions for long-term culture without medium change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hepatocyte cultures have attracted much attention to obtain high biological functions of hepatocyte for pharmaceutical drug assessment. However, maintaining the high functions for over one month is still a key challenge although many approaches have been reported. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time simple and rapid construction of 3D-hepatocyte constructs by our cell accumulation technique and their high biological functions for one month, without any medium change. The human hepatocyte carcinoma (HepG2) cells were coated with ∼ 7 nm-sized extracellular matrix (ECM) films consisting of fibronectin (FN) and gelatin (G), and then incubated in cell culture insert to construct 3D-tissue constructs for 24 h. The thickness of obtained 3D-HepG2 constructs was easily controlled by altering seeding cell number and the maximum is over 100 μm. When a large volume of culture media was employed, the 3D-constructs showed higher mRNA expression of albumin and some cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes as compared to general two-dimensional (2D) culture. Surprisingly, their high cell viabilities (over 80%) and high mRNA expressions were successfully maintained without medium change for at least 27 days. These results demonstrate novel easy and rapid technique to construct 3D-human liver tissue models which can maintain their high functions and viability for 1 month without medium change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Macrophytes may not contribute significantly to removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance in model surface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Beattie, Sarah A; Bartel, Caitlin N; Elliott, Ashley D; Montero, Oscar F; Lokesh, Sheetal; Favreau, Alex; Kozlova, Tatiana A; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Outdoor shallow wetland mesocosms, designed to simulate surface constructed wetlands to improve lagoon wastewater treatment, were used to assess the role of macrophytes in the dissipation of wastewater nutrients, selected pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Specifically, mesocosms were established with or without populations of Typha spp. (cattails), Myriophyllum sibiricum (northern water milfoil), and Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort). Following macrophyte establishment, mesocosms were seeded with ARG-bearing organisms from a local wastewater lagoon, and treated with a single pulse of artificial municipal wastewater with or without carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen (each at 7.6μg/L), as well as sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine (each at 150μg/L). Rates of pharmaceutical dissipation over 28d ranged from 0.073 to 3.0d(-1), corresponding to half-lives of 0.23 to 9.4d. Based on calculated rate constants, observed dissipation rates were consistent with photodegradation driving clofibric acid, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine removal, and with sorption also contributing to carbamazepine and fluoxetine loss. Of the seven gene determinants assayed, only two genes for both beta-lactam resistance (blaCTX and blaTEM) and sulfonamide resistance (sulI and sulII) were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. Genes disappeared relatively rapidly from the water column, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 99d. In contrast, detected gene levels did not change in the sediment, with the exception of sulI, which increased after 28d in pharmaceutical-treated systems. These shallow wetland mesocosms were able to dissipate wastewater contaminants rapidly. However, no significant enhancement in removal of nutrients or pharmaceuticals was observed in mesocosms with extensive aquatic plant communities. This was likely due to three factors: first, use of naïve systems with an unchallenged capacity for nutrient assimilation and

  7. Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

  8. Genomic and functional techniques to mine the microbiome for novel antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Oppong, Boahemaa; Gasparrini, Andrew J; Dantas, Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities contain diverse bacteria that play important roles in every environment. Advances in sequencing and computational methodologies over the past decades have illuminated the phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities from diverse habitats. Among the activities encoded in microbiomes are the abilities to synthesize and resist small molecules, yielding antimicrobial activity. These functions are of particular interest when viewed in light of the public health emergency posed by the increase in clinical antimicrobial resistance and the dwindling antimicrobial discovery and approval pipeline, and given the intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance. Here, we review genomic and functional methods that have been developed for accessing the antimicrobial biosynthesis and resistance capacity of microbiomes and highlight outstanding examples of their applications. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Children with smoking parents have a higher airway resistance measured by the interruption technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Vrijlandt, Elianne J.L.E.; Boezen, HM; Duiverman, EJ

    2004-01-01

    Children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, during or after pregnancy, are known to have decreased lung function. So far this has been measured using spirometry in schoolchildren and invasive techniques in newborns. The interruption technique (Rint) is a noninvasive technique to measure airway

  10. Cuspal Fracture Resistance of Maxillary Premolar Teeth Restored With 5 Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Daneshkazemi

    2015-07-01

    Results:There was a high significant difference among all the groups. The average fracture resistance values were as follows: group A 236.19 N, group B 289.81 N, group C 333.07 N, group D 459.31 N and group E 165.04 N. Conclusion: Regarding the higher cuspal fracture resistance in group D, it can be definitely possible to apply this method to restore destructed and carious maxillary premolar teeth with more reliability.

  11. Design, construction, quality checks and test results of first resistive-Micromegas read-out boards for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Iengo, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The development work carried out at CERN to push the Micromegas technology to a new frontier is now coming to an end. The construction of the first read-out boards for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system will demonstrate in full-scale the feasibility of this ambitious project. The read-out boards, representing the heart of the detector, are manufactured in industries, making the Micromegas for ATLAS the first MPGD for a large experiment with a relevant part industrially produced. The boards are 50 cm wide and up to 220 cm long, carrying copper strips 315 μm wide with 415 μm pitch. Interconnected resistive strips, having the same pattern as the copper strips, provide spark protection. The boards are completed by the creation of cylindrical pillars 128 μm high, 280 μm in diameter and arranged in a triangular array 7 mm aside. The total number of boards to be produced for ATLAS is 2048 of 32 different types. We will review the main design parameters of the read-out boards for the ATLAS Micromegas, following...

  12. Low resistance electrode construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redey, Laszlo; Karell, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a cathode and an anode in contact with an electrolyte. Both electrodes or one of them has an electrically conducting non-metal receptacle defining a chamber with a first metal having a melting point in the range of from about room temperature to about 800.degree. C. inside said receptacle chamber. A second metal with a melting point greater than about 800.degree. C. is in contact with the first metal inside the receptacle chamber and extends outside of the receptacle chamber to form a terminal for the anode. The electrolyte may include the oxides, halides or mixtures thereof of one or more of Li, V, U, Al and the lanthanides. Metal may be produced at the cathode during operation of the cell and oxygen or chlorine at the anode.

  13. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  14. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  15. Methods for constructing exact solutions of partial differential equations mathematical and analytical techniques with applications to engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Meleshko, Sergey V

    2005-01-01

    Differential equations, especially nonlinear, present the most effective way for describing complex physical processes. Methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations play an important role in applied mathematics and mechanics. This book aims to provide scientists, engineers and students with an easy-to-follow, but comprehensive, description of the methods for constructing exact solutions of differential equations.

  16. Transferring of Sclerotinia resistance from wild into cultivated sunflower: Combining of conventional and laboratory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five populations of each H. molis, H. maximiliani, H. rigidus and H. tuberosus were screened for resistance to stem form of Sclerotinia. On the basis of the results obtained by screening, nine crosses of resistant populations with either other wild species populations or with cultivated sunflower were made. As in some crosses a small quantity of seed was produced and the seeds germinated poorly, modified tissue culture methods were used to enhance germination and produce clones of interesting plants. These methods were found to be efficient both for seed germination and plant production and multiplication.

  17. The path of least resistance: Regulatory resource depletion and the effectiveness of social influence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Fennis, B.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Vohs, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examine the role of regulatory resource depletion in the effectiveness of social influence techniques aimed at inducing consumer compliance. They test the two-step hypothesis that a) responding to the initial request stage of an influence technique requires self-control, thereby

  18. A new interventional technique for percutaneous treatment of drainage-resistant liver abscess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, K. P.; Prins, T. R.; Hofker, H. S.

    The objective of this case report is to describe a device that can be used as a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of drainage-resistant liver abscess. The device uses pulse lavage to fragment and evacuate the semi-solid contents of a liver abscess. The treatment of liver abscesses

  19. A technique to study Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reliable peanut root transformation system would be useful to study the functions of genes involved in root biology and disease resistance. The objective of this study was to establish an effective protocol to produce composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. More tha...

  20. Screening for rice mutant of resistance to piricularia oryzae by irradiation and in vitro technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Xu Gang; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice types and varieties in mature embryo. LS-5 was optimum medium for mature embryo. Increase in plant regeneration capacity was found with 100, 150 Gy gamma rays. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the anthers on induction medium were with 30 Gy of gamma rays. The change of free amino acids in subcultured callus tissue in rice were investigated after callus were treated with cultured filtrate from Piricularia oryzae. Fourteen kinds of free amino acid could be quantitatively analysed, among which, contents of serine and glutamate were the highest and made up about 20% of total amino acids respectively. The total amino acids in callus tissue of resistant varieties before treated with cultured filtrate were higher than that of susceptible varieties. However the total amino acids were decreased in the resistant varieties and increased in the susceptible varieties after treatment with the filtrate. Arginine was found in the variety of Zhen Kong No. 13. Disease resistance of R 2 plants screened with toxin was increased. Five mutants with resistance to Piricularia oryzae were selected

  1. Towards a new technique to construct a 3D shear-wave velocity model based on converted waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, G.; Colavitti, L.

    2017-12-01

    A 3D model is essential in all branches of solid Earth sciences because geological structures can be heterogeneous and change significantly in their lateral dimension. The main target of this research is to build a crustal S-wave velocity structure in 3D. The currently popular methodologies to construct 3D shear-wave velocity models are Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) and Local Earthquake Tomography (LET). Here we propose a new technique to map Earth discontinuities and velocities at depth based on the analysis of receiver functions. The 3D model is obtained by simultaneously inverting P-to-S converted waveforms recorded at a dense array. The individual velocity models corresponding to each trace are extracted from the 3D initial model along ray paths that are calculated using the shooting method, and the velocity model is updated during the inversion. We consider a spherical approximation of ray propagation using a global velocity model (iasp91, Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) for the teleseismic part, while we adopt Cartesian coordinates and a local velocity model for the crust. During the inversion process we work with a multi-layer crustal model for shear-wave velocity, with a flexible mesh for the depth of the interfaces. The RFs inversion represents a complex problem because the amplitude and the arrival time of different phases depend in a non-linear way on the depth of interfaces and the characteristics of the velocity structure. The solution we envisage to manage the inversion problem is the stochastic Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA, Sambridge, 1999), whose goal is to find an ensemble of models that sample the good data-fitting regions of a multidimensional parameter space. Depending on the studied area, this method can accommodate possible independent and complementary geophysical data (gravity, active seismics, LET, ANT, etc.), helping to reduce the non-linearity of the inversion. Our first focus of application is the Central Alps, where a 20-year long dataset of

  2. Constructing high-density genetic maps for polyploid sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and identifying quantitative trait loci controlling brown rust resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop for producing edible sugar and bioethanol. Brown rust had long been a major disease impacting sugarcane production world widely. Resistance resource and markers linked to the resistance are valuable tools for disease resistance improvement. An...

  3. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  4. Effect of Kinetic Resistance Training and Technique on Special Strength Level and Effective Kinematic Variables in Instep Kick for Soccer Juniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Ali Shady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training with resistance is considered the essential and complementary part of players' preparation period during training season through developing different aspects. Objective: This study aims to investigate the Effect of Kinetic resistance training and technique on special power level and effective kinematic variables in instep kick for soccer juniors. Methodology: 20 junior soccer players (age: 17.54 ±0.5 years, body mass: 69.05 kg, height: 170 cm, training age=7.7 years participated in this study were randomly assigned into two groups experimental (n=10 trained with kinetic resistance training program and technique and control (n=10 trained with traditional soccer training program only where, the experimental approach was used. Results: The kinetic resistance trainings and technique positively affected the special power level, kicking accuracy and time and effective kinematic variables in instep kick. Conclusion: The researcher recommended that coaches should give attention to special strength developing and to be an essential part of the training program through kinetic resistance trainings and technique. Also coaches should depend on the kinematic variables affecting performance for detecting the improvement level in performance as a result of kinetic resistance trainings and technique.  Keywords: kinetic resistance, technique, special strength, kinematic, Instep Kick

  5. Electro-spark deposition: A technique for producing wear resistant coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, G.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA)); Johnson, R.N. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA))

    1984-12-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a coating process using short duration, high current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. A principal attribute of the process is its ability to apply metallurgically bonded coatings with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. A review of the process is briefly given, then current research using WC-TiC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} electrodes to deposit coatings on Type 316 stainless steel and other substrates is presented. The ESD carbide coatings were found to be exceptionally hard, wear-resistant and spalling-resistant in high-stress rubbing tests. Several applications for nuclear reactor components are described. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of rational design technique for frame steel structure combining seismic resistance and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motoki; Morishita, Kunihiro; Shimono, Masaki; Chuman, Yasuharu; Okafuji, Takashi; Monaka, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Anti-seismic designs have been applied to plant support steel frames for years. Today, a rational structure that further improves seismic resistance and ensures economic performance is required in response to an increase of seismic load on the assumption of predicted future massive earthquakes. For satisfying this requirement, a steel frame design method that combines a steel frame weight minimizing method, which enables economic design through simultaneous minimization of multiple steel frame materials, and a seismic response control design technology that improves seismic resistance has been established. Its application in the design of real structures has been promoted. This paper gives an overview of this design technology and presents design examples to which this design technology is applied. (author)

  7. Influence of immediate dentin sealing techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L; Mota, E G; Borges, G A; Burnett, L H; Spohr, A M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This research evaluated the influence of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) techniques on cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Forty-eight maxillary premolars were divided into four groups: G1, sound teeth (control); G2, without IDS; G3, IDS with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); and G4, IDS with CSE and Protect Liner F. The teeth from groups 2, 3, and 4 received mesio-distal-occlusal preparations. The impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane, followed by provisional restoration and storage in water for seven days. The impressions were poured using type IV die stone, and inlays with Filtek Z250 composite resin were built over each cast. The inlays were luted with Panavia F. After storage in water for 72 hours, a 200-N load was applied on the occlusal surface using a metal sphere connected to a universal testing machine, and the cuspal deflection was measured with a micrometer. The specimens were then submitted to an axial load until failure. The following mean cuspal deflection (μm) and mean fracture resistance (N) followed by the same lowercase letter represent no statistical difference by analysis of variance and Tukey (p<0.05): cuspal deflection: G1, 3.1 ± 1.5(a); G2, 10.3 ± 4.6(b); G3, 5.5 ± 1.8(ac); and G4, 7.7 ± 5.1(bc); fracture resistance: G1, 1974 ± 708(a); G2, 1162 ± 474(b); G3, 700 ± 280(b); and G4, 810 ± 343(b). IDS with CSE allowed cuspal deflection comparable with that associated with sound teeth. The application of Protect Liner F did not contribute to a decrease in cuspal deflection. The IDS techniques did not influence the fracture resistance of teeth.

  8. Use of the azimuthal resistivity technique for determination of regional azimuth of transmissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many bedrock units contain joint sets that commonly act as preferred paths for the movement of water, electrical charge, and possible contaminants associated with production or transit of crude oil or refined products. To facilitate the development of remediation programs, a need exists to reliably determine regional-scale properties of these joint sets: azimuth of transmissivity ellipse, dominant set, and trend(s). The surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a noninvasive, reliable, efficient, and relatively cost-effective method for regional studies. The azimuthal resistivity survey method combines the use of standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point, at selected degree intervals, which yields an apparent resistivity ellipse from which joint-set orientation can be determined. Regional application of the azimuthal survey method was tested at 17 sites in an approximately 500 km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with less than 15m (50 ft) overburden above the dolomite. Results of 26 azimuthal surveys were compared and determined to be consistent with the results of two other methods: direct observation of joint-set orientation and transmissivity ellipses from multiple-well-aquifer tests. The average of joint-set trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 2.5?? of the average of joint-set trend determined by direct observation of major joint sets at 24 sites. The average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 5.7?? of the average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined for 14 multiple-well-aquifer tests. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  9. Effective resistance of the respiratory system studied by a quick release technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, B R; Peterson, C V; Otis, A B

    1985-06-01

    A human subject with mouthpiece in place makes inspiratory or expiratory effort against a closed shutter which abruptly opens when a predetermined pressure (PO) is developed. Pressure at the mouth (Pao) and flow (V) are continuously recorded. When the shutter opens, Pao changes toward atmospheric - first abruptly and then gradually, while V rapidly rises to a peak value (Vpeak) and then gradually declines. In any series of trials PO is held constant, but resistance external to the subject (Rext) is changed with each trial. In different series PO is varied. In any series of trials at constant PO the relationship between Pao and V was linear. The slope (K) of the straight line fitted to the experimental points was interpreted as being equal in magnitude to the 'effective resistance' (Reff) of the respiratory system. Reff has two components - a true resistance (Rint) and a virtual one (Rfv) related to the force-velocity characteristic of the respiratory muscles. On the assumption that Rint is independent of PO but that Rfv varies linearly with it, Rint and Rfv can be evaluated.

  10. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  11. The effects of different polishing techniques on the staining resistance of CAD/CAM resin-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, Omer; Demirci, Tevfik; Demirci, Gamze; Sagsoz, Nurdan Polat; Yildiz, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the staining resistance of CAD/CAM resin-ceramics polished with different techniques and to determine the effectiveness of the polishing techniques on resin-ceramics, comparing it with that of a glazed glass-ceramic. Four different CAD/CAM ceramics (feldspathic ceramic: C-CEREC Blocs, (SIRONA) and three resin-ceramics: L-Lava Ultimate, (3M ESPE), E-Enamic, (VITA) and CS-CeraSmart, (GC)) and one light cure composite resin: ME-Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (Kuraray) were used. Only C samples were glazed (gl). Other restorations were divided into four groups according to the polishing technique: nonpolished control group (c), a group polished with light cure liquid polish (Biscover LV BISCO) (bb), a group polished with ceramic polishing kit (Diapol, EVE) (cd), and a group polished with composite polishing kit (Clearfil Twist Dia, Kuraray) (kc). Glazed C samples and the polished samples were further divided into four subgroups and immersed into different solutions: distilled water, tea, coffee, and fermented black carrot juice. Eight samples (8 × 8 × 1 mm) were prepared for each subgroup. According to CIELab system, four color measurements were made: before immersion, immersion after 1 day, after 1 week, and after 1 month. Data were analyzed with repeated measures of ANOVA (α=.05). The highest staining resistance was found in gl samples. There was no difference among gl, kc and cd ( P >.05). Staining resistance of gl was significantly higher than that of bb ( P Ceramic and composite polishing kits can be used for resin ceramics as a counterpart of glazing procedure used for full ceramic materials. Liquid polish has limited indications for resin ceramics.

  12. A 2-screw fixation technique for subtalar joint fusion: a retrospective case series introducing a novel 2-screw fixation construct with operative pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Reinking, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    A variety of fixation methods are used in fusion of the subtalar joint (STJ) including 1 screw and 2 screw constructs. The rate of union is generally high for STJ fusion, regardless of the fixation method, provided the joint surfaces have been properly prepared and compressed and the patient avoids premature stress on the fusion site. Certain populations are known to have an increased risk of nonunion or delayed union including diabetics, smokers, and those undergoing revision of failed fusion. In this high-risk patient population, we propose that our novel 2-screw construct might have advantages over traditional fixation constructs without identified disadvantages. The technique is simple enough to be used in all primary and revision STJ fusion procedures, and this has become our practice. In the present study, 15 feet in 15 consecutive patients who underwent STJ fusion using a novel 2-screw fixation construct were retrospectively reviewed to assess the fusion outcome and complications. Specifically, we offer a novel 2-screw construct that offers the stability of the traditional parallel 2-screw construct while maintaining a maximum raw bone surface area at the posterior facet achieved by single-screw fixation. A retrospective review of radiographs taken 10 weeks postoperatively indentified a 100% fusion rate (15 of 15). All patients in our series achieved fusion, including several high-risk cases, and no significant complications were identified. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Sergio Luiz de

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, manufactured at a national laboratory, and used for orthopedic applications, has been investigated in solutions that simulate the body fluids. The electrolytes used were 0.9 % (mass) NaCl, Hanks' solution, a culture medium (MEM), and the two last electrolytes, without and with addition of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of peroxide addition was to simulate the conditions found when inflammatory reactions occur due to surgical procedures. The corrosion resistance of alloys commercially in use as biomaterials, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V, as well as of the pure titanium (Ti-cp), was also studied for comparison with the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance characterization was carried out by electrochemical and surface analysis techniques. The electrochemical tests used were: open circuit potential measurements as a function of tim; potentiodynamic polarization; and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE). The impedance experimental diagrams were interpreted using equivalent electric circuits that simulate an oxide film with a duplex structure composed of an internal and compact, barrier type layer, and an external porous layer. The results showed that the corrosion resistance is due mainly to the barrier type layer. The titanium alloys and the Ti-cp showed high corrosion resistance in all electrolytes used. The oxides formed on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr, either naturally or during immersion in MEM ar Hank's solution was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The results showed that the presence of hydrogen peroxide in MEM promotes the growth of the porous layer and incorporation of mineral ions, besides favouring hydroxyapatite formation. The cytotoxicity of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was also evaluated and it was shown to be non-toxic. (author)

  14. A proposal for improving sustainability practice through the implementations of reuse and recycle technique in Malaysian construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wan Nadzri; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Saad, Rohaizah; Anuar, Herman Shah; Ibrahim, Siti Halipah

    2016-08-01

    Construction and demolition waste is often seen as the major contributor to the solid waste stream that is going to landfill, hence, making it the area of focus for improvement. In the construction industry, reuse and recycle principles have been promoted in order to reduce waste and protect the environment. Construction and demolition waste including demolished concrete, bricks and masonry, wood and other materials such as dry wall, glass, insulation, roofing, wire, pipe, rock and soil constitute a significant component of the total waste. Without proper reuse and recycle policies, these construction and demolition wastes would quickly fill all the remaining landfill space, which has already been growing in scarce around this region. Based on the feedback received, on average, a third of respondents said they currently have a lotto benefit from the use of reduce and reuse. In addition, they also agreed that the existing policies help and support the min carrying out the reduce and reuse practices. Respondents also agreed that other stakeholders in the construction industry currently have an excellent awareness in term of implementation of the reduce and reuse in their practices.

  15. Construction of an extended range whole-cell tetracycline biosensor by use of the tet(M) resistance gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    An extended range whole-cell tetracycline biosensor strain was constructed by insertion of the tet(M) gene, encoding tetracycline resistance by ribosomal protection, into plasmid pTGFP2, which contains a transcriptional fusion between a tetracycline regulated promoter and the green fluorescent...... to drug concentrations ranging from below 5 ng ml-1 to 16 µg ml-1, which represents a significant improvement of the original version....

  16. Genetic improvement of cocoa for resistance to swollen shoot disease through mutation breeding and in vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Ampomah, Y.; Novak, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Various tissues (vegetative buds, pollen and selfed beans) of three cocoa types were irradiated with gamma rays with the view to inducing mutants resistant to cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV). To save time and space in cocoa mutation breeding, certain aspects of the tissue culture techniques in cocoa were also investigated. Efforts were made to delimit some of the factors crucial to producing plants via cocoa tissues in vitro. Use of concentrations of 2-4 mg/L of BAP coupled with weekly subculturing and light durations between 16-20 hours at 2000 lx greatly enhanced differentiation, plantlet growth and plant production. Indications are that the possibility of using in vitro techniques for mutation breeding in cocoa could be exploited. 5 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  17. Techniques for the construction of an elliptical-cylindrical model using circular rotating tools in non CNC machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Mendoza, Brenda; Cordero Davila, Alberto; Gonzalez Garcia, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of an elliptical-cylindrical model without spherical aberration using vertical rotating tools. The engine of the circular tool is placed on one arm so that the tool fits on the surface and this in turn is moved by an X-Y table. The test method and computer algorithms that predict the desired wear are described.

  18. Construction and Validation of the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory: Clinical Judgment Skill Competencies That Measure Counselor Debiasing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bryan S.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To construct and validate a new self-report instrument, the Clinical Judgment Skill Inventory (CJSI), inclusive of clinical judgment skill competencies that address counselor biases and evidence-based strategies. Method: An Internet-based survey design was used and an exploratory factor analysis was performed on a sample of rehabilitation…

  19. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  20. Traditional genetic improvement and use of biotechnological techniques in searching of resistance to main fungi pathogens of Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva-Mora

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Bananas and plantain are important food staple in human diet, even cooked or consumed fresh. Fungal diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc and Mycosphaerella fijiensis have threated to distroy Musa spp. Those crops are difficult to breed genetically because they are steriles, do not produce fertil seeds and they are partenocarpic. Genetic crossing by hibridization have been used successfully in FHIA and IITA Musa breeding programs, they have released numerous improved hybrids to those diseases. Plant Biotechnology has developed a set of techniques for Musa micropropagation to increase multiplication rates, healthy and safety plant material for plantation. Mutagenic techniques, somaclonal variation, somatic embryogenesis and more recient genetic transformation have enabled advances and complementation with clasical Musa breeding for searching resistance to principal fungal pathogen of Musa spp. Field evaluation systems to find Musa resistant genotypes to Foc and M. fijiensis have demostrated to be usefull but laborious. Nevertheless to enhance eficacy in selection of promissory genotypes the development of reproducible early evaluation methodologies by using fungal pathogens or their derivates is needed. Key words: evaluation and selection, Fusarium oxysporum, improvement

  1. Comparison of electrochemical noise with impedance and polarization resistance techniques in the steel/concrete system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, A.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Vergara, A.; Davila, J.V.; Mariaca, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the corrosion rates of active and passive rebars embedded in concrete in various degrees of wetness using different electrochemical techniques. The ability of the electrochemical noise to quantificate the intensity of the attack and the advantages of this method are stressed. Data that prove that the corrosion rate is proportional to the current noise and independent to the potential noise in this system are also shown. (Author) 23 refs

  2. Advanced Testing Techniques to Measure the PWSCC Resistance of Alloy 690 and its Weld Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.Andreson

    2004-10-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and its weld metals (Alloy 182 and Alloy 82) were originally used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) due to the material's inherent resistance to general corrosion in a number of aggressive environments and because of a coefficient of thermal expansion that is very close to that of low alloy and carbon steel. Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. The occurrence of PWSCC has been responsible for significant downtime and replacement power costs. As part of an ongoing, comprehensive program involving utilities, reactor vendors and engineering/research organizations, this report will help to ensure that corrosion degradation of nickel-base alloys does not limit service life and that full benefit can be obtained from improved designs for both replacement components and new reactors.

  3. Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Technique for Characterizing Leakage Problem in Abu Baara Earth Dam, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Al-Fares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir.

  4. The construction of the graphite calorimeter GR9 at LNE-LNHB (geometrical and technical consideration); Construction du calorimetre en graphite GR9 au LNE-LNHB (caracteristiques techniques et geometriques)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowsky, A.; Daures, J

    2008-07-01

    Calorimetry is the most direct dosimetric technique to reach absorbed dose. A calorimeter gives direct access to the energy imparted to matter by ionizing radiation per mass unit by measuring the heat quantity Q produced under irradiation in its sensitive element which is thermally insulated. Graphite was chosen as construction material because all the energy imparted to graphite by ionizing radiation is converted into heat. Thermistors are used for temperature measurements as well as for the electrical heating of the different bodies of the calorimeter. The construction of a calorimeter is the result of a compromise between dosimetric requirements and mechanical constraints. The difficulties encountered are examined and the solutions chosen are detailed. All technical data are gathered in this document. The aim is to provide a practical operative instruction and guidance document, which can help interested laboratories in designing such an instrument. The electrical and thermal tests have shown a good behaviour of the GR9 calorimeter.

  5. A Cassette Containing Thiostrepton, Gentamicin Resistance Genes, and dif sequences Is Effective in Construction of Recombinant Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweru, Julius; Makafe, Gaelle; Cao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Bangxing; Huang, Shaobo; Njire, Moses; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Tan, Yaoju; Li, Xinjie; Liu, Jianxiong; Tan, Shouyong; Deng, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is limited by the availability of selection markers. Spontaneous resistance mutation rate of M. tuberculosis to the widely used kanamycin is relatively high which often leads to some false positive transformants. Due to the few available markers, we have created a cassette containing thiostrepton resistance gene ( tsr ) for selection in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, and gentamicin resistance gene ( aacC1 ) for Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis mc 2 155, flanked with dif sequences recognized by the Xer system of mycobacteria. This cassette adds to the limited available selection markers for mycobacteria.

  6. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  7. Oxide-based High Temperature Thermoelectric Generators - Development of Integrated Design Technique and Construction of a Thermoelectric Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesooriyage, Waruna Dissanayaka

    development. This thesis is focused on development and optimization of thermoelectric generator (TEG) design techniques for high temperature (> 700 °C) applications. Some of the main targets of this optimization process are to achieve higher volumetric power density (VPD), and reduce the cost-per-Watt. Oxide......In the field of energy management, thermoelectrics are niche candidates for electrical generator devices. For decades, scientists have been focused on thermoelectric (TE) material development. Thus TE module design techniques are still in relatively virgin state when comparing to the TE material...... challenges identified in this project. Thus, the proposed TEG optimizations should address this challenge in an appropriate manner. The work has established a new TEG optimization strategy based on the existing well-known TEG design technique Reduced Current Approach (RCA). This extended version of RCA...

  8. An Investigation into Dynamic Puncture Resistance of the Polyester Needled Nonwoven Geotextiles using Video Processing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan-Banadaki Zahra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic puncture behavior of nonwoven needle-punched polyester geotextiles has been studied using video processing technique. Twenty-seven needle-punched geotextile samples were produced by changing areal weight, needle penetration depth and punch density as independent variables. Cone drop test was carried out on the samples. In addition to measuring the hole diameter (HD, the video processing technique with a high frame rate camera was employed to calculate the energy absorbed by geotextile fabric up to puncture point (Ep and the hole expansion energy (Ee. Multiple linear regression method was used to develop the predicting relationships between independent and reply variables. The models showed that an increase in areal weight results in an increase in Ep, whereas it causes a decrease in Ee and HD. Moreover, increasing punch density and needle penetration depth, leads to less Ep, and more Ee and HD. In addition, it was also found that significant relationships exist for Ep-HD and Ee-HD.

  9. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (PTraining to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  10. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of 90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2016-02-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island for construction of Eco-friendly parks/tourist destination is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands which are least vulnerable to the impact of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very useful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  12. Plastic compressed collagen constructs for ocular cell culture and transplantation: a new and improved technique of confined fluid loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Hannah J; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Drake, Rosemary A L; Daniels, Julie T

    2013-01-01

    Cultured limbal epithelial cell transplantation is a commonly used clinical treatment for ocular surface repair. We have previously shown that plastic compressed (PC) type I collagen constructs are a suitable substrate for human limbal epithelial cell (HLEC) culture for transplantation. For this process to achieve compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice, and therefore be suitable for therapeutic cell therapy manufacture, the original method required substantial modification. The compression method was changed from unconfined (highly variable reproducibility) to confined compression (CC) (highly reproducible manufacture) and we assessed whether this altered the physical characteristics of the substrate. We have measured transparency, assessed scanning electron microscope images of the surface and performed live/dead cell viability assays of cells within the constructs. HLECs were then cultured on the surface of both types of construct and the resulting cell phenotype characterized. We have determined that the change in process does not alter the physical characteristics of the substrate. Furthermore, there is no change to the substrate's ability to support HLEC culture and maintenance of a mixed population of stem and differentiated cells. Additionally, cells were able to form a confluent sheet and multilayer to produce an intact epithelium. This modification allows scaling up of the process in a well-plate format, which is essential for creation of multiple corneal epithelial models for in vitro testing. This improvement to the original plastic compression method also allows the process to be employed in custom-made cassettes, the design of which takes into consideration the manufacturing and regulatory requirements for delivery of a cell therapy.

  13. Design and Construction of Precision Tooling for the Construction of Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors for the ATLAS Small Wheel Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389964; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical precision is a key-aspect of the $2~m^2$ high-rate capable Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the Small Wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 32 SM2 quadruplets will be built by four German sites with cathodes and strip-anodes made of stable honeycomb sandwiches.\\\\ To achieve the required single plane resolution below $100\\mu m$ the deviation from planarity of a single detector plane must not exceed $80\\mu m$ in direction perpendicular to the precision coordinate. The global position of the readout strips has to be within $30\\mu m$ for a single readout-plane of three PCBs, as well as between all four planes of a quadruplet.\\\\ Precision tooling is used for the correct positioning of readout PCBs and readout sandwich planes. For quality control of the planarity of the sandwich planes a laser distance sensor combined with a coordinate measurement system has been developed. Deviation from planarity below 10 $\\mu$m can be easily resolved.\\\\ We will present key features of the challenging construct...

  14. Evaluation of corrosion resistance of two engineering alloys in molten salts by electrochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Villafane, A.; Almeraya-Calderon, F.; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Chacon-Nava, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Division de Deterioro de Materiales e Integridad Estructural, Miguel de Cervantes No.120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, G. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Fac. Ciencias Qu' micas e Industriales, Av. Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62215, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of two steels typically used in power boilers has been studied in the temperature range from 540 C to 680 C. Two environments were used: a) a synthetic salt mixture of 80% V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and b) oil ash collected from a high temperature reheater. Corrosion rates obtained from electrochemical potentiodynamic polarisation curves (Tafel extrapolation) were compared for both steels exposed in each environment. The results showed that increases in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, being this effect most notorious above about 620 C. In the synthetic salt, and at temperatures up to about 580 C, both steels showed similar behaviour. With further increases in temperature, the T22 steel was less resistant and, at the highest temperature used here, its corrosion rate was almost seven times higher than that measured for the 347H steel. The results obtained with the natural oil ash for the T22 steel showed a dramatic increase in corrosion rate as temperature goes up over the range used. For the 347H steel, and up to about 580 C, the corrosion rates were similar to those obtained with the synthetic salt. Above 580 C, the corrosion rate measured increased slightly with temperature, being at 680 C about 2.5 times higher than that found by using the synthetic salt. Therefore, an important difference in corrosion rates has been found depending upon the corrosive salt used. This is an important result because imply that, at least for materials used in fossil power plants, more realistic data can be obtained by using natural ashes in the experimental work. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. An investigation of flow and resistance characteristics of heat exchanger with the 2-D LDV system and visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zongsen; Shen Xiong; Xu Yuanhui; Bi Shuxun

    1987-12-01

    An experimental study of the heat exchanger which would be used in a nuclear reactor for low temperature heat-supplying is presented. A 2-D Laser Doppler Velocimeter was used as a unique technique to measure the mean velocity and turbulence intensity distributions in different sections of the model. The relationship between the resistance coefficient and Reynolds number also obtained in terms of the total pressure rakes covered by the casings and the wall static pressure pick-up holes. The flow visualization has realized by using a piece of light source with an Argon-Ion laser. It is apparent that the polystyrene particles seeded in the flow can trace the mean flow. The results showed that the self-similar phenomenon exists in the tube bundle flow system. There are some secondary vortices in the cross sections between two passages of the model

  16. Influence of fabrication techniques and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of different cantilever zirconia fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Mohamed H; Madina, Manal M; Aboushelib, Moustafa N

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of dynamic fatigue on fracture load and failure mode of different types of adhesive zirconia restorations. Eighty adhesive cantilever fixed dental prostheses (CFDP) were fabricated and assigned to four equal groups (n = 20) using the following materials and techniques. Group 1: machine copy-milling zirconia (Cercon), group 2: manual copy-milling technique (ZirkonZahn), group 3: slip casting technique (Vita In-ceram Zirconia), group 4: metal-ceramic CFDP. Specimens in groups 1and 2 received selective infiltration-etching surface treatment, specimens in group 3 were acid etched with hydrofluoric acid and silanated, while those of group 4 were airborne particle abraded. All specimens were bonded with resin cement (Panavia F2.0) and thermocycled (5000 cycles/ 5 to 55°C). Then, half the number of the specimens of each group (n = 10) underwent dynamic loading (one million cycles at alternating loads between 10 and 40 N in a water bath at 37°C). All specimens were subjected to one-cycle loading to failure to evaluate fracture resistance. One-way and two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). The intaglio surfaces of fractured specimens were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis revealed that the failure load of metal (413 ± 26 N) and machine copy-milled zirconia (368 ± 24 N) restorations was significantly higher (F = 129, p < 0.001) than manually copy-milled (316 ± 18) and In-ceram zirconia (210 ± 17) restorations. Dynamic fatigue significantly (p < 0.03) reduced failure load of the manually copy-milled and In-ceram zirconia restorations, while metal and machine copy-milling zirconia restorations were not influenced by fatigue. The fatigue strength of adhesive zirconia restorations is influenced by cyclic loading and the technique used to manufacture these restorations.

  17. Investigation of selective corrosion resistance of aged lean duplex stainless steel 2101 by non-destructive electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Juan; Jiang Yiming; Deng Bo; Zhang Wei; Zhong Cheng; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    Lean duplex stainless steel 2101 (LDX2101) shows wide application potential due to its better corrosion performance and lower cost than traditional 304 austenite steel. This paper investigates the effects of thermal aging treatments at 700 deg. C for various aging times up to 100 h on the selective corrosion resistance of LDX2101 by two non-destructive electrochemical measurements: double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The evolution of microstructure was examined by optical microscopy, SEM microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). The results showed that the two applied electrochemical measurements agreed very well. Both methods were able to reveal the relationship between microstructure and selective corrosion resistance, which was related to the formation of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted zones around the precipitates, especially the σ phase, during aging. Nevertheless, more information could be obtained using EIS methods, including the interfacial charge transfer reaction and the corrosion product adsorption process. The results suggest that the susceptibility of the aged alloy to selective corrosion is presumably codetermined by the formation of chromium- and molybdenum-depleted areas, as well as by the replenishment of them, in these areas from the bulk during aging.

  18. EVALUATION OF CORROSION RESISTANCE OF STEEL SHEETS FOR AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY WITH THE USE OF THE SPOTFACE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation, leading to weight and cost reduction, is a key word concerning the design of steel auto body for auto makers that aim to keep and improve their market share worldwide. On the other hand, auto body life, which is related to the corrosion resistance of the materials employed, should always be considered. The latter has led the auto makers to team up with suppliers to find the best solutions concerning the materials selection. The end result always points towards different sets of steels either zinc-coated or zinc alloyed-coated. Taking all these aspects into consideration, the overall challenge the auto makers face is to mitigate the time required for selection and narrow down the options available. This paper studies the corrosion resistance of several materials applied on steel auto bodies using the technique named spotface, which main advantage is reducing the time required by the traditional scribe to evaluate and compare different materials, when they are submitted either to accelerated or field corrosion testing. Concerning the accelerated corrosion testing, they were performed according to the General Motors do Brasil’s requirements.

  19. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  20. Construction of a Scale-Questionnaire on the Attitude of the Teaching Staff as Opposed to the Educative Innovation by Means of Techniques of Cooperative Work (CAPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Andrés Traver Martí

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the construction process of a scale-questionnaire is described to measure the attitude of the teaching staff as opposed to the educational innovation by means of techniques of cooperative work (CAPIC.  In order to carry out its design and elaboration we need on the one hand a model of analysis of the attitudes and an instrument of measurement of the same ones capable of guiding its practical dynamics.  The Theory of the Reasoned Action of Fisbhein and Ajzen (1975, 1980 and the summative scales (Likert have fulfilled, in both cases, this paper.

  1. Lithostratigraphic interpretation from joint analysis of seismic tomography and magnetotelluric resistivity models using self-organizing map techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Muñoz, G.; Moeck, I.

    2012-12-01

    The combined interpretation of different models as derived from seismic tomography and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion represents a more efficient approach to determine the lithology of the subsurface compared with the separate treatment of each discipline. Such models can be developed independently or by application of joint inversion strategies. After the step of model generation using different geophysical methodologies, a joint interpretation work flow includes the following steps: (1) adjustment of a joint earth model based on the adapted, identical model geometry for the different methods, (2) classification of the model components (e.g. model blocks described by a set of geophysical parameters), and (3) re-mapping of the classified rock types to visualise their distribution within the earth model, and petrophysical characterization and interpretation. One possible approach for the classification of multi-parameter models is based on statistical pattern recognition, where different models are combined and translated into probability density functions. Classes of rock types are identified in these methods as isolated clusters with high probability density function values. Such techniques are well-established for the analysis of two-parameter models. Alternatively we apply self-organizing map (SOM) techniques, which have no limitations in the number of parameters to be analysed in the joint interpretation. Our SOM work flow includes (1) generation of a joint earth model described by so-called data vectors, (2) unsupervised learning or training, (3) analysis of the feature map by adopting image processing techniques, and (4) application of the knowledge to derive a lithological model which is based on the different geophysical parameters. We show the usage of the SOM work flow for a synthetic and a real data case study. Both tests rely on three geophysical properties: P velocity and vertical velocity gradient from seismic tomography, and electrical resistivity

  2. The use of production management techniques in the construction of a large high energy physics detector; L'utilisation des techniques de gestion de production dans la construction d'un grand detecteur de physique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, St

    2000-11-10

    The lifetime of a particle detector can be divided into 4 periods: designing, engineering drawing, manufacturing and operation-maintenance. Some computer systems and software deal with the management of the designing and engineering drawing, others deal with data acquisition and processing, but no systems exist for the manufacturing phase where particular solutions are proposed every time a problem arises. New-generation detectors that are to be set for the experiments at the future LHC (large hadron collider) will be 10 times more complex than the today detectors and be expected to operate for around 15 years. This complexity associated with a longer operating life implies an efficient and evolutive information system to handle the manufacturing phase. In this work the author has applied the techniques of production management to the manufacturing phase of the compact muon solenoid (CMS), he assigned 3 purposes: 1) to propose a modelling of the description of each component and of its manufacturing process, 2) to develop a graphic software allowing to view the assembling of the different components of the detector, and 3) to evaluate the resource of production of such a device, it means to balance demand with capacity and to optimize the use of production means. (A.C.)

  3. Application of FEL technique for constructing high-intensity, monochromatic, polarized gamma-sources at storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A possibility to construct high-intensity tunable monochromatic{gamma}-source at high energy storage rings is discussed. It is proposed to produce {gamma}-quanta by means of Compton backscattering of laser photons on electrons circulating in the storage. The laser light wavelength is chosen in such a way that after the scattering, the electron does not leave the separatrix. So as the probability of the scattering is rather small, energy oscillations are damped prior the next scattering. As a result, the proposed source can operate in {open_quotes}parasitic{close_quote} mode not interfering with the main mode of the storage ring operation. Analysis of parameters of existent storage rings (PETRA, ESRF, Spring-8, etc) shows that the laser light wavelength should be in infrared, {lambda}{approximately} 10 - 400 {mu}m, wavelength band. Installation at storage rings of tunable free-electron lasers with the peak and average output power {approximately} 10 MW and {approximately} 1 kW, respectively, will result in the intensity of the {gamma}-source up to {approximately} 10{sup 14}s{sup -1} with tunable {gamma}-quanta energy from several MeV up to several hundreds MeV. Such a {gamma}-source will reveal unique possibilities for precision investigations in nuclear physics.

  4. Carbon dot/polyvinylpyrrolidone hybrid nanofibers with efficient solid-state photoluminescence constructed using an electrospinning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yue; Bai, Xue; Cui, Haining; Zhu, Jinyang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tianxiang; Dong, Biao; Pan, Gencai; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Song, Hongwei

    2018-01-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) are the promising candidates for application in optoelectronic and biological areas due to their excellent photostability, unique photoluminescence, good biocompatibility, low toxicity and chemical inertness. However, the self-quenching of photoluminescence as they are dried into the solid state dramatically limits their further application. Therefore, realizing efficient photoluminescence and large-scale production of CDs in the solid state is an urgent challenge. Herein, solid-state hybrid nanofibers based on CDs and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are constructed through an electrospinning process. The resulting solid-state hybrid PVP/CD nanofibers present much enhanced photoluminescence performance compared to the corresponding pristine colloidal CDs due to the decrease in non-radiative recombination of electron-holes. Owing to the suppressed self-quenching of CDs, the photoluminescence quantum yield is considerably improved from 42.9% of pristine CDs to 83.5% of nanofibers under the excitation wavelength of 360 nm. This has great application potential in optical or optoelectronic devices.

  5. ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE RESISTANCE OF RESIDENT MICROBES IN WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of constructed wetlands as a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment is becoming more prevalent. These systems are championed as combining many of the benefits of tertiary treatment while also providing high quality wetland habitat as...

  6. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  7. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  8. Application of fuzzy weight of evidence and data mining techniques in construction of flood susceptibility map of Poyang County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-01

    In China, floods are considered as the most frequent natural disaster responsible for severe economic losses and serious damages recorded in agriculture and urban infrastructure. Based on the international experience prevention of flood events may not be completely possible, however identifying susceptible and vulnerable areas through prediction models is considered as a more visible task with flood susceptibility mapping being an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies and disaster preparedness. In this context, the present study proposes a novel approach to construct a flood susceptibility map in the Poyang County, JiangXi Province, China by implementing fuzzy weight of evidence (fuzzy-WofE) and data mining methods. The novelty of the presented approach is the usage of fuzzy-WofE that had a twofold purpose. Firstly, to create an initial flood susceptibility map in order to identify non-flood areas and secondly to weight the importance of flood related variables which influence flooding. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented considering eleven flood related variables, namely: lithology, soil cover, elevation, slope angle, aspect, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, plan curvature, profile curvature and distance from river network. The efficiency of this new approach was evaluated using area under curve (AUC) which measured the prediction and success rates. According to the outcomes of the performed analysis, the fuzzy WofE-SVM model was the model with the highest predictive performance (AUC value, 0.9865) which also appeared to be statistical significant different from the other predictive models, fuzzy WofE-RF (AUC value, 0.9756) and fuzzy WofE-LR (AUC value, 0.9652). The proposed methodology and the produced flood susceptibility map could assist researchers and local governments in flood mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Liou, Ci-Hong; Lin, Jung-Chung; Ma, Ling; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Siu, L Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death) assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5) CFU) and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4) CFU) than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2) CFU). A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  10. Numerical modeling of time-dependent deformation and induced stresses in concrete pipes constructed in Queenston shale using micro-tunneling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Mohammed Salim Al-Maamori

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of time-dependent deformation (TDD on a tunnel constructed using the micro-tunneling technique in Queenston shale (QS are investigated employing the finite element method. The TDD and strength parameters of the QS were measured from tests conducted on QS specimens soaked in water and lubricant fluids (LFs used in micro-tunneling such as bentonite and polymer solutions. The numerical model was verified using the results of TDD tests performed on QS samples, field measurements of some documented projects, and the closed-form solutions to circular tunnels in swelling rock. The verified model was then employed to conduct a parametric study considering important micro-tunneling design parameters, such as depth and diameter of the tunnel, in situ stress ratio (Ko, and the time lapse prior to replacing LFs with permanent cement grout around the tunnel. It was revealed that the time lapse plays a vital role in controlling deformations and associated stresses developed in the tunnel lining. The critical case of a pipe or tunnel in which the maximum tensile stress develops at its springline occurs when it is constructed at shallow depths in the QS layer. The results of the parametric study were used to suggest recommendations for the construction of tunnels in QS employing micro-tunneling. Keywords: Numerical model, Micro-tunneling, Queenston shale (QS, Lubricant fluids (LFs

  11. The predicting ultimate of joint withdrawal resistance constructed of plywood with regression models application according to diameter and penetrating depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Maleki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to present regression models for predicting resistance of joints made with screw and plywood members. Joint members were out of hardwood plywood that were 19 mm in thickness. Two types of screws including coarse and fine thread drywall screw with 3.5, 4 and 5mm in diameter and sheet metal screw with 4 and 5mm were used. Results have shown that withdrawal resistance of screw was increased by increasing of screws, diameter and penetrating depth. Joints fabricated with coarse thread drywall screws were higher than those of fine thread drywall screws. Finally, average joint withdrawal resistance of screwed could be predicted by means of the expressions Wc=2.127×D1.072×P0.520 for coarse thread drywall screws and Wf=1.377×D1.156×P0.581 for fine thread drywall screws by taking account the diameter and penetrating depth. The difference of the observed and predicted data showed that developed models have a good correlation with actual experimental measurements.

  12. Social Resistances and the Creation of Another Way of Thinking in the Peripheral “Self-Constructed Popular Neighborhoods”: Examples from Mexico, Argentina, and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssanthi (Christy Petropoulou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to urban social movements, creative social resistances, and the collectives that are emerging today in “self-constructed popular neighborhoods” (“barrios de auto-construcción popular” in Latin-American, Spanish bibliography; “quartiers d’auto-construction populaire” in French bibliography and “self-help housing” in Anglophone bibliography, with a special focus on the new characteristics of these movements and the poetics of their daily practices. Firstly, a cartographic approach is explained through the concept of eco-landscapes; a qualitative analysis follows based on interviews and a review of the secondary literature. In particular, this research focuses on cases of movements and collectives in villas in South Greater Buenos Aires, barrios of Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, and barrios of El Alto in the Metropolitan Area of La Paz. It shows that the poetics of creative resistances question the symbolic power of territorial stigmatization.

  13. Interrupter technique in infancy: Higher airway resistance and lower short-term variability in preterm versus term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usemann, Jakob; Demann, Désirée; Anagnostopoulou, Pinelopi; Korten, Insa; Gorlanova, Olga; Schulzke, Sven; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    In preschool children, measurement of airway resistance using interrupter technique (Rint) is feasible to assess the degree of bronchial obstruction. Although some studies measured Rint in infancy, values of Rint and its variability in preterm infants are unknown. In this study, Rint and its variability was measured at infancy and compared between healthy term and preterm infants. High quality Rint measurements in term (n = 50) and preterm (n = 48) infants were obtained at postmenstrual age of 42-50 weeks in two study centers in Switzerland. Intra-measurement variability of Rint in one measurement and inter-measurement variability between two subsequent measurements was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV). Mean Rint in term infants was 4.2 ± (SD; 1.9) kPa · s · L -1 and in preterm infants was 5.6 ± (2.8) kPa · s · L -1 . Mean CV in term infants was 29.6 ± (14.9)% and in preterm infants was 20.2 ± (8.4)%. Rint was significantly lower (95%CI -2.31 to -0.38; P = 0.007) and CV significantly higher (95%CI 4.53-14.3; P preterm infants. There were no differences in mean Rint and mean CV between the first and the second measurement obtained in a subgroup of term (n = 24, 48%) and preterm (n = 22, 45%) infants. Our results suggest that differences in airway mechanics between term and preterm infants can be assessed with the interrupter technique during early infancy. Before clinical application of Rint measurements in this age group, reasons underlying the variability of measurements should be further investigated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chemical mutagenesis of Gluconobacter frateurii to construct methanol-resistant mutants showing glyceric acid production from methanol-containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Habe, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    To produce glyceric acid (GA) from methanol-containing glycerol, resistance to methanol of Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 was improved by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The obtained mutant Gf398 produced 6.3 g/L GA in 5% (v/v) methanol-containing 17% (w/v) glycerol medium, in which the wild-type strain neither grew nor produced GA. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Shenggang; Cao, Jingcan; Feng, Li; Liang, Wenyan; Zhang, Liqiu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012

  16. Relevant insight of surface characterization techniques to study covalent grafting of a biopolymer to titanium implant and its acidic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Mélanie; Amalric, Julien; Brunon, Céline; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Toury, Bérangère

    2015-02-01

    Peri-implant bacterial infections are the main cause of complications in dentistry. Our group has previously proposed the attachment of chitosan on titanium implants via a covalent bond to improve its antibacterial properties while maintaining its biocompatibility. A better knowledge of the coating preparation process allows a better understanding of the bioactive coating in biological conditions. In this work, several relevant characterization techniques were used to assess an implant device during its production phase and its resistance in natural media at different pH. The titanium surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by grafting of an organic coupling agent; succinic anhydride, able to form two covalent links, with the substrate through a Ti-O-Si bond and the biopolymer through a peptide bond. Each step of the coating synthesis as well as the presence confirmation of the biopolymer on titanium after saliva immersion was followed by FTIR-ATR, SEM, EDS, 3D profilometry, XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses. Results allowed to highlight the efficiency of each step of the process, and to propose a mechanism occurring during the chitosan coating degradation in saliva media at pH 5 and at pH 3.

  17. Evaluating the use of electrical resistivity imaging technique for improving CH4 and CO2 emission rate estimations in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgaki, I.; Soupios, P.; Sakkas, N.; Ververidis, F.; Trantas, E.; Vallianatos, F.; Manios, T.

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the estimation of surface gas emissions in landfill, we evaluated a combination of geophysical and greenhouse gas measurement methodologies. Based on fifteen 2D electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs), longitudinal cross section images of the buried waste layers were developed, identifying place and cross section size of organic waste (OW), organic waste saturated in leachates (SOW), low organic and non-organic waste. CH 4 and CO 2 emission measurements were then conducted using the static chamber technique at 5 surface points along two tomographies: (a) across a high-emitting area, ERT no. 2, where different amounts of relatively fresh OW and SOW were detected, and (b) across the oldest (at least eight years) cell in the landfill, ERT no. 6, with significant amounts of OW. Where the highest emission rates were recorded, they were strongly affected by the thickness of the OW and SOW fraction underneath each gas sampling point. The main reason for lower than expected values was the age of the layered buried waste. Lower than predicted emissions were also attributed to soil condition, which was the case at sampling points with surface ponding, i.e. surface accumulation of leachate (or precipitated water)

  18. Comparison of the techniques for the identification of the epidural space using the loss-of-resistance technique or an automated syringe - results of a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniec, Larysa; Nowakowski, Piotr; Sieczko, Jakub; Chlebus, Marcin; Łazowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The conventional, loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space is highly dependent on the anaesthetist's personal experience and is susceptible to technical errors. Therefore, an alternative, automated technique was devised to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional method. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of epidural space identification and the complication rate between the two groups - the automatic syringe and conventional loss of resistance methods. 47 patients scheduled for orthopaedic and gynaecology procedures under epidural anaesthesia were enrolled into the study. The number of attempts, ease of epidural space identification, complication rate and the patients' acceptance regarding the two techniques were evaluated. The majority of blocks were performed by trainee anaesthetists (91.5%). No statistical difference was found between the number of needle insertion attempts (1 vs. 2), the efficacy of epidural anaesthesia or the number of complications between the groups. The ease of epidural space identification, as assessed by an anaesthetist, was significantly better (P = 0.011) in the automated group (87.5% vs. 52.4%). A similar number of patients (92% vs. 94%) in both groups stated they would accept epidural anaesthesia in the future. The automated and loss of resistance methods of epidural space identification were proved to be equivalent in terms of efficacy and safety. Since the use of the automated technique may facilitate epidural space identification, it may be regarded as useful technique for anaesthetists inexperienced in epidural anaesthesia, or for trainees.

  19. Transfection of a retroviral construct carrying a non producer HIV-1 variant induces HIV-1 resistance in CD4+ CEMss cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, M; Taddeo, B; Nappi, F; Nicolini, A; Rossi, G B; Verani, P

    1993-01-01

    The phenotype of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV)-infected HUT-78 cell clone (F12) has been described (Federico et al, AIDS Res Hum Retrov 1989; 5: 365-96). Briefly, F12 cells are: i) CD4 down-regulated, ii) non producer and iii) fully resistant to homologous superinfection. We tested whether this phenotype was dependent upon the expression of the HIV-1 genome integrated therein. The SstI/SstI F12 provirus was cloned and inserted in the pLj retroviral vector bearing the neomycin (neo)-Geneticine resistance gene. CD4+ HIV-susceptible CEMss cells were transfected with this construct in the sense orientation. Neo-resistant clones exhibited an integrated viral DNA, low viral mRNA expression and (as in F12 cells) the presence of uncleaved gp160, no gp41 and a small amount of p55 gag precursor. Superinfection of the F12/HIV-DNA-transfected CEMss clones showed that these CD4+ cells had acquired a significant (0.7-1.5 logs) resistance towards superinfection with HIV-1. This was observed in all four transfected clones where the F12/HIV DNA was expressed, but not in the control clone that was transfected with the pLj vector alone. These results confirm those that were obtained with human CD4+ CEMss cells infected with a recombinant retrovirus bearing the same SstI/SstI F12/HIV genome (Federico et al, J Gen Virol, 1993, in press). Both sets of results indicate that the expression of this genome in bio-engineered CD4+ human cells results in their intracellular immunization against HIV-1.

  20. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the ``New Small Wheel'' the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200\\,m$^2$ of detection plane. In order to achieve 15\\,\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30\\,\\textmu m along the precision coordinate and 80\\,\\textmu m perpendicular...

  1. [Experimental study on phenotypic conversion of clinical chloromycetin-resistant strains of E. coli to drug-sensitive strains by using EGS technique in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei-ying; Chen, Ru; Liu, Shou-gui; Feng, Jiang-nan

    2004-08-02

    To explore the possibility of phenotypic conversion of clinical chloromycetin (Cm)-resistant isolates of E.coli to drug-sensitive ones with external guide sequences (EGS) in vitro. Recombinant EGS plasmids directed against Cm acetyl transferase (cat) and containing kanamycin (Km) drug-resistance gene and control plasmids only containing kanamycin-resistance gene without EGS were constructed. By using CaCl(2) method, the recombinant plasmids were introduced into the clinically isolated Cm-resistant E.coli strains. Extraction of plasmids and PCR were applied to identify the EGS positive clones; The growth rate in liquid broth culture of Cm-resistant bacteria after EGS containing plasmid transformation was determined by spectrophotometer A(600). Drug sensitivity was tested in solid culture by using KB method. Transformation studies were carried out on 16 clinically isolated Cm-resistant E.coli strains with pEGFP-C1-EGS + cat1 + cat2 recombinant plasmid. Transformants were screened on LB-agar plates containing Km after transformation using EGS. In 4 tested strains of them, transformants with specific EGS plasmid showed growth inhibition when grown in liquid broth culture containing 100 approximately 200 micro g/ml of Cm. They were sensitive to Cm on LB-agar plates containing 100 approximately 200 micro g/ml of Cm in drug-sensitivity test. Extraction of plasmids showed the existence of EGS bands. PCR amplified products of EGS. The above facts indicated that the 4 strains out of the 16 clinical isolates had been converted to drug-sensitive phenotype, and Cm-resistant clinically isolated E. coli resumed sensitivity to Cm. EGS has the capability of converting the phenotype of clinical drug-resistant isolates to drug sensitivity.

  2. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the increased background induced hit rate of up to ~15 kHz/cm$^2$ in the innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the currently used precision detectors will be replaced by resistive strip Micromegas in 2019. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in two times four detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes.The Micromegas quadruplets will consist of 5 panels, 3 drift panels and 2 readout panels, made of aluminum honeycomb core sandwiched by printed circuit boards (PCBs). To achieve 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons and thus a spatial resolution in a single plane of about 100 $\\mu$m, each active plane has to have an accuracy of 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the plane and the alignment of the readout strips on the individual PCBs and particularly the alignment within a quadruplet must fulfill a challenging precision of 30 $\\mu$m. The required mechanical p...

  3. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuo Tsai

    Full Text Available The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5 CFU and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4 CFU than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2 CFU. A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P < 0.01 in an in vitro growth competition experiment. In summary, most of the K. pneumoniae strains with streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  4. Study of 1D complex resistivity inversion using digital linear filter technique; Linear filter ho wo mochiita fukusohi teiko no gyakukaisekiho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, K.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper proposes a modeling method of one-dimensional complex resistivity using linear filter technique which has been extended to the complex resistivity. In addition, a numerical test of inversion was conducted using the monitoring results, to discuss the measured frequency band. Linear filter technique is a method by which theoretical potential can be calculated for stratified structures, and it is widely used for the one-dimensional analysis of dc electrical exploration. The modeling can be carried out only using values of complex resistivity without using values of potential. In this study, a bipolar method was employed as a configuration of electrodes. The numerical test of one-dimensional complex resistivity inversion was conducted using the formulated modeling. A three-layered structure model was used as a numerical model. A multi-layer structure with a thickness of 5 m was analyzed on the basis of apparent complex resistivity calculated from the model. From the results of numerical test, it was found that both the chargeability and the time constant agreed well with those of the original model. A trade-off was observed between the chargeability and the time constant at the stage of convergence. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Constructing a novel strategy for controllable synthesis of corrosion resistant Ti3+self-doped titanium-silicon materials with efficient hydrogen evolution activity from simulated seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Zhang, Piyong; Wang, Tingting; Ali, Atif; Zeng, Heping

    2018-02-01

    Exploiting solar power for hydrogen production from seawater is a great challenge owing to the corrosive properties of seawater and inadequate visible-light conversion capabilities. Here we report an uncomplicated post-processing method to construct Ti 3+ self-doped titanium-silicon material with corrosion resistance. This is a new experimental method to regulate the electrical, optical, and photocatalytic performances of titanium-containing photocatalysts in a controlled way. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ti-O-Si materials with different calcination temperatures can serve as a highly efficient and convenient catalyst for photogeneration of hydrogen from water and simulated seawater. Consequently, the optimized Ti-O-Si (400) sample exhibits impressive enhancement in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance, by nearly 10.0 and 43.1 times compared with TiO 2 nanoparticles in water and simulated seawater. The Ti-O-Si (400) with substantial Ti 3+ and oxygen vacancies exhibits an excellent photocatalytic H 2 production performance due to the improved separation and transmission of the photogenerated electron-hole, the extended visible light response, and corrosion resistance. Our work opens a new door to engineering the intrinsic properties of the titanium-containing materials.

  6. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  7. [Construction and analysis of the SSH library with the resistant wheat near-isogenic line and its susceptible parent infected by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Niu, Yong-Chun

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the differentially expressed genes between resistant and susceptible wheat near-isogenic lines infected by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici, a subtractive library containing about 1300 clones was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in which the cDNA from resistant Yr4/6 × Taichung 29 seedlings inoculated with race CY26 was used as the tester, and the corresponding cDNA from susceptible Taichung 29 as the driver. Six hundred clones from the library were analyzed with reverse Northern blot. The positive clones were further tested by Northern blotting analysis. Twelve clones were verified and showed significant difference. By means of sequencing and BlastX analysis, six function-known differentially expressed sequences were detected, and their putative products were leucine-rich repeat protein, catalase, thioredoxin H-type, RNA binding protein, ascorbate peroxidase, and heat shock protein, respectively. Among them, leucine-rich repeat protein belongs to signal transduction protein, and others belong to defense response protein.

  8. Why 1D electrical resistivity techniques can result in inaccurate siting of boreholes in hard rock aquifers and why electrical resistivity tomography must be preferred: the example of Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alle, Iboukoun Christian; Descloitres, Marc; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Yalo, Nicaise; Lawson, Fabrice Messan Amen; Adihou, Akonfa Consolas

    2018-03-01

    Hard rock aquifers are of particular importance for supplying people with drinking water in Africa and in the world. Although the common use of one-dimensional (1D) electrical resistivity techniques to locate drilling site, the failure rate of boreholes is usually high. For instance, about 40% of boreholes drilled in hard rock aquifers in Benin are unsuccessful. This study investigates why the current use of 1D techniques (e.g. electrical profiling and electrical sounding) can result in inaccurate siting of boreholes, and checks the interest and the limitations of the use of two-dimensional (2D) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Geophysical numerical modeling and comprehensive 1D and 2D resistivity surveys were carried out in hard rock aquifers in Benin. The experiments carried out at 7 sites located in different hard rock groups confirmed the results of the numerical modeling: the current use of 1D techniques can frequently leads to inaccurate siting, and ERT better reveals hydrogeological targets such as thick weathered zone (e.g. stratiform fractured layer and preferential weathering associated with subvertical fractured zone). Moreover, a cost analysis demonstrates that the use of ERT can save money at the scale of a drilling programme if ERT improves the success rate by only 5% as compared to the success rate obtained with 1D techniques. Finally, this study demonstrates, using the example of Benin, that the use of electrical resistivity profiling and sounding for siting boreholes in weathered hard rocks of western Africa should be discarded and replaced by the use of ERT technique, more efficient.

  9. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  10. Tools and techniques for schedule's controlling: tracking system and control of Urucu-Manaus gas-pipeline construction, stretch B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuany, Valdenise Marques; Dias, Jose Luiz Gomes [CONCREMAT Engenharia e Tecnologia S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The goal is to show the monitoring systems and deadline control, using the PMBOK{sup R} project management tools, in the Construction and Assembly of the Coari-Manaus Gas-pipeline, stretch B1, which includes the cities of Coari, Codajas, Anori and Anama, in the state of Amazon, in the Northern Undertaking Implementation (IENOR), an Engineering division of the PETROBRAS System. This report presents the practical effects of the usage of three schedule control tools of the project: Performance Measurement, using the technique of the Earned Value Management (EVM), which integrates cost, schedule and physical progress of the enterprise to determine the variations of schedule and performance; Project Management Software, MSProject, which allows schedule's elaboration and makes the tracking of the planned dates possible (baseline) in relation to real dates and forecasts the trend level, the effects of changes in the project's schedule, demonstrating its utility as a schedule control tool; and Schedule Variance Analysis, which adopts practical data to reach the pessimistic, most likely and optimistic expectations. The implantation of these tools was based in the Work Breakdown Structure of the enterprise. The application of these three tools in the tracking and control of the enterprise demonstrates that, the use of information and techniques deriving from the planning and control can be an important support for project management and decision taking, comparing the results gotten in the implantation of the plan with its actual realization, defining, thus, the necessary corrective actions, generating learned lessons to use in future projects. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the effect of different root canal obturation techniques using two root canal sealers on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ibrahim; Evcil, Mehmet Sinan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of teeth filled with AH Plus and MTA Fillapex root canal sealers by using different root canal obturation techniques. One hundred and twenty pieces of single-rooted-and-canalled mandibular premolar teeth were selected. After the crowns were removed from the cemento-enamel junction, they were divided into 10 groups (n = 12). All the root canals except for the Group 1 were shaped until F4 file with ProTaper Nickel- Titanyum (Ni-Ti) rotary system. Group 1: was not instrumented. Group 2: the root canals were shaped but not filled. Group 3: roots were filled with cold lateral condensation technique (CLC) by using AH Plus. Group 4: roots were filled with CLC by using MTA Fillapex. Group 5: roots were filled with single cone technique by using AH Plus. Group 6: roots were filled with single cone technique by using MTA Fillapex. Group 7: roots were filled with AH Plus by using vertical compaction method with continuous heat. Group 8: roots were filled with MTA Fillapex by using vertical compaction method with continuous heat. Group 9: roots were filled with AH Plus by using thermoplastic core carrier method. Group 10: roots were filled with MTA Fillapex by using thermoplastic core carrier method. Before embedding the samples in acrylic resin after standing in an oven at 37°C for 2 weeks for the hardening of the root canal sealers the 5 mm apical portion of the roots were immersed in wax in order to imitate the surrounding tissues. Polyvinyl siloxane impression material was used for the samples which were embedded in acrylic resin in a way that the coronal 8 mm remained outside in order to imitate the periodontal ligament. Lateral force was applied to the samples with 1 mm/min speed in the Universal Tester. The maximum force values (F-max) which cause fractures in the examples were determined and the results were subjected to statistical evaluation by using one-way Anova and Tukey HSD tests with the

  12. Identification of genes involved in stem rust resistance from wheat mutant D51 with the cDNA-AFLP technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Wang, Guangjin; Xiao, Jialei; Ma, Fengming; Zhang, Hongji; Sun, Yan; Diao, Yanling; Huang, Jinghua; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Dongjun

    2010-02-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the main diseases of wheat worldwide. Wheat mutant line D51, which was derived from the highly susceptible cultivar L6239, shows resistance to the prevailing races 21C3CPH, 21C3CKH, and 21C3CTR of P. graminis f. sp. tritici in China. In this study, we used the cDNA-AFLP technology to identify the genes that are likely involved in the stem rust resistance. EcoRI/MseI selective primers were used to generate approximately 1920 DNA fragments. Seventy five differentially transcribed fragments (3.91%) were identified by comparing the samples of 21C3CPH infected D51 with infected L6239 or uninfected D51. Eleven amplified cDNA fragments were sequenced. Eight showed significant similarity to known genes, including TaLr1 (leaf rust resistance gene), wlm24 (wheat powdery mildew resistance gene), stress response genes and ESTs of environment stress of tall fescue. These identified genes are involved in plant defense response and stem rust resistance and need further research to determine their usefulness in breeding new resistance cultivars.

  13. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  14. Construction and quality assurance of large area resistive strip Micromegas for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, P.

    2017-06-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019/2020 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200 m2 of detection plane. In order to achieve 15 % transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30 μm RMS along the precision coordinate and 80 μm RMS perpendicular to the plane. Each individual Micromegas plane must achieve a spatial resolution better than 100 μm at background rates up to 15 kHz/cm2 while being operated in an inhomogeneous magnetic field (B <= 0.3 T). The required mechanical precision for the production of the components and their assembly, on such large area detectors, is a key point and must be controlled during construction and integration. Particularly the alignment of the readout strips within a quadruplet appears to be demanding. The readout strips are etched on PCB boards using photolithographic processes. Depending on the type of the module, 3 or 5 PCB boards need to be joined and precisely aligned to form a full readout plane. The precision in the alignment is reached either by use of precision mechanical holes or by optical masks, both referenced to the strip patterns. Assembly procedures have been developed to build the single panels with the required mechanical precision and to assemble them in a

  15. Suction/Inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver : a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M; Wälti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; von Weymarn, Constantin; Czell, David; Goyen, Matthias; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. • Suction/Inspiration against resistance is promising to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery. • Patients potentially suffering pulmonary embolism are able to follow suction/inspiration against resistance. • Contrast density after suction is superior in comparison to other breathing maneuvers.

  16. Voronoi polygons and self-consistent technique used to compute the airflow resistivity of randomly placed fibers in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    2002-01-01

    harmonic waves at low frequencies, the effective mass density is determined by the friction between air and fibers. The friction is described by the airflow resistivity, which depends on frequency, but for frequencies below 1000 Hz in glass wool with density 15–30 kg/m3, the resistivity to airflow......Sound in glass wool propagates mainly in the air between glass fibers. For sound waves considered here, the distance between fibers is much smaller than the wavelength. Therefore, the sound velocity and attenuation can be computed from an effective mass density and compressibility. For simple...... is constant, and equal to the constant current value. A computation of resistivity from fiber density and diameter will be presented for a model of glass wool that consists of parallel randomly placed fibers with equal diameters. The computation is based on Voronoi polygons, and the results will be compared...

  17. A Technique to Estimate the Equivalent Loss Resistance of Grid-Tied Converters for Current Control Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo

    2015-01-01

    by means of an equivalent series resistance. This paper proposes a method to identify the VSC equivalent loss resistance for the proper tuning of the current control loop. It is based on analysis of the closed-loop transient response provided by a synchronous proportional-integral current controller......, according to the internal model principle. The method gives a set of loss resistance values linked to working conditions, which can be used to improve the tuning of the current controllers, either by online adaptation of the controller gains or by open-loop adaptive adjustment of them according to prestored......Rigorous analysis and design of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs) requires an accurate modeling. The loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions. To consider such effect, converter losses should be included in the model, which can be done...

  18. Solar photocatalysis as disinfection technique: Inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae in sewage and investigation of changes in antibiotic resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieri, Danae; Gounaki, Iosifina; Bikouvaraki, Maria; Binas, Vassilios; Zachopoulos, Apostolos; Kiriakidis, George; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2017-06-15

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater and their resistant nature to antibiotics impose effective disinfection treatment for public health and environmental protection. In this work, photocatalysis with metal-doped titania under artificial and natural sunlight, chlorination and UV-C irradiation were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Klebsiella pneumoniae in real wastewater. Their overall effect on antibiotic resistance profile and target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also investigated. In particular, Mn-, Co- and binary Mn/Co-TiO 2 were tested resulting in bacterial decrease from 4 to 6 Logs upon 90 min of exposure to simulated solar irradiation. The response of catalysts under natural solar light was insufficient, as only a 2 Log reduction was recorded even after 60 min of treatment. The relative activity of the applied methods for K. pneumoniae inactivation was decreased in the order: photocatalysis with the binary Co/Mn-TiO 2 under artificial light > chlorination with dose of 5 mg/L of free chlorine > UV-C irradiation, at an initial bacterial concentration of 10 7  CFU/mL. The applied methods showed various effects on antibiotic resistance profile in residual cells. Among the tested antibiotics (ampicillin, cefaclor, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline), considerable changes in MIC values were recorded for cefaclor and tetracycline. Resistance of surviving cells after treatment remained in high levels, reflecting the abundance of the corresponding target ARGs, namely tetA, tetM, sul1, blaTEM and ampC. The notable presence of target ARGs post disinfection raises concerns and makes wastewater effluent a carrier of antibiotic resistance elements into the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of cDNA expression library of watermelon for isolation of ClWRKY1 transcription factors gene involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Yan; Huo, Xiu-Ai; Li, Peng-Fei; Wang, Cui-Xia; Duan, Hui-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Full-length cDNAs are very important for genome annotation and functional analysis of genes. The number of full-length cDNAs from watermelon remains limited. Here we report first the construction of a full-length enriched cDNA library from Fusarium wilt stressed watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar PI296341 root tissues using the SMART method. The titer of primary cDNA library and amplified library was 2.21 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(10) pfu/ml, respectively and the rate of recombinant was above 85%. The size of insert fragment ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 kb. In this study, we first cloned a gene named ClWRKY1, which was 1981 bp long and encoded a protein consisting of 394 amino acids. It contained two characteristic WRKY domains and two zinc finger motifs. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that ClWRKY1 expression levels reached maximum level at 12 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The full-length cDNA library of watermelon root tissues is not only essential for the cloning of genes which are known, but also an initial key for the screening and cloning of new genes that might be involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.

  20. Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S. Mesbah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES's were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES's showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form, are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  1. Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Hany S.; Morsy, Essam A.; Soliman, Mamdouh M.; Kabeel, Khamis

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow) of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s) for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES's were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES's showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form), are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  2. The acute effect of neuromuscular activation in resistance exercise on human skeletal muscle with the interpolated twitch technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Yeon; Yoon, Wan-Young

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to perform a quantitative assessment of neuromechanical adaptation in skeletal muscles and to propose the scientific underpinnings of the acute effects induced by resistance exercise. [Subjects] The subjects in this study were 11 healthy adult men in their 20s who had no orthopedic history at the time of the study. To examine any signs of resistance exercise-induced changes in the ankle plantar flexor, the subjects were directed to perform a standing barbell calf raise routine. [Methods] Subjects were to carry a load equal to their weights and to perform five sets of ten repetitions. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, resting twitch torque, muscle inhibition, root mean square of muscular activation, contraction time, and half relaxation time were analyzed by synchronizing a dynamometer, an electrical stimulator, and an electromyography system. [Results] The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque appeared to decline, but the change was not statistically significant. The decline of resting twitch torque, on the other hand, was found to be statistically significant. Muscle inhibition and root mean square of muscular activation were both reduced, but both changes were not statistically significant. Lastly, contraction time and half relaxation time both statistically decreased significantly after resistance exercise. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the acute effects of resistance exercise have a greater impact on the peripheral mechanical system itself, rather than on neurological factors, in terms of the generation of muscle force.

  3. FORCED OSCILLATION TECHNIQUE - REFERENCE VALUES FOR TOTAL RESPIRATORY RESISTANCE OBTAINED WITH THE SIEMENS SIREGNOST-FD5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; VANDERWEELE, LT; KOETER, GH; VANALTENA, R

    Total respiratory resistance (Rrs) was measured by the application of a sine wave of airflow to the mouth at an oscillation frequency of 10 Hz. The instrument used was the Siemens Siregnost FD5. The Rrs data were correlated with height, age, sex, and weight in 73 patients and 29 healthy subjects.

  4. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias; Waelti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E.; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; Czell, David; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  5. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias [Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Roos, Justus E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Czell, David [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Neurology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Reischauer, Carolin [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  6. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin does not correlate with insulin resistance as assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Katsuhito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested a critical role of osteocalcin (OC, especially the undercarboxylated form (ucOC, in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum ucOC levels and insulin resistance in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings We measured serum ucOC levels in 129 patients with type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance was assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. The insulin resistance indices used were the M value, which is the total body glucose disposal rate, and the M/I value, which is the M value adjusted for the steady state plasma insulin level. ucOC levels were not correlated with the M value (ρ = −0.013, p = 0.886 or the M/I value (ρ = 0.001, p = 0.995. Conclusions We found no association between ucOC levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Researches about selecting resistant melon types to fusarium oxyporum f. sp.melonis race 1,2 by using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM), which is very detrimental to muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). Fusarium wilt of melon is prevalent in temperate and tropical regions and causes a worldwide problem. FOM can survive in the soil for extended periods of time as chlamydospores, and is capable of colonizing crop residues and roots of most crops grown in rotation with melon. The only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Four races of FOM have been identified, namely 0, 1, 2 and 1.2. Race 1.2 was further subdivided into race 1.2y and 1.2w, which cause yellowing and wilt symptoms, respectively. Two resistance genes (Fom-1 and Fom-2) have been identified in melons. Fom-1 confers resistance to FOM races 0 and 2, and Fom-2 confers resistance to races 0 and 1. These two genes are extensively used in breeding programmes, which can be assisted by marker assisted selection using markers linked to these resistance genes. No genes have been identified that confer resistance to race 1.2. However, polygenic recessive genes have been found to confer resistance to race 1.2 in Piboule genotypes. Melon production in Turkey is 1,700,000 tons and it is declining the year after year because of Fusarium wilt. Therefore, Fusarium wilt has a high economic importance in the cultivation of muskmelon in Turkey. In some parts of Turkey the prevalent races of this pathogen were determined. FOM has caused severe losses for farmers as our native cultivars are not resistant to this disease. It is believed our native cultivars will disappear if resistance to FOM is not introduced into the cultivated material. For this reason, many scientists in Turkey are focusing on research to develop new resistant cultivars via conventional and biotechnological breeding methods. In vitro techniques became widely spread during the 20th century, and their potential to make important contributions to plant

  8. An improved technique for isolation of environmental Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential: monitoring the emergence of a multiple-antibiotic-resistant epidemic strain in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Shah M; Islam, M Johirul; Ahmad, Qazi Shafi; Biswas, Kuntal; Faruque, A S G; Nair, G Balakrish; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David A; Mekalanos, John J

    2006-04-01

    Predicting cholera epidemics through monitoring the environment for the presence of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae is complicated by the presence in water of a large number of mostly nonpathogenic V. cholerae strains. V. cholerae strains causing recent cholera epidemics in Bangladesh carry the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) element, which encodes resistance to several antibiotics. Here, we show that the use of a culture medium containing streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim (the antibiotic selection technique [AST]) can significantly enhance the isolation of environmental V. cholerae O1 with epidemic potential (Pantibiotic-resistant strain of V. cholerae in Bangladesh. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pre-epidemic amplification of pathogenic V. cholerae occurs in the human host and leads to the start of an epidemic cycle dominated by a single clone of V. cholerae that spreads rapidly through environmental waters.

  9. Determining the fracture resistance of fibre-reinforced glass matrix composites by means of the chevron-notch flexural technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Kern, H.; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 308, 1/2 (2001), s. 111-117 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV101/96/K264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : glass matrix composites * fracture toughness * chevron notch test Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2001

  10. Development and use of computational techniques in Army Aviation research and development programs for crash resistant helicopter technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Leroy T.

    1993-08-01

    During the 1960's over 30 full-scale aircraft crash tests were conducted by the Flight Safety Foundation under contract to the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) of the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM). The purpose of these tests were to conduct crash injury investigations that would provide a basis for the formulation of sound crash resistance design criteria for light fixed-wing and rotary wing aircraft. This resulted in the Crash Survival Design Criteria Designer's Guide which was first published in 1967 and has been revised numerous times, the last being in 1989. Full-scale aircraft crash testing is an expensive way to investigate structural deformations of occupied spaces and to determine the decelerative loadings experienced by occupants in a crash. This gave initial impetus to the U.S. Army to develop analytical methods to predict the dynamic response of aircraft structures in a crash. It was believed that such analytical tools could be very useful in the preliminary design stage of a new helicopter system which is required to demonstrate a level of crash resistance and had to be more cost effective than full-scale crash tests or numerous component design support tests. From an economic point of view, it is more efficient to optimize for the incorporation of crash resistance features early in the design stage. However, during preliminary design it is doubtful if sufficient design details, which influence the exact plastic deformation shape of structural elements, will be available. The availability of simple procedures to predict energy absorption and load-deformation characteristics will allow the designer to initiate valuable cost, weight, and geometry tradeoff studies. The development of these procedures will require some testing of typical specimens. This testing should, as a minimum, verify the validity of proposed procedures for providing pertinent nonlinear load-deformation data. It was hoped that through the use of these

  11. 1D resistivity inversion technique in the mapping of igneous intrusives; A step to sustainable quarry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Nwachukwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of trial pits as a first step in quarry site development causes land degradation and results in more failure than success for potential quarry investors in some parts of the world. In this paper, resistivity, depth and distance values derived from 26 Vertical Electric Soundings (VES and 2 profiling inversion sections were successfully used to evaluate a quarry site prior to development. The target rock Diabase (Dolerite was observed and it had a resistivity range of 3.0 × 104 –7. 8 × 106 Ω-m, and was clearly distinguishable from associated rocks with its bright red color code on the AGI 1D inversion software. This target rock was overlain by quartzite, indurate shale and mudstone as overburden materials. The quartzite, with its off-red colour, has a resistivity range of 2.0 × 103–2.9 × 105 Ω-m, while the indurate shale, with a yellowish-brown colour, showed resistivity values ranging from 6.1 × 102 – 2.8 × 105 Ω-m. Topsoil was clayey, with a resistivity range from 8 – 8.6 × 102u Ω-m and depths of 0.3–1.8 m, often weathered and replaced by associated rocks outcrops. The diabase rock, in the three prospective pits mapped, showed thicknesses of between 40 and 76 m across the site. The prospective pits were identified to accommodate an estimated 2,569,450 tonnes of diabase with an average quarry pit depth of 50 m. This figure was justified by physical observations made at a nearby quarry pit and from test holes. Communities were able to prepare a geophysical appraisal of the intrusive body in their domain for economic planning and sustainability of the natural resource.

  12. QUESTÃO SOCIAL HOJE : A RESISTÊNCIA UM ELEMENTO EM CONSTRUÇÃO (THE SOCIAL QUESTION TODAY: THE RESISTENCE AS EM ELEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria Schons

    2007-01-01

    . The social question, basically composed of the economic and political elements, now may by manifested as pauperism. That one that perceives it taking consciousness and denouncing it, demanding another attendance, becomes the element of resistance, capable to inscribe this problem in the political agenda.I understand that in the social question today this element of the resistance is in construction. To arrive to this we point out what in the past was called “the classic social question” (XIX th. Century, from the resultant pauperism of the industrial revolution. We consider pauperism as “the son of industrialization”. Considering the political elements itis expressed in the organization and formation of the labor class, their unions, the left political parties, assuming the protagonism of the social question. To point out the social question today we have to detect the contradictions wich are revealed from the reorganization of the production, since the end of the last century and the beginning of the present, affirmed in the version of the “mundialização financeira”. It makes flexible and turns unsafe the work relations causing a structural unemployment, because “unloked” of the work weaken the “steady ones even though”.In the social question today there are, therefore, new manifestations of poverty, from the productive reorganization, but the actors and citizens to denounce this situation and to define a more favorable project, is an element still in construction.

  13. In vitro evaluation of fracture resistance of teeth restored with ceramic inlays by two undercut elimination techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzayi M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Polymerization shrinkage of resin cements during setting leads to stress on teeth receiving indirect esthetic restorations. Some methods like blocking out undercuts during cavity preparation with glass Ionomer can reduce the mass of resin cement and therefore the amount of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of molar teeth, receiving class I ceramic inlays with two different methods of blocking out undercut. "nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty intact molar teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 10 each. One group was maintained intact as the control group. Similar class I cavities with identical undercuts were prepared on the other groups. In group 2 the undercut was filled with light cured glass Ionomer (vitremer 3M before making impression, and in group 3 they were blocked out in the lab before preparation of the inlay. All the teeth in test groups were restored with indirect ceramic inlays.(vitadur - Alpha/ single bond / Rely X ARC. After thermocycling load causing fracture was assessed by universal testing machine. All the specimens were examined under a steriomicroscope (X40 to determine type of fracture. The results were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. P< 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. "nResults: The restored groups showed significantly less fracture resistance than the control group. The difference between two test groups was not significant. The fracture in group2 had less destruction. "nConclusion: According to the findings of this study, blocking out the undercut with two different methods (using glass ionomer/ or blocking it out on the die made no diferrence in fracture resistance.

  14. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.)

  15. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko [Japan Radioisotope Association, Shiga (Japan). Koka Laboratory

    1994-12-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.).

  16. Multivariate mixed linear model analysis of longitudinal data: an information-rich statistical technique for analyzing disease resistance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mixed linear model (MLM) is currently among the most advanced and flexible statistical modeling techniques and its use in tackling problems in plant pathology has begun surfacing in the literature. The longitudinal MLM is a multivariate extension that handles repeatedly measured data, such as r...

  17. Fracture resistance of cuspal coverage of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with combined composite-amalgam compared to other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, F; Memarpour, M; Karimi, F

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the fracture resistance of teeth restored with combined composite-amalgam for cuspal coverage compared to direct coverage with composite (with or without an amalgam base) and composite onlay. Seventy-two intact maxillary premolars were randomly divided into six groups (n=12). The two control groups were G1, intact teeth (negative control), and G2, mesio-occlusodistal preparation only (positive control). Each of the four experimental groups used a different type of restoration for the prepared teeth: G3, direct composite cusp coverage; G4, composite onlay; G5, direct composite coverage with an amalgam base; and G6, combined composite-amalgam cuspal coverage. After thermocycling, fracture strength was tested. The data were analyzed with analysis of variance and the least significant differences post hoc tests (α=0.05). Mean fracture resistance in the six groups (in N) were G1, 1101 ±1 86; G2, 228 ± 38; G2, 699 ± 161; G4, 953 ± 185; G5, 859 ± 146; and G6, 772 ± 154. There were significant differences between G1 and all the other groups except for G4 and between G2 and all the other groups. Fracture strength in G3 also differed significantly compared to G4 and G5. The difference between G4 and G6 was statistically significant (p0.05).

  18. The effect of various backfilling techniques on the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth performed apical plug with Biodentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Kesim, Bertan; Düzgün, Salih; Tuncay, Öznur; Demirbuga, Sezer; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth that had been backfilled using different materials after using Biodentine as the apical plug material. Seventy-five single-rooted teeth were divided into five groups (n = 15). The 15 teeth in group 1 served as a negative control group and received no treatment. The remaining 60 teeth were instrumented to a #6 Peeso reamer to obtain a standard internal diameter of 1.5 mm. The apical 4 mm of 60 teeth was filled with Biodentine. The backfilling was then performed on each group as follows: group 2--no backfilling (positive control), group 3--gutta-percha, group 4--fiber post, and group 5--Biodentine. Specimens were then subjected to fracture testing. The force required to fracture each specimen was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The mean fracture values of groups 1 and 4 were significantly higher than groups 2, 3, and 5 (P Biodentine plug provided the highest fracture resistance among all experimental groups. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. APPLICATION OF METAL RESISTANT BACTERIA BY MUTATIONAL ENHANCMENT TECHNIQUE FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF COPPER AND ZINC FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Shakibaie ، A. Khosravan ، A. Frahmand ، S. Zare

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, using mutation in the metal resistant bacteria, the bioremediation of the copper and zinc from copper factory effluents was investigated. Wastewater effluents from flocculation and rolling mill sections of a factory in the city of Kerman were collected and used for further experiments. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from soil and effluents surrounding factory and identified by microbiological methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn were determined by agar dilution method. Those strains that exhibited highest minimum inhibitory concentrations values to the metals (5mM were subjected to 400-3200 mg/L concentrations of the three mutagenic agents, acriflavine, acridine orange and ethidium bromide. After determination of subinhibitory concentrations, the minimum inhibitory concentrations values for copper and zinc metal ions were again determined, which showed more than 10 fold increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations value (10 mM for Cu and 20 mM for Zn with P≤0.05. The atomic absorption spectroscopy of dried biomass obtained from resistant strains after exposure to mutagenic agents revealed that strains 13 accumulate the highest amount of intracellular copper (0.35% Cu/mg dried biomass and strain 10 showed highest accumulation of zinc (0.3% Zn/mg dried biomass respectively with P≤0.05. From above results it was concluded that the treatment of industrial waste containing heavy metals by artificially mutated bacteria may be appropriate solution for effluent disposal problems.

  20. Subsurface investigation on Quarter 27 of May 15th city, Cairo, Egypt using electrical resistivity tomography and shallow seismic refraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Awad Sultan Araffa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical tools such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and shallow seismic (both P-wave seismic refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW are interesting techniques for delineating the subsurface configurations as stratigraphy, structural elements, caves and water saturated zones. The ERT technique is used to delineate the contamination, to detect the buried objects, and to quantify some aquifer properties. Eight 2-D (two dimensional electrical resistivity sections were measured using two different configurations (dipole–dipole and Wenner. The spread length is of 96 m and the electrodes spacing are 2, 4 and 6 m, respectively to reach a depth ranging from 13 to 17 m. The results indicate that, the subsurface section is divided into main three geo-electrical units, the first is fractured marl and limestone which exhibits high resistivity values ranging from 40 to 300 ohm m. The second unit is corresponding to marl of moderate resistivity values and the third unit, which is the deeper unit, exhibits very low resistivity values corresponding to clayey marl. The fourth layer is marly clay with water. The presence of clay causes the most geotechnical problems. Fourteen shallow seismic sections (both for P-wave and MASW were carried out using spread of 94 m and geophone spacing of 2 m for each P-wave section. The results demonstrate that the deduced subsurface section consists of four layers, the first layer exhibits very low P-wave velocity ranging from 280 to 420 m/s, the second layer reveals P-wave velocity ranging from 400 to 1200 m/s, the third layer has P-wave velocity ranging from 970 to 2000 m/s and the fourth layer exhibits high velocity ranging from 1900 to 3600 m/s. The ERT and shallow seismic results, reflect the presence of two parallel faults passing through Quarter 27 and trending NW-SE.

  1. Lithography-free resistance thermometry based technique to accurately measure Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity for organic and inorganic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Repaka, D. V. Maheswar; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a new and accurate technique to measure temperature dependent in-plane Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of organic and inorganic thin films. The measurement device consists of one heater, two thermometers, and a four-probe configuration which is patterned on a substrate of choice using a simple shadow mask. The high resolution in temperature measurements and repeatability of resistance thermometry is leveraged while enabling simple implementation using only a shadow mask for patterning. We calibrate the technique using nickel and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) thin films. The error bar for the Seebeck coefficient is less than 1%, almost 10 times better than complementary techniques for thin films. Moreover, our method enables high-throughput characterization of thermoelectric properties of a variety of different large area inorganic and organic thin films that can be prepared by spin coating, drop casting, evaporation, sputtering, or any other growth technique and hence has potential for wide usage in the thermoelectrics and nanoscale transport community to study thin films.

  2. Comparative Stress Corrosion Cracking and General Corrosion Resistance of Annealed and Hardened 440 C Stainless Steel - New Techniques in Stress Corrosion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendreck, M. J.; Hurless, B. E.; Torres, P. D.; Danford, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) characteristics of annealed and hardened 440C stainless steel were evaluated in high humidity and 3.5-percent NaCl solution. Corrosion testing consisted of an evaluation of flat plates, with and without grease, in high humidity, as well as electrochemical testing in 3.5-percent NaCl. Stress corrosion testing consisted of conventional, constant strain, smooth bar testing in high humidity in addition to two relatively new techniques under evaluation at MSFC. These techniques involve either incremental or constant rate increases in the load applied to a precracked SE(B) specimen, monitoring the crack-opening-displacement response for indications of crack growth. The electrochemical corrosion testing demonstrated an order of magnitude greater general corrosion rate in the annealed 440C. All techniques for stress corrosion testing showed substantially better SCC resistance in the annealed material. The efficacy of the new techniques for stress corrosion testing was demonstrated both by the savings in time and the ability to better quantify SCC data.

  3. Comparison of the Resistance to Bending Forces of the 4.5 LCP Plate-rod Construct and of 4.5 LCP Alone Applied to Segmental Femoral Defects in Miniature Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Urbanová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the determination of mechanical properties, namely resistance to bending forces, of flexible buttress osteosynthesis using two different bone-implant constructs stabilizing experimental segmental femoral bone defects (segmental ostectomy in a miniature pig ex vivo model using 4.5 mm titanium LCP and a 3 mm intramedullary pin (“plate and rod” construct (PR-LCP, versus the 4.5 mm titanium LCP alone (A-LCP. The “plate and rod” fixation (PR-LCP of the segmental femoral defect is significantly more resistant (p in vivo experiments in the miniature pig to investigate bone defect healing after transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biocompatible scaffolds.

  4. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan; Liang, Guozheng

    2017-07-01

    Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO2 and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91-95%, about 29-14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and modified fibers. The excellent comprehensive properties of BL-AFs demonstrate that the green method provided in this study is facile and effective to completely solve the bottlenecks of aramid fibers, and developing higher performance organic fibers.

  5. An electrochemical engineering technique to improve the corrosion resistance of some structural materials in lead-alloy coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacica, M.; Andrei, V.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Minca, M.; Florea, S.; Oncioiu, G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present some conclusions resulted from the literature studies referring to the materials potential to be used in Lead Fast Reactors (LFR), and the results obtained in the surface engineering field which can be used in our institute in order to obtain materials with appropriate properties for their use in LFR. In this context, the paper presents some preliminary results obtained in Surface Analysis Laboratory of INR Pitesti and research works in progress referring to: controlled modification of AISI 316 L surface by electrochemical plasma treatment (carburization, nitrocarburizings); electrodeposition of some protective thin-films based on Ni and Al obtained from ionic liquids; development of some procedures related to the activities involved in the behaviour evaluation, in LFR specific conditions, for material samples subjected to treatments by surface engineering techniques using the LEad COrrosion TEsting LOop (LECOTELO) test bench. The superficial structures obtained have been characterized by metallographic microscopy, X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS); the electrochemical techniques were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour. The preliminary results have shown that the used electrochemical surface engineering techniques are appropriate in order to improve the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316 L steel. (authors)

  6. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Maris, P.C.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F-2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1,

  7. Molecular mapping and construction of SCAR markers of the strawberry Rpf 1 resistance gene to Phytophthora fragariae and their use in breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The commercial strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) resistance gene Rpfl conferring resistance to various isolates of Phytophthora fragariae, was mapped using 7 RAPD markers. A DNA fragment representing a RAPD marker linked to susceptibility was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence

  8. Molecular mapping and construction of SCAR markers of the strawberry Rpf1 resistance gene to Phytophthora fragariae and their use in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The commercial strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) resistance gene Rpfl conferring resistance to various isolates of Phytophthora fragariae, was mapped using 7 RAPD markers. A DNA fragment representing a RAPD marker linked to susceptibility was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence

  9. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  10. Testing and evaluation of a slot and tab construction technique for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels under bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented construction and strain distributions for light-weight wood-fiber-based structural panels with tri-grid core made from phenolic impregnated laminated paper composites under bending. A new fastening configuration of slots in the faces and tabs on the core was applied to the face/core interfaces of the sandwich panel in addition to epoxy resin. Both...

  11. Acute Effects of Different Stretching Techniques on the Number of Repetitions in A Single Lower Body Resistance Training Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá Marcos A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of passive static and ballistic stretching on maximal repetition performance during a resistance training session (RTS. Nine male subjects underwent three experimental conditions: ballistic stretching (BS; passive static stretching (PSS; and a specific warm-up (SW. The RTS was composed of three sets of 12RM for the following exercises: leg press 45 (LP, leg extension (LE, leg curl (LC, and plantar flexors (PF. Performance of six sessions was assessed 48 hours apart. The first visit consisted of a familiarization session including stretching methods and exercises used in the RTS. On the second and third visit, a strength test and retest were performed. During the fourth to the sixth visit, the volunteers randomly performed the following protocols: BS+RTS; PSS+RTS; or SW+RTS. For the sum of the RM number of each three-set exercise, significant differences were found between PSS vs. SW for the LP (p = 0.001; LE (p = 0.005; MF (p = 0.001; and PF (p = 0.038. For the comparison between the methods of stretching PSS vs. BS, significant differences were found only for the FP (p = 0.019. When analyzing the method of stretching BS vs. SW, significant differences were found for the LP (p = 0.014 and MF (p = 0.002. For the total sum of the RM number of three sets of the four exercises that composed the RTS, significant differences were observed (p < 0.05 in the following comparisons: PPS vs. SW (p = 0.001, PPS vs. BS (p = 0.008, and BS vs. SW (p = 0.002. Accordingly, the methods of passive static and ballistic stretching should not be recommended before a RTS.

  12. Uma nova abordagem na determinação da resistência das vias aéreas: técnica do interruptor vs. pletismografia A new approach to the determination of airway resistance: interrupter technique vs. plethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Antônio Gritti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a concordância da medida da resistência das vias aéreas (RVA pela técnica interrupter resistance (Rint, resistência do interruptor com a do método pletismográfico para fins de aplicabilidade clínica. MÉTODOS: A técnica Rint foi realizada com os pacientes em posição sentada, em expiração, utilizando clipe nasal e com suporte das bochechas. O exame pletismográfico foi realizado de acordo com protocolos padronizados. As medidas foram realizadas antes e após a administração inalatória de um broncodilatador via spray dosimetrado com espaçador. RESULTADOS: Avaliamos 99 pacientes consecutivos encaminhados para o Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre (RS, para a realização de testes de função pulmonar, com idades entre 18 e 82 anos. Desses, 52 eram mulheres. Houve boa concordância entre os métodos (r = 0,8; coeficiente de correlação intraclasse = 0,8 nos pacientes com VEF1 > 60% do previsto. Os valores de Rint foram menores que os da RVA por pletismografia em indivíduos mais graves. Entretanto, houve boa concordância entre Rint > 4 cmH2O • L-1 • s-1 e RVA por pletismografia > 2,5 cmH2O • L-1 • s-1 (razão de verossimilhança > 8 e coeficiente kappa = 0,73. CONCLUSÕES: A concordância entre o Rint e a RVA por pletismografia foi boa nos indivíduos menos graves. A concordância para um diagnóstico de aumento da RVA entre os dois métodos também foi forte. A técnica Rint é um método potencialmente útil na prática assistencial em adultos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between interrupter resistance (Rint and airway resistance (Raw by plethysmography in order to verify the clinical applicability of the interrupter technique. METHODS: The Rint technique was performed with the patients in a sitting position, during exhalation, with a nose clip and cheek support. Plethysmography was carried out in accordance with standard protocols. All measurements were taken prior to and

  13. Evaluation of an isotope washout technique to measure skin vascular resistance and skin perfusion pressure: influence of age, site and arterial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, H.J.; Faris, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    1. A simplified isotope (sup(99m)Tc) washout technique has been devised to calculate the skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and skin vascular resistance (SVR). This test is simple, requires inexpensive equipment and is well tolerated by patients. 2. SPP and SVR were calculated in 20 patients 30 years of age and in 15 patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). With increasing age the SPP and SVP were increased. The SPP was similar to the mean arterial pressure in normal individuals but was decreased in patients with PVD. The SPP is a useful indicator of the severity of the PVD. 3. The SPP and SVR were higher in the calf than in the foot. This is probably related to the decrease in pressure in the distal arterial tree. 4. SPP was increased by 110% and skin blood flow by 190% by arterial reconstructive surgery. This test may be of use in assessing the effectiveness of arterial surgery. (author)

  14. Anisotropic viscoelastic shell modeling technique of copper patterns/photoimageable solder resist composite for warpage simulation of multi-layer printed circuit boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Joo, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kwak, Dong-Ok

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the warpage simulation of a multi-layer printed circuit board (PCB) was performed as a function of various copper (Cu) patterns/photoimageable solder resist (PSR) composite patterns and their anisotropic viscoelastic properties. The thermo-mechanical properties of Cu/PSR patterns were obtained from finite element analysis (virtual test) and homogenized with anisotropic composite shell models that considered the viscoelastic properties. The multi-layer PCB model was simplified based on the unit Cu/PSR patterns and the warpage simulation during the reflow process was performed by using ABAQUS combined with a user-defined subroutine. From these results, it was demonstrated that the proposed anisotropic viscoelastic composite shell simulation technique can be successfully used to predict warpage of multi-layer PCBs during the reflow process. (paper)

  15. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume III : recommended resistance factors with consideration of construction control and setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandated utilizing the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach for all new bridges initiated in the United States after October 1, 2007. As a result, there has been a progressive move among state De...

  16. The treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals in microcosm constructed wetlands: the occurrence of integrons (int1-2) and associated resistance genes (sul1-3, qacEΔ1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrotek, Monika; Kotlarska, Ewa; Łuczkiewicz, Aneta; Felis, Ewa; Sochacki, Adam; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1-3) and other genetic elements as antiseptic resistance gene (qacEΔ1) and class 1 and class 2 integrons (int1-2) in the upper layer of substrate and in the effluent of microcosm constructed wetlands (CWs) treating artificial wastewater containing diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), which is a sulfonamide antibiotic. The bacteria in the substrate and in the effluents were equipped with the sul1-2, int1, and qacEΔ1 resistance determinants, which were introduced into the CW system during inoculation with activated sludge and with the soil attached to the rhizosphere of potted seedlings of Phalaris arundinacea 'Picta' roots (int1). By comparing the occurrence of the resistance determinants in the upper substrate layer and the effluent, it can be stated that they neither were lost nor emerged along the flow path. The implications of the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in the effluent may entail a risk of antibiotic resistance being spread in the receiving environment. Additionally, transformation products of SMX were determined. According to the obtained results, four (potential) SMX transformation products were identified. Two major metabolites of SMX, 2,3,5-trihydroxy-SMX and 3,5-dihydroxy-SMX, indicated that SMX may be partly oxidized during the treatment. The remaining two SMX transformation products (hydroxy-glutathionyl-SMX and glutathionyl-SMX) are conjugates with glutathione, which suggests the ability of CW bacterial community to degrade SMX and resist antimicrobial stress.

  17. A technique for temporarily joining heavy construction parts, and tensioning element for such joining; Fremgangsmaate for midlertidig sammenfoeyning av tunge konstruksjonsdeler, samt spennelement for slik sammenfoeyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunseth, S.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Stead, B.L.

    1996-04-15

    It is often required to temporarily join large construction parts. Traditionally this is done by means of seam welds that can be removed once the joint is no longer needed. For very large and heavy constructions, however, the strains may be so large that traditional welding methods do not meet the requirements. The problem can be solved by means of the present invention, which was developed for joining large underwater components in the offshore industry. The parts to be joined have at least one channel prepared to contain a tensioning cable. The contact surfaces of the parts are prepared for joining and sealing and the tensioning cable is fixed to anchor points at the end of a channel in the construction parts. At least one sealing pipe is thread into the channel with good clearance. At least one tensioning cable is thread through each pipe and fixed to the anchor points at the respective ends. The tensioning cables are grouted in the pipes, which remain loose within the channel. The invention also covers the tensioning system. 3 figs.

  18. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  19. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  20. Performance Improvement of the Implementation of Concrete Structures in the Construction Sector In Iraq Using The Modern Management Technique “Six Sigma”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hatem Khalifah breesam Al-Ajeeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the field of construction projects in Iraq refers to needing for the development of performance in order to improve quality and reduce defects and errors and to control the time and cost, so there is needing for the application of effective methods in this area, one of the methods that can be applied in this area is the manner of Six Sigma. This research aims to enhance the performance and quality improvement for the construction projects by improving performance in the work of the implementation of the concrete structure depending on the Six Sigma methodology, and for the purpose of achieving the aim of the research, the researcher firstly depends on the theoretical study that include the concepts of quality and the Six Sigma methodology as a system aims to reduce defects and improve the quality and secondly on the field study carried out by the researcher through conducting the open questionnaire that include interviews conducted by the researcher with a slice of engineers experienced in the implementation of construction projects that leads to design closed questionnaire included the major axes of the research and distributed on a selected sample of engineers with expertise in this area. The researcher applying the (DMAIC methodology is one of the methods adopted for the application of Six Sigma on the case study (the project of structures laboratory at University of Baghdad for the purpose of identifying the most important defects that may appear in the implementation of the concrete structure and assess the quality of implementation of the concrete structure and then analyzing the causes of these defects and propose procedures to enhance the performance and quality improvement depending on the field survey was conducted. The most important research conclusions are sigma level for the case study is 2.35 and the number of defects per million opportunities is 211905 and this Sigma level is very small which indicates the low

  1. Cigeo. The French deep geological repository for radioactive waste. Excavation techniques and technologies tested in underground laboratory and forecasted for the future construction of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Francois; Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Cigeo is the French project for the repository of the high activity and intermediate long-lived radioactive waste. It will be situated at a depth of 500 m, In a clayish rock formation. An underground laboratory was built in the year 2000 and numerous tests are performed since 15 years, in order to know in detail the behavior of the rock and its ability to confine radioactive elements. In addition, this underground laboratory has brought and will continue to bring many lessons on the excavation methods to be chosen for the construction of Cigeo.

  2. Resistive switching characteristics of Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices constructed on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-07-01

    In this study, Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6Al devices are fabricated on plastic substrates using the sputtering method at room temperature. The ratio of O/S in the zinc oxysulfide thin film is confirmed to be 0.4/0.6 from the Auger depth profiling. The Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices show unipolar resistive switching behaviors and the ratio of the measured resistance in the low-resistance state (LRS) to that in the high-resistance state (HRS) is above 10(4). The conduction mechanism of the LRS is governed by Ohm's law. On the other hand, in the HRS, the conduction mechanism at low voltages is controlled by Ohm's law, but that at high voltages results from the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The Ohmic and Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms observed in the LRS and HRS support the filament model of unipolar resistive switching. The memory characteristics of the Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices are retained for 10(4) sec without any change.

  3. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Meijer-Dekens, Fien; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Maris, Paul; Lindhout, Pim

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1, Rbcq2 and Rbcq4a) were identified. As it was probable that this study had not identified all QTLs involved in resistance we developed an introgression line (IL) population (n = 30), each containing a S. habrochaites introgression in the S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker genetic background. On average each IL contained 5.2% of the S. habrochaites genome and together the lines provide an estimated coverage of 95%. The level of susceptibility to B. cinerea for each of the ILs was assessed in a greenhouse trial and compared to the susceptible parent S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. The effect of the three previously identified loci could be confirmed and seven additional loci were detected. Some ILs contains multiple QTLs and the increased resistance to B. cinerea in these ILs is in line with a completely additive model. We conclude that this set of QTLs offers good perspectives for breeding of B. cinerea resistant cultivars and that screening an IL population is more sensitive for detection of QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea than the analysis in an F2 population. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-006-0500-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17273845

  4. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  5. Corrosion resistance of materials of construction for high temperature sulfuric acid service in thermochemical IS process. Alloy 800, Alloy 600, SUSXM15J1 and SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo; Yamaguchi, Akihisa

    2006-01-01

    Exposure tests of candidate materials were carried out up to 1000 hr in the sulfuric acid environments of thermochemical hydrogen production IS process, focusing on the corrosion of welded portion and of crevice area. In the gas phase sulfuric acid decomposition condition at 850degC, welded samples of Alloy 800 and of Alloy 600 showed the same good corrosion resistance as the base materials. In the boiling condition of 95 wt% sulfuric acid solution, test sample of SiC showed the same good corrosion resistance. Also negligible corrosion was observed in crevice corrosion. (author)

  6. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  7. Identification of distinct specificity determinants in resistance protein Cf-4 allows construction of a Cf-9 mutant that confers recognition of avirulence protein AVR4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Van der R.A.L.; Roth, R.; Wit, De P.J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The tomato resistance genes Cf-4 and Cf-9 confer specific, hypersensitive response-associated recognition of Cladosporium carrying the avirulence genes Avr4 and Avr9, respectively. Cf-4 and Cf-9 encode type I transmembrane proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Compared with Cf-9,

  8. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  9. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    INF] as a grammatical construction consists in: 1) [méllo INF] is more resistant to restructuring than many other verbal periphrases with an INF; and 2) in LBG [méllo INF] seems to have grammaticalized — as one of its uses — a specialized function embedded in subjunctives, in which méllo...

  10. Pisé or not pisé ? Problème de définition des techniques traditionnelles de la construction en terre sur les sites archéologiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Perello, Bérengère

    2015-01-01

    Billet de blog : Perello B. 2015. Pisé or not pisé ? Problème de définition des techniques traditionnelles de la construction en terre sur les sites archéologiques, ArchéOrient – Le Blog (Hypotheses.org), 4 septembre 2015. [En ligne] http://archeorient.hypotheses.org/4562; Au Proche-Orient, l’architecture en terre est omniprésente sur les sites archéologiques. Ainsi nombre de rapports de fouille et de publications font état de l’utilisation de la terre sous une forme ou sous une autre.Il ne s...

  11. Construction of specific erythromycin resistance mutations in the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and their use in studies of phage biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Birgit; Christiansen, Bettina; Evison, Tim

    1997-01-01

    A method for the construction and isolation of specifically designed mutations of the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1 has been developed. Two different erm-labeled mutants were isolated. One was shown to be defective in lysogenization and excision. The other, showing normal lysogenization, wa...

  12. Construction of a gene bank and use of the chromosome walking technique for the detection of new putative agrocin genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain D286

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, G.

    1987-02-01

    A gene bank of Agrobacterium tumefaciens D286 wt has been constructed by cloning D286 wt DNA partially digested with EcoRI in the cosmid vector pLAFRI. The library; composed of 1750 members with a 27.7 kb average insert size was probed with pCDTn5-3, a cosmid vector carrying a D286:: Tn5 insert from the strain D286:: Tn5 Ag-. One recombinant cosmid of the library, pCDO932, was detected. The insert DNA of pCDO932 has sequences homologous to the D286:: Tn5 insert of pCDTn5-3, therefore it carries putative wt agrocin D286 genes. The insert DNA of pCDO932 was isolated and used to probe the D286 wt gene library. Chromosome walking resulted in the detection of pCD2375. EcoRI restriction digestions and DNA homology studies of pCDO932 and pCD2375 showed that their D286 wt inserts are both composed of 4 EcoRI DNA sub-fragments totalling 21.8 and 24.8 kb respectively, with an overlapping sequence extending 3.5 kb. In order to overcome the failure to detect A. tumefaciens cells transformed with pCDO932. Vectors pSUP204-1 was constructed. Such vector has been derived from pSUP204 which were slightly altered by cloning into it a 700 bp λ DNA SalI fragmet. This resulted in insertion inactivation of the Tc r gene, allows the use of pSUP204-1 as a subcloning vector in conjugations and transformations involving pCDO932 or pCD2375 and strains D286:: Tn5 Ag- and C58 C1G. Two recombinant cosmids bearing D286 wt DNA inserts, at least one of which (pCDO932) contains DNA sequences putatively affecting agrocin D286 production, are now available for further genetic manipulations. pSUP204-1 should prove useful as a subcloning vector for transformations and conjugations involving recombinant cosmids from the D286 wt gene bank and Agrobacterium strains. Future work on the molecular biology of agrocin D286 production is discussed. The DNA probe used in this study was labelled with phosphorus 32

  13. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  14. Construction of System for Seismic Observation in Deep Borehole (SODB) - Development of Multi-depth, High-temperature/pressure resistance seismometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamada, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The development of a high quality system for seismic observation in deep boreholes, the installation process at the NIIT site, and the data sharing plan for this observation were explained. The key points of the development were high temperature resistance (150 degrees Celsius), high pressure resistance (30 MPa), and a high dynamic/wide frequency range seismometer which allows for observation of micro-tremor to strong motions as well as a cascade-connection-type borehole seismometer, which allows multiple probes to be set at several depths in a single borehole. The developed system consists of broadband (0.1-50 Hz) and high dynamic range (up to 1000 gal) seismometer with electronic parts on the ground and only the pendulum part in the borehole (it became a servo-type seismometer). Durability and maintenance may be issues in the future. (author)

  15. Construction of Double Right-Border Binary Vector Carrying Non-Host Gene Rxo1 Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-rong XU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Rxo1 cloned from maize is a non-host gene resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice. pCAMBIA1305-1 with Rxo1 was digested with Sca I and NgoM IV and the double right-border binary vector pMNDRBBin6 was digested with Hpa I and Xma I. pMNDRBBin6 carrying the gene Rxo1 was acquired by ligation of blunt-end and cohesive end. The results of PCR, restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing indicated that the Rxo1 gene had been cloned into pMNDRBBin6. This double right-border binary vector, named as pMNDRBBin6-Rxo1, will play a role in breeding marker-free plants resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice by genetic transformation.

  16. How Many Equivalent Resistances?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is straightforward to construct the set of equiv- alent resistance for circuits constructed from a bunch of four or five equal resistors. But as the bunch size increases it becomes difficult to find the order of the set of equivalent resistances. Even the computer programs runs out of mem- ory. Here we present an analytical result ...

  17. Emotional Freedom Techniques in the Treatment of Unhealthy Eating Behaviors and Related Psychological Constructs in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Peta; Chatwin, Hannah; William, Mary; Hutton, Amanda; Pain, Amanda; Porter, Brett; Sheldon, Terri

    2016-01-01

    In Australia and throughout much of the world, rates of obesity continue to climb as do the prevalence of eating disorders, particularly in adolescents. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity include low self-esteem, depression, body dissatisfaction, and social maladjustment (Young-Hyman et al., 2012). This feasibility study sought to examine the impact of a six-week Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) group treatment program upon eating behaviours, self-esteem, compassion, and psychological symptoms. Forty-four students were randomly allocated to either the EFT group or the waitlist control group. Results revealed a delayed effect for both groups at post-intervention, with improved eating habits, self-esteem, and compassion at follow-up. Findings provide preliminary support for EFT as an effective treatment strategy for increasing healthy eating behaviours and improving associated weight-related psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Construction and performance characterization of ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Sayed I M; Issa, Yousry M; Hussein, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    New pseudoephedrine selective electrodes have been constructed of the conventional polymer membrane type by incorporation of pseudoephedrine-phosphotungstate (PE-PT) or pseudoephedrine-silicotungstate (PE-SiT) ion-associates in a poly vinyl chloride (PVC) membrane plasticized with dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, temperature, and pH. The electrodes exhibited mean slopes of calibration graphs of 57.09 and 56.10 mV concentration decade(-1) of PECl at 25 degrees C for (PE-PT) and (PE-SiT) electrodes, respectively. The electrodes showed fast, stable, and near-Nernstian response over the concentration ranges 6.31 x 10(-6)-1.00 x 10(-2) and 5.00 x 10(-5)-1.00x10(-2) M in the case of PE-PT applying batch and flow injection (FI) analysis, respectively, and 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.00 x 10(-2) and 5.00 x 10(-5)-1.00x10(-2) M in the case of PE-SiT for batch and FI analysis system, respectively. Detection limit was 5.01x 10(-6) M for PE-PT electrode and 6.31x10(-6) M for PE-SiT electrode. The electrodes were successfully applied for the potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PECl) in pharmaceutical preparations with mean recovery 101.13 +/- 0.85% and 100.77+0.79% in case of PE-PT applying batch and flow injection systems, respectively, and 100.75+0.85% and 100.79 +/- 0.77% in case of PE-SiT for batch and flow injection systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibited good selectivity for PECl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids.

  19. Customization of Project Management Techniques for the Construction of IT - Information Technology Systems with the Development Methodologies Known as Agile Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino José Mentzingen de Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge [1], edited and maintained by PMI - Project Management Institute, which deals with the issues of how to administrate a Project efficiently and planned, is already widely known and recognized by the world professional community as a strong orientation of best practices and effective working tool in this field. The PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge directs the Phases and the Disciplines that must be addressed in leading a Project, whether it be, both to meet the construction of projects in Engineering Area or to meet the System Development Projects in the Area of IT - Information Technology. In the latter Area, namely the area of IT - Information Technology, the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge is already intensively applied for some decades. However, the System Development Methodologies in IT - Information Technology area is being reviewed by the emergence of new technical resources and new visions of interpretation of the business by the Organizations. In that way, this study intends to evaluate the current impact of these revisions (in System Development Methodologies in IT - Information Technology area may result in new versions of the PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge, which, also implemented revisions and at this moment is in its 5th.Edition. In conclusion, after some simulations in a practical environment, it is verified the usefulness of this paper (and its "Table of Definition of Specific Features of Project", which try to support the decision about what is the best System Development Methodology in IT - Information Technology area to be applied to a specific Project as an effective management and planning tool in corporate real world.

  20. Le chantier médiéval dans le Sud-Est de la France: regard sur les techniques de construction et l’organisation du chantier à partir de quelques exemples (XIe-XIVe siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquieu, Yves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article illustrates several aspects of the archaeological research on mediaeval construction in south-eastern France (11th-14th cent. by studies in building archaeology led by the authors in various architectural and scientific contexts. It focuses on questions such as the know-how and its transfer, changes in the architectural project, the organization of the building process and its techniques and strategies, by analyzing the masonry and structure of the edifice and, in the case of the pope’s palace in Avignon, by combined research on the architecture and the written sources.Le présent article illustre différents aspects de la recherche sur la construction du XIe au XIVe siècle dans le Sud-Est de la France à l’exemple d’études monumentales menées par ses deux auteurs dans différents contextes architecturaux et scientifiques. Il aborde les questions du savoir-faire et de sa transmission, des changements de projet, et l’organisation du chantier, à partir des indices de la lecture des élévations et, dans le cas de la construction du palais des papes d’Avignon, de l’étude conjointe des sources écrites.

  1. Norms on Official (Service Crimes in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (Year 1922: Technique of Basic and Differentiating Signs Constructing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Gribov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the Soviet period of our state of course it is important to study the experience of legislation and established in the Soviet era law enforcement. In the Soviet times special attention was given to the criminal. In current article authors consider in detail bases for the techniques of designing and differentiating features of law on official (service crimes in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR of 1922. Studying the structure of the offense, authors identify obvious advantages of legal norms (primarily lack of casuistry, study features of sanctions for the offense, and as well carry out analysis of perpetrator. However, as a result of the comprehensive study, authors highlight a number of shortcomings. Authors identified several weaknesses in the definition of an official person as the subject of the crime. Authors argue that it could not affect the legal practice during the period under review. In conclusion, authors justify that the Criminal Code of the RSFSR of 1922 contained several compositions of power’s abuse concentrated in three separate articles, criminal liability which differentiated both the subjective and the objective criteria.

  2. Construction practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.; Clelland, J.; Rumble, E.; Sandell, L.

    2007-01-01

    One has elaborated a virtual computer model (VRC) of construction of the AP1000 project reactor to demonstrate its viability, to improve the NPP project making it more easy for construction with simultaneous reduction of time, costs and risk of construction. The approach ensured time sequence of the 3-D visualization of NPP at the construction stages. The VRC ensures optimization of scheme implementation time period and specifies the basic costs. The VRC application offers essential advantages when planning construction of a nuclear power facility [ru

  3. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  4. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik

    2017-06-01

    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  5. Projet collectif de recherche [PCR] « Matériaux, techniques de construction et datation entre Loire et Saône autour de l’an Mil », rapport 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sapin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En 2008 devrait s’achever le PCR pluriannuel consacré aux « Matériaux, techniques de construction et datation entre Loire et Saône autour de l’an Mil » (2005-2007, avec une année supplémentaire pour permettre de mener à bien le travail de synthèse. Il s’agissait, durant ces années, de faire remonter des réalités matérielles et chronologiques, à travers les fiches de sites réalisées sur la base de plus de 120 monuments répartis sur trois régions, par l’ensemble de l’équipe. Pour être validée,...

  6. Le « bassin des carènes » et le service technique des constructions navales à Balard : un exemple de cité scientifique à Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Gaudard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Le « bassin des carènes » à Balard abrite un ensemble cohérent d’édifices techniques, scientifiques et administratifs destinés à l’étude du comportement des navires et de leur propulsion en toutes situations. Créé à l’initiative de l’ingénieur Bertin et inauguré en 1906, le premier bassin, en béton, comptait alors parmi les quatre plus grands bassins du monde. À partir de 1932, Perret frères édifient une véritable cité scientifique : bâtiment administratif (IMH 1965, laboratoires, plusieurs bassins sont élevés en béton armé, avec un même soin accordé à l’ensemble.The ‘bassin des carènes’, the ship testing tank situated at Balard, in Paris, comprises a coherent ensemble of technical , scientific and administrative buildings devoted to the study of ships and their propulsion in different situations. The facility was first created in 1906 at the instigation of the engineer Bertin. At this date, the towing tank, constructed in reinforced concrete, was one of the four largest in the world. From 1932, the Perret brothers were commissioned to provide other constructions, completing an authentic scientific complex or ‘city’. This included the administrative building (given historic monument protection in 1932 and several other tanks, all constructed in reinforced concrete and with the same attention to detail.

  7. L’hégémonie politique et économique comme cadre de diffusion des techniques de construction au Moyen Age: la Corse entre Toscane et Ligurie du XIe au XIVe s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istria, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Corsica is an area where few major architectural constructions have been developing. Nevertheless thanks to its geographical position as well as to the overwhelming political context, it does possess an undeniable importance if we focus on such issues as trade and the transfers of the know-how. Indeed the construction, from the 11th under the control of the archbishop of Pisa, of a considerable network of building devoted to worship, leads to the introduction and consequently to the spread of technical processes engineered in the most renowned building sites on the mainland and more particularly in Tuscany. Corsica is thus experiencing a complete architectural rebirth.La Corse médiévale est une région où peu de réalisations majeures voient le jour dans le domaine de l’architecture. Elle n’en demeure pas moins, compte tenu de sa position et du contexte politique, d’un intérêt certain pour l’étude des échanges et des transferts de savoir-faire. La construction d’un important réseau d’édifices de culte à partir de la fin du XIe siècle sous le contrôle de l’archevêque de Pise, permet l’introduction, puis la diffusion, de procédés techniques élaborés sur les grands chantiers continentaux, particulièrement toscans. C’est alors une véritable renaissance de l’architecture que connaît la Corse.

  8. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  9. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  10. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    frustrating systems are experienced similarly to easy-to-use systems. Looking at the most characteristic construct for each participant we find that Chinese participants use constructs related to security, task types, training, and system issues, whereas Danish and to some extent Indian participants make more...

  11. The produsing expert consumer: Co-constructing, resisting and accepting health-related claims on social media in response to an infotainment show about food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Jana; Tulkens, Stéphan; Van Leuven, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the Twitter and Facebook uptake of health messages from an infotainment TV show on food, as broadcasted on Belgium's Dutch-language public broadcaster. The interest in and amount of health-related media coverage is rising, and this media coverage is an important source of information for laypeople, and impacts their health behaviours and therapy compliance. However, the role of the audience has also changed; consumers of media content increasingly are produsers, and, in the case of health, expert consumers. To explore how current audiences react to health claims, we have conducted a quantitative and qualitative content analysis of Twitter and Facebook reactions to an infotainment show about food and nutrition. We examine (1) to which elements in the show the audience reacts, to gain insight in the traction the nutrition-related content generates and (2) whether audience members are accepting or resisting the health information in the show. Our findings show that the information on health and production elicit the most reactions, and that health information incites a lot of refutation, low acceptance and a lot of suggestions on new information or new angles to complement the show's information.

  12. Implementation guidance for accelerated bridge construction in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate implementation of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) in South Dakota. Accelerated bridge construction is defined as construction practices that employ innovative techniques to reduce on-site construction time a...

  13. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  14. Detection of E.Coli Strains Containing Shiga Toxin (Stx1/2 Gene in Diarrheal Specimens from Children Less than 5 Years Old by PCR Technique and Study of the Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pourmand

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC is an emerging bacterial pathogen in developing countries that causes several diseases such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, particularly in children. Aim of the research was detection of STEC in diarrheal specimens from under 5 year olds and study of the patterns of antibiotic resistance of these strains. Methods: In the study,300 fecal samples were collected from children with diarrhea referring to Ali Asghar Hospital. E.coli species were isolated by standard bacteriological and biochemical tests. Presence of shiga toxin genes (stx1/2 was investigated by PCR technique (Qiagen. Antibiogram test for strains containing the toxin gene was performed using 16 different antibiotic discs (MAST by disc diffusion agar (Kirby-Bauer method. Results: From 39 E.coli isolates, 9(23.1% strains were detected by PCR to contain stx1/2 gene. One strain was resistant to all 16 antibiotics. All the STEC strains were sensitive to meropenem (MRP, imipenem (IMI, gentamycin (GEN and nitrofurantoin (NI. 4(44.44% strains showed multi-drug resistant pattern. All these 4strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole(SxT. Also, 6(66.66% strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Conclusion: In Iran, shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC may be a commonly bacterial pathogen causing diarrhea, particularly in children. Therefore, we should use new techniques for investigation of these strains. Increase in number of emerging and new strains that could be resistant to classic antibiotics such as cotrimoxazole may be foreseen. It is suggested that antibiotics prescription programs in treatment of diarrhea causing E.coli strains be updated.

  15. Detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates as determined by gyrA/B gene mutation by using PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salah Eldin

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of FO-resistant M. tuberculosis is gradually increasing to alarming levels this may be due to wide spread use of this vital groups of drugs in community-acquired pneumonia and urinary tract infections.

  16. Combined resistive and laser heating technique for in situ radial X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Lowell [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Kaercher, Pamela; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Alarcon, Eloisa Zepeda [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Raju, Selva Vennila [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); HiPSEC, Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Knight, Jason; MacDowell, Alastair [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Williams, Quentin [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To extend the range of high-temperature, high-pressure studies within the diamond anvil cell, a Liermann-type diamond anvil cell with radial diffraction geometry (rDAC) was redesigned and developed for synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source. The rDAC, equipped with graphite heating arrays, allows simultaneous resistive and laser heating while the material is subjected to high pressure. The goals are both to extend the temperature range of external (resistive) heating and to produce environments with lower temperature gradients in a simultaneously resistive- and laser-heated rDAC. Three different geomaterials were used as pilot samples to calibrate and optimize conditions for combined resistive and laser heating. For example, in Run1, FeO was loaded in a boron-mica gasket and compressed to 11 GPa then gradually resistively heated to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side). The laser heating was further applied to FeO to raise temperature to 2273 K. In Run2, Fe-Ni alloy was compressed to 18 GPa and resistively heated to 1785 K (1973 K at the diamond side). The combined resistive and laser heating was successfully performed again on (Mg{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})O in Run3. In this instance, the sample was loaded in a boron-kapton gasket, compressed to 29 GPa, resistive-heated up to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side), and further simultaneously laser-heated to achieve a temperature in excess of 2273 K at the sample position. Diffraction patterns obtained from the experiments were deconvoluted using the Rietveld method and quantified for lattice preferred orientation of each material under extreme conditions and during phase transformation.

  17. Combined resistive and laser heating technique for in situ radial X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil cell at high pressure and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Lowell; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Raju, Selva Vennila; Kaercher, Pamela; Knight, Jason; MacDowell, Alastair; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Williams, Quentin; Alarcon, Eloisa Zepeda

    2013-02-01

    To extend the range of high-temperature, high-pressure studies within the diamond anvil cell, a Liermann-type diamond anvil cell with radial diffraction geometry (rDAC) was redesigned and developed for synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments at beamline 12.2.2 of the Advanced Light Source. The rDAC, equipped with graphite heating arrays, allows simultaneous resistive and laser heating while the material is subjected to high pressure. The goals are both to extend the temperature range of external (resistive) heating and to produce environments with lower temperature gradients in a simultaneously resistive- and laser-heated rDAC. Three different geomaterials were used as pilot samples to calibrate and optimize conditions for combined resistive and laser heating. For example, in Run#1, FeO was loaded in a boron-mica gasket and compressed to 11 GPa then gradually resistively heated to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side). The laser heating was further applied to FeO to raise temperature to 2273 K. In Run#2, Fe-Ni alloy was compressed to 18 GPa and resistively heated to 1785 K (1973 K at the diamond side). The combined resistive and laser heating was successfully performed again on (Mg0.9Fe0.1)O in Run#3. In this instance, the sample was loaded in a boron-kapton gasket, compressed to 29 GPa, resistive-heated up to 1007 K (1073 K at the diamond side), and further simultaneously laser-heated to achieve a temperature in excess of 2273 K at the sample position. Diffraction patterns obtained from the experiments were deconvoluted using the Rietveld method and quantified for lattice preferred orientation of each material under extreme conditions and during phase transformation.

  18. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  19. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  20. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, O.; Bernard, J.; Vermeersch, F.

    2007-01-01

    For a few years, the evolution of measuring equipment and of interpretation software have permitted to develop a new electrical resistivity technique called resistivity imaging where the equipment, which includes a large number of electrodes located along a line at the same time, carries out an automatic switching of these electrodes for acquiring profiling data. The apparent resistivity pseudo sections measured with such a technique are processed by an inversion software which gives interpreted resistivity and depth values for the anomalies detected along the profile. The multi-electrode resistivity technique consists in using a multi-core cable with as many conductors (24, 48, 72, 96) as electrodes plugged into the ground at a fixed spacing, every 5m for instance. In the resistivitymeter itself are located the relays which ensure the switching of those electrodes according to a sequence of readings predefined and stored in the internal memory of the equipment. The various combinations of transmitting (A,B) and receiving (M,N) pairs of electrodes construct the mixed sounding / profiling section, with a maximum investigation depth which mainly depends on the total length of the cable. The 2D resistivity images obtained with such a multi-electrode technique are used for studying the shallow stuctures of the underground located a few tens of metres down to about one hundred metres depth; these images supply an information which complements the one obtained with the more traditionnal Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique, which mainly aims at determining the depths of horizontal 1D structures from the surface down to several hundreds metres depths. Several examples are presented for various types of applications: groundwater (intrusion of salt water in fresh water), geotechnics (detection of a fault in a granitic area), environment (delineation of a waste disposal area) and archaeology (discovery of an ancient tomb)

  1. The construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Koo, Jun Mo; Kim, Jeong Guk; Jung, In Ha

    1990-03-01

    The solid waste form test facility (SWFTF) to test and/or evaluate the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogeniety, mechanical properties, thermal properties, waste resistance and leachability, have been constructed, and some equipments for testing actual waste forms has been purchased; radiocative monitoring system, glove box for the manipulator repair room, and uninteruppted power supply system, et al. Classifications of radioactive wastes, basic requirements and criteria to be considered during waste management were also reviewed. Some of the described items above have been standardized for the purpose of indigenigation. Therefore, safety assurance of waste forms, as well as increase in the range of participating of domestic companies in construction of further nuclear facilities could be obtained as results through constructing this facility. In the furture this facility is going to be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination for extending the life time of some expensive radiological equipments using remote handling techniques. (author)

  2. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  3. A Preliminary Appraisal of the Effect of Pumping on Seawater Intrusion and Upconing in a Small Tropical Island Using 2D Resistivity Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nura Umar Kura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing knowledge regarding seawater intrusion and particularly upconing, in which both problems are linked to pumping, entirely relies on theoretical assumptions. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt is made to capture the effects of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing using 2D resistivity measurement. For this work, two positions, one perpendicular and the other parallel to the sea, were chosen as profile line for resistivity measurement in the coastal area near the pumping wells of Kapas Island, Malaysia. Subsequently, water was pumped out of two pumping wells simultaneously for about five straight hours. Then, immediately after the pumping stopped, resistivity measurements were taken along the two stationed profile lines. This was followed by additional measurements after four and eight hours. The results showed an upconing with low resistivity of about 1–10 Ωm just beneath the pumping well along the first profile line that was taken just after the pumping stopped. The resistivity image also shows an intrusion of saline water (water enriched with diluted salt from the sea coming towards the pumping well with resistivity values ranging between 10 and 25 Ωm. The subsequent measurements show the recovery of freshwater in the aquifer and how the saline water is gradually diluted or pushed out of the aquifer. Similarly the line parallel to the sea (L2 reveals almost the same result as the first line. However, in the second and third measurements, there were some significant variations which were contrary to the expectation that the freshwater may completely flush out the saline water from the aquifer. These two time series lines show that as the areas with the lowest resistivity (1 Ωm shrink with time, the low resistivity (10 Ωm tends to take over almost the entire area implying that the freshwater-saltwater equilibrium zone has already been altered. These results have clearly enhanced our current understanding and add

  4. A preliminary appraisal of the effect of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing in a small tropical island using 2D resistivity technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Zaudi, Muhammad Amar; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2014-01-01

    The existing knowledge regarding seawater intrusion and particularly upconing, in which both problems are linked to pumping, entirely relies on theoretical assumptions. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt is made to capture the effects of pumping on seawater intrusion and upconing using 2D resistivity measurement. For this work, two positions, one perpendicular and the other parallel to the sea, were chosen as profile line for resistivity measurement in the coastal area near the pumping wells of Kapas Island, Malaysia. Subsequently, water was pumped out of two pumping wells simultaneously for about five straight hours. Then, immediately after the pumping stopped, resistivity measurements were taken along the two stationed profile lines. This was followed by additional measurements after four and eight hours. The results showed an upconing with low resistivity of about 1-10 Ωm just beneath the pumping well along the first profile line that was taken just after the pumping stopped. The resistivity image also shows an intrusion of saline water (water enriched with diluted salt) from the sea coming towards the pumping well with resistivity values ranging between 10 and 25 Ωm. The subsequent measurements show the recovery of freshwater in the aquifer and how the saline water is gradually diluted or pushed out of the aquifer. Similarly the line parallel to the sea (L2) reveals almost the same result as the first line. However, in the second and third measurements, there were some significant variations which were contrary to the expectation that the freshwater may completely flush out the saline water from the aquifer. These two time series lines show that as the areas with the lowest resistivity (1 Ωm) shrink with time, the low resistivity (10 Ωm) tends to take over almost the entire area implying that the freshwater-saltwater equilibrium zone has already been altered. These results have clearly enhanced our current understanding and add more scientific

  5. Use sulfoferritic cements in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samchenko, Svetlana V.; Zorin, Dmitriy A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, high-rise construction has received increasing attention around the world. In the big cities under construction is less space and one solution is the high-rise construction. However, high-rise buildings use special requirements, such as strength, thermal insulation, wind load and others. When concrete is exposed to continuous loads by wind or to mechanical loads, it undergoes abrasion. Resistance to this process depends on the characteristics of materials that the concrete and finishing seams are made of. Research on increasing impact and abrasion resistance of calcium sulfoferrite-based cement stone from the perspective of formation of cement stone structure will be instrumental in developing durable materials for application in high-rise construction.

  6. Electrical resistivity, susceptibility and heat capacity of cubic Kondo compound YbCu.sub.5./sub. prepared by melt-spinning technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiffers, M.; Idzikowski, B.; Šebek, Josef; Šantavá, Eva; Ilkovič, S.; Pristáš, G.

    378-380, - (2006), s. 738-739 ISSN 0921-4526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : YbCu 5 * susceptibility * electrical resistivity * melt spinning Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2006

  7. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Comparison of suspendedbBranch and direct infestation techniques for artificially Infesting hemlock seedlings with the hemlock woolly adelgid for resistance screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidee Powers; Albert Mayfield; John Frampton; Robert Jetton

    2015-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is an invasive forest pest in eastern North America that has caused significant decline and mortality in populations of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (T. caroliniana Engelm.). The breeding of adelgid-resistant genotypes for...

  9. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  10. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  11. Scale Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses design, development, and evaluation of scales used in counseling psychology research. Describes methods of scale construction including the Thurstone, Q-sort, rank-order methods, Likert, semantic differential, Guttman, Rasch, and external criterion methods. Presents ways of evaluating newly developed scales. Discusses measurement versus…

  12. Elementary Physics Considerations Indicate an Elegant Construction Technique For the Pyramids At Giza. Our Information Indicates They and the Sphinx Were Engineered and Built Around BCE 2500, Not Earlier!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Archimedes articulated an applied physics experience of many children who observe the upward movement of floating objects when they get into their "tubs." This same principle can effectively allow massive Egyptian construction blocks and obelisks to be elevated and erected. Platform bases at Giza were leveled by means of water channels that were cut into the rock. There is a canal behind the pyramids. The bathtub technique can elevate or transport the water-borne block (or obelisk) to sites involved, including the Sphinx temple. Water outflow from the barge locks (tubs) can erode Sphinx surrounds, without invoking 7000+ year-ago rainy weather. Our previously detailed account of how constellations, Canis Major, Phoenix, Leo can be detected at sites like America's Stonehenge, while they are below the local horizon, also indicates ancient Egyptians may have done likewise. Orion, or Leo the Sphinx could have been detected while they were in the "underground," around BCE 2500, in alignments otherwise requiring a date of BCE 1050.

  13. Sustainable construction in remote cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify sustainable construction techniques appropriate for remote and cold regions, some of which apply to : operations and maintenance as well. The vast body of literature regarding green construction in warm region...

  14. The effect of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration technique on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate to root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Arslan, Hakan; Akçay, Merve; Saygili, Gökhan; Çakici, Fatih; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide (CH) and antibiotic pastes, including a mixture of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin, with and without minocycline or cefaclor, on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root dentin. Eighty single-rooted human mandibular premolars were selected. The teeth were prepared by using the ProTaper system. The prepared teeth were then instrumented to a #6 Peeso reamer to obtain a standard internal diameter of 1.5 mm. The reamers were passed 1 mm beyond apex to simulate immature teeth. The specimens were then randomly divided into a control group (no intracanal medicament was used) and 4 experimental groups that were treated with an intracanal medicament: CH, double antibiotic paste (DAP) with metronidazole and ciprofloxacin, triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, or TAP with cefaclor (n = 16). After 3 weeks, the medicaments were removed, and approximately 3 mm of MTA was placed in the coronal third of the canals. A push-out test was used to measure the dislocation resistance between the root dentin and MTA. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The dislocation resistance values of the CH, TAP with minocycline, and TAP with cefaclor groups were similar to those of the control group (P > .05), whereas the DAP group had the lowest dislocation resistance when compared with the other groups (P < .05). Overall, there was a predominance of cohesive failures between root dentin and MTA. The results of this study indicate that the application of DAP as an intracanal medicament reduced the dislocation resistance of MTA to root dentin. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 27 CFR 555.209 - Construction of type 3 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.209 Section 555.209 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 3 magazines. A type 3 magazine is a “day-box” or other portable magazine. It must be fire-resistant, weather-resistant, and theft-resistant. A type 3 magazine is to be constructed of not less than...

  16. A critical review of constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuddusi, Luetfullah; Egrican, Niluefer

    2008-01-01

    Constructal theory applied to the volume to point or point to volume flows aims to decrease global flow resistance by furnishing low resistive flow links in the flow field. Constructal theory expects to improve the flow performance by increasing the branching of the low resistive flow links. Fourteen different constructal theory applications involving tree shaped flow networks are reviewed with the purpose to check whether the increase in branching of tree shaped flow networks leads to increased flow performance or not? In other words, the review aims to answer the question; does the evolution model of constructal theory, increasing the branching of tree shaped flow networks through the sequence of constructal designs, improve the flow performance? The review shows that constructal theory will not necessarily improve the flow performance if the internal branching of the flow field is increased, in contrast, the performance will mostly be lowered if the internal branching of the flow field is increased

  17. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  18. Airship construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-four years ago the first successful metal airship was completed and delivered to the United States Navy, the ZMC-2. Between those years and the present, very little effort or serious consideration has been given to the manufacture, design, construction, or economic impact of airships. It is important to retain and exploit the small but continually diminishing pool of airship talent that will expedite the success of the United States in what is now a pioneering venture. The relative simplicity of airship construction, utilizing the tremendous technical advances of the last 44 years, leads to the conclusion that this form of transportation holds great promise for reducing costs of military missions and improving the international competitive position of the United States in commercial applications.

  19. Suction against resistance: a new breathing technique to significantly improve the blood flow ratio of the superior and inferior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Clinical Research Unit of St. Anna Hospital Luzern, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Luzern (Switzerland); Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Cantonal Hospital, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Roos, Justus E. [Duke University, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Weymarn, Constantin von; Reischauer, Carolin; Froehlich, Johannes M. [Clinical Research Unit of St. Anna Hospital Luzern, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Luzern (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    Optimal contrast within the pulmonary artery is achieved by the maximum amount of contrast-enhanced blood flowing through the superior vena cava (SVC), while minimum amounts of non-contrasted blood should originate from the inferior vena cava (IVC). This study aims to clarify whether ''suction against resistance'' might optimise this ratio. Phase-contrast pulse sequences on a 1.5T MRI magnet were used for flow quantification mean flow (mL/s), stroke volume (Vol) in the SVC and IVC in volunteers. Different breathing manoeuvers were analysed repeatedly: free breathing; inspiration; expiration; suction against resistance, and Valsalva. To standardise breathing commands, volunteers performed suction and Valsalva manoeuvers with an MR-compatible manometer.??Suction against resistance was associated with a significant drop of the IVC/SVC flow quotient (1.63 [range 1.3-2.0] p < 0.05 at -10 mmHg and 1.48 [1.1-1.9] p < 0.01 at -20 mmHg) corresponding to increased blood flow from SVC and diminished flow originating from the IVC. The remaining breathing commands (free breathing 2.2; inspiration 2.4; expiration 2.4; Valsalva 10 mmHg 2.3; Valsalva 20 mmHg 2.6; and Valsalva 30 mmHg 2.2) showed no differences (p > 0.05).??Suction against resistance caused a significant drop in the IVC/SVC quotient. Theoretically, this breathing manoeuver might significantly improve the enhancement characteristics of CT angiography. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of the corrosion resistance of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by electrochemical techniques and surface analysis; Investigacao da resistencia a corrosao da liga Ti-13Nb-13Zr por meio de tecnicas eletroquimicas e de analise de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Sergio Luiz de

    2006-07-01

    In this work, the in vitro corrosion resistance of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy, manufactured at a national laboratory, and used for orthopedic applications, has been investigated in solutions that simulate the body fluids. The electrolytes used were 0.9 % (mass) NaCl, Hanks' solution, a culture medium (MEM), and the two last electrolytes, without and with addition of hydrogen peroxide. The aim of peroxide addition was to simulate the conditions found when inflammatory reactions occur due to surgical procedures. The corrosion resistance of alloys commercially in use as biomaterials, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V, as well as of the pure titanium (Ti-cp), was also studied for comparison with the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. The corrosion resistance characterization was carried out by electrochemical and surface analysis techniques. The electrochemical tests used were: open circuit potential measurements as a function of tim; potentiodynamic polarization; and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE). The impedance experimental diagrams were interpreted using equivalent electric circuits that simulate an oxide film with a duplex structure composed of an internal and compact, barrier type layer, and an external porous layer. The results showed that the corrosion resistance is due mainly to the barrier type layer. The titanium alloys and the Ti-cp showed high corrosion resistance in all electrolytes used. The oxides formed on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr, either naturally or during immersion in MEM ar Hank's solution was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The results showed that the presence of hydrogen peroxide in MEM promotes the growth of the porous layer and incorporation of mineral ions, besides favouring hydroxyapatite formation. The cytotoxicity of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was also evaluated and it was shown to be non-toxic. (author)

  1. Determination techniques of characteristics of brittle fracture for materials on the CMEA 1-35 problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhutov, N.A.; Tananov, A.I.; Koshelev, P.F.; Zatsarinnyj, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problems concerning the development and improvement of the investigation techniques and the evaluation of the resistance to brittle fracture of a wide class of materials (the reactor ones, in particular) under different conditions of loading using modern test means are considered in the review. It is reflected in the plan of works on the theme 1-35.3 ''Development of the methods of determination of resistance to brittle fracture of the materials and elements of construct Specialists from CMEA member-countries took an active part in its implementation. The development of the 1-35.3 theme presupposes the creation of scientific bases of calculation methods of the details of machines and elements of constructions according to the criteria of resistance to brittle fracture. The results obtained when using the methods of fracture mechanics are of significant importance in the substantiation of strength and admissible defectiveness of large-size constructions operating under the extremum conditions [ru

  2. Combinatorial designs constructions and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stinson, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    Created to teach students many of the most important techniques used for constructing combinatorial designs, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in combinatorial design theory. The text features clear explanations of basic designs, such as Steiner and Kirkman triple systems, mutual orthogonal Latin squares, finite projective and affine planes, and Steiner quadruple systems. In these settings, the student will master various construction techniques, both classic and modern, and will be well-prepared to construct a vast array of combinatorial designs. Design theory offers a progressive approach to the subject, with carefully ordered results. It begins with simple constructions that gradually increase in complexity. Each design has a construction that contains new ideas or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas previously introduced. A new text/reference covering all apsects of modern combinatorial design theory. Graduates and professionals in computer science, applie...

  3. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  4. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  5. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  6. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  7. Study of the evolution of irradiation induced defects in FeCrx model alloys for fusion applications by means of in-situ resistivity techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ferrer Ferrán, B.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are candidate structural materials for future fusion reactors. These steels can, to a first approximation, be modelled by considering the behavior of binary Fe-Cr alloys. It has been shown that a significant amount of Cr, in the range of 6-14at%, is necessary to provide good mechanical properties of radiation and corrosion resistance. The microstructure evolution induced by neutron irradiation is known to depend on the Cr content. Current knowledge of the role of Cr in the effects of neutron radiation is therefore essential, but still incomplete. The current objective is to extend the experimental study of the point-defect interaction and kinetics in concentrated alloys. This would allow increasing a reliable database of experimental results for validation of computational simulations in order to consolidate the development of models. Thus, to this end, a suitable experimental set-up has been designed and built and subsequently Resistivity Recovery experiments have been run in Fe1-x-Crx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.14)...(Author)

  8. In-house, simple & economical phage technique for rapid detection of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin & ciprofloxacin drug resistance using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemvani, Nanda; Patidar, Vikas; Chitnis, D S

    2012-05-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) among Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a serious therapeutic problem. Early detection of MDR can be valuable but the conventional drug susceptibility tests take 4-6 wk time after the laboratory isolation of M. tuberculosis. The bacterial phage assay has been reported as a rapid tool for rifampicin susceptibility testing of tubercle bacilli using the suspension of isolated cultures. The present study was aimed to set up a phage assay for testing drug susceptibility to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin and ciprofloxacin in M. tuberculosis isolates. Mueller-Hinton broth instead of Middle Brook 7H9 broth was used to make it more economical. The phage assay was compared with the proportion method using 100 M. tuberculosis isolates from pulmonery TB cases. Phage assay results were available in 48 h for rifampicin and streptomycin while 72 h required for INH, ethambutol and ciprofloxacin. The assay was compared with gold standard proportion method. Interpretation of the results was easy and clear. In the present study, sensitivity and specificity of the phage assay when compared to proportion method were in the range of 97 to 100 per cent for all the drugs except for ciprofloxacin for which it was 93 and 96 per cent, respectively. The phage assay was economic, easy to perform and rapid for the detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates with no requirement of expensive equipment. It is within the reach of microbiology laboratories in developing countries having high loads of tuberculosis.

  9. Evaluation of stainless steel reinforcement construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel reinforcement has greater corrosion resistance than that of the conventional reinforcement. In this project, bridge A6059, the first in Missouri utilizing stainless steel reinforcement in the deck, was constructed, along with bridge A...

  10. Deck forms for bridge construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    Because I-girders have inherently weak torsion resistance, cross-frames and/or diaphragms are placed at close : spacing intervals to minimize the susceptibility of individual girders to instability during construction. A recent : increase in fatigue ...

  11. Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In the construction industry, asbestos is found in installed products such as shingles, floor tiles, cement pipe and sheet, roofing felts, insulation, ceiling tiles, fire-resistant drywall, and acoustical products...

  12. Commonly-used versus less commonly-used methods in the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Larissa Pierri; Agarwal, Arnav; Kashiwagi, Flávio T; Corrêa, Ione; Pereira, José Eduardo G; El Dib, Regina

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the efficacy of less-commonly used modern methods (e.g. epidrum, lidocaine, acoustic device, Macintosh balloon) compared to more commonly-used methods (i.e. air, saline, both) in the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space. A systematic review. A hospital-affiliated university. The following databases were searched: PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and LILACS. We used the GRADE approach to rate overall certainty of the evidence. Eight randomized trials including 1583 participants proved eligible. Results suggested a statistically significantly reduction in inability to locate the epidural space (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11, 0.77; P=0.01; I 2 =60%, risk difference (RD) 104/1000, moderate quality evidence), accidental intravascular catheter placement and accidental subarachnoid catheter placement (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.21, 0.59; Pspace (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12, 0.82; P=0.02; I 2 =not applicable). Moderate-quality evidence shows that less commonly-used modern methods such as epidrum, lidocaine and acoustic devices, are more efficacious compared to more commonly-used methods (i.e. air, saline, both) in terms of the loss of resistance technique for identification of the epidural space. These findings should be explored further in the context of the clinical practice among anaesthesiologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced design and construction technology for ABWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Recently, many countries start planning to construct nuclear plants, and the electric power companies and the plant suppliers are acutely aware of the importance of the technical infrastructure required for construction planning and execution as this has a significant influence on construction costs. Plant suppliers in Japan have been focusing its attention on the efficiency of construction from earlier, because of its significant role in determining overall construction costs. Through continuous efforts to reduce fieldwork costs, we have developed unique technologies, especially the 3D-CAD system and other advanced construction technologies including modularization. We, plant suppliers are now turning its attention to overseas nuclear plants construction also, and are developing more rational, economical, and global construction based on its vast experience in construction techniques. In this report, the evolution of plant engineering methods and construction technologies, the present level of progress in construction, and technical developments for the future, are described. (author)

  14. Standard test method for determining the crevice repassivation potential of corrosion-resistant alloys using a potentiodynamic-galvanostatic-potentiostatic technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for conducting anodic polarization studies to determine the crevice repassivation potential for corrosion–resistant alloys. The concept of the repassivation potential is similar to that of the protection potential given in Reference Test Method G 5. 1.2 The test method consists in applying successively potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, and potentiostatic treatments for the initial formation and afterward repassivation of crevice corrosion. 1.3 This test method is a complement to Test Method G 61. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to develop procedures for determining bracing forces during bridge construction. : Numerical finite element models and analysis techniques were developed for evaluating brace forces induced by construction loads ...

  16. Life cycle performances of log wood applied for soil bioengineering constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Gerda; Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there is a high demand on engineering solutions considering not only technical aspects but also ecological and aesthetic values. Soil bioengineering is a construction technique that uses biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions. Soil bioengineering solutions are based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. This kind of construction material supports the soil bioengineering system as long as the plants as living construction material overtake the stability function. Therefore it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to retain the integral performance of a soil bio engineering system. These aspects will be considered within the framework of the interdisciplinary research project „ELWIRA Plants, wood, steel and concrete - life cycle performances as construction materials". Therefore field investigations on soil bioengineering construction material, specifically European Larch wood logs, of different soil bioengineering structures at the river Wien have been conducted. The drilling resistance as a parameter for particular material characteristics of selected logs was measured and analysed. The drilling resistance was measured with a Rinntech Resistograph instrument at different positions of the wooden logs, all surrounded with three different backfills: Fully surrounded with air, with earth contact on one side and near the water surface in wet-dry conditions. The age of the used logs ranges from one year old up to 20 year old. Results show progress of the drilling resistance throughout the whole cross section as an indicator to assess soil bioengineering construction material. Logs surrounded by air showed a higher drilling resistance than logs with earth contact and the ones exposed to wet-dry conditions. Hence the functional capability of wooden logs were analysed and discussed in terms of different levels of degradation

  17. Molecular marker-assisted selection for resistance to pathogens in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, A.; Frusciante, L.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the use of molecular markers has been suggested to improve the efficiency of releasing resistant varieties, thus overcoming difficulties met with classical breeding. For tomato, a high-density molecular map is available in which more than 40 resistance genes are localized. Markers linked to these genes can be used to speed up gene transfer and pyramiding. Suitable PCR markers targeting resistance genes were constructed directly on the sequences of resistance genes or on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) tightly linked to them, and used to select resistant genotypes in backcross schemes. In some cases, the BC 5 generation was reached, and genotypes that cumulated two homozygous resistant genes were also obtained. These results supported the feasibility of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) in tomato and reinforcing the potential of this approach for other genes, which is today also driven by the development of new techniques and increasing knowledge about the tomato genome. (author)

  18. Grob aircraft construction: The G 110 flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malzbender, B.

    1982-01-01

    Description, specifications and test flight performance of the G 110 are provided. The G 110 completely incorporates modern GfK construction techniques which heretofore have been developed and perfected for the construction of sailplanes. The G 110 is a prototype of a GfK constructed motorized aircraft and shows much promise for the future of German aviation.

  19. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  20. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  1. Crystallography, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of heavy-fermion LiV2O4 single crystals grown using a self-flux technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Zong, X.; Niazi, A.; Ellern, A.; Yan, J. Q.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-08-01

    Magnetically pure spinel compound LiV2O4 is a rare d -electron heavy fermion. Measurements on single crystals are needed to clarify the mechanism for the heavy-fermion behavior in the pure material. In addition, it is known that small concentrations (<1mol%) of magnetic defects in the structure strongly affect the properties, and measurements on single crystals containing magnetic defects would help to understand the latter behaviors. Herein, we report flux growth of LiV2O4 and preliminary measurements to help resolve these questions. The magnetic susceptibility of some as-grown crystals show a Curie-like upturn at low temperatures, showing the presence of magnetic defects within the spinel structure. The magnetic defects could be removed in some of the crystals by annealing them at 700°C . A very high specific heat coefficient γ=450mJ/molK2 was obtained at a temperature of 1.8K for a crystal containing a magnetic defect concentration ndefect=0.5mol% . A crystal with ndefect=0.01mol% showed a residual resistivity ratio of 50.

  2. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  3. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  4. Safety in construction industry - overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockalingam, S.; Nehru, R.M.; Ramprasad, K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry plays an important role in the social and economic development in a country. Safety in the construction industry is considered a major issue in developed and developing countries. In urban sector of India increasing numbers of workers have taken up construction work as a means of immediate employment, which provides cash earnings at the end of the day. Being as unorganized sector, the fatal injuries in DAE unit for the construction industry (Nuclear Power Project including BHAVINI: 62.7% from 1999 to 2014) is higher than the category for all other units (UCIL:13.3%; ECIL:6.7%; NFC and ZC: 4%; HWP: 2.7%; IREL:2.7%; Nuclear Power Plant: 2.7% etc., from 1999 to 2014). A variety hazards exist in the construction site. The best way to protect workers against workers against hazards is to control problems at the source. The problem regarding construction industry is not that the hazards and risks are unknown, but it very difficult to accurately identify in a constantly changing work environment. To prevent hazards at work, all possible hazards that may be encountered should be identified in advance through Job Hazard Analysis (JHA). The present scenario has deduced a fact that efficient Safety Management Techniques (SMT) are (essential for today's construction companies and adaptation of legal requirements including regulatory requirements and proactive safety management techniques will help organizations in providing a better workplace to its employees and reduce the accidents. (author)

  5. Intraoperative interstitial hyperthermia in conjunction with intraoperative radiation therapy in a radiation-resistant carcinoma of the abdomen: report on the feasibility of a new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, H W; Milligan, A J; Woldenberg, L S; Ahuja, R K; Dobelbower, R R

    1987-09-01

    The application of a new technique of intraoperative interstitial hyperthermia (IOHT) and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) was investigated for unresectable abdominal carcinoma. A 43-year-old white male presented with severe back pain due to metastatic adenocarcinoma in the left paravertebral area, producing erosion of the body of T12. The disease had not responded to external beam radiation therapy. The tumor was approached through a thoraco-abdominal incision and IOHT was delivered via interstitial electrodes. Temperature was monitored at 16 locations within the tumor. An LCF hyperthermia unit was utilized to deliver RF power and produced a treatment temperature of 43 degrees C for 60 minutes uniformly throughout the treatment volume. Immediately following hyperthermia treatment, the lesion was treated with 15 meV electrons via IORT to a tumor dose of 25Gy. The patient recovered without complication and had complete relief from pain. Posttreatment CT scans have demonstrated control of disease over a 5-month follow-up period. A clinical pilot study has been established to further investigate the application of this combination therapy.

  6. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  7. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  8. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of pilot hole preparation technique on pedicle screw fixation in different regions of the osteoporotic thoracic and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmouche, Jonathan J; Molinari, Robert W; Gerlinger, Tad; Devine, John; Patience, Troy

    2005-11-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of pilot hole preparation technique on insertional torque and axial pullout resistance in osteoporotic thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Using a probe technique and fluoroscopy, 102 pedicle screws were placed in 51 dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-proven osteoporotic thoracic and lumbar levels. Screws were inserted using the same-size tapping, one-size-under tapping, or no-tapping technique. Insertional torque and axial pullout resistance were measured. Analysis of variance, Fisher exact test, and regression analysis were performed. Same-size tapping decreased pullout resistance in the lumbar spine. There was no effect on pullout resistance in the thoracic spine. Pullout resistance values were lower for all insertion techniques in the upper thoracic spine. Insertional torque and bone mineral density correlated with pullout resistance in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Tapping decreased pedicle screw pullout resistance in the osteoporotic human lumbar spine, although it did not affect pullout strength in the thoracic spine. Tapping decreased insertional torque in upper thoracic levels. Surgeons should optimize overall construct rigidity when placing thoracic pedicle screws in patients with spinal segment osteoporosis.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Housing Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore it is right time, and is now both a great incentive and a great opportunity to use sustainable building construction techniques. Housing is a major sector and is responsible for about 20-30% of green house gas emissions in developed countries. Therefore an effective response to climate change can be achieved ...

  11. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method's with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations

  12. Barriers of lean construction implementation in the Moroccan construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajjou, Mohamed Saad; Chafi, Anas

    2018-04-01

    Improving the production system performance has become a fundamental pillar that must be taken into consideration in the construction industry. Recent developments in the construction sector have led to renewed interest in new techniques of management. Lean Construction is a very effective approach that has gained a high popularity by its ability to eliminate waste and maximize the value for the customer. Although both developed and developing countries have gained large benefits by implementing Lean Construction approach, several experiences showed many barriers that are hindering its implementation especially in developing countries. This paper aims to assess the critical barriers to the successful implementation in the Moroccan construction industry. Based on a literature review, followed by an analysis of data collected from a questionnaire survey which targeted 330 practitioners in the Moroccan construction field, several barriers were identified as key barriers. The findings of this investigation revealed that there are significant barriers such as Lack of knowledge about Lean Construction concepts, Unskilled Human Resources, and insufficient financial resources.

  13. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  14. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  15. Constructive memory: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-03-01

    Human memory is not a literal reproduction of the past, but instead relies on constructive processes that are sometimes prone to error and distortion. Understanding of constructive memory has accelerated during recent years as a result of research that has linked together its cognitive and neural bases. This article focuses on three aspects of constructive memory that have been the target of recent research: (i) the idea that certain kinds of memory distortions reflect the operation of adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory; (ii) the role of a constructive memory system in imagining or simulating possible future events; and (iii) differences between true and false memories that have been revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques. The article delineates the theoretical implications of relevant research, and also considers some clinical and applied implications.

  16. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....

  17. [New microbiological techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G

    2017-06-01

    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  18. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  19. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  20. Resistência da pele de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis curtida pelas técnicas ao cromo e bioleather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711 Resistance of the carp mirror skin (Cyprinus carpio specularis tanned by chromium and bioleather technique - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Telmo Agostin Schmidt

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a técnica de curtimento bioleather e o curtimentocom sais de cromo, em peles de carpa espelho (Cyprinus carpio specularis. As peles foram retiradas com o auxílio de uma máquina, identificadas e congeladas. Em seguida, foram curtidas por meio de duas técnicas diferentes. O passo seguinte foi retirada dos corpos de prova, que foram levados para o laboratório, climatizado em torno de 23ºC e umidade relativa, do ar de 50%, conforme NBR 10455 (1988, por 24 horas. Para os testes de resistência à tração, ao alongamento e à determinação da força de rasgamento progressivo, utilizou-se o dinamômetro EMIC. Foram retiradas amostras da região dorsal do couro para análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. As amostras foram secas em ponto crítico com CO2 e metalizadas com íons de ouro-paládio. Em seguida as amostras foram elétron-micrografados com o JEOL-JSM 5410. Observou-se o entrelaçamento e sobreposição das camadas das fibras colágenas, que proporcionam maior resistência ao couro, constatada pelos testes realizados. Os couros curtidos com a técnica bioleather apresentaram maiores valores no teste de tração (20,45 N/mm2 em comparação ao cromo (12,32 N/mm2. Não houve diferença na elongação entre os tratamentos (bioleather = 72,52%; cromo = 84,74%. Para o teste de rasgamento progressivo, o curtimento ao cromo foi superior (26,28 N/mm, comparado ao bioleather (11,96 N/mm. Entretanto, os dois curtimentos podem ser utilizados nas peles dessa espécie de peixe para a confecção de vestuários.The objective of the work was to evaluate the tanning technique to bioleather and with chromium salts, in carp mirror skins (Cyprinus carpio specularis. The skins wore removed by means of a machine, identified and congealed. Next they were tanned by the two techniques. The test bodies wore removed and taken to the laboratory climatized around 23ºC and relative humidity of the 50% air, as ABNT

  1. Shhhhhh, The Dragon Is Asleep, and Its Name Is Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Monica

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the effect of resistance on educational change, offering three steps for managing resistance (being aware of resistance, identifying sources and types of resistance, and developing and applying proactive strategies for managing resistance). Two sidebars describe 10 techniques to turn resistance into productive effort and discuss how to…

  2. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  3. Stonke Construction Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonke Construction (the Company) is located in Anchorage, Alaska. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in and around Anchorage, Alaska.

  4. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  5. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwu, Han; Junqiu, Zhang; Chao, Ge; Li, Wen; Ren, Luquan

    2012-02-07

    In this paper, a bionic method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components. Desert scorpion (Androctonus australis) is a typical animal living in sandy deserts, and may face erosive action of blowing sand at a high speed. Based on the idea of bionics and biologic experimental techniques, the mechanisms of the sand erosion resistance of desert scorpion were investigated. Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion resistance. In order to understand the erosion resistance mechanisms of such functional surfaces, the combination of computational and experimental research were carried out in this paper. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was applied to predict the erosion performance of the bionic functional surfaces. The result demonstrated that the microtextured surfaces exhibited better erosion resistance than the smooth surfaces. The further erosion tests indicated that the groove surfaces exhibited better erosion performance at 30° injection angle. In order to determine the effect of the groove dimensions on the erosion resistance, regression analysis of orthogonal multinomials was also performed under a certain erosion condition, and the regression equation between the erosion rate and groove distance, width, and height was established.

  6. Targeting Androgen Receptor-Driven Resistance to CYP17A1 Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    genetic technique, and then to identify the enhancer-binding proteins that drive enhancer activity, with the long-term aim to prevent ENZ/ABI resistance...drug-enhanced GFP expression. Positive enhancer regions will be recombined to a minimal, enhancerless luciferase reporter construct via att Gateway... recombination sequences that flank the AgeI/SalI enhancer region insert site. After Sanger sequencing to verify the recombinants , the reporters

  7. Construction, emplacement, and retrievability (preclosure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, W.

    1985-01-01

    Each of the three preclosure subgroups of the Construction, Emplacement, and Retrievability Working Group adopted a six-step approach to identify and assess current needs in geotechnical modeling and characterization. This approach may be summarized as follows: identify phenomena related to emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes, identify types of models which are required to calculate the phenomena, establish the input data needs for the models, assess the current availability of the models, assess the current status of documentation, verification, and validation of the models, and determine the adequacy of instrumentation and measurement techniques to (a) validate the models, where necessary, and (b) obtain input data for design. Systematic application of these six steps leads to the establishment of the research requirements for geotechnical modeling and characterization. A summary of modeling techniques which apply to the three subsequent sections on construction, emplacement, and retrievability is presented. Research needs, which apply to all preclosure activities, are summarized

  8. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  9. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.

    1983-06-01

    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  10. FY 1991 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 1. Construction and operation of the prototype system (researches on elementary techniques and construction and operation of the pilot system); Super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaiahtsu 1981 nendo seika hokokusho. 1. System shisaku unten kenkyu (yoso gijutsu no kenkyu / pilot system no shisaku unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-05-01

    Summarized herein are R and D results of the super high performance heat pumps and elementary equipment, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For R and D of the super high performance compression heat pumps, the R and D efforts are directed to tests and evaluation of the pilot plant for the highly efficient type (for heating only), which produce the results of COP exceeding the target of 8; to tests of the anti-corrosion measures for the aluminum heat exchangers for the highly efficient type (for cooling and heating), by which the effective inhibitors are selected. The hybrid systems of the super high performance compression heat pumps and chemical heat storage are also studied in detail. The R and D efforts are directed to construction and operation of the hybrid heat pump system to collect underground heat for the high temperature type (utilizing low temperature heat source), which produce the results of confirming possibility of efficient heat collection for extended periods; and to improvement, construction on a trial basis and operation of the high-speed reciprocating compressors and steam superchargers for the high temperature type (utilizing high temperature heat source). For R and D of the elementary equipment, tests and evaluation are conducted for the EHD heat exchangers which use R123 as the new working fluid. (NEDO)

  11. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  12. REVIEW ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE PRIMAVERA P6

    OpenAIRE

    Piyush Pramod Bagade* & Prof. Abhijit Bhirud

    2018-01-01

    Planning, scheduling and Resource levelling plays an important role in any construction project maybe it is construction of building or construction of road. In absence of proper planning, scheduling and resource levelling construction industry does not get profit over the project. For this purpose, proper software’s and techniques must be utilize. This paper is focussing on the advantages of Oracle Primavera P6 Software. The latest version of Primavera is P6-17. In any construction work huge...

  13. Efeito de técnicas de recurtimento sobre a resistência do couro da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1185 Effect of retanning techniques on the resistance of the Nile tilapia leather (Oreochromis niloticus L. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1185

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Rodrigues de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resistência do couro de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L. curtido com sais de cromo e diferentes técnicas de recurtimento. As peles foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2, sendo quatro técnicas de recutimento (T1= 4% de sais de cromo; T2= 4% taninos vegetais; T3 = 4% taninos sintéticos e T4= 2% taninos sintéticos e 2% vegetais e dois sentidos do couro (S1=Longitudinal; S2=Transversal, com 6 repetições. Para os testes de determinação da resistência à tração, alongamento e rasgamento progressivo foi utilizado o dinamômetro EMIC, com velocidade de afastamento entre as cargas de 100 ± 20 mm/mm, em ambiente climatizado (±23ºC e UR do ar de 50%, por 24 horas (ABNT-NBR 10455, 1988. A técnica de recurtimento influenciou na espessura do couro, sendo que com sais de cromo (T1=0,61 a 0,68 mm a espessura foi inferior aos demais tratamentos (1,30 a 1,53 mm. O sentido do couro não teve influencia sobre a espessura. Os couros recurtidos com sais de cromo apresentaram significativamente valores superiores para tração (30,31 N/mm2, alongamento (52,42% e rasgamento progressivo (91,23 N/mm comparados aos curtidos com os taninos vegetais, sintéticos ou combinados. O sentido longitudinal do couro apresentou superior tração (23,00 N/mm2 comparado ao transversal (12,03 N/mm2, porém, não diferiu no teste de alongamento e rasgamento progressivo entre o longitudinal e transversal. Segundo padrões da literatura, o couro curtido ao cromo deve apresentar uma resistência à tração de mínimo de 9,80 N/mm2, 60% para elongação e 14,70 N/mm para rasgo. A pele curtida com cromo e recurtida com sais de cromo apresentaram os valores mais adequados ao recomendado para confecção de vestuárioThe aim of this work was to evaluate the resistance of the Nile Tilapia leather (Oreochromis niloticus tanned with chromium salts and different techniques of retanning

  14. Use of the rep technique for allele replacement to construct mutants with deletions of the pstSCAB-phoU operon: evidence of a new role for the PhoU protein in the phosphate regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, P M; Wanner, B L

    1993-01-01

    The phosphate regulon is negatively regulated by the PstSCAB transporter and PhoU protein by a mechanism that may involve protein-protein interaction(s) between them and the Pi sensor protein, PhoR. In order to study such presumed interaction(s), mutants with defined deletions of the pstSCAB-phoU operon were made. This was done by construction of M13 recombinant phage carrying these mutations and by recombination of them onto the chromosome by using a rep host (which cannot replicate M13) for allele replacement. These mutants were used to show that delta (pstSCAB-phoU) and delta (pstB-phoU) mutations abolished Pi uptake by the PstSCAB transporter, as expected, and that delta phoU mutations had no effect on uptake. Unexpectedly, delta phoU mutations had a severe growth defect, and this growth defect was (largely) alleviated by a compensatory mutation in the pstSCAB genes or in the phoBR operon, whose gene products positively regulate expression of the pstSCAB-phoU operon. Because delta phoU mutants that synthesize a functional PstSCAB transporter constitutively grew extremely poorly, the PhoU protein must have a new role, in addition to its role as a negative regulator. A role for the PhoU protein in intracellular Pi metabolism is proposed. Further, our results contradict those of M. Muda, N. N. Rao, and A. Torriani (J. Bacteriol. 174:8057-8064, 1992), who reported that the PhoU protein was required for Pi uptake. Images PMID:8226621

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE CORROSION OF CONSTRUCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCSE

    Results indicate that S355 and S235 steels have comparable corrosion resistance, which are much lower than that of S275. KEY WORDS: Corrosion, Steel, Salt spray, Tafel polarization, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. INTRODUCTION. Steel is an alloy used in construction and mechanical engineering.

  16. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    collection’s techniques and climatic design simulations. DropNet© is a lightweight fog collector kit -a standing-alone web- resistant against very strong winds. It is constructed with an elastic mesh according to the required tension. Apart from this, it is ease to be transported, assemble and relocated due to its tent-like construction. As a flexible construction it can be installed on flatten or uneven grounds. FogHive© is a modular space-frame, fully wrapped with a light waxy mesh, that can collect water fog and also performs like a shading/cooling device and a soil humidifier for greenery and potential inhabitation. Its body consists of a deployable polygonal structure with an adjustable polyvalent membrane which performs as water repellent skin (facing prevailing winds) and shading device facing Equator. In addition, a domestic wind turbine is installed within the structural frame to provide autonomous electrification. Both models have great applicability to provide drinking water in remote place and also irrigating water to repair or re-establish flora. Water collector, filtering (purification) and irrigation network are designed with appropriate materials and techniques.

  17. Metodologia para parametrizar e avaliar a técnica da ''burn-zinc'' no processo de soldagem a ponto por resistência Methodology for parameterize and assessment of the burn-zinc technique in the resistance spot welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Castanheira do Nascimento

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para minimizar os efeitos prejudiciais do zinco na soldagem a ponto por resistência de chapas galvanizadas, utiliza-se uma técnica tradicionalmente denominada ''Burn-Zinc'' (queima do zinco. Porém, existem poucas informações e estudos disponíveis na literatura sobre quando e como utilizá-la. O presente estudo teve a finalidade de avaliar a técnica de ''burn-zinc'', procurando entender melhor o fenômeno. Para tal, foi criada uma metodologia para determinação dos parâmetros ideais para cada combinação de chapa. Uma avaliação desta metodologia foi feita com uma série de soldagens com variações sistemáticas da corrente e pressão em níveis compatíveis para se obter a queima do Zn. Visualização das soldagens através de filmagem em alta velocidade, com sincronização dos sinais elétricos, foi empregada para entender os resultados. Uma vez definidos os parâmetros, soldagens foram realizadas com ou sem a aplicação da técnica. Os procedimentos experimentais propostos mostraram ser eficientes para a verificação e parametrização da técnica ''burn-zinc''. Mas houve evidências que a utilização da técnica nem sempre vai ocasionar redução no tempo total de operação.For minimizing the detrimental effects of zinc during resistance spot welding of galvanized sheets, a technique denominated Burn-Zinc is usually employed. However, there is no much information and studies available in the current literature about when and how to use this technique. The present work had the objective of assessing and understanding better this technique. For that, a methodology for determination of ideal burn-zing parameters as a function of the sheets was proposed. The evaluation of this methodology was carried out by a series of weldments, by systematically varying current and pressure at compatible levels for zinc burning. High speed filming, synchronized with the electrical signals, was employing for visualizing and results analyses

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  19. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  20. Diametral tensile strength of composite resins submitted to different activation techniques Resistência à tração diametral de compósitos resinosos submetidos a diferentes técnicas de ativação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sá Maia Casselli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diametral tensile strength (DTS of composite resins submitted to different curing techniques. Four composite resins were tested in this study: Targis (Ivoclar, Solidex (Shofu, Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer and Filtek Z250 (3M Espe. Sixty-four cylindrical specimens were prepared and divided into eight groups according to each polymerization technique (n = 8. The indirect composite resins (Targis and Solidex were polymerized with their respective curing systems (Targis Power and EDG-lux; Charisma and Filtek Z250 were light-cured with conventional polymerization (halogen light and additionally, with post-curing systems. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for one week. DTS tests were performed in a Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm/min. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests. The results were (MPa: Z250/EDG-lux: 69.04ª; Z250/Targis Power: 68.57ª; Z250/conventional polymerization: 60.75b; Charisma/Targis Power: 52.34c; Charisma/conventional polymerization: 49.17c; Charisma/EDG-lux: 47.98c; Solidex: 36.62d; Targis: 32.86d. The results reveal that the post-cured Z250 composite resin showed the highest DTS means. Charisma composite presented no significant differences when activation techniques were compared. Direct composite resins presented higher DTS values than indirect resins.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à tração diametral (DTS de compósitos submetidos a diferentes técnicas de polimerização. Foram testados quatro compósitos neste estudo: Targis (Ivoclar, Solidex (Shofu, Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer e Filtek Z250 (3M Espe. Foram confeccionados 64 corpos-de-prova cilíndricos, que foram divididos em 8 grupos de acordo com a técnica de polimerização (n = 8. Os compósitos indiretos (Targis e Solidex foram polimerizados com seus respectivos sistemas de ativação (Targis Power e EDG-lux; Charisma e Filtek Z250 foram fotoativados com polimeriza

  1. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  2. Fast Resistive Bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-02-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  3. Fast resistive bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.

    1998-06-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. The authors describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high power Z pinches on Sandia`s Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. They describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  4. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  5. Construction of a manual of work processes and techniques from Centro de Dispensação de Medicamentos de Alto Custo (CEDMAC), Hospital de Clínicas, Unicamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Ferreira, Bruno Silva de Araújo; Marchiore, Adriana G Mucke; Carvalho, Glaucia Pereira do Amaral; de Souza, Débora Pessoa; Psaltikidis, Eliane Molina

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for High Cost Medication (Centros de Medicação de Alto Custo, CEDMAC), Health Department, São Paulo were instituted by project in partnership with the Clinical Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, USP, sponsored by the Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP) aimed at the formation of a statewide network for comprehensive care of patients referred for use of immunobiological agents in rheumatological diseases. The CEDMAC of Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (HC-Unicamp), implemented by the Division of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, identified the need for standardization of the multidisciplinary team conducts, in face of the specificity of care conducts, verifying the importance of describing, in manual format, their operational and technical processes. The aim of this study is to present the methodology applied to the elaboration of the CEDMAC/HC-Unicamp Manual as an institutional tool, with the aim of offering the best assistance and administrative quality. In the methodology for preparing the manuals at HC-Unicamp since 2008, the premise was to obtain a document that is participatory, multidisciplinary, focused on work processes integrated with institutional rules, with objective and didactic descriptions, in a standardized format and with electronic dissemination. The CEDMAC/HC-Unicamp Manual was elaborated in 10 months, with involvement of the entire multidisciplinary team, with 19 chapters on work processes and techniques, in addition to those concerning the organizational structure and its annexes. Published in the electronic portal of HC Manuals in July 2012 as an e-Book (ISBN 978-85-63274-17-5), the manual has been a valuable instrument in guiding professionals in healthcare, teaching and research activities.

  6. Sequence of construction of Ciomadul (Csomád) dacitic lava domes, East Carpathians, by unspiked K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique in comparison with other radiometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibacto, Stéphane; Lahitte, Pierre; Karátson, Dávid; Veres, Daniel; Gertisser, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Intra-Carpathian Volcanic Range in Romania, the Ciomadul (Csomád) volcanic complex (CVC) is the youngest eruptive center of the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR). It consists of a dozen of dacitic lava domes that encompass two youngest explosive craters (those of the older Mohos peat bog and the younger St. Ana lake). Whereas, in the last decade, the Ciomadul explosive history for the last 50 ka was well constrained by numerous studies, the chronology of the dome sequence still lacks robust chronological constraints, since it is based on biased K-Ar ages. Here, we provide a detailed K-Ar dating approach to refine the chronology of the domes, using the unspiked K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technics for the first time. New eruption ages were performed especially on groundmass (separated from 3-4 kg unaltered sample rocks), the only material the cooling of which is doubtlessly contemporaneous with the eruption. Every age obtained is found to be younger than those proposed on previous whole rock K-Ar datings. Our analysis shows that most of the K-Ar ages in the previous studies suffer from the unsuitability of the material used to obtain eruptive ages, since dating whole rock gives a mixed age due to various mineral fractions with different individual ages. Our new results show that Ciomadul's volcanic activity began by the construction of the south-easternmost, peripheral domes from ca. 700 ka to 450 ka. Next, after a ca. 200 kyr long quiescence period, activity occurred in the north at 250 ka, and subsequent domes were emplaced from 200 - 150 ka forming roughly north-south aligned domes at the western and central part of the complex. Next, after another 50 kyr long quiescence period, activity resumed around 100 ka to form the eastern-central domes. In addition to this chronological history of lava dome volcanism, we also investigated the sequence of crystallisation of phenocrysts present in the lavas, with respect to the modification of the

  7. Construction project management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  8. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  9. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  10. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  11. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  12. Skin Problems in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you use at work. Find out more about construction hazards. To receive copies of this Hazard Alert ... index.html Physician’s Alert: Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Construction Workers – give this Alert to your doctor http:// ...

  13. Testing compression strength of wood logs by drilling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalny, Gerda; Rados, Kristijan; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2017-04-01

    Soil bioengineering is a construction technique using biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions, based on the application of living plants and other auxiliary materials including among others log wood. Considering the reliability of the construction it is important to know about the durability and the degradation process of the wooden logs to estimate and retain the integral performance of a soil bioengineering system. An important performance indicator is the compression strength, but this parameter is not easy to examine by non-destructive methods. The Rinntech Resistograph is an instrument to measure the drilling resistance by a 3 mm wide needle in a wooden log. It is a quasi-non-destructive method as the remaining hole has no weakening effects to the wood. This is an easy procedure but result in values, hard to interpret. To assign drilling resistance values to specific compression strengths, wooden specimens were tested in an experiment and analysed with the Resistograph. Afterwards compression tests were done at the same specimens. This should allow an easier interpretation of drilling resistance curves in future. For detailed analyses specimens were investigated by means of branch inclusions, cracks and distances between annual rings. Wood specimens are tested perpendicular to the grain. First results show a correlation between drilling resistance and compression strength by using the mean drilling resistance, average width of the annual rings and the mean range of the minima and maxima values as factors for the drilling resistance. The extended limit of proportionality, the offset yield strength and the maximum strength were taken as parameters for compression strength. Further investigations at a second point in time strengthen these results.

  14. Skid Resistance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  15. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  16. FY 1991 Report on research and development of super heat pump energy accumulation system. Part 2. Construction and operation of the prototype system (researches on elementary techniques and construction and operation of the pilot system); Super heat pump energy shuseki system no kenkyu kaihatsu 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. 2. System shisaku unten kenkyu (yoso gijutsu no kenkyu / pilot system no shisaku unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-05-01

    Summarized herein are R and D results of the researches on the chemical heat storage systems, plant simulation techniques and combined systems, and international technical exchanges, for R and D of the super heat pump energy accumulation system. For the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing ammonia complexes), the initial research targets are almost attained, as a result of the designs of a chemical heat storage unit having heat storage capacity of 1,000 kWh. For the high temperature heat storage type (utilizing hydration reactions), a 25 Mcal-scale pilot partial test unit is operated, to study applicability of the practical materials and other operation-related themes. For the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing hydration reactions by solute mixing), a pilot system is operated, to attain heat recovery of 75% or more, heat storage density of 30 kcal/kg or more, and output temperature of 7 degrees C. For the low temperature heat storage type (utilizing clathrates), the evaluation tests by a pilot plant produce heat recovery of 93.2% and heat storage density of 32.0 kcal/kg. In addition, the R and D efforts are directed to, e.g., researches on plant simulation techniques and combined systems. (NEDO)

  17. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Materials (ECOMAT IV 2009): Paths Towards Sustainability Bayamo, CUBA 4 coupled with unimaginative and ill-directed policies by developers have created hectares of sterile concrete block units unaffordable to the average worker.” [10] Advanced construction... Gypsum panel boards Standards / Easy, fast construction 2. Frametech Concrete / Wire Mesh (durawall) Standards / Easy, fast construction 3. Frametech Wood panels Standards / Easy, fast construction 4. Wood Cabins Wood planks / boards Standards...

  18. Academic Resistance in the University: Conceptualizing the Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbut, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the phenomenon and concept of "academic resistance." Several aspects are identified: resistance as an integral part of power relations in university education, the pragmatic nature of resistance, and the impossibility of constructing an overarching conception of resistance. The author concludes that researching…

  19. 1998 Construction Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the third annual survey of college and university construction in the United States. Finds that almost $5.8 billion worth of construction was completed in 1997, and $6.3 billion will be finished in 1998. Offers information on regional construction activity, profiles of new buildings on campuses, residence hall amenities, and other data.…

  20. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  1. A Duplicate Construction Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  2. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  3. Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, A. E.; Mcbride, S. E.; Richards, P. L.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ion implantation and sputter metallization are used to produce ohmic electrical contacts to Ge:Ga chips. The method is shown to give a high yield of small monolithic bolometers with very little low-frequency noise. It is noted that when one of the chips is used as the thermometric element of a composite bolometer it must be bonded to a dielectric substrate. The thermal resistance of the conventional epoxy bond is measured and found to be undesirably large. A procedure for soldering the chip to a metallized portion of the substrate in such a way as to reduce this resistance is outlined. An evaluation is made of the contribution of the metal film absorber to the heat capacity of a composite bolometer. It is found that the heat capacity of a NiCr absorber at 1.3 K can dominate the bolometer performance. A Bi absorber possesses significantly lower heat capacity. A low-temperature blackbody calibrator is built to measure the optical responsivity of bolometers. A composite bolometer system with a throughput of approximately 0.1 sr sq cm is constructed using the new techniques. The noise in this bolometer is white above 2.5 Hz and is slightly below the value predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium theory.

  4. A Construction Management Framework for Mass Customisation in Traditional Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Andújar-Montoya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A Mass Customisation model is discussed as a competitive positioning strategy in the marketplace adding value to the customer’s end-use. It includes the user as part of the construction process responding to the customer’s demands and wishes. To the present day, almost all proposals for Mass Customisation have been focused on the design phase and single family houses. The reality is that the processes carried out in the work execution are so inefficient that the costs of the Mass Customisation models are assumed by the customer and they do not offer solutions that support the change management. Furthermore, this inefficiency often makes Mass Customisation unfeasible in terms of deadlines and site management. Therefore, the present proposal focuses on achieving the paradigm of Mass Customisation in the traditional residential construction complementary to the existing proposals in the design phase. All this through the proposal of a framework for the integral management in the work execution, which will address change management introduced by the users offering an efficient and productive model that reduces costs in the process. This model will focus on the synergy between different strategies, techniques and technologies currently used in the construction management (such as Lean Construction or Six Sigma, together with, other strategies and technologies that have proven to be valid solutions in other fields (such as Business Process Management, Service Oriented Architecture, etc..

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  6. Exploring communication of resistance in cross-sector collaboration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    communication of resistance by meaning negotiations and counter-narratives. It examines these in a case-study from the education area concerning a cross-sector collaborative initiative in a local government that includes stakeholders from the education department, preschool centers, union representatives......, politicians, parents and children. The findings elucidate how communication of resistance both complicates and constructs the organizing of cross-sector collaboration: by constructing various stakeholders as resisters that become a barrier; by negotiating resistance as stakeholders’ diverging meanings...

  7. TPX tokamak construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.; Kungl, D.; Seidel, P.; Halfast, C.

    1995-01-01

    A construction management contract normally involves the acquisition of a construction management firm to assist in the design, planning, budget conformance, and coordination of the construction effort. In addition the construction management firm acts as an agent in the awarding of lower tier contracts. The TPX Tokamak Construction Management (TCM) approach differs in that the construction management firm is also directly responsible for the assembly and installation of the tokamak including the design and fabrication of all tooling required for assembly. The Systems Integration Support (SIS) contractor is responsible for the architect-engineering design of ancillary systems, such as heating and cooling, buildings, modifications and site improvements, and a variety of electrical requirements, including switchyards and >4kV power distribution. The TCM will be responsible for the procurement of materials and the installation of the ancillary systems, which can either be performed directly by the TCM or subcontracted to a lower tier subcontractor. Assurance that the TPX tokamak is properly assembled and ready for operation when turned over to the operations team is the primary focus of the construction management effort. To accomplish this a disciplined constructability program will be instituted. The constructability effort will involve the effective and timely integration of construction expertise into the planning, component design, and field operations. Although individual component design groups will provide liaison during the machine assembly operations, the construction management team is responsible for assembly

  8. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  9. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  10. 27 CFR 555.208 - Construction of type 2 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.208 Section 555.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 2 magazines. A type 2 magazine is a box, trailer, semitrailer, or other mobile facility. (a) Outdoor magazines—(1) General. Outdoor magazines are to be bullet-resistant, fire-resistant...

  11. Computer aided fault tree construction for electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    A technique is presented for automated construction of the Boolean failure logic diagram, called the fault tree, for electrical systems. The method is a technique for synthesizing a fault tree from system-independent component characteristics. Terminology is defined and heuristic examples are given for all phases of the model. The computer constructed fault trees are in conventional format, use conventional symbols, and are deductively constructed from the main failure of interest to the individual component failures. The synthesis technique is generally applicable to automated fault tree construction for other types of systems

  12. Influence of chemical composition of civil construction waste in the cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    The construction and demolition waste when disposed inappropriately might cause serious public health problems. Its reutilization focusing on the development of new products using simple production techniques, assuring a new product life cycle and not damaging the environment is inserted in sustainable concept. The aim of this work was identifying the characteristics of types of waste generated in a residential reform (glassy ceramic and fill dirt leftovers) verifying separately its influence on cement pastes mechanical behavior. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions with an approximately 0,35 water/cement relation and, glue time determination, water absorption, resistance to compression and X-ray fluorescence assays were taken. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the waste causes changes in the behavior of cement pastes, reflecting on their resistance to compression. (author)

  13. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  14. Fiber heart valve prosthesis: influence of the fabric construction parameters on the valve fatigue performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Chakfe, Nabil

    2014-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become today a largely considered alternative technique to surgical valve replacement in patients who are not operable or patients with high risk for open chest surgery. However, the biological valve tissue used in the devices implanted clinically appears to be fragile material when folded for low diameter catheter insertion purpose and released in calcified environment with irregular geometry. Textile polyester material is characterized by outstanding folding and strength properties combined with proven biocompatibility. It could thereof be considered to replace biological valve leaflets in the TAVR procedure. The textile construction parameters must however be tuned to obtain a material compatible with the valve requested durability. In that context, one issue to be addressed is the friction effect that occurs between filaments and between yarns within a fabric under flexure loading. This phenomenon could be critical for the resistance of the material on the long term. The purpose of the present work is to assess the fatigue performances of textile valve prototypes made from different fabric constructions (monofilament, multifilament, calendered mutifilament) under accelerated cyclic loading. The goal is to identify, which construction is the best suited to long term fatigue stress. Results show that calendered multifilament and monofilament fabric constructions undergo strong ruptures already from 40 Mio cycles, while non calendered multifilament appears more durable. The rupture patterns observed point out that durability is directly related to the flexure stiffness level of the fibrous elements in the construction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BIM and Lean Construction: The Evolution Obstacle in the Brazilian Civil Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Alvarenga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the teaching approach of different universities in the state of Rio de Janeiro regarding the dissemination of two civil construction learning paradigms: BIM and Lean Construction. The article’s main purpose is to investigate the learning systems of the two techniques for the benefit of the construction industry, as well as to evaluate their level of recognition. The principal results show that civil engineers graduates acquire little or no knowledge of both techniques, which may become a barrier to their professional evolution and especially to their involvement with public works projects.

  16. 27 CFR 555.210 - Construction of type 4 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constructed of masonry, metal-covered wood, fabricated metal, or a combination of these materials. Foundations... posts are used, in lieu of a continuous foundation, the space under the building is to be enclosed with fire-resistant material. The walls and floors are to be constructed of, or covered with, a nonsparking...

  17. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, João M.L.; Gallinaro, Bruno; Carajilescov, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ► The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ► Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ► The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ► Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

  18. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  19. Investigation of Thermal Interface Materials Using Phase-Sensitive Transient Thermoreflectance Technique: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; King, C.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01

    With increasing power density in electronics packages/modules, thermal resistances at multiple interfaces are a bottleneck to efficient heat removal from the package. In this work, the performance of thermal interface materials such as grease, thermoplastic adhesives and diffusion-bonded interfaces are characterized using the phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance technique. A multi-layer heat conduction model was constructed and theoretical solutions were derived to obtain the relation between phase lag and the thermal/physical properties. This technique enables simultaneous extraction of the contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity of the TIMs. With the measurements, the bulk thermal conductivity of Dow TC-5022 thermal grease (70 to 75 um bondline thickness) was 3 to 5 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 5 to 10 mm2-K/W. For the Btech thermoplastic material (45 to 80 μm bondline thickness), the bulk thermal conductivity was 20 to 50 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 2 to 5 mm2-K/W. Measurements were also conducted to quantify the thermal performance of diffusion-bonded interface for power electronics applications. Results with the diffusion-bonded sample showed that the interfacial thermal resistance is more than one order of magnitude lower than those of traditional TIMs, suggesting potential pathways to efficient thermal management.

  20. High diversity of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance in salmonid fish farm pond water as determined by molecular identification employing 16S rDNA PCR, gene sequencing and total antibiotic susceptibility techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Huang, Junhua; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Moore, Peter Ja; Millar, Beverley C; Goldsmith, Colin E; Xu, Jiru

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microbiological and related parameters (antibiotic resistance and pathogen identification) of water at two salmonid fish farms in Northern Ireland. Total Bacterial Counts at the Movanagher Fish Farm was 1730 colony forming units (cfu)/ml water (log10 3.24cfu/ml) and 3260cfu/ml (log10 3.51cfu/ml) at the Bushmills Salmon Station. Examination of resulting organisms revealed 10 morphological phenotypes, which were subsequently sequenced to determine their identification. All these organisms were Gram-negative and no Gram-positive organisms were isolated from any water sample. From these phenotypes, eight different genera were identified including Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Chryseobacterium, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Rheinheimera. One unnamed novel taxon was identified from water at the Movanagher Fish Farm, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter and has been tentatively named Acinetobacter movanagherensis. No other novel taxa were observed. All but one of these environmental organisms (Erwinia) are potential pathogens of fish disease. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees in water specimens. The most resistant populations were observed in water taken from the Bushmills Salmon Station inlet, followed by water from the Movanagher Fish Farm. No resistance was observed against tetracycline and there was only one occurrence of resistance against ciprofloxacin. Overall, this study indicates that potential fish pathogens made up the majority of environmental organisms identified, even in the absence of recorded fish disease. There was also relatively high levels of total antibiotic resistance in the bacterial water populations examined, where tetracycline was the only antibiotic with zero resistance. These data indicate that the threat of bacterial disease is relatively close due to the indigenous colonization of farm water and that husbandry standards should be maintained at a high standard to avert