WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistant construction standards

  1. Toronto green roof construction standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Toronto City Council adopted a green roof strategy in February 2006. This paper reviewed the by-law governing the strategy as well as the work in progress to develop minimum standards for the design and construction of green roofs in Toronto. The strategy included a series of recommendations regarding the installation of green roofs on city buildings; a pilot grant program; using the development process to encourage green roofs; and, public education and promotion. It was noted that compared to Europe, the development of standards for green roofs in North America is in its early stages. As an emerging sustainable technology, there currently are no standards incorporated into Ontario's Building Code against which Toronto can measure the design and construction of green roofs. Therefore this paper included an analysis detailing how the recommended design requirements were able to support the City's green roof policy objectives and integrate the performance criteria for green roofs previously established and supported by Toronto City Council. The key policy objectives of the City's green roof strategy were to reduce the urban heat island effect; to address stormwater management implications in terms of quality and quantity; to improve the energy budgets of individual buildings; and, to improve air quality

  2. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  3. Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In the construction industry, asbestos is found in installed products such as shingles, floor tiles, cement pipe and sheet, roofing felts, insulation, ceiling tiles, fire-resistant drywall, and acoustical products...

  4. Standard forms of construction contracts in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bănică

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Romania is under pressure to modernize in order to cope with the new demands of development and convergence with EU. Contractual procedures in construction have to become an integral part in this process of modernization. The article makes an introduction to the advantages of standard forms of contract and professional contract administration in construction and presents the current state-of-the art in the use of standard construction contracts in Romania. Some practical conclusions and recommendations are presented considering the need for further contract studies.

  5. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2011-01-01

    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  6. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  7. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units "Standard Construction" and "Preframed Construction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    The standards that should be applied to the construction of supplementary classroom units are discussed in this report. Areas dealt with are--(1) general mechanical and electrical work, (2) concrete, (3) masonry, (4) miscellaneous steel and iron, (5) metal windows, (6) carpentry at site, (7) millwork, (8) acoustic treatment, (9) thermal…

  8. Alternate performance standard project: Interpreting the post-construction test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.D.; McDonough, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a project commissioned by the State of Florida, in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, as one portion of the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). The purpose of the FRRP is to provide technical support for a statewide Building Standard for Radon-Resistant Construction currently in the rulemaking process. In this case the information provides technical background for a post-construction radon test specified as a performance element of the code which accompanies the prescriptive alternative that does not incorporate active radon reduction systems

  9. Construct Maps as a Foundation for Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    Construct maps are tools that display how the underlying achievement construct upon which one is trying to set cut-scores is related to other information used in the process of standard setting. This article reviews what construct maps are, uses construct maps to provide a conceptual framework to view commonly used standard-setting procedures (the…

  10. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All borrowers... system design, construction standards, and the use of RUS accepted materials. Borrowers must comply with...

  11. 7 CFR 1944.424 - Dwelling construction and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dwelling construction and standards. 1944.424 Section 1944.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE....424 Dwelling construction and standards. All construction will be performed in accordance with subpart...

  12. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  13. Textual complexity of standard conditions used in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen; Anushi Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Clearly written communication aids the understanding of construction contracts, resulting in less disputation. Past research, using opinion surveys rather than objective criteria, shows that construction contracts lack clarity and standard forms have become complex over time. The study outlined in this paper uses three objective measures of clarity developed by linguists to establish the readability of construction contracts. In addition, thirty industry professionals participated in a Cloze ...

  14. 76 FR 69764 - Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... of Justice Programs Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice... Standards and Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting a workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-resistant Body Armor... the revised NIJ Stab-resistant Body Armor Standard and to receive input, comments, and recommendations...

  15. male constructions and resistance to women in the military1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    MALE CONSTRUCTIONS AND RESISTANCE. TO WOMEN IN ... of sexuality and their participation in command or combat roles as having dire consequences in ... changes. The concept of warrior hero has been crucial in the construction of notions of national security to facilitate the mobilisation of hegemonic masculinity.

  16. The Role of Construct Maps in Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors observe in this commentary that construct maps can help standard-setting panels to make realistic and internally consistent recommendations for performance-level descriptions (PLDs) and cut-scores, but the benefits may not be realized if policymakers do not fully understand the rationale for the recommendations provided by the…

  17. Textual complexity of standard conditions used in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clearly written communication aids the understanding of construction contracts, resulting in less disputation. Past research, using opinion surveys rather than objective criteria, shows that construction contracts lack clarity and standard forms have become complex over time. The study outlined in this paper uses three objective measures of clarity developed by linguists to establish the readability of construction contracts. In addition, thirty industry professionals participated in a Cloze Test which measured the level of comprehension of clauses concerning disputes. The study verifies that contract conditions are very difficult to read, with college level reading skills needed to comprehend half of the clauses. However, the hypothesis that standard forms have become complex over time was not supported by the study. The study establishes a linear relationship between readability and comprehension, proving the hypothesis that improved readability increases the comprehension of a contract clause.

  18. Textual complexity of standard conditions used in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Clearly written communication aids the understanding of construction contracts, resulting in less disputation. Past research, using opinion surveys rather than objective criteria, shows that construction contracts lack clarity and standard forms have become complex over time. The study outlined in this paper uses three objective measures of clarity developed by linguists to establish the readability of construction contracts. In addition, thirty industry professionals participated in a Cloze Test which measured the level of comprehension of clauses concerning disputes. The study verifies that contract conditions are very difficult to read, with college level reading skills needed to comprehend half of the clauses. However, the hypothesis that standard forms have become complex over time was not supported by the study. The study establishes a linear relationship between readability and comprehension, proving the hypothesis that improved readability increases the comprehension of a contract clause. 

  19. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus... Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; correction. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with regard to the construction...

  20. PROSPECTS OF ESTABLISHING EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS FROM TUBE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdujafar I. Akaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the research is to find optimal design solutions for the erection of buildings that will ensure their reliability and durability, compliance with environmental requirements, fire resistance and earthquake resistance. In this regard, the task is to determine the advantages and prospects of erecting earthquake resistant buildings from tube concrete constructions, since they are distinct in constructive, technological and economic efficiency when are used as vertical load-bearing struts of high-rise buildings. Method The technique for calculating the strength of normal sections of eccentrically-compressed tube concrete elements uses a nonlinear deformation model, taking into account the joint operation of the steel shell and the concrete core under the conditions of triaxial compression. Results In the article the review of the newest world experience of using tube concrete as vertical load-bearing structures for public facilities from the standpoint of earthquake resistant construction is given. The international practices of public facility construction ranging in height from 100 to 600 m with the use of tube concrete technology, including regions with dangerous natural and man-made conditions, have been studied. The structural, operational and technological advantages and disadvantages of tube concrete technology are analysed. Methods for calculating the strength of concrete tube elements in the case of central compression are considered: according to the so-called deformation theory, the state of total destruction of both concrete and tube fluidity attained at maximum pressure are indicated by the beginning of "tube flow on the longitudinal axis". The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are shown. Factors constraining the introduction and wider application of tube concrete constructions in Russia are considered. Conclusion While the advantages of concrete tube constructions in their extensive

  1. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  2. Standard Test Method for Laboratory Aging of Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of sandwich panels to severe exposure conditions as measured by the change in selected properties of the material after exposure. The exposure cycle to which the specimen is subjected is an arbitrary test having no correlation with natural weathering conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the difference in readings is much. Hence, the use of this system is limited to shallow investigations where the target depth is not more than fifty metres (50m). Efforts are being made to improve on its performance. Keywords: Design and construction, resistivity meter and field testing. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  4. Construction and performance of a prototype multigap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. H.; Hong, B.; Hong, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present the design, construction, and performance of a prototype multigap resistive plate chamber made of glass plates. A time resolution of 580 ps with a detection efficiency above 95 % was achieved at the working high-voltage plateau with cosmic ray muons

  5. 77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus... Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting a... confusion resulting from a drafting error. OSHA published the DFR on June 22, 2012 (77 FR 37587). OSHA also...

  6. Energy plus standard in buildings constructed by housing associations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutterecker, Werner; Blümel, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve national, European and international energy goals, energy efficiency strategies in the building sector have to be implemented. The passive house standard and low energy standards are already successfully established in single dwelling houses. These high performance standards are starting to penetrate into the sector of housing associations. A case study about an apartment building constructed by a housing association is presented here. It describes the monitoring concept and the results of the 1st year of monitoring. Depending on the definition of the zero energy building standard (extent of loads included in the balancing), the building could be classified as an energy plus building or as a building, which uses more energy, than is supplied by on-site generation. If the building's total energy use (including user specific loads) is defined as load, only 34.5% of these loads were provided by the net energy output of the PV system. If only the heating energy demand is defined as load, the PV system even yielded a surplus of 45.6% of the energy load. -- Highlights: ► Energy monitoring of an apartment building constructed by a housing association. ► Planned as a Passive House with a semi-central ventilation system with decentralized heat pump technology. ► Total end energy demand of the building was 43 kWh/(m² a). ► Total net energy generation by the PV system was 15 kWh/(m² a). ► Apartment no. 1: 52% of the energy demand were used for heating and ventilation.

  7. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  8. 25 CFR 170.470 - What are the IRR construction standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and highway bridge construction standards that are consistent with or exceed these standards. (2) BIA may also use FHWA-approved, State or tribal road and highway bridge construction standards. (b) For... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the IRR construction standards? 170.470 Section...

  9. JSME construction standard for superconducting magnets of fusion facilities. Toward the construction of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasone, Yuji; Takahashi, Yukio; Sato, Kazuyoshi; Nishimura, Arata; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Irie, Hirosada; Nakahira, Masataka

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes the general view of the construction standard, which the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) has recently set up and published, for superconducting magnet structures to be used in nuclear fusion facilities. The present target of the standard is tokamak-type fusion energy facilities, especially the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor called ITER for short. The standard contains rules for structural materials including cryogenic materials, structural design considering magnetic forces, manufacture including welding and installation, nondestructive testing, pressure proof tests and leak tests of toroidal field magnet structures. The standard covers requirements for structural integrity, deformation control, and leak tightness of all the components of the superconducting magnets and their supports except for superconducting strands and electrical insulators. The standard does not cover deterioration, which may occur in service as a result of corrosion, radiation effects, or instability of material. The standard consists of seven articles and twelve mandatory and non-mandatory appendices to the articles; i.e., (1) Scope, roles and responsibilities, (2) Materials, (3) Structural design, (4) Fabrication and installation, (5) Non-destructive examination, (6) Pressure and leak testing, and (7) Terms used in general requirements. (author)

  10. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... of Justice Programs Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of..., Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification... armor community will be summarized as part of the workshop notes. Contributors of comments will not be...

  11. 7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seismic design and construction standards for new..., REGULATIONS, AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings. (a) In the design and construction of...

  12. Construction of a homogeneous phantom for radiographic image standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    1996-01-01

    The principle of radiodiagnosis consists in the fact the X-ray beam is attenuated at different degrees by distinct tissues. For this reason, the anatomical structures have distinct radiological opacities, that produce the radiographic image. The progresses in radiology are related to the development if new radiographic image formation systems that enable an amplification in the quality, with low dose and/or risk to the patient. The objective of this work is the sensitometric valuation of a screen-film combination, that is still the most used, for the standardization, of radiographic images. Thinking about this, were constructed homogeneous phantoms of the chest, skull and pelvis, for the calibration of X-ray beams, with the purpose of obtaining radiographic images of good quality, basing in the routine of a radiodiagnosis service and in the scientific knowledge. Questions were approached about the choice of the suitable equipment, that allow the obtention of k Vp and m As combinations, to produce radiographic images of good quality, and the reproduction of these combinations to any conventional equipment of diagnostic X-rays. Also presented are the comparison of the doses imparted by these combinations and those used in routine of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto's radiodiagnosis service. (author)

  13. Sparse Jacobian construction for mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    We apply the automatic differentiation tool OpenAD toward constructing a preconditioner for fully implicit simulations of mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), used in modeling tokamak fusion devices. Our simulation framework employs a fully implicit formulation in time, and a mapped finite volume spatial discretization. We solve this model using inexact Newton-Krylov methods. Of critical importance in these iterative solvers is the development of an effective preconditioner, which typically requires knowledge of the Jacobian of the nonlinear residual function. However, due to significant nonlinearity within our PDE system, our mapped spatial discretization, and stencil adaptivity at physical boundaries, analytical derivation of these Jacobian entries is highly nontrivial. This paper therefore focuses on Jacobian construction using automatic differentiation. In particular, we discuss applying OpenAD to the case of a spatially-adaptive stencil patch that automatically handles differences between the domain interior and boundary, and configuring AD for reduced stencil approximations to the Jacobian. We investigate both scalar and vector tangent mode differentiation, along with simple finite difference approaches, to compare the resulting accuracy and efficiency of Jacobian construction in this application. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Standard test method for conducting potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers an experimental procedure for polarization resistance measurements which can be used for the calibration of equipment and verification of experimental technique. The test method can provide reproducible corrosion potentials and potentiodynamic polarization resistance measurements. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. The HSE Management Standards Indicator Tool: concurrent and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, F; Colautti, L; Larese Filon, F; Luis, O; Ferrante, D

    2014-07-01

    The Health & Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool (HSE-MS IT) is a questionnaire commonly used to assess work-related stress risks at an organizational level. A critical factor in determining whether this instrument is actually useful is that higher levels of stress risk in the work-design domains should predict higher levels of stress and stress-related outcomes in workers. Only a few studies, however, have addressed this issue. To test both the concurrent and construct validity of the HSE-MS IT, by relating it with another widely used instrument, the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), and by examining its relationships with a set of work-related stress outcomes. An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to a sample of employees in an Italian municipality. The questionnaire included the HSE-MS IT, self-reported measures of job satisfaction, job motivation and stress at work, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the reduced form of the JCQ. A total of 760 out of 779 employees completed the questionnaire. Results showed moderate to strong correlation among the corresponding HSE-MS IT and JCQ scales. Hierarchical regression highlighted the specific contribution of each of the HSE-MS IT scales in predicting three relevant work-related stress outcomes (self-reported stress, job satisfaction and job motivation), after controlling for gender, age and life satisfaction. Our findings consolidated the HSE-MS IT validity and showed the specific sensitivity of its scales to assess different aspects of work-related distress, including self-perception of stress at work. These results can have practical implications for the occupational well-being of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment AGENCY... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0 1... amendment. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting its sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for...

  17. Site Characterization during Bridge Foundation Construction Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra V. Varnavina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallow underground water-filled cavity was encountered in limestone bedrock during the construction of a new column footing for the Gasconade River Bridge over Interstate 44. Five electrical resistivity tomography (ERT profiles and borehole control were acquired in immediate proximity to the existing and the new column footings in order to assess the integrity of the rock beneath the foundation columns and characterize the encountered cavity. Two parallel southwest- northeast trending fracture zones were identified on the acquired ERT profiles and competent rock was differentiated from more extensively fractured rock. The volumetric extent of the void was mapped based on the interpretation of the ERT, borehole and injected grout data. A conceptual model for the development of the water-filled cavity was proposed.

  18. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Standardized Testing and the Construction of Governable Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Cameron; Neu, Dean

    2004-01-01

    While debates over standardized testing are ubiquitous, there has been relatively little consideration of how today's standardized testing practices have arisen. The current study provides a chronology of standardized testing within Alberta, Canada. Starting from prior work by Foucault and others on "governmentality", we propose that the…

  20. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  1. Will nuclear power plant standardization reduce the licensing impact on construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.M.; Bingham, W.G.; Keith, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The NRC and the nuclear industry have been pursuing standardization quite vigorously in an effort to reduce the cost and schedule for the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The NRC is currently reviewing standard plant applications submitted under each of four standardization options. In addition, the NRC has published Standard Review Plans and Standard Technical Specifications. Although problems exist in the implementation of standardization and in areas unaffected by standardization, each of these standardization methods has the potential to reduce the licensing impact on construction

  2. 75 FR 39871 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Source. U--PS 2-04 2005 Voluntary Product Standard 3280.304(b) Performance Standard for Wood- Based... Burning Appliances. U--UL 181 1998 Factory Made Air Ducts and Air 3280.703 Connectors. 3280.715(a) K...

  3. Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-18

    This advisory circular (AC) contains guidelines and procedures for the design : and construction of skid-resistant pavement, pavement evaluation with friction : measuring equipment, and maintenance of high skid-resistant pavements. 45p.

  4. Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These standard specifications were issued primarily for constructing roads and bridges on Federal Highway projects under the direct administration of the Federal Highway Administration. These specifications are cited as "FP-96" indicating Standard Sp...

  5. Basement Construction of Measurement Standardization for Thermal Property and Basement Preparation of Industrial Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Song, Kee Chan; Park, Chang Je

    2007-02-15

    There are three main categories in this report : 1)Basement construction of measurement standardization for nuclear material thermal property, 2) Reliability evaluation of measurement instrument, and 3) Standardization and industrial propagation.

  6. Standard Test Method for Thermal Oxidative Resistance of Carbon Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1982-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the apparatus and procedure for the determination of the weight loss of carbon fibers, exposed to ambient hot air, as a means of characterizing their oxidative resistance. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units which are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard information, see Section 8.

  7. Standard guide for installing bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1993-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidelines for installing bonded resistance strain gages. It is not intended to be used for bulk or diffused semiconductor gages. This document pertains only to adhesively bonded strain gages. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Error modelling of quantum Hall array resistance standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Martina; Oe, Takehiko; Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca; Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa

    2018-04-01

    Quantum Hall array resistance standards (QHARSs) are integrated circuits composed of interconnected quantum Hall effect elements that allow the realization of virtually arbitrary resistance values. In recent years, techniques were presented to efficiently design QHARS networks. An open problem is that of the evaluation of the accuracy of a QHARS, which is affected by contact and wire resistances. In this work, we present a general and systematic procedure for the error modelling of QHARSs, which is based on modern circuit analysis techniques and Monte Carlo evaluation of the uncertainty. As a practical example, this method of analysis is applied to the characterization of a 1 MΩ QHARS developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Software tools are provided to apply the procedure to other arrays.

  9. 46 CFR 160.060-5 - Construction-standard vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... also fitted with straps and hardware to provide for proper adjustment and close and comfortable fit to..., respectively. (d) Tie tapes, body straps, and hardware. The tie tapes, body straps, and hardware shall be...

  10. 46 CFR 160.052-5 - Construction-standard vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... also fitted with straps and hardware to provide for proper adjustment and close and comfortable fit to....052-1, Sheet 4. (d) Tie tapes, body straps, and hardware. The tie tapes, body straps, and hardware...

  11. 78 FR 73965 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Using a Radiant Heat Source. U--NIST PS 2-04 2004 Voluntary Product 3280.304(b). Standard Performance... 3280.702, 3280.703, 3280.715(a). and Air Connectors. K. Accessibility Requirements for Persons With...

  12. Construction and performance studies of large resistive Micromegas quadruplets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00508881; Iengo, Paolo; Bianco, Michele; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Kuger, Fabian; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Wotschack, Jorg; Vergain, Maurice; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Degrange, Jordan; Schott, Matthias; Lin, Tai-Hua; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Dudder, Andreas Christian

    2015-01-01

    In view of the use of Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system, two detector quadruplets with an area of 0.3 m$^2$ per plane serving as prototypes for future ATLAS chambers have been constructed. They are based on the resistive-strip technology and thus spark tolerant. The detectors were built in a modular way. The quadruplets consist of two double-sided readout panels and three support (or drift) panels equipped with the micromesh and the drift electrode. The panels are bolted together such that the detector can be opened and cleaned, if required. Two of the readout planes are equipped with readout strips inclined by 1.5 degree. In this talk, we present the results of detailed performance studies based on X-Ray and cosmic ray measurements as well as measurements with 855 MeV electrons at the MAMI accelerator. In particular, results on reconstruction efficiencies, track resolution and gain homogeneity is presented.

  13. Construction and Performance Studies of Large Resistive Micromegas Quadruplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, E.; Iengo, P.; Bianco, M.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Kuger, F.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Vergain, M.; Wotschack, J.; Danielsson, H.; Degrange, J.; De Oliveira, R.; Schott, M.; Lin, Tai-Hua; Valderanis, C.; Düdder, A.

    2018-02-01

    In view of the use of Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system, two detector quadruplets with an area of 0.3 m2 per plane serving as prototypes for future ATLAS chambers have been constructed. They are based on the resistive-strip technology and thus spark tolerant. The detectors were built in a modular way. The quadruplets consist of two double-sided readout panels and three support (or drift) panels equipped with the micromesh and the drift electrode. The panels are bolted together such that the detector can be opened and cleaned, if required. Two of the readout planes are equipped with readout strips inclined by 1.5 degree. In this talk, we present the results of detailed performance studies based on X-Ray and cosmic ray measurements as well as measurements with 855 MeV electrons at the MAMI accelerator. In particular, results on reconstruction efficiencies, track resolution and gain homogeneity is presented.

  14. Construction and Performance Studies of Large Resistive Micromegas Quadruplets

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Edoardo Maria; The ATLAS collaboration; Kuger, Fabian; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Iengo, Paolo; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Wotschack, Jorg; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Dudder, Andreas Christian

    2015-01-01

    In view of the use of micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system, two detector quadruplets with an area of 0.5 m2 per plane serving as prototypes for future ATLAS chambers have been constructed. They are based on the resistive-strip technology and thus spark tolerant. The detectors were built in a modular way. The quadruplets consist of two double-sided readout panels and three support (or drift) panels equipped with the micromesh and the drift electrode. The panels are bolted together such that the detector can be opened and cleaned, if required. Two of the readout planes are equipped with readout strips inclined by 1.5 degree. In this talk, we present the results of detailed performance studies based on X-Ray measurements, cosmic ray- and test-beam measurements at the MAMI accelerator that have been conducted in the past months. In particular, results on reconstruction efficiencies, track resolution and gain homogeneity will be presented.

  15. A modular cloning system for standardized assembly of multigene constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Weber

    Full Text Available The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize biotechnology through the design of organisms with novel phenotypes useful for medicine, agriculture and industry. However, a limiting factor is the ability of current methods to assemble complex DNA molecules encoding multiple genetic elements in various predefined arrangements. We present here a hierarchical modular cloning system that allows the creation at will and with high efficiency of any eukaryotic multigene construct, starting from libraries of defined and validated basic modules containing regulatory and coding sequences. This system is based on the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to assemble multiple DNA fragments in a defined linear order. We constructed a 33 kb DNA molecule containing 11 transcription units made from 44 individual basic modules in only three successive cloning steps. This modular cloning (MoClo system can be readily automated and will be extremely useful for applications such as gene stacking and metabolic engineering.

  16. CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BATTERY OF BRAILLE SKILL TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOURGEAULT, STANLEY E.; WOODCOCK, RICHARD W.

    A BATTERY OF TESTS WAS DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED TO MEASURE MASTERY OF TWO BRAILLE CODES--THE GRADE 2 LITERARY CODE AND THE NEMETH CODE FOR MATHEMATICAL NOTATION. DESIGNATED AS THE "COLORADO BRAILLE BATTERY," THESE TESTS PROVIDED OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT DATA REGARDING A STUDENT'S OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN BRAILLE, AS WELL AS A MEANS OF…

  17. Participation, Power, Critique: Constructing a Standard for Electronic Patient Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2006-01-01

      The scope of participatory design is discussed through the case of a national standard for electronic patient records (EPR) in Denmark. Currently within participatory design, the relationship between participatory methods and techniques on the one hand and critical and emancipatory aims...

  18. A Dialogic Construction of Ethical Standards for the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deirdre Mary

    2013-01-01

    In Ontario, Canada, both the educational community and the public, which is understood to include parents, students and citizens of the province, participated in a multi-phased, longitudinal, dialogic inquiry to develop a set of ethical standards for the teaching profession. Collective discovery methods, syntheses, and validation of ethical…

  19. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. A constructive critique of the three standard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    2004-01-01

    It has become conventional to say that our knowledge of fundamental physical law is summarized in a Standard Model. But this convention lumps together two quite different conceptual structures, and leaves out another. I think it is more accurate and informative to say that our current, working description of fundamental physics is based on three standard conceptual systems. These systems are very different; so different that it is not inappropriate to call them the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. They concern, respectively, the coupling of vector gauge particles, gravitons, and Higgs particles. It is quite a remarkable fact, in itself, that every nonlinear interaction we need to summarize our present knowledge of the basic (i.e., irreducible) laws of physics involves one or another of these particles. (author)

  1. High frequency induction of RNA-mediated resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus using inverted repeat constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The application of RNA-mediated resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by using single transgene constructs generally results in only a small portion of resistant individuals. Inverted repeat constructs encoding self-complementary double-stranded RNA have been demonstrated a potential way to

  2. Green Roofs: Standardization and Quality Control of Processes in Green Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Korol Elena; Shushunova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problems of standardization and quality control of processes in the construction, improvement of integrated safety of buildings and the implementation of innovative green building technologies, the use of national standards as well as international rating systems for green buildings evaluation. This is one of the priority directions in development of the modern construction. The aim of this study is the analysis of the green roof systems and international standards, ...

  3. Study on Construction Technology Standardization of Primary Guide Rope Laying by Multi-rotor Aircraft in Stringing Construction of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Tang, Guang-Rui; Jiang, Ming; Dong, Yu-Ming

    2017-09-01

    According to the practical situation of stringing construction for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) overhead transmission line, construction technology standardization of primary guide rope laying by multi-rotor aircraft is studied. This paper mainly focuses on the construction preparation, test flight and technology of laying primary guide rope. The summary of the construction technology standardization of primary guide rope laying by multi-rotor aircraft in stringing construction are useful in further guiding practical construction of transmission line.

  4. I Hate Chicken Breast: A Tale of Resisting Stories and Disembodied Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In this performance autoethnography, the author explores the simultaneity of telling and resisting stories of lived experience. In the process, the author constructs the notion of "resisting stories" as autoethnographic narratives that both resist and demand telling in the process of making themselves public. In the process the author engages in a…

  5. The construction of permanent standards for scintillation counting involving the use of polyethylene mini-vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.C.; Drummond, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described and evaluated of providing permanent and semi-permanent sets of standards for the routine counting of biological samples in polyethylene mini-vials by constructing sealed glass mini-vial standards within conventional polyethylene counting containers. Much time and labour can be saved by this method of providing sets of standards for quench correction of samples. (U.K.)

  6. [Expert investigation on food safety standard system framework construction in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Yan, Weixing; Fan, Yongxiang; Zeng, Biao; Peng, Zhen; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Through investigating food safety standard framework among food safety experts, to summarize the basic elements and principles of food safety standard system, and provide policy advices for food safety standards framework. A survey was carried out among 415 experts from government, professional institutions and the food industry/enterprises using the National Food Safety Standard System Construction Consultation Questionnaire designed in the name of the Secretariat of National Food Safety Standard Committee. Experts have different advices in each group about the principles of food product standards, food additive product standards, food related product standards, hygienic practice, test methods. According to the results, the best solution not only may reflect experts awareness of the work of food safety standards situation, but also provide advices for setting and revision of food safety standards for the next. Through experts investigation, the framework and guiding principles of food safety standard had been built.

  7. 77 FR 3070 - Electric Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Engineering, Architectural Services, Design Policies and Construction Standards AGENCY: Rural Utilities..., engineering services and architectural services for transactions above the established threshold dollar levels... Code of Federal Regulations as follows: PART 1724--ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND...

  8. The Grammar of Standards. Judge-dependence, Purpose-relativity, and Comparison Classes in Degree Constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bylinina, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the structure and semantics of constructions based on the positive form of gradable adjectives, such as tall, long, interesting or smart. Such forms – and constructions that are based on them – contain an element of semantic indeterminacy regarding the standard of

  9. Citizen Action Can Help the Code Adoption Process for Radon-Resistant New Construction: Decatur, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adopting a code requiring radon-resistant new construction (RRNC) in Decatur, Alabama, took months of effort by four people. Their actions demonstrate the influence that passionate residents can have on reversing a city council’s direction.

  10. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first comparative analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States. Studying the cost of nuclear power has often been a challenge, owing to the lack of reliable data sources and heterogeneity between countries, as well as the long time horizon which requires controlling for input prices and structural changes. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using expected demand variation as an instrument. We argue that benefits from nuclear reactor program standardization can arise through short term coordination gains, when the diversity of nuclear reactors' technologies under construction is low, or through long term benefits from learning spillovers from past reactor construction experience, if those spillovers are limited to similar reactors. We find that overnight construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect-Engineer (A- E). In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. (authors)

  11. Male Constructions and Resistance to women in the Military ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that a masculinised institution like the military presents an exaggerated picture of hegemonic masculinities, and particularly emphasising physical fitness as one of the multiple ways in achieving masculinity, this paper provides an overview of how men in the military construct women's role in the military.

  12. Fire Resistance of Concrete Constructions with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a series of full-scale tests made as documentation for extending the field of application of the reduced cross section method from the structural codes to constructions based on expanded clay aggregate. As a special result the tests verify that slabs with a short...

  13. 77 FR 13357 - The Cadmium in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Cadmium in Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of... requirements specified in the Cadmium in Construction Standard (29 CFR 1926.1127). DATES: Comments must be...). The information collection requirements specified in the Cadmium in Construction Standard protect...

  14. Research, Development and Application of High Performance Earthquake Resistant Precast System as Green Construction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjaman Hari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable construction is a topic that emerges in the world construction as a response to climate change issue. Building construction stage is a stage in sustainable development. Construction concept that confirm to the concept is referred to as green construction. Precast concrete construction is a construction system that meets green construction criteria, because applies the usage of material and construction method that optimize energy consumption and minimize environment impact during construction. This paper describe the qualitative and quantitative research in precast structures as green construction in Indonesia. Qualitative research was conducted on the assessment criteria of Green Building Council of Indonesia (2012-2014. The quantitative researches are in energy consumption and environmental influence of several construction systems which were conducted at low cost housing construction in Batam (2011-2012. Finally the research (2013-2014 and application (2015-2017 of high performance earthquake resistant precast concrete structure at low cost in Indonesia is described. The result of this research is expected to be a contribution to all construction stakeholders, in order to start to consider optimization of energy consumption in construction, and to become part of sustainable earth movement.

  15. Study on Oxygen Supply Standard for Physical Health of Construction Personnel of High-Altitude Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The low atmospheric pressure and low oxygen content in high-altitude environment have great impacts on the functions of human body. Especially for the personnel engaged in complicated physical labor such as tunnel construction, high altitude can cause a series of adverse physiological reactions, which may result in multiple high-altitude diseases and even death in severe cases. Artificial oxygen supply is required to ensure health and safety of construction personnel in hypoxic environments. However, there are no provisions for oxygen supply standard for tunnel construction personnel in high-altitude areas in current tunnel construction specifications. As a result, this paper has theoretically studied the impacts of high-altitude environment on human bodies, analyzed the relationship between labor intensity and oxygen consumption in high-altitude areas and determined the critical oxygen-supply altitude values for tunnel construction based on two different standard evaluation systems, i.e., variation of air density and equivalent PIO2. In addition, it has finally determined the oxygen supply standard for construction personnel in high-altitude areas based on the relationship between construction labor intensity and oxygen consumption.

  16. Standardization guide for construction and use of MORT-type analytic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buys, J.R.

    1992-02-01

    Since the introduction of MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree) technology as a tool for evaluating the success or failure of safety management systems, there has been a proliferation of analytic trees throughout US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor organizations. Standard fault tree'' symbols have generally been used in logic diagram or tree construction, but new or revised symbols have also been adopted by various analysts. Additionally, a variety of numbering systems have been used for event identification. The consequent lack of standardization has caused some difficulties in interpreting the trees and following their logic. This guide seeks to correct this problem by providing a standardized system for construction and use of analytic trees. Future publications of the DOE System Safety Development Center (SSDC) will adhere to this guide. It is recommended that other DOE organizations and contractors also adopt this system to achieve intra-DOE uniformity in analytic tree construction.

  17. Single cycle to failure in bending of three standard and five locking plates and plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C A; Boudrieau, R J; Torrance, B S; Tacvorian, E K; Cabassu, J B; Gaudette, G R; Kowaleski, M P

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of standard and locking plates in bending. We hypothesised that titanium (Ti) constructs would have the greatest deformation and that String of Pearl (SOP) constructs would have the greatest strength and stiffness, and would behave differently compared to plates alone. Dynamic compression plates (DCP), stainless steel (SS) limited contact (LC)-DCP®, Ti LC-DCP, locking compression plates (LCP), 10 mm and 11 mm advanced locking plate system (ALPS 10 / 11), SOP and Fixin plates were evaluated individually and as constructs applied to a validated bone model simulating a bridging osteosynthesis. Bending stiffness and strength were compared using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey, and unpaired t-test (p <0.05). The SOP plates had significantly greater stiffness than all other plates; Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin plates had significantly lower stiffness than all other plates. The SOP constructs had the highest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only the Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin constructs. The ALPS 10 constructs had the lowest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only ALPS 11 and SOP constructs. Comparison of bending structural stiffness of plates versus constructs showed a significant difference in all plate pairs except for the DCP and ALPS 10. Due to differing plate construct properties inherent to these diverse implant systems, identical approaches to fracture management and plate application cannot be applied.

  18. "I am a doctor": negotiating the discourses of standardization and diversity in professional identity construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Heather D; Regehr, Glenn

    2013-10-01

    Medical educators have expressed concern that students' professional identities do not always align with their expectations or with professional standards. The authors propose that, in constructing appropriate professional identities, medical students today are affected by the competing discourses of diversity and standardization. Between March and May 2012, the authors conducted a critical review of seminal publications to highlight the discourses of diversity and standardization in the medical education literature. They surveyed the social sciences literature on identity construction and drew examples from medical education to demonstrate how a social constructionist approach could inform the discussion about how medical students' professional identities are affected by these discourses. The discourse of diversity emphasizes individuality, difference, and a plurality of possibilities and advances the notion that heterogeneity is beneficial to medical education and to patients. In contrast, the discourse of standardization strives for homogeneity, sameness, and a limited range of possibilities and conveys that there is a single way to be a competent, professional physician. Thus, these discourses are in tension, a fact that medical educators largely have ignored. A social constructionist approach to identity suggests that medical students resolve this tension in different ways and construct different identities as a result. To influence medical students' professional identity construction, the authors advocate that educators seek change across the profession-faculty must acknowledge and take advantage of the tension between the discourses of standardization and diversity.

  19. 77 FR 16547 - Radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Notice of Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Construction Approval to Energy Fuels for Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds at the proposed Pi[ntilde]on Ridge Uranium Mill. Tailings Cell A and the Phase I Evaporation Ponds are regulated under 40... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9649-9] Radionuclide National Emission Standards for...

  20. Incorporating Lean Construction agent into the Building Standards Act: the Spanish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioso Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a demand for lean construction in Europe; even though lean construction is still an emerging field and there is growing interest, there are no regulations on this topic. The main objective of this research is to regulate this role when in a project and to define and develop a building agent structure, according to the Building Standards Act (LOE by its acronym in Spanish, to be able to incorporate it into the Spanish law, protecting it from civil liabilities. In Spain, there is jurisprudence in civil jurisdiction based on the LOE to acquit or convict building agents, who are defined in the courts as “constructive managers” or similar. For this reason, courts could establish in the future several liabilities for the lean construction specialist and other agents of the project, depending on their actions and based on the implementation of the lean project delivery system, the target value design and the integrated project delivery. Conversely, it is possible that the level of action of the lean construction specialist may comprise design management, construction management and contract management. Accordingly, one or more building agents should be appropriately incorporated into the LOE according to their functions and responsibilities and based on the levels of action of the lean construction specialist. The creation of the following agents is proposed: design manager, construction manager and contract manager, definitions that are developed in this study. These agents are loosely defined, because any project manager, building information modeling manager or similar may act as one or as more-than-one of them. Finally, the creation of the lean construction manager is also proposed, as the agent who takes on the role of the design manager, construction manager and contract manager, but focused on the lean production principles.

  1. Accounting and Co-constructing: The Development of a Standard for Electronic Health Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    care services, cooperation between staff and make patient records immediately and accessible to distributed actors. Investments also have the aims of making health care services more accountable, integrated and increase quality and efficiency. This paper analyses a Danish national standard...... for electronic health records on the basis of an application prototype test build on that standard. The analysis shows that inscribed in the standard is an ambition to make staff and health care services more accountable at the cost of more work, loss of overview and fragmentation of patient cases. Significantly......, despite the standard having been conceived and developed in a process of co-construction with clinicians, clinicians did not find it adequate for their work. The analysis argues this was the result of the model of work embedded in the standard coming from a stance from without practice. Subsequently...

  2. 76 FR 35024 - National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY... Technology (NIST) are jointly hosting workshop focused on the NIJ Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard. It is... planning to attend are responsible for their own travel arrangements. Registration information may be found...

  3. Life quality and living standards in big cities under conditions of high-rise construction development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeeva, Elena; Averina, Tatiana; Kochetova, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Modern urbanization processes occurring on a global scale inevitably lead to an increase in population density in large cities. People assess the state of life quality and living standards of megalopolises under conditions of high-rise construction development ambiguously. Using SWOT analysis, the authors distinguished positive and negative aspects of high-rise construction, highlighted threats to its development and its opportunities. The article considers the model of development of the city's industry and infrastructure, which enables determining the optimal volume of production by sectors and branches of city economy in order to increase its innovative, production and economic potential and business activity.

  4. HUMAN RESISTANCE TO THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of implementing information technology (IT often fails to bring the intended result because the human dimension is not given adequate consideration. Yet despite some evidence of failure, little has been written on the nature of human performance, compared to abundant resources about technical and procedural aspects, as it applies to the ideals of the IT philosophy. To combat people’s deficiencies, this paper focuses mainly on the question why people resist IT. It explores sources of human resistance to the use of IT. A survey is the conducted to personnel working for construction companies to examine the resistance sources. The result reveals personal money, habit, and threat to information security as most dominant sources for such resistance, instead of fear of employment instability as many previous researches have discussed. The paper discusses the resistances and suggests possible solutions to deal with them.

  5. Effects of ISO 9001 Standard on Critical Factors of Project Management in Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Neyestani, Behnam; Juanzon, Joseph Berlin P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a significant contribution to the knowledge by identifying the impact of ISO 9001 implementation on the most vital factors of project management within large scale (AAA) construction firms in Metro Manila, Philippines. Thus, the study was accomplished an extensive literature review for identifying the main factors of project management, ISO 9001 standard, and other concepts, for developing an appropriate survey instrument. Then the questionnaires were distribu...

  6. Green Roofs: Standardization and Quality Control of Processes in Green Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of standardization and quality control of processes in the construction, improvement of integrated safety of buildings and the implementation of innovative green building technologies, the use of national standards as well as international rating systems for green buildings evaluation. This is one of the priority directions in development of the modern construction. The aim of this study is the analysis of the green roof systems and international standards, which were carried out in the green building industry. The authors have studied traditional and innovative solutions of rational using natural resources and energy, the green roof system with integration of supported solar and wind energy collecting and converting devices and of irrigation system. Some studies provide evidence for the benefits of the modular green roof system in urban green space with microclimate differences. This article presents a new research which advances our knowledge of the economic and environmental services provided by the green roof system. Research reported here also considers the analysis of the Russian and international legislation of the quality control of processes in green construction.

  7. Standard Test Method for Environmental Resistance of Aerospace Transparencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers determination of the effects of exposure to thermal shock, condensing humidity, and simulated weather on aerospace transparent enclosures. 1.2 This test method is not recommended for quality control nor is it intended to provide a correlation to actual service life. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3.1 Exceptions—Certain inch-pound units are furnished in parentheses (not mandatory) and certain temperatures in Fahrenheit associated with other standards are also furnished. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. On the dimensioning of steel construction considering revision of German standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhorst, L.; Schaudinn, L.; Milleder, J.

    2005-01-01

    Different procedures for dimensioning of structural steelwork are investigated in this paper. In the non-nuclear area, there has been made a change in the design concept for structural steelwork of surface constructions in Germany and the deterministic design concept of German DIN 18800 (03/81) [1] has been replaced by the semi-probabilistic design concept of DIN 18800 (11/90) [2]. Design codes established in nuclear safety standards for steelwork in German nuclear facilities are considered in the paper. Recent revisions of German nuclear safety standards and specifications are discussed with respect to regulations concerning design codes. The change in design concept for structural steelwork (non-nuclear) has not been adopted in recent revisions of nuclear safety standards and specifications for steelwork of components with importance to safety. The deterministic concept of DIN 18800 (03/81) [1] is compared with the semi-probabilistic concept of DIN 18800 (11/90) [2]. Differences between the standards [1] and [2] are investigated using an example of a steel construction. Results for dimensioning according to DIN 18800 (03/81) [1] are compared to those for dimensioning according to DIN 18800 (11/90) [2] putting the main emphasis on stress analysis and building structure interaction loads. (authors)

  9. [Construction of the subtracted cDNA libraries related to artemisinin-resistance of Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Zhu-chun; Wang, Jing-yan

    2004-06-01

    To construct the subtracted cDNA libraries related to artemisinin-resistance of Plasmodium berghei using suppression subtractive hybridization PCR (SSH PCR). Total RNA was extracted from the artemisinin-sensitive (NS) and artemisinin-resistant (AR) strains of Plasmodium berghei K173. The cDNA synthesis followed the protocol of super SMART cDNA synthesis kit. Taking the NS as driver, AR as tester and reverse, two subtractions were performed by SSH PCR. Enriched different expressed cDNA was cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct subtractive libraries. The subtracted cDNA libraries of NS-AR and AR-NS contained 395 and 506 positive clones respectively. The PCR results of 108 clones picked randomly from each library showed 100 and 104 positive inserts contained in the plasmids respectively, and distributing in 250-2000 bp. The successful construction of the subtracted cDNA libraries related to artemisinin-resistance of P. berghei enable us to identify the different expressed genes involved in the resistance mechanism.

  10. [Construction of suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-hong; Zhao, Tong-yan; Dong, Yan-de

    2006-08-01

    To construct the suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus. Total RNA was extracted from the deltamethrin-resistant (R-lab) and -sensitive (S-lab) isolates, mRNA was obtained after purification. Double stranded cDNAs were synthesized after reverse transcription. Two subtractions were performed by suppression subtractive hybridization with S-lab as tester and R-lab as driver or S-lab as driver and R-lab as tester. Enriched different expressed cDNA was cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct subtractive libraries. The subtracted cDNA libraries contained 580 and 477 positive clones respectively. The PCR results of 150 clones picked randomly from each library showed that the positive ratio of constructed cDNA libraries was 93%, with a length of cDNA fragments ranged from 150bp to 750bp. The suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Ae. albopictus is constructed.

  11. Latest standards on seismic resistance related to research activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasova, Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The paper discus few basic approaches applied in final drafts of prEN 1990 and prEN 1998-1. It is pointed out on design working life, loads combinations and the range of behaviour factors for concrete, steel and masonry buildings. The procedure and main results of large masonry model seismic tests are presented. As far as the masonry walls create the part of many NPP structures obtained results could be utilised also for the increase of their seismic resistance

  12. Construct validity of the resistance training skills battery in children aged 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lawson, Chelsey; Hurst, Josh; Tallis, Jason; Jones, Victoria; Eyre, Emma L J

    2018-01-19

    The current study sought to examine the construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), a movement screen purported to assess resistance training skill in children. Children aged 7-10 years (n = 27, 21 males, 6 females) undertook measures of resistance training skill via the RTSBc, motor competence and muscular fitness. Using a median split for RTSBc scores, children were categorised as high or low resistance training competence. Univariate ANCOVAs, controlling for maturation, were used to examine whether measures of muscular fitness and motor competence scores differed as a function of RTSBc competence. Children who were classified as high for resistance training competence had significantly better motor competence (P = .001) and significantly faster 10 m sprint speed (P = .001). However, medicine ball throw and standing long jump scores as well as peak and average isokinetic muscle strength did not differ as a function of RTSBc (P > 0.05). In all cases maturation was significant as a covariate. This study is the first to demonstrate construct validity of the RTSBc as a measure of general motor competence and sprint speed, but not strength, in children aged 7-10 years.

  13. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  14. [cDNA libraries construction and screening in gene expression profiling of disease resistance in wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng; Kong, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Yue; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Jia, Ji-Zeng

    2002-09-01

    A wheat line, Bai Nong 3217/Mardler BC5F4 with resistance to powdery mildew, was used to construct a conventional cDNA library and a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library from wheat leaves inoculated by Erysiphe graminis DC. Three hundred and eighty-seven non-redundant ESTs from the conventional cDNA library and 760 ESTs from the SSH cDNA library were obtained, and the ESTs similarity analysis using BLASTn and BLASTx were conducted by comparing these ESTs with sequences in GenBank. The results showed that the redundancy of some kinds of genes such as photosynthesis related genes and ribosome related genes was higher in the conventional cDNA library but the varieties and quantities of disease resistance genes were less than those in the SSH cDNA library. The SSH cDNA library was found to have obvious advantages in gene expression profiling of disease resistance such as simple library construction procedure, rich specific DRR (disease-resistance-related) genes and decreased sequencing amount. To acquire genes that were involved in the powdery mildew resistance of wheat, hybridization with high-density dots membranes was used to screen the two libraries. The result showed that the method was relatively simple in operation, and the membranes could be used for many times. But some problems also existed with this screening method. For instance, a large amount of mRNA and radioactive isotope were needed and the hybridization procedure must be repeated several times to obtain stable hybridization results. About 54.1% function-known ESTs in the SSH cDNA library were identified to be DRR genes by screening. There were 247 clones of the SSH cDNA library that had positive signal in the repeated hybridizations with the pathogen uninfected probe. The identified DRR genes distributed in the whole procedure of powdery mildew resistance, but mainly focused on the SAR (systemic of acquired resistance).

  15. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  16. Impact resistance of sustainable construction material using light weight oil palm shells reinforced geogrid concrete slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muda, Z C; Usman, F; Beddu, S; Alam, M A; Mustapha, K N; Birima, A H; Sidek, L M; Rashid, M A; Malik, G; Zarroq, O S

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigate the performance of lightweight oil palm shells (OPS) concrete slab with geogrid reinforcement of 300mm × 300mm size with 20mm, 30mm and 40 mm thick casted with different geogrid orientation and boundary conditions subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.2 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance the slab thickness, boundary conditions and geogrid reinforcement orientation. Test results indicate that the used of the geogrid reinforcement increased the impact resistance under service (first) limit crack up to 5.9 times and at ultimate limit crack up to 20.1 times against the control sample (without geogrid). A good linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against the slab thickness. The orientation of the geogrid has minor significant to the crack resistance of the OPS concrete slab. OPS geogrid reinforced slab has a good crack resistance properties that can be utilized as a sustainable impact resistance construction materials.

  17. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  18. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  19. Development of Proliferation Resistance Assessment Methodology Based on International Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Kwang Seok

    2009-03-01

    Proliferation resistance is one of the requirement to be met in GEN IV and INPRO for next generation nuclear energy system. Internationally, the evaluation methodology on PR had been already initiated from 1980, but the systematic development was started at 2000s. In Korea, for the export of nuclear energy system and the increase of international credibility and transparence of domestic nuclear system and fuel cycle development, the independent development of PR evaluation methodology was started in 2007 as a nuclear long term R and D project and the development is being performed for the model of PR evaluation methodology. In 1st year, comparative study of GEN-IV/INPRO, PR indicator development, quantification of indicator and evaluation model development, analysis of technology system and international technology development trend had been performed. In 2nd year, feasibility study of indicator, allowable limit of indicator, review of technical requirement of indicator were done. The results of PR evaluation must be applied in the beginning of conceptual design of nuclear system. Through the technology development of PR evaluation methodology, the methodology will be applied in the regulatory requirement for authorization and permission to be developed

  20. Safety in construction--a comprehensive description of the characteristics of high safety standards in construction work, from the combined perspective of supervisors and experienced workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törner, Marianne; Pousette, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The often applied engineering approach to safety management in the construction industry needs to be supplemented by organizational measures and measures based on how people conceive and react to their social environment. This requires in-depth knowledge of the broad preconditions for high safety standards in construction. The aim of the study was to comprehensively describe the preconditions and components of high safety standards in the construction industry from the perspective of both experienced construction workers and first-line managers. Five worker safety representatives and 19 first-line managers were interviewed, all strategically selected from within a large Swedish construction project. Phenomenographic methodology was used for data acquisition and analysis and to categorize the information. Nine informants verified the results. The study identified four main categories of work safety preconditions and components: (1) Project characteristics and nature of the work, which set the limits of safety management; (2) Organization and structures, with the subcategories planning, work roles, procedures, and resources; (3) Collective values, norms, and behaviors, with the subcategories climate and culture, and interaction and cooperation; and (4) Individual competence and attitudes, with the subcategories knowledge, ability and experience, and individual attitudes. The results comprehensively describe high safety standards in construction, incorporating organizational, group, individual, and technical aspects. High-quality interaction between different organizational functions and hierarchical levels stood out as important aspects of safety. The results are discussed in relation to previous research into safety and into the social-psychological preconditions for other desired outcomes in occupational settings. The results can guide construction companies in planning and executing construction projects to a high safety standard.

  1. Research on the General Framework of the Construction of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Standard System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dahu; Liu, Ting; Gao, Siyi; Tian, Yu; Yang, Lili; Zhang, Qiaoer

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the general framework and suggestion for the construction of China Nuclear and radiation safety standard system are put forward. The relationship of nuclear and radiation safety standards with the relevant laws and regulations is discussed. The status quo, existing problems and requirements of nuclear and radiation safety standard are analysed in China. The research work has laid a foundation for the establishment and improvement of China’s nuclear and radiation safety standards system, and has made a useful exploration.

  2. The Economic Impact on the Construction Industry of Additional Demands Caused by New Environmental Protection Standards (1972)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New facilities and additions to existing facilities will be required to meet the EPA's new (early 1970s) environmental quality standards. The report examines extent of these additional demands for construction and their economic impacts.

  3. Thermal resistance and conductivity of recycled construction and demolition waste (RCDW concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Julio Apolonio Callejas

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, studies to reuse construction and demolition waste are a special issue because a large amount of this material has been delivered to the public landfills and in illegal places. Some researchers have suggested reusing this material in building elements, such as bricks or blocks. It is possible to find a lot of researches in physical/mechanical characterization, while little effort has been made to characterize recycled construction and demolition waste blocks (RCDW for their thermal properties. The aim of this work was to characterize the RCDW thermal resistance and conductivity in order to provide subsidies for a building's thermal performance analysis. The hot-box method was adapted, together with measuring techniques with a heat-flow meter to determine the RCDW thermal properties. The results indicated that the RCDW block overall thermal resistance and thermal conductivity in the solid region was within the intervals of 0.33≤RT≤0.41m2KW-1 and 0.60≤l≤0.78Wm-1K-1, respectively. The lower resistance and conductivity values are justified by the presence of aggregate with a lower density and lower thermal conductivity than the natural aggregate.

  4. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    A survey of radon levels in New York State homes indicates that approximately 4.4 percent of the homes have long-term living area radon concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of four pCi/l. The project addressed the effectiveness of techniques to reduce the radon level in existing homes and to prevent the occurrence of high radon concentrations in new homes. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of radon reduction techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations of more than the current EPA guidelines of four pCi/l. At the same time, radon-resistant construction techniques were demonstrated in homes under construction to provide guidelines for houses being built in areas with a danger of high radon levels. The project demonstrated new radon mitigation techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations exceeding four pCi/l; assessed the value of previously installed radon reduction procedures, and demonstrated new radon-resistant construction methods

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for...

  6. Performance based building design to ensure building quality: from standardization to LEAN construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Zanchetta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discipline of architectural design is influenced by the standardization activities concerning the construction and the development of tools for the coordination in the design process such as Building Information Modeling. The two disciplines contribute reciprocally to the achievement of the overall quality of the building process. To do so, it is strategic to develop researches on the following aspects: - definition of frameworks for the connection of the building system requirements to space and technology unit that defines it; - development of an inventory of interoperable and compliant technical solutions; - implementation of the discipline of model checking for project validation; and methodologies of comparison between intervention models; - implementation of collaborative environments for verification of compatibility between programs and regulations in order to identify the optimal design solution.

  7. Internet Memes as a Field of Discursive Construction of Identity and Space of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Marinkov Pavlović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Internet memes as a form of viral content that spreads via the network varying a basic concept while constructing and deconstructing different identities. If memes are understood as a discursive field in the completely new world of social media, in which different groups, their attitudes, ideologies and interests are represented more clearly and more directly than ever before through the appropriation of popular contents and images, then this form of viral content can be also viewed as a space of resistance and criticism in which identities are decentralized and ready for change.

  8. Standard test method for measurement of soil resistivity using the two-electrode soil box method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the equipment and a procedure for the measurement of soil resistivity, for samples removed from the ground, for use in the control of corrosion of buried structures. 1.2 Procedures allow for this test method to be used n the field or in the laboratory. 1.3 The test method procedures are for the resistivity measurement of soil samples in the saturated condition and in the as-received condition. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Soil resistivity values are reported in ohm-centimeter. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. 41 CFR 102-76.30 - What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What seismic safety... § 102-76.30 What seismic safety standards must Federal agencies follow in the design and construction of Federal facilities? Federal agencies must follow the seismic safety standards identified in § 102-80.45 of...

  10. Construction, validation, and derivation of performance standards for a fitness test for correctional officer applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Thomas, Scott G; Burr, Jamie F; Gledhill, Norman

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a fitness test for correctional officer (CO) applicants (FITCO) and to establish associated standards of acceptability. The FITCO incorporated the most important, physically demanding, and frequently occurring tasks of a CO. It consists of (i) a simulated cell search; (ii) an emergency response circuit (ERC), involving a 60-m run while scaling 4 sets of stairs, followed by simulations of an inmate control, wrist restraint, arm retraction, and 40-m mannequin drag; and (iii) a test of aerobic fitness. The validity of the FITCO was established by very high congruence between the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion of incumbent COs while performing the ERC with the same measurements while COs were performing the on-the-job tasks on which the ERC was based. The content validity of the FITCO was confirmed by very high Likert ratings (>6 on a 7-point scale) by both male and female incumbent COs of all ages concerning the importance, relatedness, physical demands, and overall appropriateness of the FITCO for evaluating CO applicants. We conclude that because the forces built into the ERC and the FITCO standards were both derived from the performance of safe and efficient incumbent female COs of all ages, and both the validity and test-retest reliability (intraclass correllation coefficient = 0.977) of the FITCO are very high, the FITCO was properly constructed to meet the requirements of the Supreme Court of Canada's Meiorin Decision.

  11. Quantum resistance standard accuracy close to the zero-dissipation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopfer, F.; Poirier, W.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a comparison of four GaAs/AlGaAs-based quantum resistance standards using an original technique adapted from the well-known Wheatstone bridge. This work shows that the quantized Hall resistance at Landau level filling factor ν=2 can be reproducible with a relative uncertainty of 32×10 −12 in the dissipationless limit of the quantum Hall effect regime. In the presence of a very small dissipation characterized by a mean macroscopic longitudinal resistivity R xx (B) of a few μΩ, the discrepancy ΔR H (B) between quantum Hall resistors measured on the Hall plateau at magnetic induction B turns out to follow the so-called resistivity rule R xx (B)=αB×d(ΔR H (B))/dB. While the dissipation increases with the measurement current value, the coefficient α stays constant in the range investigated (40−120 μA). This result enlightens the impact of the dissipation emergence in the two-dimensional electron gas on the Hall resistance quantization, which is of major interest for the resistance metrology. The quantum Hall effect is used to realize a universal resistance standard only linked to the electron charge e and the Planck constant h and it is known to play a central role in the upcoming revised Système International of units. There are therefore fundamental and practical benefits in testing the reproducibility property of the quantum Hall effect with better and better accuracy

  12. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  13. Use of 222Rn-resistant techniques in new home construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.E. Jr.; Cote, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the status of the use of 222 Rn-resistant construction techniques in new home construction in the eight Zone 1 counties of North Carolina. Zone 1 counties have an average predicted indoor 222 Rn screening potential greater than 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi L -1 ). To facilitate a response from builders, a brief survey form was designed and printed on the back of a self-addressed, postage-paid postcard. This survey form was mailed to 460 home builders in the Zone 1 counties. The response rate was 17%, which can be compared to the 4.9% response rate obtained in a national survey conducted by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center. In their survey, 62% of the responding builders reported that they had built some or many homes in 1996 using construction techniques to reduce the entry of radon into homes, but only 10% of the builders reported using these techniques for many homes. The National Association of Home Builders survey determined that, nationally, 30% of homes built in Zone 1 counties had 222 Rn venting features. There is the potential for bias in the results of their survey (as well as in the results of the National Association of Home Builders survey) since the response rates were low

  14. A standardized conjugation protocol to assess antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampkowska, J.; Feld, L.; Monaghan, A.; Toomey, N.; Schjørring, S.; Jacobsen, B.; Voet, van der H.; Andersen, S.R.; Bolton, D.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Wilcks, A.; Bardowski, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAMbeta1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laboratory

  15. Predicting a single HIV drug resistance measure from three international interpretation gold standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashik, Singh; Maurice, Mars

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the possibility of combining the interpretation of three gold standard interpretation algorithms using weighted heuristics in order to produce a single resistance measure. The outputs of HIVdb, Rega, ANRS were combined to obtain a single resistance profile using the equally weighted voting algorithm, accuracy based weighing voting algorithm and the Bayesian based weighted voting algorithm techniques. The Bayesian based voting combination increased the accuracy of the resistance profile prediction compared to phenotype, from 58% to 69%. The equal weighted voting algorithm and the accuracy based algorithm both increased the prediction accuracy to 60%. From the result obtained it is evident that combining the gold standard interpretation algorithms may increase the predictive ability of the individual interpretation algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Possible impact of the standardized Category IV regimen on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udwadia, Zarir F; Mullerpattan, Jai Bharat; Shah, Kushal D; Rodrigues, Camilla S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB program involves a standard regimen with a 6-month intensive phase and an 18-month continuation phase. However, the local drug resistance patterns in high MDR regions such as Mumbai may not be adequately reflected in the design of the regimen for that particular area. The study was carried out at a private Tertiary Level Hospital in Mumbai in a mycobacteriology laboratory equipped to perform the second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST). We attempted to analyze the impact of prescribing the standardized Category IV regimen to all patients receiving a DST at our mycobacteriology laboratory. All samples confirmed to be MDR-TB and tested for the second-line drugs at Hinduja Hospital's Mycobacteriology Laboratory in the year 2012 were analyzed. A total of 1539 samples were analyzed. Of these, 464 (30.14%) were MDR-TB, 867 (56.33%) were MDR with fluoroquinolone resistance, and 198 (12.8%) were extensively drug-resistant TB. The average number of susceptible drugs per sample was 3.07 ± 1.29 (assuming 100% cycloserine susceptibility). Taking 4 effective drugs to be the cut or an effective regimen, the number of patients receiving 4 or more effective drugs from the standardized directly observed treatment, short-course plus regimen would be 516 (33.5%) while 66.5% of cases would receive 3 or less effective drugs. Our study shows that a high proportion of patients will have resistance to a number of the first- and second-line drugs. Local epidemiology must be factored in to avoid amplification of resistance.

  17. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  18. 78 FR 19434 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Construction and Development Point Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... briefs. In April 2010, the Small Business Administration (SBA) filed with EPA a petition for..., building products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides... products, construction wastes, trash, landscape materials, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, detergents...

  19. Genetic Mimetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus as Verification Standards for Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowski, Edith Erika; Kana, Bavesh Davandra

    2017-12-01

    Molecular diagnostics have revolutionized the management of health care through enhanced detection of disease or infection and effective enrollment into treatment. In recognition of this, the World Health Organization approved the rollout of nucleic acid amplification technologies for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using platforms such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF, the GenoType MTBDR plus line probe assay, and, more recently, GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra. These assays can simultaneously detect tuberculosis infection and assess rifampin resistance. However, their widespread use in health systems requires verification and quality assurance programs. To enable development of these, we report the construction of genetically modified strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis that mimic the profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on both the GeneXpert MTB/RIF and the MTBDR plus line probe diagnostic tests. Using site-specific gene editing, we also created derivatives that faithfully mimic the diagnostic result of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis , with mutations at positions 513, 516, 526, 531, and 533 in the rifampin resistance-determining region of the rpoB gene. Next, we extended this approach to other diseases and demonstrated that a Staphylococcus aureus gene sequence can be introduced into M. smegmatis to generate a positive response for the SCC mec probe in the GeneXpert SA Nasal Complete molecular diagnostic cartridge, designed for identification of methicillin-resistant S. aureus These biomimetic strains are cost-effective, have low biohazard content, accurately mimic drug resistance, and can be produced with relative ease, thus illustrating their potential for widespread use as verification standards for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Research, Development and Application of High Performance Earthquake Resistant Precast System as Green Construction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurjaman Hari; Hariandja Binsar; Suprapto Gambiro; Faizal Lutfi; Sitepu Haerul

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable construction is a topic that emerges in the world construction as a response to climate change issue. Building construction stage is a stage in sustainable development. Construction concept that confirm to the concept is referred to as green construction. Precast concrete construction is a construction system that meets green construction criteria, because applies the usage of material and construction method that optimize energy consumption and minimize environment impact during ...

  1. The method of using current regulations and standards in designing management and technologies of construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinenko Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency of using funds in construction of buildings and structures begins from an effective, proper design, which is based on modern, cutting-edge, advanced equipment, streamlined organization and process solutions of construction operations. In the light of this it is considered application of “Self-Organization and Technology of Building” multifunctional software package capable of solving various engineering tasks on designing management of construction operations in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations in view of using software for automatic generation of workflow. Implementing this software in the construction management processes may help to solve management tasks at the construction site.

  2. A standardized conjugation protocol to asses antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampkowska, Joanna; Feld, Louise; Monaghan, Aine

    2008-01-01

    Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAM beta 1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laborator...... of this kind, in which a standardized protocol of conjugal mating for testing antibiotic resistance dissemination among LAB was established and validated. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAM beta 1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter......-laboratory experiments involving five laboratories from different countries. The ultimate goal of the study was to assess the microbial potential of antibiotic resistance transfer among Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). The influence of culture age (various OD values) and ratios of donor and recipient cultures as well...

  3. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  4. Quantum resistance standard accuracy close to the zero-dissipation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopfer, F.; Poirier, W. [Laboratoire National de métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes (France)

    2013-08-14

    We report on a comparison of four GaAs/AlGaAs-based quantum resistance standards using an original technique adapted from the well-known Wheatstone bridge. This work shows that the quantized Hall resistance at Landau level filling factor ν=2 can be reproducible with a relative uncertainty of 32×10{sup −12} in the dissipationless limit of the quantum Hall effect regime. In the presence of a very small dissipation characterized by a mean macroscopic longitudinal resistivity R{sub xx}(B) of a few μΩ, the discrepancy ΔR{sub H}(B) between quantum Hall resistors measured on the Hall plateau at magnetic induction B turns out to follow the so-called resistivity rule R{sub xx}(B)=αB×d(ΔR{sub H}(B))/dB. While the dissipation increases with the measurement current value, the coefficient α stays constant in the range investigated (40−120 μA). This result enlightens the impact of the dissipation emergence in the two-dimensional electron gas on the Hall resistance quantization, which is of major interest for the resistance metrology. The quantum Hall effect is used to realize a universal resistance standard only linked to the electron charge e and the Planck constant h and it is known to play a central role in the upcoming revised Système International of units. There are therefore fundamental and practical benefits in testing the reproducibility property of the quantum Hall effect with better and better accuracy.

  5. Construction of an integrated map and location of a bruchid resistance gene in mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis poses a serious threat to the production and storage of mung bean (Vigna radiata. Mapping bruchid resistance (Br will provide an important basis for cloning the responsible gene(s and elucidating its functional mechanism, and will also facilitate marker-assisted selection in mung bean breeding. Here, we report the construction of the genetic linkage groups of mung bean and mapping of the Br1 locus using an RIL population derived from a cross between Berken, a bruchid-susceptible line, and ACC41, a bruchid-resistant line. A total of 560 markers were mapped onto 11 linkage groups, with 38.0% of the markers showing distorted segregation. The lengths of the linkage groups ranged from 45.2 to 117.0 cM with a total coverage of 732.9 cM and an average interval of 1.3 cM between loci. Br1 was located on LG9 between BM202 (0.7 cM and Vr2-627 (1.7 cM. Based on 270 shared SSR markers, most of the linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes. These results should further accelerate the genetic study of this crop.

  6. La construction de la matière le modèle Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Léon, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Qu'est-ce que la matière ? Voilà une question à laquelle il pourrait sembler facile de répondre car il n'est rien de plus concret que la matière. Et pourtant, la réponse qu'en donne la physique contemporaine est pour le moins déconcertante ! Le concept-même de particules, briques élémentaires de la matière, s'est volatilisé, dissout dans des objets mathématiques abstraits et abscons pour les non-initiés. Plus nos théories sont précises et plus l'image qu'elles nous renvoient est insaisissable. En un siècle, la représentation des particules s'est métamorphosée en nuages de probabilité portés par des champs quantiques régis par des symétries confinées dans des espaces abstraits. Mais dans un même temps, nous avons réussi le tour de force d'expliquer toute cette complexité avec seulement 16 particules… et une seule théorie, véritable construction de notre conception de la matière : le modèle standard. Ce livre tente de guider le lecteur dans le dédale de la physique des particu...

  7. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  8. Standard Test Method for Hail Impact Resistance of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the impact resistance of an aerospace transparent enclosure, hereinafter called windshield, during hailstorm conditions using simulated hailstones consisting of ice balls molded under tightly controlled conditions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements see Section 7.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  10. 48 CFR 22.404-12 - Labor standards for contracts containing construction requirements and option provisions that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts containing construction requirements and option provisions that extend the term of the contract... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts... option provisions that extend the term of the contract. (a) Each time the contracting officer exercises...

  11. Standard guide for estimating the atmospheric corrosion resistance of low-alloy steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents two methods for estimating the atmospheric corrosion resistance of low-alloy weathering steels, such as those described in Specifications A242/A242M, A588/A588M, A606 Type 4, A709/A709M grades 50W, HPS 70W, and 100W, A852/A852M, and A871/A871M. One method gives an estimate of the long-term thickness loss of a steel at a specific site based on results of short-term tests. The other gives an estimate of relative corrosion resistance based on chemical composition. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  12. Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, F.; Ribeiro-Palau, R.; Lafont, F.; Brun-Picard, J.; Kazazis, D.; Michon, A.; Cheynis, F.; Couturaud, O.; Consejo, C.; Jouault, B.; Poirier, W.

    Large-area and high-quality graphene devices synthesized by CVD on SiC are used to develop reliable electrical resistance standards, based on the quantum Hall effect (QHE), with state-of-the-art accuracy of 1x10-9 and under an extended range of experimental conditions of magnetic field (down to 3.5 T), temperature (up to 10 K) or current (up to 0.5 mA). These conditions are much relaxed as compared to what is required by GaAs/AlGaAs standards and will enable to broaden the use of the primary quantum electrical standards to the benefit of Science and Industry for electrical measurements. Furthermore, by comparison of these graphene devices with GaAs/AlGaAs standards, we demonstrate the universality of the QHE within an ultimate uncertainty of 8.2x10-11. This suggests the exact relation of the quantized Hall resistance with the Planck constant and the electron charge, which is crucial for the new SI to be based on fixing such fundamental constants. These results show that graphene realizes its promises and demonstrates its superiority over other materials for a demanding application. Nature Nanotech. 10, 965-971, 2015, Nature Commun. 6, 6806, 2015

  13. Construction of APR1000 nuclear power information management system based on international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Hwan [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Deok Yong; Han, Byung Sub [Enesys Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); An, Kyung Ik; Hwang, Jin Sang [PartDB Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In recent years, due to speedy rise of international oil prices, orders of nuclear power plant construction have been in progress by many countries to solve the stable supply of power. Our country has continued to perform nuclear power construction. As only a few developed countries like Japan and European countries have its own nuclear power construction technology, competition among them is keen. Our country has awarded the contract of UAE nuclear power plants based on the accumulated nuclear power plant construction technologies so far. In this regard, KEPCO has recognized the needs of information management system to manage nuclear power information and proceeded the implementation of nuclear power information management system for export-model

  14. Standard classification of resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of heat-treatable Aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This classification covers alphabetical ratings of the relative resistance to SCC of various mill product forms of the wrought 2XXX, 6XXX, and 7XXX series heat-treated aluminum alloys and the procedure for determining the ratings. 1.2 The ratings do not apply to metal in which the metallurgical structure has been altered by welding, forming, or other fabrication processes. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Characteristics of Standard Capsule-Type PtCo Resistance Thermometers Between 0.65 K and 25 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, T.; Nakano, T.; Takasu, S.

    2017-07-01

    Standard capsule-type platinum-cobalt (PtCo) resistance thermometers represent one of the few types of resistance thermometers that have been developed for precise thermometry in the cryogenic temperature range. These thermometers remain sensitive even at 0.65 K, which is the lower limit of the ITS-90. Standard capsule-type rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are another type of resistance thermometer intended for use in this temperature range and have been well characterized and are the de facto standard worldwide. Existing data show RhFe resistance thermometers are more reproducible than the corresponding PtCo resistance thermometer. However, it has become difficult to obtain brand-new standard capsule-type RhFe resistance thermometers since their production was discontinued in the early 2000s. Unfortunately, information regarding the characteristics of standard capsule-type PtCo resistance thermometers is limited compared to that available for RhFe resistance thermometers. In this study, the characteristics of two standard capsule-type PtCo resistance thermometers between 0.65 K and 25 K were investigated. Because the resistance versus temperature curves for these thermometers over this temperature range exhibit two inflection points, setting break points near each of the inflection points was found to be beneficial during polynomial curve fitting to obtain mK-level precision. Special attention was paid to the reproducibility of these thermometers, and it was observed that the reproducibility of one of the thermometers within the cryogenic temperature range was ±0.5 mK over 6 years, while the second thermometer showed a larger variation. Similar trends in the resistance characteristics of the two thermometers were observed at the triple point of water.

  16. Ecological Network Construction Based on Minimum Cumulative Resistance for the City of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With economic growth and the improvement of the urbanization level, human activities have constantly interfered with landscape patterns, resulting in serious threats to regional ecological security. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution and optimization of the landscape patterns. Based on three TM images from 1990, 2000, and 2010, and selected landscape pattern indexes, the changes in the landscape pattern of Nanjing in the past twenty years were studied based on landscape ecology theory using Remote Sensing (RS and a Geographical Information System (GIS. The ecological network was built on the basis of extracted ecological nodes and the minimum cumulative resistance. The results show that changes in the landscape pattern of the city of Nanjing were notable. Class-level indexes indicate that the farmland landscape area decreased and the degree of patch fragmentation increased. The construction land area increased, and it tended to show dispersed distribution. The proportion of forest land increased and the shape of patches became more complex. The proportion of water firstly showed a decrease, followed by an increase, and the shape of the water became more regular. Landscape-level indexes indicate that biological diversity and the degree of fragmentation increased. Spatial heterogeneity of the natural landscape increased, and the patch shape of each landscape type developed similarly. The results also call for stepping-stones to enhance the connectivity and optimization of the ecological network, which will help improve ecological services and improve the landscape pattern of the city.

  17. Effect of implantoplasty on fracture resistance and surface roughness of standard diameter dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Berenguer, Xavier; García-García, Marta; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Sanz-Alonso, Mariano; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of implantoplasty on the fracture resistance, surface roughness, and macroscopic morphology of standard diameter (4.1 mm) external connection dental implants. An in vitro study was conducted in 20 screw-shaped titanium dental implants with an external connection. In 10 implants, the threads and surface were removed and polished with high-speed burs (implantoplasty), while the remaining 10 implants were used as controls. The final implant dimensions were recorded. The newly polished surface quality was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by 3D surface roughness analysis using a confocal laser microscope. Finally, all the implants were subjected to a mechanical pressure resistance test. A descriptive analysis of the data was made. Also, Student's t tests were employed to detect differences regarding the compression tests. Implantoplasty was carried out for a mean time of 10 min and 48 s (standard deviation (SD) of 1 min 22 s). Macroscopically, the resulting surface had a smooth appearance, although small titanium shavings and silicon debris were present. The final surface roughness (S a values 0.1 ± 0.02 μm) was significantly lower than that of the original (0.75 ± 0.08 μm S a ) (p = .005). There was minimal reduction in the implant's inner body diameter (0.19 ± 0.03 mm), and no statistically significant differences were found between the test and control implants regarding the maximum resistance force (896 vs 880 N, respectively). Implantoplasty, although technically demanding and time-consuming, does not seem to significantly alter fracture resistance of standard diameter external connection implants. A smooth surface with S a values below 0.1 μm can be obtained through the use of silicon polishers. A larger sample is required to confirm that implantoplasty does not significantly affect the maximum resistance force of standard diameter external connection implants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published

  18. Evaluation of two gene-silencing constructs for resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl viruses in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallah Chouchane, S; Gorsane, F; Nakhla, M K; Salus, M; Martin, C T; Maxwell, D P; Marrakchi, M; Fakhfakh, H

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration of Agrobacterium tumefaciens into intact plant leaves of N. benthamiana was used to test the efficiency of two virus-based silencing constructs conferring resistance to the closely related begomoviruses. The constructs contained the most conserved sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene and replication-associated protein (Rep) gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (Sicily strain) (TYLCSV-[Sic]). Both constructs formed a hairpin structure that enhanced the post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism. When agro-infiltrated plants were challenged separately with infectious viruses TYLCSV-[Sic] and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), the plants showed resistance to TYLCSV-[Sic], but not to the related TYLCV.

  19. Constructing an I and C Upgrade Architecture for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Suk; Hur, Seop; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sung, Chan Ho; Kang, Hyun Tai; Lee, Jae Ki; Cho, Chang Hwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents three architectures of the KSNP I and C upgrade. The architectures are constructed with an adoption of PLCs and DCS technology and 3-phase upgrade strategy. The 3-phase upgrade strategy is established to ensure the safety of the upgrade. Based on the architecture, the cabinet configuration is being constructed. From the configuration, it is expected to figure out how to optimize the layout of the cabinets. It is required to study the performance and safety design requirements of the upgrade further

  20. Groupwise consistent image registration: a crucial step for the construction of a standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špiclin, Žiga; Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Construction of a standardized near infrared (NIR) hyper-spectral teeth database is a first step in the development of a reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of dental diseases. The standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by X-ray and digital color camera. The color and X-ray teeth images were presented to the expert for localization and classification of the dental diseases, thereby obtaining a dental disease gold standard. Accurate transfer of the dental disease gold standard to the NIR images was achieved by image registration in a groupwise manner, taking advantage of the multichannel image information and promoting image edges as the features for the improvement of spatial correspondence detection. By the presented fully automatic multi-modal groupwise registration method, images of new teeth samples can be accurately and reliably registered and then added to the standardized NIR hyper-spectral teeth database. Adding more samples increases the biological and patho-physiological variability of the NIR hyper-spectral teeth database and can importantly contribute to the objective assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of multivariate image analysis techniques used for the detection of dental diseases. Such assessment is essential for the development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy.

  1. Estimation of the Fracture Resistance Curve for the Nuclear Piping Using the Standard Compact Tension Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Yong; Park, Hong Sun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung; Park, Jae Sil

    2009-01-01

    The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed using the load ratio method for the standard specimen. For this, the calculation method of the load - CMOD curve for the pipe specimen with the common format equation(CFE) was proposed by using data of the CT specimen. The proposed method agreed well with experimental data. The J-integral value and the crack extension were calculated from the estimated load - CMOD data. The fracture resistance curve was estimated from the calculated J-integral and the crack extension. From these results, it have been seen that the proposed method is reliable to estimate the J-R curve of the pipe specimen

  2. Estimation of the Fracture Resistance Curve for the Nuclear Piping Using the Standard Compact Tension Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Yong; Park, Hong Sun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed using the load ratio method for the standard specimen. For this, the calculation method of the load - CMOD curve for the pipe specimen with the common format equation(CFE) was proposed by using data of the CT specimen. The proposed method agreed well with experimental data. The J-integral value and the crack extension were calculated from the estimated load - CMOD data. The fracture resistance curve was estimated from the calculated J-integral and the crack extension. From these results, it have been seen that the proposed method is reliable to estimate the J-R curve of the pipe specimen.

  3. Double Standards in Global Health: Medicine, Human Rights Law and Multidrug-Resistant TB Treatment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Thomas; Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-06-01

    The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level.

  4. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  5. Environmental standard review plans for the environmental review of construction permit applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Information is presented concerning environmental descriptions; plant description; environmental impacts of construction; environmental impacts of station operation; environmental measurements and monitoring programs; environmental impacts of postulated accidents involving radioactive materials; the need for the plant; alternatives to the project; and evaluation of the proposed action

  6. 75 FR 9392 - National Institute of Standards and Technology Construction Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... project. 3. Adequacy of the detailed Project Management Plan (PMP) for construction of the research... mechanisms. Finally, it addresses the management plan for direction and implementation of the project..., consolidated into a unified project scope description that will be used by project management key personnel...

  7. Terminology Standardization in Education and the Construction of Resources: The Welsh Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegau Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes developments in Welsh-language terminology within the education system in Wales. Following an outline of historical terminology work, it concentrates on the consolidation of terminology standardization at the Language Technologies Unit, Bangor University, with particular reference to two projects, one concerned with terminology for school-age and further education, the second concerned with higher education. The developments described include the adoption of international standards in terminology standardization and their incorporation in an online terminology standardization environment and dissemination platform that enable access to the centralized terminological dictionaries via a number of sophisticated websites, portals and mobile apps featuring rich dictionary entries. Some of the issues in managing large term collections are explored, and usage statistics are presented for the resources described.

  8. Effect of simulated resistance, fleeing, and use of force on standardized field sobriety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey; Dawes, Donald; Nystrom, Paul; Moore, Johanna; Steinberg, Lila; Tilton, Annemarie; Miner, James

    2015-07-01

    When a law enforcement officer (LEO) stops a suspect believed to be operating (a vehicle) while impaired (OWI), the suspect may resist or flee, and the LEO may respond with force. The suspect may then undergo a Standardized Field Sobriety Test (SFST) to gauge impairment. It is not known whether resistance, fleeing, or actions of force can create an inaccurate SFST result. We examined the effect of resistance, fleeing, and force on the SFST. Human volunteers were prospectively randomized to have a SFST before and after one of five scenarios: (1) five-second conducted electrical weapon exposure; (2) 100-yard (91.4 m) sprint; (3) 45-second physical fight; (4) police dog bite with protective gear; and (5) Oleoresin Capsicum spray to the face with eyes shielded. The SFST was administered and graded by a qualified LEO. After the SFST, the volunteer entered their scenario and was then administered another SFST. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. SFST performance was compared before and after using chi-square tests. Fifty-seven subjects enrolled. Three received a single-point penalty during one component of the three-component SFST pre-scenario. No subject received a penalty point in any components of the SFST post-scenario (p = 0.08). This is the first human study to examine the effects of physical resistance, flight, and use of force on the SFST result. We did not detect a difference in the performance of subjects taking the SFST before and after exposure to resistance, flight, or a simulated use of force. © Australian Council for Educational Research 2014.

  9. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn; Khan, Ghazanfar Ali; Weisner, Stefan E B; Ehde, Per Magnus; Fick, Jerker; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2014-04-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.

  11. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Building a gold standard to construct search filters: a case study with biomarkers for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John J; Stein, Corey D; Tseytlin, Eugene; Bekhuis, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    To support clinical researchers, librarians and informationists may need search filters for particular tasks. Development of filters typically depends on a "gold standard" dataset. This paper describes generalizable methods for creating a gold standard to support future filter development and evaluation using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a case study. OSCC is the most common malignancy affecting the oral cavity. Investigation of biomarkers with potential prognostic utility is an active area of research in OSCC. The methods discussed here should be useful for designing quality search filters in similar domains. The authors searched MEDLINE for prognostic studies of OSCC, developed annotation guidelines for screeners, ran three calibration trials before annotating the remaining body of citations, and measured inter-annotator agreement (IAA). We retrieved 1,818 citations. After calibration, we screened the remaining citations (n = 1,767; 97.2%); IAA was substantial (kappa = 0.76). The dataset has 497 (27.3%) citations representing OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. The gold standard dataset is likely to be high quality and useful for future development and evaluation of filters for OSCC studies of potential prognostic biomarkers. The methodology we used is generalizable to other domains requiring a reference standard to evaluate the performance of search filters. A gold standard is essential because the labels regarding relevance enable computation of diagnostic metrics, such as sensitivity and specificity. Librarians and informationists with data analysis skills could contribute to developing gold standard datasets and subsequent filters tuned for their patrons' domains of interest.

  13. Experiences from constructing command and control simulations using a tactical data link standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, DC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available software could manage real-time execution and didn’t fall behind. Other software systems and simulators from indus- try also implemented TDL standards in order to interface with C2 systems. The TDL implementa- tions for most of these simulators operate... be conducted to determine possible changes that can be made to a TDL stan- dard to address the challenges discussed in this pa- per. This could strengthen the case for using TDL standards for simulation interoperability. Almost in line with this, future...

  14. How Standards Enable the Emergence of Sustainable Construction as a New Organizational Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Georg, Susse; Reijonen, Satu

    to sustainability. On the basis of these studies, we propose that standards shape the emergence of new fields within an existing 'parental' field by 1) stimulating innovation and encouraging other actors to adopt this innovation, 2) generating boundaries around a distinct actor group that become associated...

  15. Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the past ten years most sectors of industry have been developing standards for the electronic sharing and exchange of product model data. While several related industries, such as automotive and shipbuilding manufacturing have been relatively successful in integrating electronic product models

  16. Determination of bending moment resistance of t-type joints constructed with wood biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kahvand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate effects of wood species (Beech and Fir, number of connectors (1 and 2, size of biscuit (10 and 20 and type of adhesives (Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc, polyurethane (PU and urea-formaldehyde (UF on bending moment resistance of joints fabricated with biscuit. Results have shown that member of joint, number of connector, size of biscuit and type of adhesive had significant effect on the bending moment resistance. Bending moment resistance of joints made of Beech wood were stronger than joints made of Fir ones. Bending moment resistance has increased, with the increase of size and number of biscuit. Performance of joints with PU adhesive had better than PVA and UF. Highest bending moment resistance were obtained from joints glued with PU adhesive, size of biscuit 20 and 2 connectors. The results also indicated that joints made with biscuit and glued with PU had higher resistance than wooden dowel joints.

  17. Theory construction based on standards of care: a proposed theory of the peaceful end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruland, C M; Moore, S M

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of developing a theory from this standard of care is that it can express a new unifying idea about the phenomenon of peaceful end of life for terminally ill patients. It allows for generating and testing hypotheses that can provide new insights into the nature of this phenomenon and can contribute to increased knowledge about nursing interventions that help patients toward a peaceful end of life. The process of theory development from standards of care as described in this article also can be applied to other phenomena. Clinical practice abounds with opportunities for theory development, yet nurses often do not use theories to guide their practice. Until now, little guidance has been provided to tap the richness of clinical knowledge for the development of middle-range theories. Whereas the method described in this article may still be further refined, it offers a promising approach for the development of theories that are applicable to practice and move beyond the scope of grand theories. Thus deriving theories from standards of care can offer an important contribution to the development of the discipline's scientific knowledge base and enhanced practice.

  18. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  19. Comparison between the permanent deformation behaviour of a standard and a rut resistant HMA (hot-mix asphalt) mix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus is on the comparison between the permanent deformation behaviour of the standard HMA mix and one rut resistant HMA mix of which the grading differs from that of the standard HMA mix. The permanent deformation has been...

  20. Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Aerospace Cleanrooms and Contamination Controlled Areas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this practice is to provide design and construction guidelines for contamination controlled facilities used in the assembly and integration of aerospace hardware. The guidelines herein are intended to ensure that the facilities, when used properly, will meet the cleanliness requirements of aerospace hardware and processes. The objective is to limit contamination due to the deposition of particulate and molecular contaminants on flight hardware surfaces. 1.2 One cleanliness classification of a facility is the airborne particle concentrations in accordance with ISO 14644-1 and 14644-2. Airborne particle concentrations in accordance with FED-STD-209E are included for reference. This simple classification is inadequate to describe a facility that will support the assembly and integration of spacecraft. The extended duration of hardware exposure during fabrication and testing, the sensitivity of the hardware to hydrocarbons and other molecular contaminants, and the changing requirements during ...

  1. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Optimization of wetland substrates and hydraulic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Su, Hao-Chang; Hu, Li-Xin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-09-15

    This study aimed to assess removal potential of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) planted Cyperus alternifolius L. with different design parameters. Twelve CWs with three hydraulic loading rates (HLR 10, 20 and 30cm/day) and four substrates (oyster shell, zeolite, medical stone and ceramic) were set up in order to select the best optimized wetland. The result showed that 7 target antibiotics compounds including erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, monensin, ofloxacin, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and novobiocin were detected, and all selected 18 genes (three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), three quinolone resistance genes (qnrB, qnrD and qnrS) and four chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA, fexA, fexB and floR)) and two integrase genes (int1 and int2) were positively detected in the domestic wastewaters. The aqueous removal rates of the total antibiotics ranged from17.9 to 98.5%, while those for the total ARGs varied between 50.0 and 85.8% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. After considering their aqueous removal rates in combination with their mass removals, the CW with zeolite as the substrate and HLR of 20cm/day was selected as the best choice. Combined chemical and biological analyses indicate that both microbial degradation and physical sorption processes were responsible for the fate of antibiotics and ARGs in the wetlands. The findings from this study suggest constructed wetlands could be a promising technology for the removal of emerging contaminants such as antibiotics and ARGs in domestic wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Construction of a screening instrument for Motor Speech Disorders: Standardization of phonetically balanced text "O Sol"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. Mendes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging, neurodegenerative diseases or brain injuries are the main causes of motor speech disorders (MSD which impacted on the communication effectiveness and quality of life of humans with more than 60 years. MSD’s early identification is relevant to mitigate these effects. Objective: To ensure the psychometric criteria of validity, reliability and sensitivity of the European Portuguese (EP phonetically balanced text (PBT “O Sol” (The Sun for the norm speakers. Methodology: 55 subjects spoken of the three EP dialects with ages between [18-58] years participated on the validity and sensitivity criteria. Secondly, 10 subjects spoken of cen-tral-southern EP dialect with ages between [19-50] years participated on the reliability criteria. Subjects read aloud the PBT “O Sol”. Sound samples were captured with integrated Sony Linear PCM-D50 microphone recorder. International Phonetic Alphabet was used for transcription. Results: The PBT “The Sun” satisfied the seven construction pre-requisites of a PBT. It presented all EP phonemes and syllabic formats. For the three dialects, 6/38 phonemes presented significantly different absolute frequency averages (p <0.05. Inter-examiner agreement and intra-examiner were 82% and 91.3%, p <0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The PBT “O Sol” is valid, reliable and sensitive to dialectal variations of the EP.

  3. Constructing an exposure chart: step by step (based on standard procedures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L; Cansino, Percedita T.; Taguibao, Angileo P.

    2000-01-01

    An exposure chart is very important in conducting radiographic inspection of materials. By using an accurate exposure chart, an inspector is able to avoid a trial and error way of determining correct time to expose a specimen, thereby producing a radiograph that has an acceptable density based on a standard. The chart gives the following information: x-ray machine model and brand, distance of the x-ray tube from the film, type and thickness of intensifying screens, film type, radiograph density, and film processing conditions. The methods of preparing an exposure chart are available in existing radiographic testing manuals. These described methods are presented in step by step procedures, covering the actual laboratory set-up, data gathering, computations, and transformation of derived data into Characteristic Curve and Exposure Chart

  4. Determination of withdrawal resistance of staple joints constructed with various members of upholstered furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid Kazemi Najafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of joints members type (oriented strand lumber, plywood and poplar wood (Populusdeltoides, penetration deeps of staple (12 and 17mm and adhesives (with and without adhesive on face and edge withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated with staple. Experimental specimens under withdrawal load test of face and edge consisted of two principal structural members, main member and a secondary member which were joined together by one staple. The results showed that joint member, penetration deeps and adhesive significantly influence on the withdrawal resistance. Staple withdrawal resistance in the face was higher than that in the edge. Staple holding resistance increased with the increase of penetration deep and the withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated by adhesive was higher than those without adhesive. The joints made by oriented strand lumber exhibited better performance than other two members and joints made with poplar wood had higher resistance than plywood joints. The highest face (2326N and edge (1265N withdrawal resistances were obtained from joints prepared from oriented strand lumber with adhesive and17mm penetration deeps.

  5. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  6. Asynchronous Advanced Encryption Standard Hardware with Random Noise Injection for Improved Side-Channel Attack Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kotipalli

    2014-01-01

    (SCA resistance. These designs are based on a delay-insensitive (DI logic paradigm known as null convention logic (NCL, which supports useful properties for resisting SCAs including dual-rail encoding, clock-free operation, and monotonic transitions. Potential benefits include reduced and more uniform switching activities and reduced signal-to-noise (SNR ratio. A novel method to further augment NCL AES hardware with random voltage scaling technique is also presented for additional security. Thereby, the proposed components leak significantly less side-channel information than conventional clocked approaches. To quantitatively verify such improvements, functional verification and WASSO (weighted average simultaneous switching output analysis have been carried out on both conventional synchronous approach and the proposed NCL based approach using Mentor Graphics ModelSim and Xilinx simulation tools. Hardware implementation has been carried out on both designs exploiting a specified side-channel attack standard evaluation FPGA board, called SASEBO-GII, and the corresponding power waveforms for both designs have been collected. Along with the results of software simulations, we have analyzed the collected waveforms to validate the claims related to benefits of the proposed cryptohardware design approach.

  7. Optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers conforming to TEMA standards with designs motivated by constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Fan, Aiwu; Liu, Wei; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A design method of heat exchangers motivated by constructal theory is proposed. • A genetic algorithm is applied and the TEMA standards are rigorously followed. • Three cases are studied to illustrate the advantage of the proposed design method. • The design method will reduce the total cost compared to two other methods. - Abstract: A modified optimization design approach motivated by constructal theory is proposed for shell-and-tube heat exchangers in the present paper. In this method, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is divided into several in-series heat exchangers. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) standards are rigorously followed for all design parameters. The total cost of the whole shell-and-tube heat exchanger is set as the objective function, including the investment cost for initial manufacture and the operational cost involving the power consumption to overcome the frictional pressure loss. A genetic algorithm is applied to minimize the cost function by adjusting parameters such as the tube and shell diameters, tube length and tube arrangement. Three cases are studied which indicate that the modified design approach can significantly reduce the total cost compared to the original design method and traditional genetic algorithm design method

  8. Design, construction and quality control of resistive-Micromegas anode boards for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuger, F.; Iengo, P.

    2018-02-01

    For the upcoming upgrade of the forward muon stations of the ATLAS detector, 1280m2 of Micromegas chambers have to be constructed. The industrialization of anode board production is an essential precondition. Design and construction methods of these boards have been optimized towards mass production. In parallel quality control procedures have been developed and established. The first set of large size Micromegas anode boards has finally been produced in industries and demonstrates the feasibility of the project on full-scale.

  9. Construction of a New Growth References for China Based on Urban Chinese Children: Comparison with the WHO Growth Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Growth references for Chinese children should be updated due to the positive secular growth trends and the progress of the smoothing techniques. Human growth differs among the various ethnic groups, so comparison of the China references with the WHO standards helps to understand such differences. Methods The China references, including weight, length/height, head circumference, weight-for-length/height and body mass index (BMI) aged 0–18 years, were constructed based on 69,760 urban infants and preschool children under 7 years and 24,542 urban school children aged 6–20 years derived from two cross-sectional national surveys. The Cole’s LMS method is employed for smoothing the growth curves. Results The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at age 6–7 years and continuity of curves from 0 to 18 years. Varying differences were found on the empirical standard deviation (SD) curves in each indicator at nearly all ages between China and WHO. The most noticeable differences occurred in genders, final height and boundary centiles curves. Chinese boys’ weight is strikingly heavier than that of the WHO at age 6–10 years. The height is taller than that of the WHO for boys below 15 years and for girls below 13, but is significantly lower when boys over 15 years and girls over 13. BMI is generally higher than that of the WHO for boys at age 6–16 years but appreciably lower for girls at 3–18 years. Conclusions The differences between China and WHO are mainly caused by the reference populations of different ethnic backgrounds. For practitioners, the choices of the standards/references depend on the population to be assessed and the purpose of the study. The new China references could be applied to facilitate the standardization assessment of growth and nutrition for Chinese children and adolescents in clinical pediatric and public health. PMID:23527219

  10. Construction of a new growth references for China based on urban Chinese children: comparison with the WHO growth standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Growth references for Chinese children should be updated due to the positive secular growth trends and the progress of the smoothing techniques. Human growth differs among the various ethnic groups, so comparison of the China references with the WHO standards helps to understand such differences. The China references, including weight, length/height, head circumference, weight-for-length/height and body mass index (BMI) aged 0-18 years, were constructed based on 69,760 urban infants and preschool children under 7 years and 24,542 urban school children aged 6-20 years derived from two cross-sectional national surveys. The Cole's LMS method is employed for smoothing the growth curves. The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at age 6-7 years and continuity of curves from 0 to 18 years. Varying differences were found on the empirical standard deviation (SD) curves in each indicator at nearly all ages between China and WHO. The most noticeable differences occurred in genders, final height and boundary centiles curves. Chinese boys' weight is strikingly heavier than that of the WHO at age 6-10 years. The height is taller than that of the WHO for boys below 15 years and for girls below 13, but is significantly lower when boys over 15 years and girls over 13. BMI is generally higher than that of the WHO for boys at age 6-16 years but appreciably lower for girls at 3-18 years. The differences between China and WHO are mainly caused by the reference populations of different ethnic backgrounds. For practitioners, the choices of the standards/references depend on the population to be assessed and the purpose of the study. The new China references could be applied to facilitate the standardization assessment of growth and nutrition for Chinese children and adolescents in clinical pediatric and public health.

  11. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  12. A standardized method to determine the concentration of extracellular vesicles using tunable resistive pulse sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Coumans, Frank A W; Maltesen, Raluca G; Böing, Anita N; Bonnington, Katherine E; Broekman, Marike L; Broom, Murray F; Buzás, Edit I; Christiansen, Gunna; Hajji, Najat; Kristensen, Søren R; Kuehn, Meta J; Lund, Sigrid M; Maas, Sybren L N; Nieuwland, Rienk; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Schnoor, Rosalie; Scicluna, Benjamin J; Shambrook, Mitch; de Vrij, Jeroen; Mann, Stephen I; Hill, Andrew F; Pedersen, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenic role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in disease and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility is extremely reliant on in-depth quantification, measurement and identification of EV sub-populations. Quantification of EVs has presented several challenges, predominantly due to the small size of vesicles such as exosomes and the availability of various technologies to measure nanosized particles, each technology having its own limitations. A standardized methodology to measure the concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been developed and tested. The method is based on measuring the EV concentration as a function of a defined size range. Blood plasma EVs are isolated and purified using size exclusion columns (qEV) and consecutively measured with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS). Six independent research groups measured liposome and EV samples with the aim to evaluate the developed methodology. Each group measured identical samples using up to 5 nanopores with 3 repeat measurements per pore. Descriptive statistics and unsupervised multivariate data analysis with principal component analysis (PCA) were used to evaluate reproducibility across the groups and to explore and visualise possible patterns and outliers in EV and liposome data sets. PCA revealed good reproducibility within and between laboratories, with few minor outlying samples. Measured mean liposome (not filtered with qEV) and EV (filtered with qEV) concentrations had coefficients of variance of 23.9% and 52.5%, respectively. The increased variance of the EV concentration measurements could be attributed to the use of qEVs and the polydisperse nature of EVs. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of this standardized methodology to facilitate comparable and reproducible EV concentration measurements.

  13. A standardized method to determine the concentration of extracellular vesicles using tunable resistive pulse sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vogel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the pathogenic role of extracellular vesicles (EVs in disease and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility is extremely reliant on in-depth quantification, measurement and identification of EV sub-populations. Quantification of EVs has presented several challenges, predominantly due to the small size of vesicles such as exosomes and the availability of various technologies to measure nanosized particles, each technology having its own limitations. Materials and Methods: A standardized methodology to measure the concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs has been developed and tested. The method is based on measuring the EV concentration as a function of a defined size range. Blood plasma EVs are isolated and purified using size exclusion columns (qEV and consecutively measured with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS. Six independent research groups measured liposome and EV samples with the aim to evaluate the developed methodology. Each group measured identical samples using up to 5 nanopores with 3 repeat measurements per pore. Descriptive statistics and unsupervised multivariate data analysis with principal component analysis (PCA were used to evaluate reproducibility across the groups and to explore and visualise possible patterns and outliers in EV and liposome data sets. Results: PCA revealed good reproducibility within and between laboratories, with few minor outlying samples. Measured mean liposome (not filtered with qEV and EV (filtered with qEV concentrations had coefficients of variance of 23.9% and 52.5%, respectively. The increased variance of the EV concentration measurements could be attributed to the use of qEVs and the polydisperse nature of EVs. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of this standardized methodology to facilitate comparable and reproducible EV concentration measurements.

  14. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    Momentary fatigue is an important variable in resistance training periodization programs. Although several studies have examined neuromuscular activity during single repetitions of resistance training, information is lacking in regard to neuromuscular fatigue indices throughout a full resistance......, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior increased, and MPF decreased within each set-indicating momentary neuromuscular fatigue. By contrast, no such change was observed between the 3 sets. This indicates that momentary neuromuscular fatigue in shoulder resistance training is induced more efficiently within a set...

  15. Elimination of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine wastewater in the vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Liu, Chaoxiang; Zheng, Jiayu; Huang, Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Yuhong; Zhu, Gefu

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigated the efficiency of two vertical flow constructed wetlands characterized by volcanic (CW1) and zeolite (CW2) respectively, at removing three common antibiotics (ciprofloxacin HCl, oxytetracycline HCl, and sulfamethazine) and tetracycline resistance (tet) genes (tetM, tetO, and tetW) from swine wastewater. The result indicated that the two systems could significantly reduce the wastewater antibiotics content, and elimination rates were in the following sequence: oxytetracycline HCl>ciprofloxacin HCl>sulfamethazine. The zeolite-medium system was superior to that of the volcanic-medium system vis-à-vis removal, perhaps because of the differing pH values and average pore sizes of the respective media. A higher concentration of antibiotics accumulated in the soil than in the media and vegetation, indicating that soil plays the main role in antibiotics removal from wastewater in vertical flow constructed wetlands. The characteristics of the wetland medium may also affect the antibiotic resistance gene removal capability of the system; the total absolute abundances of three tet genes and of 16S rRNA were reduced by 50% in CW1, and by almost one order of magnitude in CW2. However, the relative abundances of target tet genes tended to increase following CW1 treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Monte Carlo Method for Evaluation of Uncertainties of ITS-90 by Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenčár, Rudolf; Sopkuliak, Peter; Palenčár, Jakub; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Suroviak, Emil; Halaj, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of uncertainties of the temperature measurement by standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrated at the defining fixed points according to ITS-90 is a problem that can be solved in different ways. The paper presents a procedure based on the propagation of distributions using the Monte Carlo method. The procedure employs generation of pseudo-random numbers for the input variables of resistances at the defining fixed points, supposing the multivariate Gaussian distribution for input quantities. This allows taking into account the correlations among resistances at the defining fixed points. Assumption of Gaussian probability density function is acceptable, with respect to the several sources of uncertainties of resistances. In the case of uncorrelated resistances at the defining fixed points, the method is applicable to any probability density function. Validation of the law of propagation of uncertainty using the Monte Carlo method is presented on the example of specific data for 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer in the temperature range from 0 to 660 °C. Using this example, we demonstrate suitability of the method by validation of its results.

  17. Expediency of application of explosion-relief constructions to ensure explosion resistance of production buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of economic evaluation and selection of explosion-relief constructions (ERC, as well as determination of explosion protection efficiency of buildings and structures provided on a stage of construction. It has been shown that definition of economic efficiency of ERС is the evaluation of its application for buildings with remote or automatically controlled production. It has been determined that an important role in design of explosive industrial facilities is played by selection of the economically feasible and effective materials for ERC. When selecting materials it is necessary to consider probability and yield of explosions. Necessity to create the methods allow considering such probability has been revealed.

  18. Impact resistance of materials for guards on cutting machine tools--requirements in future European safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, D; Trapp, R P

    2000-01-01

    Guards on machine tools are meant to protect operators from injuries caused by tools, workpieces, and fragments hurled out of the machine's working zone. This article presents the impact resistance requirements, which guards according to European safety standards for machine tools must satisfy. Based upon these standards the impact resistance of different guard materials was determined using cylindrical steel projectiles. Polycarbonate proves to be a suitable material for vision panels because of its high energy absorption capacity. The impact resistance of 8-mm thick polycarbonate is roughly equal to that of a 3-mm thick steel sheet Fe P01. The limited ageing stability, however, makes it necessary to protect polycarbonate against cooling lubricants by means of additional panes on both sides.

  19. Construction and expression of recombinant prokaryotic vector PGEX-4T-1-BC006151 correlated with multidrug resistant of lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun LI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The drug resistance to chemotherapeutics is one of the important causes of low survival rate of lung cancer patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that BC006151 is a gene correlated with multidrug resistance of adenocarcinoma of lung. The aim of this study is to clone the BC006151 gene, and to construct recombinant prokaryotic vector PGEX-4T-1-BC006151, and to express it in E. coli BL21. Methods The primer was designed with restriction endonuclease position, then amplified BC006151 by RT-PCR, cleaved BC006151 cDNA and PGEX-4T-1 by BamH and EcoR I. linked it with PGEX-4T-1. Then the two fragments were linked by T4DNA. The post-linked vector was transformed into E. coli. DH5 and then expressed. Transformed the recombinant plasmids containing the correct clone into E. coli BL21 and protein was highly effective expressed. The production of GST fusion protein was identifisd by SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting. Results The sequence of BC006151 was amplified and identified with that published in GenBank. The prokaryotic expression plasmid PGEX-4T-1-BC006151 was constructed successfully. And a new fusion protein with relative molecular mass of 13 KD was highly effectively expressed in E. coli. Conclusion The BC006151 gene correlated with multidrug resistance of lung adenocarcinoma is successfully cloned and expressed, which is helpful for the preparation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

  20. Removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from domestic sewage by constructed wetlands: Effect of flow configuration and plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Hu, Li-Xin; He, Liang-Ying; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Fan-Rong; Yang, Yong-Qiang

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in raw domestic wastewater by various mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different flow configurations or plant species including the constructed wetland with or without plant. Six mesocosm-scale CWs with three flow types (surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and vertical subsurface flow) and two plant species (Thaliadealbata Fraser and Iris tectorum Maxim) were set up in the outdoor. 8 antibiotics including erythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), monensin (MON), clarithromycin (CTM), leucomycin (LCM), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPD) and 12 genes including three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2 and sul3), four tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetM, tetO and tetX), two macrolide resistance genes (ermB and ermC), two chloramphenicol resistance genes (cmlA and floR) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) were determined in different matrices (water, particle, substrate and plant phases) from the mesocosm-scale systems. The aqueous removal efficiencies of total antibiotics ranged from 75.8 to 98.6%, while those of total ARGs varied between 63.9 and 84.0% by the mesocosm-scale CWs. The presence of plants was beneficial to the removal of pollutants, and the subsurface flow CWs had higher pollutant removal than the surface flow CWs, especially for antibiotics. According to the mass balance analysis, the masses of all detected antibiotics during the operation period were 247,000, 4920-10,600, 0.05-0.41 and 3500-60,000μg in influent, substrate, plant and effluent of the mesocosm-scale CWs. In the CWs, biodegradation, substrate adsorption and plant uptake all played certain roles in reducing the loadings of nutrients, antibiotics and ARGs, but biodegradation was the most important process in the removal of these pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Land Surveying in the Analysis of Underground Construction Impact on the Warsaw Scarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the II Underground Line construction’s impact on the Warsaw Scarp with the use of the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI, also known as the electrical resistivity tomography and further total station position measurements.The underground passes under the scarp perpendicular in the area of Dynasy Street 6, in Down-town district.The electrical resistivity imaging was performed for recognition of the geological structure and a potential land slide surface or zone.The gradient system was used during the prospection. In these analyses, the longitudinal section was 40 m long, and the depth of survey amounted to 6 m. In the case of the 200 m long transverse section, the resulted depth of survey was 30 m.The geophysical image of the longitudinal section,does not contain loosening soil zones,which could indicates lip surface.Next, total station measurements, which were tied to the archival geodetic observations’ results, were carried out. The aim of the measurements was to verify the activity of the horizontal and vertical displacements. The TBM excavation process led to summary vertical displacements up to approx. 24 mm and horizontal displacements amounting to approx. 13 mm. To sum up, the current land surveys reveals minor under ground line’ s construction impact on the scarp displacement. Nevertheless, the sensitive urban environment requires further monitoring, especially that the operation loads can result in displacement rate change.

  2. Biological protein-resistance layer construction of recombinant hirudin on polymethyl methacrylate IOL surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwen; Jiao, Yan; Ren, Li; Wang, Yingjun

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the surface of intraocular len material PMMA was first aminated for activation on which some polar groups generated such as C-N, COO(-), -OH, NH3(+), etc. Then the anticoagulant drugs recombinant hirudin (rH) was grafted with amido bonds to look forward to resist the adsorption of nonspecific protein or cells in tear, even the cataract. The detailed analysis and discussion about the grafting quantity, molography, wettability, electric charges, chemical structure, and the dynamic adsorption of protein Fn on the material surface were carried on by the technology of ultraviolet photometric, contact angle, solid Zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance. The surface with a certain amount of rH modification existed more hydrophilic due to the amphiphilic structure than before, on which the protein adsorption was the most unstable. The results indicated that the rH modification improved the resistance of PMMA to nonspecific adsorption of protein Fn to achieve the expectative effect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Resistance to the destruction of concrete in constructions of height buildings at dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail; Berlinova, Marina; Tvorogov, Alexandr

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the criterion of strength of concrete in structures of high-rise buildings under vibration and shock impacts is presented. The idea of an energy approach to ensuring the strength of concrete and the durability of building structures from reinforced concrete under the influence of shock impacts on the life of such structures is presented in a high-rise construction. A method for determining the strength and durability of concrete in load-bearing building structures made of reinforced concrete for irreversible thermodynamic processes has been developed. Dependences that determine the behavior of concrete in reinforced concrete structures of high stores on the load-bearing structures of a building under the influence of damped oscillations from the operation of air transport on the landing site are determined, taking into account the impact arising from its landing.

  4. SELF-CONSOLIDATING CONCRETE USED IN THE MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION OF EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT TALL BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Aliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The development of high-strength concrete based on experience both with domestic and foreign concretes has led to the production of a self-consolidating concrete (SCC formula. Method. Raw materials sourced from the Chechen Republic were used in the SUBconcrete formula, based on materials having different classes of compressive strength as well as the incorporation of polycarboxylate as an additive. Results. An investigation was carried out on natural and technogenic raw materials from the Chechen Republic and other regions of the country. Compositions of high-grade SCC with a compressive strength of B100 and higher are achieved with an integrated approach using both natural and man-made raw materials. The formulae of the basic concrete reinforcing technology are examined together with their physico-mechanical properties. The results of the study of locally sourced concrete, as well as that purchased from "Pavlovskgranit" and OOO "Progress" for testing from the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, are provided. Of the various manufacturers' cements investigated, the highest quality Portland cement CEM I 4.5N was selected from the Tula cement manufacturers in the town of Chiri-Yurt. The fillers used were microsilica sourced from the Novokuznetsk plant, inactivated MP-1 mineral powder produced in Kaluga and fly ash sourced from Nevinnomyssk. Conclusion. The results of the studies show that the raw material potential of our country allows for the production of self-consolidating concrete from class B 25 to B100 and higher for use in monolithic construction, including high-rise. The concrete compositions arrived at are characterised by their high physical and mechanical properties and can be used in high-rise concrete construction sites operating in earthquake-prone areas. 

  5. [Resistance monitoring working group: resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline in human isolates of Campylobacter spp. in the Czech Republic tested by the EUCAST standard method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemličková, H; Jakubů, V; Marejková, M; Urbášková, P

    2014-09-01

    To determine the frequency of Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans in the Czech Republic and to test their susceptibility to antimicrobials commonly used to treat campylobacteriosis by the standard EUCAST method. Consecutive Campylobacter isolates recovered from clinical specimens in 49 microbiological laboratories within one month in 2013 were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Susceptibility to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline was tested by the microdilution method and the results were interpreted based on the EUCAST clinical breakpoints to differentiate between susceptible and resistant strains. Of the study set of 769 Campylobacter spp. strains, 90.1 % were assigned to C. jejuni, 9.8 % to C. coli, and a single strain to C. fetus (0.1 %). Except one blood isolate of C. jejuni, all other isolates were recovered from the stool. Ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) was detected in 61.9 % strains of C. jejuni and in 72.0 % strains of C. coli, tetracycline resistance (MIC > 2 mg/l) was detected in 32.0 % of strains of both species, and erythromycin resistance was found in 0.3 % of strains of C. jejuni (MIC > 8 mg/l) and in 2.7 % of strains of C. coli (MIC > 4 mg/l). A C. coli strain was multidrug resistant (i.e. resistant to all three antimicrobials tested). Despite the fact that most Campylobacter infections in humans cure on their own, the resistance of the causative strains to the antimicrobials of choice and alternative agents needs to be studied because of its relevance to the treatment of severe cases that require antibiotics. Resistance to macrolides was found rather infrequently in this study in both C. jejuni (0.1 %) and C. coli (2.7 %) strains. Nevertheless, alarming is ciprofloxacin resistance confirmed in 61.9 % of C. jejuni strains and 72.0 % C. coli strains. As the species C. coli is more often resistant to antimicrobials than C. jejuni and ciprofloxacin

  6. Construction of a homogeneous phantom for radiographic image standardization; Construcao de um fantoma homogeneo para padronizacao de imagens radiograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    1996-12-31

    The principle of radiodiagnosis consists in the fact the X-ray beam is attenuated at different degrees by distinct tissues. For this reason, the anatomical structures have distinct radiological opacities, that produce the radiographic image. The progresses in radiology are related to the development if new radiographic image formation systems that enable an amplification in the quality, with low dose and/or risk to the patient. The objective of this work is the sensitometric valuation of a screen-film combination, that is still the most used, for the standardization, of radiographic images. Thinking about this, were constructed homogeneous phantoms of the chest, skull and pelvis, for the calibration of X-ray beams, with the purpose of obtaining radiographic images of good quality, basing in the routine of a radiodiagnosis service and in the scientific knowledge. Questions were approached about the choice of the suitable equipment, that allow the obtention of k Vp and m As combinations, to produce radiographic images of good quality, and the reproduction of these combinations to any conventional equipment of diagnostic X-rays. Also presented are the comparison of the doses imparted by these combinations and those used in routine of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto`s radiodiagnosis service. (author) 24 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Construction and measurement of the pre-series twin aperture resistive quadrupole magnet for the LHC beam cleaning insertions

    CERN Document Server

    de Rijk, G; Boter, E; Clark, G S; Hans, O; Racine, M; Salinas, A

    2002-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) requires 48 twin aperture resistive quadrupoles in the beam cleaning insertions. Canada is contributing these magnets to CERN in the framework of the TRIUMF-LHC collaboration contracts. A pre-series magnet was produced by Canadian industry and delivered in March 2001. This magnet incorporates important design changes that resulted from experience with a prototype magnet. The construction of this pre-series magnet and the measurements made at ALSTOM and at CERN are reported. A comparison is made between high precision pole distance measurements and the magnetic measurements performed with a rotating coil mole. Conclusions for series production and possibilities for multipole corrections are outlined. (6 refs).

  8. Standard method for detecting Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus disease-resistant silkworm varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qiong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV disease is one of the most serious silkworm diseases, and it has caused great economic losses to the sericulture industry. So far, the disease has not been controlled effectively by therapeutic agents. Breeding resistant silkworm varieties breeding may be an effective way to improve resistance to BmNPV and reduce economic losses. A precise resistance-detection method will help to accelerate the breeding process. For this purpose, here we described the individual inoculation method (IIM. Details of the IIM include pathogen BmNPV preparation, mulberry leaf size, pathogen volume, rearing conditions, course of infection, and breeding conditions. Finally, a resistance comparison experiment was performed using the IIM and the traditional group inoculation method (GIM. The incidence of BmNPV infection and the within-group variance results showed that the IIM was more precise and reliable than the GIM.

  9. [Investigation of Antibiotic Resistance of Indigenous Bacteria and Abundance of Class I Integron in Matrix of Constructed Wetlands of Different Configurations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Xiao-bei; Tao, Ran; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jian-hua; Man, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Environmental indigenous bacteria (Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas) were isolated from 9 different constructed wetlands (CWs) in summer and winter. The antibiotic resistance analysis of the isolated bacteria was conducted by Kirby-Bauer disc agar diffusion method. And the quantitative PCR assay was used to quantify the abundance of class I integron (int1) in the matrix of CWs. The results indicated that over 84% of isolates among the 522 Staphylococcus strains and 543 Pseudomonas strains had antibiotic resistance and above 68% of isolates had multi-antibiotic resistance, the average of MRI index was 0.22. Antibiotic resistance of indigenous bacteria in CWs was at the same resistance level of human or animal bacteria in certain environment, indicating that indigenous bacteria from constructed wetlands had relatively high level of resistance. Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas strains had higher resistances to Ampicillin (AMP) and Sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and extremely low resistance rates of lower than 3% to Tetracycline (TE), Gentamicin (CN) and Ciprofloxacin (CIP). To Ceftazidime (CAZ) and Chloramphenicol (C), the two kinds of indigenous bacteria showed distinctly different resistances. Quantitative PCR revealed that the abundance of intl in CWs was 1.14 x 10(5)-5.66 x 10(5) copies · g(-1), and its relative abundance was 0.54%-3.68%. Both of season and wetland type had important impact on antibiotic resistance and abundance of int1. The antibiotic resistance rate and the multiple resistance index (MRI) for the indigenous bacteria and the abundance of int1 in summer were higher than those in winter. Among three types of CWs, the antibiotic resistance rate and the MRI value were the highest in the downward vertical flow, while the int1 abundance was the highest in the sub-surface flow. The research indicated that indigenous bacteria acquired antibiotic resistance due to long term exposure to antibiotics of certain concentrations and antibiotic-resistant intestinal

  10. Construction of an adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of standard n-heptane from 155 to 270 K and of 2,2-dichloropropane from 135 to 270 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, J.C. van

    The construction of an adiabatic calorimeter is described. Measurements have been made of the heat capacity of a standard sample of n-heptane and of 2,2-dichloropropane. The estimated errors are generally within 0.5 per cent.

  11. Macrophytes may not contribute significantly to removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance in model surface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Beattie, Sarah A; Bartel, Caitlin N; Elliott, Ashley D; Montero, Oscar F; Lokesh, Sheetal; Favreau, Alex; Kozlova, Tatiana A; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Outdoor shallow wetland mesocosms, designed to simulate surface constructed wetlands to improve lagoon wastewater treatment, were used to assess the role of macrophytes in the dissipation of wastewater nutrients, selected pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Specifically, mesocosms were established with or without populations of Typha spp. (cattails), Myriophyllum sibiricum (northern water milfoil), and Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort). Following macrophyte establishment, mesocosms were seeded with ARG-bearing organisms from a local wastewater lagoon, and treated with a single pulse of artificial municipal wastewater with or without carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen (each at 7.6μg/L), as well as sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine (each at 150μg/L). Rates of pharmaceutical dissipation over 28d ranged from 0.073 to 3.0d(-1), corresponding to half-lives of 0.23 to 9.4d. Based on calculated rate constants, observed dissipation rates were consistent with photodegradation driving clofibric acid, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine removal, and with sorption also contributing to carbamazepine and fluoxetine loss. Of the seven gene determinants assayed, only two genes for both beta-lactam resistance (blaCTX and blaTEM) and sulfonamide resistance (sulI and sulII) were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. Genes disappeared relatively rapidly from the water column, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 99d. In contrast, detected gene levels did not change in the sediment, with the exception of sulI, which increased after 28d in pharmaceutical-treated systems. These shallow wetland mesocosms were able to dissipate wastewater contaminants rapidly. However, no significant enhancement in removal of nutrients or pharmaceuticals was observed in mesocosms with extensive aquatic plant communities. This was likely due to three factors: first, use of naïve systems with an unchallenged capacity for nutrient assimilation and

  12. Design, construction, quality checks and test results of first resistive-Micromegas read-out boards for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Iengo, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The development work carried out at CERN to push the Micromegas technology to a new frontier is now coming to an end. The construction of the first read-out boards for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system will demonstrate in full-scale the feasibility of this ambitious project. The read-out boards, representing the heart of the detector, are manufactured in industries, making the Micromegas for ATLAS the first MPGD for a large experiment with a relevant part industrially produced. The boards are 50 cm wide and up to 220 cm long, carrying copper strips 315 μm wide with 415 μm pitch. Interconnected resistive strips, having the same pattern as the copper strips, provide spark protection. The boards are completed by the creation of cylindrical pillars 128 μm high, 280 μm in diameter and arranged in a triangular array 7 mm aside. The total number of boards to be produced for ATLAS is 2048 of 32 different types. We will review the main design parameters of the read-out boards for the ATLAS Micromegas, following...

  13. Pfirsch-Tasso versus standard approaches in the plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to theoretical description of plasma stability in toroidal fusion systems with a resistive wall. Its aim is elimination of contradictions between the models recently developed for the resistive wall mode analysis and the Pfirsch-Tasso approach originated from the paper published in 1971 [D. Pfirsch and H. Tasso, Nucl. Fusion 11, 259 (1971)]. The main relations have been given there without detailed proofs. Here, a missing chain of derivations is restored and earlier unknown limitations that restrict the applicability of the Pfirsch-Tasso energy principle are established. Its replacement valid in a wider area is proposed. The new result is free from the constraints implicitly imposed in the Pfirsch-Tasso procedure and can be used with any plasma model (not necessarily ideal) and for arbitrary perturbations. The proposed extensions allow applications for analysis of the rotational stabilization and optimization of the ITER scenarios.

  14. Low resistance electrode construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redey, Laszlo; Karell, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a cathode and an anode in contact with an electrolyte. Both electrodes or one of them has an electrically conducting non-metal receptacle defining a chamber with a first metal having a melting point in the range of from about room temperature to about 800.degree. C. inside said receptacle chamber. A second metal with a melting point greater than about 800.degree. C. is in contact with the first metal inside the receptacle chamber and extends outside of the receptacle chamber to form a terminal for the anode. The electrolyte may include the oxides, halides or mixtures thereof of one or more of Li, V, U, Al and the lanthanides. Metal may be produced at the cathode during operation of the cell and oxygen or chlorine at the anode.

  15. Efficacy of Olanzapine Combined Therapy for Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Resistant to Standard Antiemetic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Abe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Olanzapine is proved to be effective for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. But its efficacy in combination with standard antiemetic therapy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to prove the preventive effect of olanzapine for the prevention of CINV caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapy when used with standard antiemetic therapy. Method. Gynecologic cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy who had grade 2 or 3 nausea in overall phase (0–120 h after chemotherapy despite standard therapy were assigned to this study. From the next cycles to cycles in which patients developed grade 2 or 3 nausea, they received olanzapine with standard therapy. 5 mg oral olanzapine was administered for 7 days from the day before chemotherapy. The effectiveness of preventive administration of olanzapine was evaluated retrospectively. The primary endpoint was nausea control rate (grade 0 or 1 with olanzapine. Results. Fifty patients were evaluable. The nausea control rate with olanzapine was improved from 58% to 98% in acute phase (0–24 h after chemotherapy and 2% to 94% in delayed phase (24–120 h after chemotherapy. In overall phase, the nausea control rate improved from 0% to 92%, and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion. Preventive use of olanzapine combined with standard antiemetic therapy showed improvement in control of refractory nausea.

  16. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  17. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  18. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  19. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... in programs for similar types of personal protective equipment. Additional preferred knowledge... nominee's applicable experience, preferred knowledge, and affiliations with standards development organizations. To be considered, there must not be any conflict of interest in which the proposed STC member has...

  20. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless

  1. Evaluation of cyclic resistance of providence silts using mini-cone penetration and standard penetration tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Most areas of coastal Rhode Island are underlain by thick layers of non-plastic silt and it is important to : know if the existing standard-of-practice liquefaction potential evaluations (e.g. Robertson and Wride (1998) or : Seed et al. (1985)) are a...

  2. 40 CFR 267.191 - What are the required design and construction standards for new tank systems or components?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the tank system will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert of: (1) Factors affecting the potential for corrosion, such as: (i) Soil moisture content. (ii) Soil pH. (iii) Soil sulfides level. (iv) Soil resistivity. (v) Structure to soil potential. (vi...

  3. Constructing high-density genetic maps for polyploid sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and identifying quantitative trait loci controlling brown rust resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop for producing edible sugar and bioethanol. Brown rust had long been a major disease impacting sugarcane production world widely. Resistance resource and markers linked to the resistance are valuable tools for disease resistance improvement. An...

  4. The Most Prevalnet Organism in Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Its Drug Sensitivity and Resistance to Different Standard Antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nageen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find the most prevalent organism in diabetic foot ulcers and its drug sensitivity and resistance to different standard antibiotics. Study Design: Adescriptive and cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Ward 7, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, from December 2010 to December 2012. Methodology: Ninety-five diabetic patients with infected foot wounds of Wegener grade 2 - 5 who had not received any previous antibiotics were included in the study by consecutive sampling. Pus culture specimen from wounds was taken and the organism isolated was identified. Also the most sensitive group of antibiotics and the most resistant one to that organism was noted. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism constituting 23.16% (n=22) of the organisms isolated; Escherichia coli with 17.89% (n=17) and Klebsiella with 12.63% (n=12) followed. Males presented more with diabetic foot (n=52) out of 95 patients. The most common age group affected was 41 - 60 years (73 patients). The organisms were most sensitive to Meropenem, effective in 90 (95%) patients and most resistant to Cotrimoxazole (80, 84% patients). Out of the 95 patients, 39 (41%) patients were hypertensive, 30 (31.5%) were obese and 14 (15%) were smokers. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism overall irrespective to gender, age groups and co-morbidity of the patients. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent organism in diabetic foot ulcers; the most effective antibiotic is Meropenem and least effective is Cotrimoxazole. (author)

  5. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastic materials to sliding wear using a block-on-ring configuration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory procedure to measure the resistance of plastic materials under dry sliding conditions. The test utilizes a block-on-ring geometry to rank materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 The test specimens are small so that they can be molded or cut from fabricated plastic parts. The test may be run at the load, velocity, and temperature which simulate the service condition. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as specific wear rates calculated from volume loss, sliding distance, and load. Materials with superior wear resistance have lower specific wear rates. 1.4 This test method allows the use of both single- and multi-station apparatus to determine the specific wear rates. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibil...

  6. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2015-01-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (-1TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb...

  7. The Construction And Instrumentation Of A Pilot Treatment System At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was designed and constructed to treat mine-influenced water emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern Colorado which receives an average of 400 inches (10.2 meters) of snowfall each season. The objective of the study is to operate and ...

  8. The Construction And Instrumentation Of A Pilot Treatment System At The Standard Mine Superfund Site, Crested Butte, CO - (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot biochemical reactor (BCR) was designed and constructed to treat mine-influenced water emanating from an adit at a remote site in southern Colorado which receives an average of 400 inches (10.2 meters) of snowfall each season. The objective of the study is to operate and ...

  9. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 6, 0.06 Interior construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are presented for conventional and specialty partitions, toilet partitions & accessories, interior doors, paint finishes/coatings/ wall covering systems; floor finishing systems; and ceiling systems.

  10. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  11. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  12. Standard Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the energy required to initiate failure in monolithic polycarbonate sheet material under specified conditions of impact using a free falling weight. 1.2 Two specimen types are defined as follows: 1.2.1 Type A consists of a flat plate test specimen and employs a clamped ring support. 1.2.2 Type B consists of a simply supported three-point loaded beam specimen (Fig. 1) and is recommended for use with material which can not be failed using the Type A specimen. For a maximum drop height of 6.096 m (20 ft) and a maximum drop weight of 22.68 kg (50 lb), virgin polycarbonate greater than 12.70 mm (1/2 in.) thick will probably require use of the Type B specimen. Note 1 - See also ASTM Methods: D 1709, D 2444 and D 3029. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of reg...

  13. Construction of an extended range whole-cell tetracycline biosensor by use of the tet(M) resistance gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    An extended range whole-cell tetracycline biosensor strain was constructed by insertion of the tet(M) gene, encoding tetracycline resistance by ribosomal protection, into plasmid pTGFP2, which contains a transcriptional fusion between a tetracycline regulated promoter and the green fluorescent...... to drug concentrations ranging from below 5 ng ml-1 to 16 µg ml-1, which represents a significant improvement of the original version....

  14. National Construction of Global Education: A Critical Review of the National Curriculum Standards for South Korean Global High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Park, Minjeong; Choi, Il-Seon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate what global visions of education are reflected in the selected national curriculum standards, with special reference to two seemingly contradictory forces: globalization and nationalism. This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural foundations of the curriculum and explains how the national curriculum…

  15. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huiru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases and non-interacting proteins (negative cases are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. Results GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  16. GRIP: A web-based system for constructing Gold Standard datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Fiona; Wang, Haiying; Zheng, Huiru; Azuaje, Francisco

    2009-01-26

    Information about protein interaction networks is fundamental to understanding protein function and cellular processes. Interaction patterns among proteins can suggest new drug targets and aid in the design of new therapeutic interventions. Efforts have been made to map interactions on a proteomic-wide scale using both experimental and computational techniques. Reference datasets that contain known interacting proteins (positive cases) and non-interacting proteins (negative cases) are essential to support computational prediction and validation of protein-protein interactions. Information on known interacting and non interacting proteins are usually stored within databases. Extraction of these data can be both complex and time consuming. Although, the automatic construction of reference datasets for classification is a useful resource for researchers no public resource currently exists to perform this task. GRIP (Gold Reference dataset constructor from Information on Protein complexes) is a web-based system that provides researchers with the functionality to create reference datasets for protein-protein interaction prediction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both positive and negative cases for a reference dataset can be extracted, organised and downloaded by the user. GRIP also provides an upload facility whereby users can submit proteins to determine protein complex membership. A search facility is provided where a user can search for protein complex information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GRIP is developed to retrieve information on protein complex, cellular localisation, and physical and genetic interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Manual construction of reference datasets can be a time consuming process requiring programming knowledge. GRIP simplifies and speeds up this process by allowing users to automatically construct reference datasets. GRIP is free to access at http://rosalind.infj.ulst.ac.uk/GRIP/.

  17. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  18. Targeting the cyclin dependent kinase and retinoblastoma axis overcomes standard of care resistance in BRAFV600E-mutant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Antoneicka L.; Lee, Samantha E.; Dawson, Louis K.; Marlow, Laura A.; Edenfield, Brandy H.; Durham, William F.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Thompson, Michael; Small, Daniel L.; Synnott, Aidan J.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Copland, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse models were used to discover new therapies for naïve and drug resistant BRAFV600E-mutant melanoma. Tumor histology, oncogenic protein expression, and antitumor activity were comparable between patient and PDTX-matched models thereby validating PDTXs as predictive preclinical models of therapeutic response in patients. PDTX models responsive and non-responsive to BRAF/MEK standard of care (SOC) therapy were used to identify efficacious combination therapies. One such combination includes a CDK4/6 inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression. The rationale for this is that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is 95% wildtype in BRAF mutant melanoma. We discovered that 77/77 stage IV metastatic melanoma tissues were positive for inactive phosphorylated pRb (pRb-Ser780). Rb is hyperphosphorylated and inactivated by CDK4/6:cyclin D1 and when restored to its hypophosphorylated active form blocks cell cycle progression. The addition of a CDK4/6 inhibitor to SOC therapy was superior to SOC. Importantly, triple therapy in an upfront treatment and salvage therapy setting provided sustained durable response. We also showed that CDK4/6 blockade resensitized drug resistant melanoma to SOC therapy. Durable response was associated with sustained suppression of pRb-Ser780. Thus, reactivation of pRb may prove to be a clinical biomarker of response and the mechanism responsible for durable response. In light of recent clinical trial data using this triple therapy against BRAFV600E-mutant melanoma, our findings demonstrating superior and prolonged durable response in PDTX models portend use of this therapeutic strategy against naïve and SOC resistant BRAF V600E-mutant metastatic melanoma coupled with pRB-Ser780 as a biomarker of response. PMID:29541385

  19. Design and construction of a cryogenic facility providing absolute measurements of radon 222 activity for developing a primary standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picolo, Jean-Louis

    1995-06-01

    Radon 222 metrology is required to obtain higher accuracy in assessing human health risks from exposure to natural radiation. This paper describes the development of a cryogenic facility that allows absolute measurements of radon 222 in order to obtain a primary standard. The method selected is the condensation of a radon 222 sample on a geometrically defined cold surface with a constant, well known and adjustable temperature and facing an alpha particles detector. Counting of the alpha particles reaching the detector and the precisely known detection geometry provide an absolute measurement of the source activity. After describing the cryogenic facility, the measurement accuracy and precision are discussed and a comparison made with other measurement systems. The relative uncertainty is below 1 pc (1 σ). The facility can also be used to improve our knowledge of the nuclear properties of radon 222 and to produce secondary standards. (author) [fr

  20. High-rise construction in Russia as one of the objectives of improving the management mechanism for living standards of the population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Svetlana; Komyshova, Lyudmila; Nagibina, Natalia

    2018-03-01

    The article is aimed at determining the significance of solving the problem of high-rise construction in Russia as one of the tasks of improving the mechanism of managing the living standards of the population. To determine the effectiveness of measures aimed at improving the quality of life management mechanism, the expert evaluation method is used. The paper presents the measures to improve the quality of life and consequently the migration attractiveness of the region. Despite a number of actual difficulties and lack of sufficient experience, there is an interest in the development of high-rise construction. The result of the analysis of the general demographic dynamics for the last fifteen years is shown. Migration is the most mobile tool for managing short-term demographic processes; therefore, great attention should be paid to this component. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account other consequences of migration.

  1. A Cassette Containing Thiostrepton, Gentamicin Resistance Genes, and dif sequences Is Effective in Construction of Recombinant Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweru, Julius; Makafe, Gaelle; Cao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Bangxing; Huang, Shaobo; Njire, Moses; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Tan, Yaoju; Li, Xinjie; Liu, Jianxiong; Tan, Shouyong; Deng, Jiaoyu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is limited by the availability of selection markers. Spontaneous resistance mutation rate of M. tuberculosis to the widely used kanamycin is relatively high which often leads to some false positive transformants. Due to the few available markers, we have created a cassette containing thiostrepton resistance gene ( tsr ) for selection in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG, and gentamicin resistance gene ( aacC1 ) for Escherichia coli and M. smegmatis mc 2 155, flanked with dif sequences recognized by the Xer system of mycobacteria. This cassette adds to the limited available selection markers for mycobacteria.

  2. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  3. Standard practice for construction of a stepped block and its use to estimate errors produced by speed-of-sound measurement systems for use on solids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a means for evaluating both systematic and random errors for ultrasonic speed-of-sound measurement systems which are used for evaluating material characteristics associated with residual stress and which may also be used for nondestructive measurements of the dynamic elastic moduli of materials. Important features and construction details of a reference block crucial to these error evaluations are described. This practice can be used whenever the precision and bias of sound speed values are in question. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of 90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to construct rotary mode core-sampling truck and exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of wastes in the underground single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site is crucial in developing the final disposal options for the waste and closure strategy for the Hanford Site. Additionally, characterization of tank waste is important for the waste tank safety programs. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00 requires the obtaining and analyzing of at least two samples from each single-shell tank, and Milestone M-10-13 specifically requires the ability to sample hard saltcake. Existing equipment does not allow sampling of all single-shell tanks within established tank safety limits. Consequently, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office has developed a rotary mode core-sampling system that uses nitrogen gas to cool and clear the drill bit. A rotary mode core-sampling truck will be used on approximately 80 single-shell tanks which contain saltcake wastes, and will provide crucial information on the contents of the tanks. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the rotary mode core-sampling truck and exhauster in the 200 East and 200 West Area Tank Farms of the Hanford Site. This request is being made pursuant to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H

  6. Design and Construction of Precision Tooling for the Construction of Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors for the ATLAS Small Wheel Upgrade Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389964; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical precision is a key-aspect of the $2~m^2$ high-rate capable Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the Small Wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. 32 SM2 quadruplets will be built by four German sites with cathodes and strip-anodes made of stable honeycomb sandwiches.\\\\ To achieve the required single plane resolution below $100\\mu m$ the deviation from planarity of a single detector plane must not exceed $80\\mu m$ in direction perpendicular to the precision coordinate. The global position of the readout strips has to be within $30\\mu m$ for a single readout-plane of three PCBs, as well as between all four planes of a quadruplet.\\\\ Precision tooling is used for the correct positioning of readout PCBs and readout sandwich planes. For quality control of the planarity of the sandwich planes a laser distance sensor combined with a coordinate measurement system has been developed. Deviation from planarity below 10 $\\mu$m can be easily resolved.\\\\ We will present key features of the challenging construct...

  7. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (<4mm particle size) and unsaturated, intermittent down-flow lysimeters (<40mm particle size). While standardised column tests are meant primarily to provide basic information on characteristic leaching properties and mechanisms and not to reproduce field conditions, the lysimeters were intended to mimic the actual leaching conditions when C&DW is used in unbound geotechnical layers. In practice, results from standardised percolation tests are often interpreted as estimations of actual release from solid materials in percolation scenarios. In general, the two tests yielded fairly similar results in terms of cumulative release at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10l·kgTS; however, significant differences were observed for P, Pb, Ba, Mg and Zn. Further differences emerged in terms of concentration in the early eluates (L/S<5l·kg(-1)TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Zn. Observed differences between tests are likely to be due to differences in pH related to crushing and exposure of fresh particle surfaces, as well as in equilibrium conditions. In the case of C&DW, the standardised column tests, which are more practical, are considered to acceptably describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg(-1)TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se, Cr and, to a lesser extent, SO4 and Sb were leaching from C&DW in critical amounts compared with existing limit values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Materials (ECOMAT IV 2009): Paths Towards Sustainability Bayamo, CUBA 4 coupled with unimaginative and ill-directed policies by developers have created hectares of sterile concrete block units unaffordable to the average worker.” [10] Advanced construction... Gypsum panel boards Standards / Easy, fast construction 2. Frametech Concrete / Wire Mesh (durawall) Standards / Easy, fast construction 3. Frametech Wood panels Standards / Easy, fast construction 4. Wood Cabins Wood planks / boards Standards...

  9. The satisfactory growth and development at 2 years of age of the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards cohort support its appropriateness for constructing international standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Staines Urias, Eleonora; Giuliani, Francesca; Ohuma, Eric O; Victora, Cesar G; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Altman, Douglas G; Garza, Cutberto; Barros, Fernando C; Puglia, Fabien; Ochieng, Roseline; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Noble, Julia A; Bertino, Enrico; Purwar, Manorama; Pang, Ruyan; Lambert, Ann; Chumlea, Cameron; Stein, Alan; Fernandes, Michelle; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that human growth should be monitored with the use of international standards. However, in obstetric practice, we continue to monitor fetal growth using numerous local charts or equations that are based on different populations for each body structure. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project has produced the first set of international standards to date pregnancies; to monitor fetal growth, estimated fetal weight, Doppler measures, and brain structures; to measure uterine growth, maternal nutrition, newborn infant size, and body composition; and to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies. All these standards are based on the same healthy pregnancy cohort. Recognizing the importance of demonstrating that, postnatally, this cohort still adhered to the World Health Organization prescriptive approach, we followed their growth and development to the key milestone of 2 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the babies in the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project maintained optimal growth and development in childhood. In the Infant Follow-up Study of the INTERGROWTH-21 st Project, we evaluated postnatal growth, nutrition, morbidity, and motor development up to 2 years of age in the children who contributed data to the construction of the international fetal growth, newborn infant size and body composition at birth, and preterm postnatal growth standards. Clinical care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, and assessment of morbidity were standardized across study sites and documented at 1 and 2 years of age. Weight, length, and head circumference age- and sex-specific z-scores and percentiles and motor development milestones were estimated with the use of the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards and World Health Organization milestone distributions, respectively. For the preterm infants, corrected age was used. Variance components analysis was

  10. Standard NIJ 0115.00 za testiranje otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka na ubode nožem i predmetima sa oštrim vrhom / NIJ 0115.00 standard for testing stab resistance of body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Jovanić

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard NIJ 0115.00 (prema Nacionalnom institutu pravde SAD, namenjen je za utvrđivanje minimuma tehničkih zahteva i metoda ispitivanja otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka, koji treba da zaštite gornji deo tela od uboda nožem i predmetima sa oštrim vrhom. Područje primene ovog standarda ograničeno je samo na pretnje ubodima, a ne na balističke pretnje, poput onih koje su obuhvaćene standardom NIJ 0101.04 za testiranje balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka. / In this work made presentation of NIJ 0115.04. (National Institute of Justice standard, witch purpose is to establish minimum performance requirements and methods of testing for the stab resistance of body armor intended to protect the torso against slash and stab threats. The scope of the standard is limited to stab resistance only; the standard does not address ballistic threats, as those are covered by NIJ Standard 0101.04. Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor.

  11. Standard test method for ranking resistance of materials to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of materials to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank pairs of materials according to their sliding wear characteristics under various conditions. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. However, the interlaboratory testing has been limited to metals. In addition, the test can be run with various lubricants, liquids, or gaseous atmospheres, as desired, to simulate service conditions. Rotational speed and load can also be varied to better correspond to service requirements. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for both the block and ring. Materials...

  12. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  13. ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE RESISTANCE OF RESIDENT MICROBES IN WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of constructed wetlands as a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment is becoming more prevalent. These systems are championed as combining many of the benefits of tertiary treatment while also providing high quality wetland habitat as...

  14. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  15. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  16. Breaking Down the Resistance and Reducing the Struggle: The Discourse of Writing, Imagery, and Music as a Reading Strategy in the Standard English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of standards based, College Prep English classes regularly face resistant and struggling readers who fail to engage, persevere, and comprehend curricular texts. As a result, these readers do not share in class discussions. Therefore, a class discourse was formulated upon Gee's (1996) Social Discourse theory and Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, and…

  17. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Kuo; Liou, Ci-Hong; Lin, Jung-Chung; Ma, Ling; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Siu, L Kristopher

    2014-01-01

    The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death) assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5) CFU) and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4) CFU) than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2) CFU). A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  18. The predicting ultimate of joint withdrawal resistance constructed of plywood with regression models application according to diameter and penetrating depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Maleki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to present regression models for predicting resistance of joints made with screw and plywood members. Joint members were out of hardwood plywood that were 19 mm in thickness. Two types of screws including coarse and fine thread drywall screw with 3.5, 4 and 5mm in diameter and sheet metal screw with 4 and 5mm were used. Results have shown that withdrawal resistance of screw was increased by increasing of screws, diameter and penetrating depth. Joints fabricated with coarse thread drywall screws were higher than those of fine thread drywall screws. Finally, average joint withdrawal resistance of screwed could be predicted by means of the expressions Wc=2.127×D1.072×P0.520 for coarse thread drywall screws and Wf=1.377×D1.156×P0.581 for fine thread drywall screws by taking account the diameter and penetrating depth. The difference of the observed and predicted data showed that developed models have a good correlation with actual experimental measurements.

  19. Social Resistances and the Creation of Another Way of Thinking in the Peripheral “Self-Constructed Popular Neighborhoods”: Examples from Mexico, Argentina, and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssanthi (Christy Petropoulou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to urban social movements, creative social resistances, and the collectives that are emerging today in “self-constructed popular neighborhoods” (“barrios de auto-construcción popular” in Latin-American, Spanish bibliography; “quartiers d’auto-construction populaire” in French bibliography and “self-help housing” in Anglophone bibliography, with a special focus on the new characteristics of these movements and the poetics of their daily practices. Firstly, a cartographic approach is explained through the concept of eco-landscapes; a qualitative analysis follows based on interviews and a review of the secondary literature. In particular, this research focuses on cases of movements and collectives in villas in South Greater Buenos Aires, barrios of Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, and barrios of El Alto in the Metropolitan Area of La Paz. It shows that the poetics of creative resistances question the symbolic power of territorial stigmatization.

  20. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  1. TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) to standardize the outcome of HIV genotypic resistance testing in a group of Asian laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Sally; Cunningham, Philip; Zhou, Jialun; Frost, Kevin; Katzenstein, David; Kantor, Rami; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Oka, Shinichi; DeLong, Allison; Sayer, David; Smith, Jeffery; Dax, Elizabeth M.; Law, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The TREAT Asia (Therapeutics, Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia) Network is building capacity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in the region. The objective of the TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme – designated TAQAS – is to standardize HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing (HIV genotyping) among laboratories to permit rigorous comparison of results from different clinics and testing centres. TAQAS has evaluated three panels of HIV-1-positive plasma from clinical material or low-passage, culture supernatant for up to 10 Asian laboratories. Laboratory participants used their standard protocols to perform HIV genotyping. Assessment was in comparison to a target genotype derived from all participants and the reference laboratory’s result. Agreement between most participants at the edited nucleotide sequence level was high (>98%). Most participants performed to the reference laboratory standard in detection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). However, there was variation in the detection of nucleotide mixtures (0–83%) and a significant correlation with the detection of DRMs (p 90% agreement with a common interpretation system, within the Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Using the principles of external quality assessment and a reference laboratory, TAQAS has demonstrated high quality HIV genotyping results from Asian laboratories. PMID:19490972

  2. Chemical mutagenesis of Gluconobacter frateurii to construct methanol-resistant mutants showing glyceric acid production from methanol-containing glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Habe, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    To produce glyceric acid (GA) from methanol-containing glycerol, resistance to methanol of Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 was improved by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The obtained mutant Gf398 produced 6.3 g/L GA in 5% (v/v) methanol-containing 17% (w/v) glycerol medium, in which the wild-type strain neither grew nor produced GA. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; García-González, Julia; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Pozo, Julia Mª Morán-del; Guerra-Romero, Manuel I

    2014-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA) and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA). In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08) to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation) of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW. PMID:28788164

  4. Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; García-González, Julia; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, Manuel I

    2014-08-13

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA) and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA). In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08) to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation) of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW.

  5. Quality Assessment of Mixed and Ceramic Recycled Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Wastes in the Concrete Manufacture According to the Spanish Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Rodríguez-Robles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction and demolition waste (CDW constitutes an increasingly significant problem in society due to the volume generated, rendering sustainable management and disposal problematic. The aim of this study is to identify a possible reuse option in the concrete manufacturing for recycled aggregates with a significant ceramic content: mixed recycled aggregates (MixRA and ceramic recycled aggregates (CerRA. In order to do so, several tests are conducted in accordance with the Spanish Code on Structural Concrete (EHE-08 to determine the composition in weight and physic-mechanical characteristics (particle size distributions, fine content, sand equivalent, density, water absorption, flakiness index, and resistance to fragmentation of the samples for the partial inclusion of the recycled aggregates in concrete mixes. The results of these tests clearly support the hypothesis that this type of material may be suitable for such partial replacements if simple pretreatment is carried out. Furthermore, this measure of reuse is in line with European, national, and regional policies on sustainable development, and presents a solution to the environmental problem caused by the generation of CDW.

  6. Transfection of a retroviral construct carrying a non producer HIV-1 variant induces HIV-1 resistance in CD4+ CEMss cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, M; Taddeo, B; Nappi, F; Nicolini, A; Rossi, G B; Verani, P

    1993-01-01

    The phenotype of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV)-infected HUT-78 cell clone (F12) has been described (Federico et al, AIDS Res Hum Retrov 1989; 5: 365-96). Briefly, F12 cells are: i) CD4 down-regulated, ii) non producer and iii) fully resistant to homologous superinfection. We tested whether this phenotype was dependent upon the expression of the HIV-1 genome integrated therein. The SstI/SstI F12 provirus was cloned and inserted in the pLj retroviral vector bearing the neomycin (neo)-Geneticine resistance gene. CD4+ HIV-susceptible CEMss cells were transfected with this construct in the sense orientation. Neo-resistant clones exhibited an integrated viral DNA, low viral mRNA expression and (as in F12 cells) the presence of uncleaved gp160, no gp41 and a small amount of p55 gag precursor. Superinfection of the F12/HIV-DNA-transfected CEMss clones showed that these CD4+ cells had acquired a significant (0.7-1.5 logs) resistance towards superinfection with HIV-1. This was observed in all four transfected clones where the F12/HIV DNA was expressed, but not in the control clone that was transfected with the pLj vector alone. These results confirm those that were obtained with human CD4+ CEMss cells infected with a recombinant retrovirus bearing the same SstI/SstI F12/HIV genome (Federico et al, J Gen Virol, 1993, in press). Both sets of results indicate that the expression of this genome in bio-engineered CD4+ human cells results in their intracellular immunization against HIV-1.

  7. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  8. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the ``New Small Wheel'' the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200\\,m$^2$ of detection plane. In order to achieve 15\\,\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30\\,\\textmu m along the precision coordinate and 80\\,\\textmu m perpendicular...

  9. Construction and Quality Assurance of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the increased background induced hit rate of up to ~15 kHz/cm$^2$ in the innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the currently used precision detectors will be replaced by resistive strip Micromegas in 2019. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in two times four detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes.The Micromegas quadruplets will consist of 5 panels, 3 drift panels and 2 readout panels, made of aluminum honeycomb core sandwiched by printed circuit boards (PCBs). To achieve 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons and thus a spatial resolution in a single plane of about 100 $\\mu$m, each active plane has to have an accuracy of 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the plane and the alignment of the readout strips on the individual PCBs and particularly the alignment within a quadruplet must fulfill a challenging precision of 30 $\\mu$m. The required mechanical p...

  10. A suitable streptomycin-resistant mutant for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuo Tsai

    Full Text Available The streptomycin counter-selection system is a useful tool for constructing unmarked in-frame gene deletions, which is a fundamental approach to study bacteria and their pathogenicity at the molecular level. A prerequisite for this system is acquiring a streptomycin-resistant strain due to rpsL mutations, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. However, in this study no streptomycin resistance was found to be caused by rpsL mutations in all 127 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients. By screening 107 spontaneous mutants of streptomycin resistance from a clinical strain of K. pneumoniae, nucleotide substitution or insertion located within the rpsL was detected in each of these strains. Thirteen different mutants with varied S12 proteins were obtained, including nine streptomycin-dependent mutants. The virulence of all four streptomycin-resistant mutants was further evaluated. Compared with the parental strain, the K42N, K42T and K87R mutants showed a reduction in growth rate, and the K42N and K42T mutants became susceptible to normal human serum. In the mice LD50 (the bacterial dose that caused 50% death assay, the K42N and K42T mutants were ∼ 1,000-fold less lethal (∼ 2 × 10(5 CFU and the K87R mutant was ∼ 50-fold less lethal (∼ 1 × 10(4 CFU than the parental strain (∼ 2 × 10(2 CFU. A K42R mutant showed non-observable effects on the above assays, while this mutant exhibited a small cost (P < 0.01 in an in vitro growth competition experiment. In summary, most of the K. pneumoniae strains with streptomycin resistance caused by rpsL mutations are less virulent than their parental strain in the absence of streptomycin. The K42R mutant showed similar pathogenicity to its parental strain and should be one of the best choices when using rpsL as a counter-selection marker.

  11. Green and Efficient Processing of Cinnamomum cassia Bark by Using Ionic Liquids: Extraction of Essential Oil and Construction of UV-Resistant Composite Films from Residual Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mohit J; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-12-14

    There is significant interest in the development of a sustainable and integrated process for the extraction of essential oils and separation of biopolymers by using novel and efficient solvent systems. Herein, cassia essential oil enriched in coumarin is extracted from Cinnamomum cassia bark by using a protic ionic liquid (IL), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), through dissolution and the creation of a biphasic system with the help of diethyl ether. The process has been perfected, in terms of higher biomass dissolution ability and essential oil yield through the addition of aprotic ILs (based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C 4 mim) cation and chloride or acetate anions) to EAN. After extraction of oil, cellulose-rich material and free lignin were regenerated from biomass-IL solutions by using a 1:1 mixture of acetone-water. The purity of the extracted essential oil and biopolymers were ascertained by means of FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS techniques. Because lignin contains UV-blocking chromophores, the oil-free residual lignocellulosic material has been directly utilized to construct UV-light-resistant composite materials in conjunction with the biopolymer chitosan. Composite material thus obtained was processed to form biodegradable films, which were characterized for mechanical and optical properties. The films showed excellent UV-light resistance and mechanical properties, thereby making it a material suitable for packaging and light-sensitive applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Constructing a novel strategy for controllable synthesis of corrosion resistant Ti3+self-doped titanium-silicon materials with efficient hydrogen evolution activity from simulated seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Zhang, Piyong; Wang, Tingting; Ali, Atif; Zeng, Heping

    2018-02-01

    Exploiting solar power for hydrogen production from seawater is a great challenge owing to the corrosive properties of seawater and inadequate visible-light conversion capabilities. Here we report an uncomplicated post-processing method to construct Ti 3+ self-doped titanium-silicon material with corrosion resistance. This is a new experimental method to regulate the electrical, optical, and photocatalytic performances of titanium-containing photocatalysts in a controlled way. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ti-O-Si materials with different calcination temperatures can serve as a highly efficient and convenient catalyst for photogeneration of hydrogen from water and simulated seawater. Consequently, the optimized Ti-O-Si (400) sample exhibits impressive enhancement in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance, by nearly 10.0 and 43.1 times compared with TiO 2 nanoparticles in water and simulated seawater. The Ti-O-Si (400) with substantial Ti 3+ and oxygen vacancies exhibits an excellent photocatalytic H 2 production performance due to the improved separation and transmission of the photogenerated electron-hole, the extended visible light response, and corrosion resistance. Our work opens a new door to engineering the intrinsic properties of the titanium-containing materials.

  13. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  14. [Construction and analysis of the SSH library with the resistant wheat near-isogenic line and its susceptible parent infected by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Niu, Yong-Chun

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the differentially expressed genes between resistant and susceptible wheat near-isogenic lines infected by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici, a subtractive library containing about 1300 clones was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in which the cDNA from resistant Yr4/6 × Taichung 29 seedlings inoculated with race CY26 was used as the tester, and the corresponding cDNA from susceptible Taichung 29 as the driver. Six hundred clones from the library were analyzed with reverse Northern blot. The positive clones were further tested by Northern blotting analysis. Twelve clones were verified and showed significant difference. By means of sequencing and BlastX analysis, six function-known differentially expressed sequences were detected, and their putative products were leucine-rich repeat protein, catalase, thioredoxin H-type, RNA binding protein, ascorbate peroxidase, and heat shock protein, respectively. Among them, leucine-rich repeat protein belongs to signal transduction protein, and others belong to defense response protein.

  15. Bacterial Whole-Genome Sequencing Revisited: Portable, Scalable, and Standardized Analysis for Typing and Detection of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Shana R.; Goering, Richard V.; Witten, Anika; Harmsen, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens present a major burden for hospitals. Rapid cluster identification and pathogen profiling, i.e., of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, are crucial for effective infection control. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular, is now one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. In this study, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was applied retrospectively to an unusual spike in MRSA cases in two intensive care units (ICUs) over the course of 4 weeks. While the epidemiological investigation concluded that there were two separate clusters, each associated with one ICU, S. aureus protein A gene (spa) typing data suggested that they belonged to single clonal cluster (all cases shared spa type t001). Standardized gene sets were used to extract an allele-based profile for typing and an antibiotic resistance and toxin gene profile. The WGS results produced high-resolution allelic profiles, which were used to discriminate the MRSA clusters, corroborating the epidemiological investigation and identifying previously unsuspected transmission events. The antibiotic resistance profile was in agreement with the original clinical laboratory susceptibility profile, and the toxin profile provided additional, previously unknown information. WGS coupled with allelic profiling provided a high-resolution method that can be implemented as regular screening for effective infection control. PMID:24759713

  16. Trans fat feeding results in higher serum alanine aminotransferase and increased insulin resistance compared with a standard murine high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Sean W P; Elias, Marc; Moseley, Richard H; Green, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Diets high in trans fats are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. The influence of these toxic fatty acids on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has not been significantly examined. Therefore, we sought to compare the effect of a murine diet high in trans fat to a standard high-fat diet that is devoid of trans fats but high in saturated fats. Male AKR/J mice were fed a calorically identical trans fat diet or standard high-fat diet for 10 days, 4 wk, and 8 wk. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipid, insulin, and leptin levels were determined and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was calculated as a measure of insulin resistance. Additionally, hepatic triglyceride content and gene expression of several proinflammatory genes were assessed. By 8 wk, trans fat-fed mice exhibited higher ALT values than standard high-fat-fed mice (126 +/- 16 vs. 71 +/- 7 U/l, P Trans fat-fed mice also had increased insulin resistance compared with high-fat-fed mice at 4 and 8 wk with significantly higher insulin levels and lower QUICKI values. Additionally, hepatic interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene expression was 3.6-fold higher at 4 wk (P trans fat-fed mice compared with standard high-fat-fed mice. Trans fat feeding results in higher ALT values, increased insulin resistance, and elevated IL-1beta levels compared with standard high-fat feeding.

  17. Antibiotic-Induced Within-Host Resistance Development of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Patients Receiving Selective Decontamination or Standard Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noteboom, Yvonne; Ong, David S Y; Oostdijk, Evelien A; Schultz, Marcus J; de Jonge, Evert; Purmer, Ilse; Bergmans, Dennis; Fijen, Jan Willem; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-12-01

    To quantify antibiotic-associated within-host antibiotic resistance acquisition rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species from lower respiratory tract samples of ICU patients receiving selective digestive decontamination, selective oropharyngeal decontamination, or standard care. Prospective cohort. This study was nested within a cluster-randomized crossover study of selective digestive decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in 16 ICUs in The Netherlands. Eligible patients were those colonized in the respiratory tract with P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, or Enterobacter species susceptible to one of the marker antibiotics and with at least two subsequent microbiological culture results from respiratory tract samples available. None. Antibiotic resistance acquisition rates were defined as the number of conversions from susceptible to resistant for a specific antibiotic per 100 patient-days or 100 days of antibiotic exposure within an individual patient. The hazard of antibiotic use for resistance development in P. aeruginosa was based on time-dependent Cox regression analysis. Findings of this study cohort were compared with those of a previous cohort of patients not receiving selective digestive decontamination/selective oropharyngeal decontamination. Numbers of eligible patients were 277 for P. aeruginosa, 174 for Klebsiella species, and 106 for Enterobacter species. Resistance acquisition rates per 100 patient-days ranged from 0.2 (for colistin and ceftazidime in P. aeruginosa and for carbapenems in Klebsiella species) to 3.0 (for piperacillin-tazobactam in P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter species). For P. aeruginosa, the acquisition rates per 100 days of antibiotic exposure ranged from 1.4 for colistin to 4.9 for piperacillin-tazobactam. Acquisition rates were comparable for patients receiving selective digestive decontamination/selective oropharyngeal decontamination and those receiving standard care

  18. Influence of Different Techniques of Laboratory Construction on the Fracture Resistance of Fiber-Reinforced Composite (FRC) Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellakwa, Ayman E; Shortall, Adrian C; Marquis, Peter M

    2004-11-15

    The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate optimal pontic and retainer fiber positions for Polyethylene fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) restorations. In series I notch disc specimens were used to mimic loading cuspal regions of pontics. Four groups (n=15/group; codes A to D) were prepared from Artglass composite. Groups A to C were reinforced with polyethylene fibers, and group D was an unreinforced control. Fibers were positioned either around (A), beneath the notch (B), or at the disc base (C). Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h before testing to failure (CHS=1mm/min) in a universal testing machine. Mean torque to failure values ranked [P C = D. In series II five groups of three unit bridges (n =5/group; codes A to E) were prepared from Artglass dental composite without (group A) or with (groups B to E) different Connect fiber reinforcement locations/techniques. Bridges were cemented using 2 bond resin cement to a standardized substructure. After storage, as per series I, bridges were loaded mid-pontic region to failure. One-way ANOVA showed no significant (P=0.08) difference between test groups. The research hypothesis was that notched disc and 3 unit bridge test techniques would discriminate equally between fiber-reinforced specimens and an unreinforced composite control was rejected.

  19. Standard test method for determining the crevice repassivation potential of corrosion-resistant alloys using a potentiodynamic-galvanostatic-potentiostatic technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for conducting anodic polarization studies to determine the crevice repassivation potential for corrosion–resistant alloys. The concept of the repassivation potential is similar to that of the protection potential given in Reference Test Method G 5. 1.2 The test method consists in applying successively potentiodynamic, galvanostatic, and potentiostatic treatments for the initial formation and afterward repassivation of crevice corrosion. 1.3 This test method is a complement to Test Method G 61. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Unsworth, J.B.; Harris, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s. Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide

  1. Construction and quality assurance of large area resistive strip Micromegas for the upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer at LHC/CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, P.

    2017-06-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. To cope with increasing background rates, associated with the steadily increasing luminosity of LHC to 10 times design luminosity, the present detector technology in the current innermost stations of the muon endcap system of the ATLAS experiment (the Small Wheel), will be replaced in 2019/2020 by resistive strip Micromegas and small strip TGC detectors. Both technologies will provide tracking and trigger information. In the "New Small Wheel" the Micromegas will be arranged in eight detection layers built of trapezoidally shaped quadruplets of four different sizes covering in total about 1200 m2 of detection plane. In order to achieve 15 % transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction of each active plane, with an alignment of the readout strips at the level of 30 μm RMS along the precision coordinate and 80 μm RMS perpendicular to the plane. Each individual Micromegas plane must achieve a spatial resolution better than 100 μm at background rates up to 15 kHz/cm2 while being operated in an inhomogeneous magnetic field (B <= 0.3 T). The required mechanical precision for the production of the components and their assembly, on such large area detectors, is a key point and must be controlled during construction and integration. Particularly the alignment of the readout strips within a quadruplet appears to be demanding. The readout strips are etched on PCB boards using photolithographic processes. Depending on the type of the module, 3 or 5 PCB boards need to be joined and precisely aligned to form a full readout plane. The precision in the alignment is reached either by use of precision mechanical holes or by optical masks, both referenced to the strip patterns. Assembly procedures have been developed to build the single panels with the required mechanical precision and to assemble them in a

  2. Trivalued Memory Circuit Using Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Bipolar-Junction-Transistor Negative-Differential-Resistance Circuits Fabricated by Standard SiGe Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Kwang-Jow; Tsai, Cher-Shiung; Liang, Dong-Shong; Wen, Chun-Ming; Chen, Yaw-Hwang

    2006-09-01

    A trivalued memory circuit based on two cascoded metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor bipolar-junction-transistor negative-differential-resistance (MOS-BJT-NDR) devices is investigated. The MOS-BJT-NDR device is made of MOS and BJT devices, but it can show the NDR current-voltage characteristic by suitably arranging the MOS parameters. We demonstrate a trivalued memory circuit using the two-peak MOS-BJT-NDR circuit as the driver and a resistor as the load. The MOS-BJT-NDR devices and memory circuits are fabricated by the standard 0.35 μm SiGe process.

  3. Suction/Inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver : a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M; Wälti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; von Weymarn, Constantin; Czell, David; Goyen, Matthias; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. • Suction/Inspiration against resistance is promising to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery. • Patients potentially suffering pulmonary embolism are able to follow suction/inspiration against resistance. • Contrast density after suction is superior in comparison to other breathing maneuvers.

  4. Construction of cDNA expression library of watermelon for isolation of ClWRKY1 transcription factors gene involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Yan; Huo, Xiu-Ai; Li, Peng-Fei; Wang, Cui-Xia; Duan, Hui-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Full-length cDNAs are very important for genome annotation and functional analysis of genes. The number of full-length cDNAs from watermelon remains limited. Here we report first the construction of a full-length enriched cDNA library from Fusarium wilt stressed watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar PI296341 root tissues using the SMART method. The titer of primary cDNA library and amplified library was 2.21 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(10) pfu/ml, respectively and the rate of recombinant was above 85%. The size of insert fragment ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 kb. In this study, we first cloned a gene named ClWRKY1, which was 1981 bp long and encoded a protein consisting of 394 amino acids. It contained two characteristic WRKY domains and two zinc finger motifs. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that ClWRKY1 expression levels reached maximum level at 12 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The full-length cDNA library of watermelon root tissues is not only essential for the cloning of genes which are known, but also an initial key for the screening and cloning of new genes that might be involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.

  5. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  6. Documentation for Calculations of Standard Fire Resistance of Slabs and Walls of Concrete with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    that the methods are applicable for slabs and walls of light weight aggregate concrete. It is shown that the temperatures for standard fire exposed cross sections can be calculated, that the ultimate moment capacity can be calculated for slabs, and that the anchorage capacity and the shear tension capacity can...... the transient strains into account....

  7. Presence of a novel DNA methylation enzyme in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with pig farming leads to uninterpretable results in standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bens, C.C.; Voss, A.; Klaassen, C.H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic DNA from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from pigs and their caretakers proved resistant to SmaI digestion, leading to uninterpretable results in standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This is the result of a yet unknown restriction/methylation system in

  8. Presence of a Novel DNA Methylation Enzyme in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Associated with Pig Farming Leads to Uninterpretable Results in Standard Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bens, Corina C. P. M.; Voss, Andreas; Klaassen, Corné H. W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic DNA from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from pigs and their caretakers proved resistant to SmaI digestion, leading to uninterpretable results in standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This is the result of a yet unknown restriction/methylation system in the genus Staphylococcus with the recognition sequence CCNGG.

  9. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias; Waelti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E.; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; Czell, David; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  10. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias [Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Roos, Justus E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Czell, David [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Neurology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Reischauer, Carolin [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  11. Standard test method for ranking resistance of plastics to sliding wear using block-on-ring wear test—cumulative wear method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of plastics to sliding wear. The test utilizes a block-on-ring friction and wear testing machine to rank plastics according to their sliding wear characteristics against metals or other solids. 1.2 An important attribute of this test is that it is very flexible. Any material that can be fabricated into, or applied to, blocks and rings can be tested. Thus, the potential materials combinations are endless. In addition, the test can be run with different gaseous atmospheres and elevated temperatures, as desired, to simulate service conditions. 1.3 Wear test results are reported as the volume loss in cubic millimetres for the block and ring. Materials of higher wear resistance will have lower volume loss. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with it...

  12. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  13. Geo-Information Technology of 8-Level Responsibility: Concept and Standard of Construction Management for Implementation of The BIM-Technology in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosko, Vladimir; Serebryakov, Sergey; Strokov, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the increase in construction efficiency in the world is associated with the introduction and development of information modelling of construction objects (BIM-technology). The BIM-technology is a process of collective creation and use of information about a structure that forms the basis for all decisions throughout the life cycle of an object. The BIM-technology with the help of a number of software products provides automation of production, it does not provide a methodology for the introduction of these products. The article describes the technology of 8-level responsibility, which is guaranteed to give systematically a new quality of management in construction, related to the requirements of the Russian Government Decree No. 87 of February 16, 2008. The technology of 8-level responsibility (8LR) in the detailed specification of GD No. 87, (territory, construction stage, master plan object, section (part) of the project) extends the number of inseparable levels to 8 (part of the object, element, mark, position), where the “position” is the last indivisible detail of the object. There is reason to argue that the use of the “8LR Technology” in addition to the BIM-technology will provide a synergistic effect and will remove a number of obstacles to the BIM introduction in Russia and system control in the construction and operation of objects of any complexity in Russia.

  14. QUESTÃO SOCIAL HOJE : A RESISTÊNCIA UM ELEMENTO EM CONSTRUÇÃO (THE SOCIAL QUESTION TODAY: THE RESISTENCE AS EM ELEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Maria Schons

    2007-01-01

    . The social question, basically composed of the economic and political elements, now may by manifested as pauperism. That one that perceives it taking consciousness and denouncing it, demanding another attendance, becomes the element of resistance, capable to inscribe this problem in the political agenda.I understand that in the social question today this element of the resistance is in construction. To arrive to this we point out what in the past was called “the classic social question” (XIX th. Century, from the resultant pauperism of the industrial revolution. We consider pauperism as “the son of industrialization”. Considering the political elements itis expressed in the organization and formation of the labor class, their unions, the left political parties, assuming the protagonism of the social question. To point out the social question today we have to detect the contradictions wich are revealed from the reorganization of the production, since the end of the last century and the beginning of the present, affirmed in the version of the “mundialização financeira”. It makes flexible and turns unsafe the work relations causing a structural unemployment, because “unloked” of the work weaken the “steady ones even though”.In the social question today there are, therefore, new manifestations of poverty, from the productive reorganization, but the actors and citizens to denounce this situation and to define a more favorable project, is an element still in construction.

  15. Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides a procedure for determining the ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. 1.2 This test method defines test specimens and methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, provides a method for determining changes in electrical performance, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This test method does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.4 The size of the ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified. This test method can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 This test method may be applied to concentrator and nonconcentrator modules. 1.6 The v...

  16. Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Solar Collector Covers to Hail by Impact With Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for determining the ability of cover plates for flat-plate solar collectors to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. This practice is not intended to apply to photovoltaic cells or arrays. 1.2 This practice defines two types of test specimens, describes methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice-ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 The size of ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified in this practice. This practice can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 The categories of solar collector cover plat...

  17. Use of the module of functional operator in designing the standard means for data processing in the automated control system of NPP construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyanko, S.D.; Teslya, Yu.N.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of automated control system introduction in the process of NPP construction are discussed. The notion of information medium and the structure of the automated system software are considered. The automated system of information service for management departments introduced at the South Ukrainian NPP is described. Block structure of the program modules of the system permitted to increase its efficiency and simplified further developments

  18. Comparison of the Resistance to Bending Forces of the 4.5 LCP Plate-rod Construct and of 4.5 LCP Alone Applied to Segmental Femoral Defects in Miniature Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Urbanová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the determination of mechanical properties, namely resistance to bending forces, of flexible buttress osteosynthesis using two different bone-implant constructs stabilizing experimental segmental femoral bone defects (segmental ostectomy in a miniature pig ex vivo model using 4.5 mm titanium LCP and a 3 mm intramedullary pin (“plate and rod” construct (PR-LCP, versus the 4.5 mm titanium LCP alone (A-LCP. The “plate and rod” fixation (PR-LCP of the segmental femoral defect is significantly more resistant (p in vivo experiments in the miniature pig to investigate bone defect healing after transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biocompatible scaffolds.

  19. Toward an ozone standard to protect vegetation based on effective dose: a review of deposition resistances and a possible metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massman, W. J.

    Present air quality standards to protect vegetation from ozone are based on measured concentrations (i.e., exposure) rather than on plant uptake rates (or dose). Some familiar cumulative exposure-based indices include SUM06, AOT40, and W126. However, plant injury is more closely related to dose, or more appropriately to effective dose, than to exposure. This study develops and applies a simple model for estimating effective ozone dose that combines the plant canopy's rate of stomatal ozone uptake with the plant's defense to ozone uptake. Here the plant defense is explicitly parameterized as a function of gross photosynthesis and the model is applied using eddy covariance (ozone and CO 2) flux data obtained at a vineyard site in the San Joaquin Valley during the California Ozone Deposition Experiment (CODE91). With the ultimate intention of applying these concepts using prognostic models and remotely sensed data, the pathways for ozone deposition are parameterized (as much as possible) in terms of canopy LAI and the surface friction velocity. Results indicate that (1) the daily maximum potential for plant injury (based on effective dose) tends to coincide with the daily peak in ozone mixing ratio (ppbV), (2) potentially there are some significant differences between ozone metrics based on dose (no plant defense) and effective dose, and (3) nocturnal conductance can contribute significantly to the potential for plant ozone injury.

  20. Propensity Score-Based Approaches to Confounding by Indication in Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis: Non-Standardized Treatment for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Fox

    Full Text Available In the absence of randomized clinical trials, meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD from observational studies may provide the most accurate effect estimates for an intervention. However, confounding by indication remains an important concern that can be addressed by incorporating individual patient covariates in different ways. We compared different analytic approaches to account for confounding in IPD from patients treated for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB.Two antibiotic classes were evaluated, fluoroquinolones--considered the cornerstone of effective MDR-TB treatment--and macrolides, which are known to be safe, yet are ineffective in vitro. The primary outcome was treatment success against treatment failure, relapse or death. Effect estimates were obtained using multivariable and propensity-score based approaches.Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were used in 28 included studies, within which 6,612 patients received a fluoroquinolone and 723 patients did not. Macrolides were used in 15 included studies, within which 459 patients received this class of antibiotics and 3,670 did not. Both standard multivariable regression and propensity score-based methods resulted in similar effect estimates for early and late generation fluoroquinolones, while macrolide antibiotics use was associated with reduced treatment success.In this individual patient data meta-analysis, standard multivariable and propensity-score based methods of adjusting for individual patient covariates for observational studies yielded produced similar effect estimates. Even when adjustment is made for potential confounding, interpretation of adjusted estimates must still consider the potential for residual bias.

  1. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Maris, P.C.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F-2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1,

  2. Molecular mapping and construction of SCAR markers of the strawberry Rpf 1 resistance gene to Phytophthora fragariae and their use in breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The commercial strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) resistance gene Rpfl conferring resistance to various isolates of Phytophthora fragariae, was mapped using 7 RAPD markers. A DNA fragment representing a RAPD marker linked to susceptibility was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence

  3. Molecular mapping and construction of SCAR markers of the strawberry Rpf1 resistance gene to Phytophthora fragariae and their use in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The commercial strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) resistance gene Rpfl conferring resistance to various isolates of Phytophthora fragariae, was mapped using 7 RAPD markers. A DNA fragment representing a RAPD marker linked to susceptibility was cloned, sequenced and converted into a sequence

  4. Construction of a laboratory for the implantation of primary standardization of the magnitude kerma in the air for the X-ray beams used in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, W.L.; Magalhes, L.A.A.M.F.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to diminish the uncertainty in each phase of the metrological chain, and the uncertainty in dosimetry processed at the X-ray beam applied in the mammography, is necessary that the LNMRI/IRD to develop a reference primary standard for the absolute form to the magnitude kerma in the air

  5. La norma argentina de construcción de tesauros IRAM 32057: necesidad de actualización. 1. El vocabulario controlado The Argentine Standard for Thesaurus Construction IRAM 32057: a Need for Updating. 1. The Controlled Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la norma argentina de construcción de tesauros monolingües (IRAM 32057:1983 con las últimas ediciones de la norma internacional (ISO 2788:1986, las normas nacionales de España (UNE 50106:1990, Estados Unidos (Z39.19:2005 y Gran Bretaña (BSI 8723-2:2005b, así como diversos manuales reconocidos. Se analizaron tanto el alcance y los aspectos formales de la norma, como los conceptos referidos a la normativa sobre el vocabulario controlado. El alcance de la norma argentina se limita a la construcción de tesauros monolingües, mientras que las nuevas normas estadounidense y británica cubren también diferentes sistemas de organización del conocimiento. En relación con los aspectos formales, la norma argentina carece de tabla de contenido, índice analítico, glosario, bibliografía y algunas secciones y anexos, contando además con muy pocos ejemplos. En cuanto a los aspectos conceptuales, algunas definiciones son incorrectas o desactualizadas, lo mismo que algunas de las recomendaciones para el control del vocabulario. Se concluye que la norma argentina debería revisarse y actualizarse de conformidad con las normas publicadas recientemente y la norma ISO 25964 aún en preparación.The Argentine standard for the construction of monolingual thesaurus (IRAM 32057:1983 was compared with the last editions of the international standard (ISO 2788:1986, and the national standards of Spain (UNE 50106:1990, United States (Z39.19:2005, and Great Britain (BSI 8723-2:2005b, and very well known manuals. The scope and formal issues were analyzed, as well as the conceptual issues for controlled vocabulary. The scope of the Argentine standard is limited to the construction of monolingual thesauri, while the new North-American and British standards also cover different knowledge organization systems. In relation to the formal issues, the Argentine standard has not table of content, analytical index, glossary, bibliography and some sections and

  6. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  7. Standard road plans [English version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed : to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved : materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary : road construction in th...

  8. Development of a model for functional studies of ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) efflux employing a standard BeWo clone (B24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Andrew; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2012-10-01

    Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells express high levels of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) with no functional P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (ABCB1) activity, making them a potential model to study bidirectional ABCG2-mediated drug transport. However, the original BeWo clone (B24) available to researchers does not form confluent monolayers with tight junctions required by the model. Our aim was to adapt culture conditions to attempt to generate confluent BeWo monolayers for drug transport studies using the standard B24 clone. BeWo cells (B24; American Type Culture collection [ATCC]) were cultured in six-well plates or polycarbonate millicell inserts in a number of media formulations, growth supplements, and basement membrane substitutes. Cells were examined for confluence by microscopy, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured daily; monolayer permeability was assessed when TEER had stabilized. Optimal growth rates were achieved in culture conditions consisting of Medium 199 (M199) supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF; 20 ng/mL), vitamin supplements, and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) with collagen coating. A TEER of 170 Ω in 0.6 cm(2) inserts was achieved 2 weeks after seeding under optimal conditions. The cell-impermeable diffusion marker 5(6) carboxy-2,7dichlorodihydrofluorescein (C-DCDHF) had a permeability coefficient of 3.5×10(-6) cm/s, indicative of minimal paracellular permeability. ABCG2 expression, as determined by immunoblotting, remained unaffected by confluency. In conclusion, we describe culture conditions for the B24 BeWo clone that facilitate the formation of monolayers with tighter junctions and reduced paracellular transport compared to previously published models. These growth conditions provide a good model of ABCG2-mediated drug transport in a human placental cell line.

  9. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume III : recommended resistance factors with consideration of construction control and setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandated utilizing the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach for all new bridges initiated in the United States after October 1, 2007. As a result, there has been a progressive move among state De...

  10. The treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals in microcosm constructed wetlands: the occurrence of integrons (int1-2) and associated resistance genes (sul1-3, qacEΔ1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrotek, Monika; Kotlarska, Ewa; Łuczkiewicz, Aneta; Felis, Ewa; Sochacki, Adam; Miksch, Korneliusz

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1-3) and other genetic elements as antiseptic resistance gene (qacEΔ1) and class 1 and class 2 integrons (int1-2) in the upper layer of substrate and in the effluent of microcosm constructed wetlands (CWs) treating artificial wastewater containing diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), which is a sulfonamide antibiotic. The bacteria in the substrate and in the effluents were equipped with the sul1-2, int1, and qacEΔ1 resistance determinants, which were introduced into the CW system during inoculation with activated sludge and with the soil attached to the rhizosphere of potted seedlings of Phalaris arundinacea 'Picta' roots (int1). By comparing the occurrence of the resistance determinants in the upper substrate layer and the effluent, it can be stated that they neither were lost nor emerged along the flow path. The implications of the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in the effluent may entail a risk of antibiotic resistance being spread in the receiving environment. Additionally, transformation products of SMX were determined. According to the obtained results, four (potential) SMX transformation products were identified. Two major metabolites of SMX, 2,3,5-trihydroxy-SMX and 3,5-dihydroxy-SMX, indicated that SMX may be partly oxidized during the treatment. The remaining two SMX transformation products (hydroxy-glutathionyl-SMX and glutathionyl-SMX) are conjugates with glutathione, which suggests the ability of CW bacterial community to degrade SMX and resist antimicrobial stress.

  11. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  12. Correction of androgen deficiency in chronic infectious prostatitis as pathogenetic method of overcoming inefficiencies standard antibiotics against the growing antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chronic prostatitis occupies the big relative density in structure of an out-patient urological pathology in our country, however, results of its standard pharmacotherapy remain unsatisfactory that is accompanied by high risk clinical recurrence and progressing of anatomic and functional disorders in prostata. Modern methods of diagnostics of the chronic infectious prostatitis, which share in the general structure of inflammatory prostata diseases does not exceed 10 %, are based on the recommended volume of the standard tests directed only on revealing of the infectious agent in a prostatic secret, and do not consider degree of disorders of the prostatic homeostasis which key moment is prostata androgen-dependence. It leads to mainly symptomatic approach in treatment of a chronic infectious prostatitis in the modern urological practice, based exclusively on antibacterial therapy that promotes the further growth of prostate pathogens antibiotics resistance, inefficiencies of unreasonable repeated courses of antibacterial therapy and are supported by a myth about incurability of a chronic prostatitis. At the same time, intraprostatic androgen balance defines all basic functions of gland, and its safety essentially depends on testosterone blood level, therefore endogenic testosterone level it is possible to consider as universal predictor of prostata metabolic homeostasis disorders, leading to decrease in bactericidal function of gland and infections. This author’s concept allows to consider correction of an adverse hormonal and metabolic background on which the clinical picture of a chronic prostatitis (first of all, deficiency of sexual hormones as pathogenetic therapy of all infectious chronic prostatitises against which realisation of effects of antibacterial therapy is essentially facilitated is developed or last is not so necessary, to what own clinical supervision resulted in article testify. Such interdisciplinary approach will lead

  13. Construction of environmental risk score beyond standard linear models using machine learning methods: application to metal mixtures, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kyun; Zhao, Zhangchen; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2017-09-26

    There is growing concern of health effects of exposure to pollutant mixtures. We initially proposed an Environmental Risk Score (ERS) as a summary measure to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research considering only pollutant main effects. We expand the ERS by consideration of pollutant-pollutant interactions using modern machine learning methods. We illustrate the multi-pollutant approaches to predicting a marker of oxidative stress (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)), a common disease pathway linking environmental exposure and numerous health endpoints. We examined 20 metal biomarkers measured in urine or whole blood from 6 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2004 to 2013-2014, n = 9664). We randomly split the data evenly into training and testing sets and constructed ERS's of metal mixtures for GGT using adaptive elastic-net with main effects and pairwise interactions (AENET-I), Bayesian additive regression tree (BART), Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and Super Learner in the training set and evaluated their performances in the testing set. We also evaluated the associations between GGT-ERS and cardiovascular endpoints. ERS based on AENET-I performed better than other approaches in terms of prediction errors in the testing set. Important metals identified in relation to GGT include cadmium (urine), dimethylarsonic acid, monomethylarsonic acid, cobalt, and barium. All ERS's showed significant associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. For hypertension, one SD increase in each ERS from AENET-I, BART and SuperLearner were associated with odds ratios of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.15, 1.38), 1.17 (1.09, 1.25), and 1.30 (1.20, 1.40), respectively. ERS's showed non-significant positive associations with mortality outcomes. ERS is a useful tool for characterizing cumulative risk from pollutant mixtures, with accounting for statistical challenges such as high

  14. A standardized method for the construction of tracer specific PET and SPECT rat brain templates: validation and implementation of a toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion), and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70 ± 0.32 mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25), 0.23 ± 0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13), 0.88 ± 0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15), 0.64 ± 0.28 mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19), 0.34 ± 0.15 mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6), and 0.40 ± 0.13 mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15). These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (ptracer-specific templates allows accurate registration of functional rat brain data, independent of disease specific uptake patterns and with registration error below spatial resolution of the cameras. The templates and the SAMIT package will be freely available for the research community [corrected].

  15. Resistive switching characteristics of Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices constructed on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-07-01

    In this study, Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6Al devices are fabricated on plastic substrates using the sputtering method at room temperature. The ratio of O/S in the zinc oxysulfide thin film is confirmed to be 0.4/0.6 from the Auger depth profiling. The Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices show unipolar resistive switching behaviors and the ratio of the measured resistance in the low-resistance state (LRS) to that in the high-resistance state (HRS) is above 10(4). The conduction mechanism of the LRS is governed by Ohm's law. On the other hand, in the HRS, the conduction mechanism at low voltages is controlled by Ohm's law, but that at high voltages results from the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The Ohmic and Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms observed in the LRS and HRS support the filament model of unipolar resistive switching. The memory characteristics of the Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices are retained for 10(4) sec without any change.

  16. Construction program management

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, it lags behind other industries in its implementation of modern management techniques such as those contained in the Standard for Program Management (the Standard) by the Project Management Institute (PMI(R)). Construction Program Management details the successful use of the PMI(R) approach for the construction of capital programs. It demonstrates, through case studies, how implementation of PMI's set of tools and techniques can improve the chances of program success. Exploring tactical and strategic management method

  17. Japanese external quality assessment program to standardize HIV-1 drug-resistance testing (JEQS2010 program) using in vitro transcribed RNA as reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Okada, Kiyomi; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ibe, Shiro; Fujisawa, Shin-ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi; Tatsumi, Masashi; Kato, Shingo; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    To design appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimens and avoid the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs, genotypic drug-resistance testing (HIV genotyping) is strongly recommended. To monitor the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA), named the Japanese external quality assessment program, to standardize HIV genotyping (JEQS). To accurately evaluate the quality of HIV genotyping, we employed as reference material (RM) a well-characterized sample, in vitro transcribed RNA (trRNA) that includes the HIV gag-pol sequence, and created a JEQS2010 panel consisting of three single variant and three mixed trRNA samples. All 11 participating laboratories showed high concordance rates (>96%) for the single variant samples. Eight laboratories also showed good rates of detecting minor variants, but three laboratories failed to detect the variants comprising one-half of the sample. These three laboratories used a common primer that had four internal mismatches to the minor trRNA clone. This program showed the usefulness of trRNA as RM, the high quality of HIV genotyping, and extensive interlaboratory variation in the ability to detect minor variants. These results suggest that improving the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan requires regularly implementing the EQA program and improving the HIV genotyping protocol in each laboratory.

  18. The construction of a Solanum habrochaites LYC4 introgression line population and the identification of QTLs for resistance to Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Meijer-Dekens, Fien; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Maris, Paul; Lindhout, Pim

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites LYC4. In a previous F2 mapping study, three QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea (Rbcq1, Rbcq2 and Rbcq4a) were identified. As it was probable that this study had not identified all QTLs involved in resistance we developed an introgression line (IL) population (n = 30), each containing a S. habrochaites introgression in the S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker genetic background. On average each IL contained 5.2% of the S. habrochaites genome and together the lines provide an estimated coverage of 95%. The level of susceptibility to B. cinerea for each of the ILs was assessed in a greenhouse trial and compared to the susceptible parent S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. The effect of the three previously identified loci could be confirmed and seven additional loci were detected. Some ILs contains multiple QTLs and the increased resistance to B. cinerea in these ILs is in line with a completely additive model. We conclude that this set of QTLs offers good perspectives for breeding of B. cinerea resistant cultivars and that screening an IL population is more sensitive for detection of QTLs conferring resistance to B. cinerea than the analysis in an F2 population. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-006-0500-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17273845

  19. Corrosion resistance of materials of construction for high temperature sulfuric acid service in thermochemical IS process. Alloy 800, Alloy 600, SUSXM15J1 and SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo; Yamaguchi, Akihisa

    2006-01-01

    Exposure tests of candidate materials were carried out up to 1000 hr in the sulfuric acid environments of thermochemical hydrogen production IS process, focusing on the corrosion of welded portion and of crevice area. In the gas phase sulfuric acid decomposition condition at 850degC, welded samples of Alloy 800 and of Alloy 600 showed the same good corrosion resistance as the base materials. In the boiling condition of 95 wt% sulfuric acid solution, test sample of SiC showed the same good corrosion resistance. Also negligible corrosion was observed in crevice corrosion. (author)

  20. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  1. Identification of distinct specificity determinants in resistance protein Cf-4 allows construction of a Cf-9 mutant that confers recognition of avirulence protein AVR4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Van der R.A.L.; Roth, R.; Wit, De P.J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The tomato resistance genes Cf-4 and Cf-9 confer specific, hypersensitive response-associated recognition of Cladosporium carrying the avirulence genes Avr4 and Avr9, respectively. Cf-4 and Cf-9 encode type I transmembrane proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Compared with Cf-9,

  2. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  3. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyin Nikolay; Panfilov Denis; Lukin Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting propert...

  4. Assessment of insulin sensitivity (S I) and glucose effectiveness (S G) from a standardized hyperglucidic breakfast test in type 2 diabetics exhibiting various levels of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Ghanassia, Edouard; Fédou, Christine; Bordenave, Sylvain; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric; Mercier, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the measurement of insulin sensitivity (S I) with a standardized hyperglucidic breakfast (SHB) compared to minimal model analysis of an intravenous glucose tolerance test (S I-IVGTT) in 17 patients clinically referred as type 2 diabetics, not yet treated by insulin, and representing a wide range of body mass index and S I. To classify the patients, ten meal-tolerance test-based calculations of S I (MTT-S I) were compared to S I-IVGTT, and their reference values and distribution were measured on a separate sample of 200 control SHBs and 209 control IVGTTs. Eight MTT-SI indices exhibit significant correlations with S I-IVGTT: Mari's OGIS index, BIGTT-SI|0-30-120, BIGTT-SI|0-60-120, 1/G b I m, Caumo's oral minimal model (OMM), Sluiter's index "A" = 10(4)/(I p·G p), Matsuda's composite index given by the formula ISIcomp = 10(4)/(I b G b I m G m)(0.5), S I = 1/I b G b I m G m with r (2) ranging between 0,53 and 0,28. S I-IVGTT and S I-MTT exhibited in the lower range a very different (non-normal) pattern of distribution and thus the cutoff value for defining insulin resistance varied among indices. With such cutoffs, S I-MTT resistance defined as S I-IVGTT < 2 min(-1)/(μU/ml) 10(-4). Other indices, including OGIS and BIGTT, resulted in more misclassifications of patients. HOMA-IR and QUICKI were poor predictors. The formula [Formula: see text] satisfactorily predicts IVGTT-derived glucose effectiveness in type 2 diabetics. Thus, SHB appears suitable for the measurement of S I and S G in type 2 diabetics, and the OMM seems to provide the most accurate SHB-derived index in this population.

  5. Predictable grammatical constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    INF] as a grammatical construction consists in: 1) [méllo INF] is more resistant to restructuring than many other verbal periphrases with an INF; and 2) in LBG [méllo INF] seems to have grammaticalized — as one of its uses — a specialized function embedded in subjunctives, in which méllo...

  6. Construction of specific erythromycin resistance mutations in the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and their use in studies of phage biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Birgit; Christiansen, Bettina; Evison, Tim

    1997-01-01

    A method for the construction and isolation of specifically designed mutations of the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1 has been developed. Two different erm-labeled mutants were isolated. One was shown to be defective in lysogenization and excision. The other, showing normal lysogenization, wa...

  7. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  8. Construction of System for Seismic Observation in Deep Borehole (SODB) - Development of Multi-depth, High-temperature/pressure resistance seismometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamada, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The development of a high quality system for seismic observation in deep boreholes, the installation process at the NIIT site, and the data sharing plan for this observation were explained. The key points of the development were high temperature resistance (150 degrees Celsius), high pressure resistance (30 MPa), and a high dynamic/wide frequency range seismometer which allows for observation of micro-tremor to strong motions as well as a cascade-connection-type borehole seismometer, which allows multiple probes to be set at several depths in a single borehole. The developed system consists of broadband (0.1-50 Hz) and high dynamic range (up to 1000 gal) seismometer with electronic parts on the ground and only the pendulum part in the borehole (it became a servo-type seismometer). Durability and maintenance may be issues in the future. (author)

  9. Construction of Double Right-Border Binary Vector Carrying Non-Host Gene Rxo1 Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-rong XU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Rxo1 cloned from maize is a non-host gene resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice. pCAMBIA1305-1 with Rxo1 was digested with Sca I and NgoM IV and the double right-border binary vector pMNDRBBin6 was digested with Hpa I and Xma I. pMNDRBBin6 carrying the gene Rxo1 was acquired by ligation of blunt-end and cohesive end. The results of PCR, restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing indicated that the Rxo1 gene had been cloned into pMNDRBBin6. This double right-border binary vector, named as pMNDRBBin6-Rxo1, will play a role in breeding marker-free plants resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice by genetic transformation.

  10. How Many Equivalent Resistances?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is straightforward to construct the set of equiv- alent resistance for circuits constructed from a bunch of four or five equal resistors. But as the bunch size increases it becomes difficult to find the order of the set of equivalent resistances. Even the computer programs runs out of mem- ory. Here we present an analytical result ...

  11. Construction practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.; Clelland, J.; Rumble, E.; Sandell, L.

    2007-01-01

    One has elaborated a virtual computer model (VRC) of construction of the AP1000 project reactor to demonstrate its viability, to improve the NPP project making it more easy for construction with simultaneous reduction of time, costs and risk of construction. The approach ensured time sequence of the 3-D visualization of NPP at the construction stages. The VRC ensures optimization of scheme implementation time period and specifies the basic costs. The VRC application offers essential advantages when planning construction of a nuclear power facility [ru

  12. Learning progressions from a sociocultural perspective: response to "co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses a case for a different, socio-cultural way of looking at learning progressions as treated in the next generation science standards (NGSS) as described by Ralph Cordova and Phyllis Balcerzak's paper "Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action". The paper is interesting for a number of reasons, and in this response I will identify different aspects of the paper and link the points made to my own research, and that of colleagues, as complementary perspectives. First, the way that the science curriculum is conceived as an expanding experience that moves from the classroom into the community, across subjects, and across time, links to theoretical positions on disciplinary literacies and notions of learning as apprenticeship into the discursive tools, or `habits of mind' as the authors put it, that underpin disciplinary practice. Second, the formulation of progression through widening communities of practice is a strong feature of the paper, and shows how children take on the role of scientists through this expanding exposure. I will link this approach to some of our own work with school—community science partnerships, drawing on the construct of boundary crossing to tease out relations between school science and professional practice. Third, the demonstration of the expansion of the children's view of what scientists do is well documented in the paper, illustrated by Figure 13 for instance. However I will, in this response, try to draw out and respond to what the paper is saying about the nature of progression; what the progression consists of, over what temporal or spatial dimensions it progresses, and how it can productively frame curriculum processes.

  13. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  14. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    OpenAIRE

    McPheron, Daniel; McCullouch, Bob; Bowman, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an under-emphasized topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to construction loads, so it is important for design engineers and contractors to understand and design for these loads. The Indiana Department of Transportation’s current Standard Specifications does not contain many construction load provisions, so t...

  15. Uniform measurement standard for heat supply in housing and utility building construction. A protocol to compare alternatives for heat supply at building construction sites. Version 3.1; Uniforme Maatlat voor de warmtevoorziening in de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. Een protocol voor het vergelijken van alternatieven voor de warmtevoorziening op bouwlocaties. Versie 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuiten, P. [W/E adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van der Ree, B. [Primum, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The uniform measurement standard is one of the methods that the National Expertise Heat Centre develops to compare the energy efficiency of different techniques (such as heat pumps, heat and cold storage, collective systems, waste heat, combustion of woody biomass, etc.). The development of the uniform standard was started for the residential and utility building construction industry. In the future, the standard calculation method will also be made available for other sectors [Dutch] De uniforme maatlat is 1 van de methoden die het Nationaal Expertisecentrum Warmte ontwikkelt om de energieprestaties van verschillende technieken (zoals warmtepompen, warmte-koudeopslag, collectieve systemen, restwarmte, verbranding van houtachtige biomassa, etc.) goed vergelijkbaar te maken. De ontwikkeling van de uniforme maatlat is gestart voor de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. In de toekomst zal de uniforme maatlat ook voor andere sectoren beschikbaar komen. In deze versie van de uniforme maatlat is aansluiting gezocht bij de kengetallen van de Energieprestatienorm voor Maatregelen op Gebiedsniveau (EMG), zodat de resultaten van de uniforme maatlat in lijn zijn met die van de EMG.

  16. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  17. Antibiotic-Induced Within-Host Resistance Development of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Patients Receiving Selective Decontamination or Standard Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, Yvonne; Ong, David S. Y.; Oostdijk, Evelien A.; Schultz, Marcus J.; de Jonge, Evert; Purmer, Ilse; Bergmans, Dennis; Fijen, Jan Willem; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    To quantify antibiotic-associated within-host antibiotic resistance acquisition rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species, and Enterobacter species from lower respiratory tract samples of ICU patients receiving selective digestive decontamination, selective oropharyngeal decontamination,

  18. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  19. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  20. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    frustrating systems are experienced similarly to easy-to-use systems. Looking at the most characteristic construct for each participant we find that Chinese participants use constructs related to security, task types, training, and system issues, whereas Danish and to some extent Indian participants make more...

  1. The produsing expert consumer: Co-constructing, resisting and accepting health-related claims on social media in response to an infotainment show about food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Jana; Tulkens, Stéphan; Van Leuven, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the Twitter and Facebook uptake of health messages from an infotainment TV show on food, as broadcasted on Belgium's Dutch-language public broadcaster. The interest in and amount of health-related media coverage is rising, and this media coverage is an important source of information for laypeople, and impacts their health behaviours and therapy compliance. However, the role of the audience has also changed; consumers of media content increasingly are produsers, and, in the case of health, expert consumers. To explore how current audiences react to health claims, we have conducted a quantitative and qualitative content analysis of Twitter and Facebook reactions to an infotainment show about food and nutrition. We examine (1) to which elements in the show the audience reacts, to gain insight in the traction the nutrition-related content generates and (2) whether audience members are accepting or resisting the health information in the show. Our findings show that the information on health and production elicit the most reactions, and that health information incites a lot of refutation, low acceptance and a lot of suggestions on new information or new angles to complement the show's information.

  2. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement w...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.12 - Construction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction work. 1910.12 Section 1910.12 Labor... Construction work. (a) Standards. The standards prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter are adopted as... provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in construction...

  4. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  5. Standard road plans index sheets [English version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary road construction in the Stat...

  6. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  7. The construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Koo, Jun Mo; Kim, Jeong Guk; Jung, In Ha

    1990-03-01

    The solid waste form test facility (SWFTF) to test and/or evaluate the characteristics of waste forms, such as homogeniety, mechanical properties, thermal properties, waste resistance and leachability, have been constructed, and some equipments for testing actual waste forms has been purchased; radiocative monitoring system, glove box for the manipulator repair room, and uninteruppted power supply system, et al. Classifications of radioactive wastes, basic requirements and criteria to be considered during waste management were also reviewed. Some of the described items above have been standardized for the purpose of indigenigation. Therefore, safety assurance of waste forms, as well as increase in the range of participating of domestic companies in construction of further nuclear facilities could be obtained as results through constructing this facility. In the furture this facility is going to be utilized not only for the inspection of waste forms but also for the periodic decontamination for extending the life time of some expensive radiological equipments using remote handling techniques. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 167.20-1 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 167.20-1 Section 167.20-1 Shipping COAST... Requirements, Construction and Arrangement of Nautical School Ships § 167.20-1 Construction. Except as otherwise provided by law or regulations in this subpart, the following standards for construction are...

  9. 10 CFR 4.128 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New construction. 4.128 Section 4.128 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.128 New construction. (a) Design, construction, and... Federal Accessibility Standards. (1) Effective as of January 18, 1991, design, construction, or alteration...

  10. 45 CFR 1170.33 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New construction. 1170.33 Section 1170.33 Public... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.33 New construction. (a) Design, construction, and... Federal Accessibility Standards. (1) Effective as of January 18, 1991, design, construction, or alteration...

  11. 45 CFR 1151.23 - New construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New construction. 1151.23 Section 1151.23 Public... Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.23 New construction. (a) Design, construction, and alteration. New facilities... Accessibility Standards. (1) Effective as of January 18, 1991, design, construction, or alteration of buildings...

  12. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  13. Construction time of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carajilescov, Pedro; Moreira, Joao M.L., E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.b, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Center of Engineering, Modeling and Applied Social Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The cost of electricity generated by nuclear power is greatly affected by the capital cost, which is dependent on the construction time of the plant. This work analyses the construction time of PWRs in several countries with different market structure and licensing experience. Countries which succeeded to establish a more collaborative environment among utilities, constructors, regulators, and energy planners through effective partnerships were able to build PWRs in shorter times. The construction time in Germany, France and Russia was around 80 months and in Japan, about 60 months. The envelope of 95% of the cases includes a range between 50 and 250 months of construction time. The evaluations show that construction time of PWRs has been longer for countries that did not hold the technology to build their own reactors, and depended on contracts with foreign suppliers. The nominal power of the reactors was considered a measure of plant size, technology complexity and standardization. Countries with standardized reactor designs (France, Japan and Russia) were able to build plants in shorter times. (author)

  14. Standard test methods for pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of stainless steels and related alloys by use of ferric Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion (see Terminology G 15) when exposed to oxidizing chloride environments. Six procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F. 1.1.1 Method A—Ferric chloride pitting test. 1.1.2 Method B—Ferric chloride crevice test. 1.1.3 Method C—Critical pitting temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.4 Method D—Critical crevice temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys. 1.1.5 Method E—Critical pitting temperature test for stainless steels. 1.1.6 Method F—Critical crevice temperature test for stainless steels. 1.2 Method A is designed to determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steels and nickel-base, chromium-bearing alloys, whereas Method B can be used for determining both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. Methods C, D, E and F allow for a rankin...

  15. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  16. Toward a constructive physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2..pi..Gm/sub p//sup 2/) approx. = 1.7 x 10/sup 38/). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved.

  17. Toward a constructive physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    We argue that the discretization of physics which has occurred thanks to the advent of quantum mechanics has replaced the continuum standards of time, length and mass which brought physics to maturity by counting. The (arbitrary in the sense of conventional dimensional analysis) standards have been replaced by three dimensional constants: the limiting velocity c, the unit of action h, and either a reference mass (eg m/sub p/) or a coupling constant (eg G related to the mass scale by hc/(2πGm/sub p/ 2 ) approx. = 1.7 x 10 38 ). Once these physical and experimental reference standards are accepted, the conventional approach is to connect physics to mathematics by means of dimensionless ratios. But these standards now rest on counting rather than ratios, and allow us to think of a fourth dimensionless mathematical concept, which is counting integers. According to constructive mathematics, counting has to be understood before engaging in the practice of mathematics in order to avoid redundancy. In its strict form constructive mathematics allows no completed infinities, and must provide finite algorithms for the computation of any acceptable concept. This finite requirement in constructive mathematics is in keeping with the practice of physics when that practice is restricted to hypotheses which are testable in a finite time. In this paper we attempt to outline a program for physics which will meet these rigid criteria while preserving, in so far as possible, the successes that conventional physics has already achieved

  18. Use sulfoferritic cements in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samchenko, Svetlana V.; Zorin, Dmitriy A.

    2018-03-01

    Currently, high-rise construction has received increasing attention around the world. In the big cities under construction is less space and one solution is the high-rise construction. However, high-rise buildings use special requirements, such as strength, thermal insulation, wind load and others. When concrete is exposed to continuous loads by wind or to mechanical loads, it undergoes abrasion. Resistance to this process depends on the characteristics of materials that the concrete and finishing seams are made of. Research on increasing impact and abrasion resistance of calcium sulfoferrite-based cement stone from the perspective of formation of cement stone structure will be instrumental in developing durable materials for application in high-rise construction.

  19. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  20. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  1. Scale Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses design, development, and evaluation of scales used in counseling psychology research. Describes methods of scale construction including the Thurstone, Q-sort, rank-order methods, Likert, semantic differential, Guttman, Rasch, and external criterion methods. Presents ways of evaluating newly developed scales. Discusses measurement versus…

  2. [Evaluation of antibiotic resistance in material isolated from the middle ear in children with acute otitis media not responding to standard antibiotic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Bielicka, Anna

    2007-01-01

    An increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogens is the main cause of failures during treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Aim. A qualitative and quantitative bacteriological analysis of material isolated from the middle ear in children with AOM treated with antibiotic without improvement. This is a prospective study performed in Department of Otolaryngology in Warsaw between 2005 and 2007. An examined group consisted of 72 children aged from 6 months to 17 years, admitted to Department of Otolaryngology because of failure of antibiotic therapy of AOM, severe course of this disease and complications of AOM or persistent AOM. In all children were performed the myryngotomy and/or ventilatory tube insertion and/or mastoidectomy and the material from the middle ear was collected to bacteriological examinations. The positive cultures were obtained in 63.9% patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (40.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (14%), Haemophilus influenzae (10.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.5%) were the most frequently found bacteria in the culture of middle ear. beta-lactamase producing bacteria were isolated in 12 children (21.1% of isolated bacteria). Staphylococcus aureus (7 children, 12.3% of positive cultures) was the bacteria most frequent producing beta-lactamase. The most of organisms were susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate--56.1% of bacteria from the middle ear. The most of organisms presented resistance to penicillin--63.9% of bacteria from the middle ear. Microbiological identifications and antibiotic resistance determination of pathogens isolated from the middle ear in children with AOM not responding to empirical antibiotic treatment gives possibility of the choice of an effective antibiotic and its proper dosage. The pathogenic bacterial flora isolated from the middle ear in children with AOM shows evidence to accomplishing changes in the most frequent pathogens causing acute otitis media in children.

  3. 27 CFR 555.209 - Construction of type 3 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.209 Section 555.209 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 3 magazines. A type 3 magazine is a “day-box” or other portable magazine. It must be fire-resistant, weather-resistant, and theft-resistant. A type 3 magazine is to be constructed of not less than...

  4. Position paper on standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The ''NPOC Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Plants'' creates a framework within which new standardized nuclear plants may be built. The Strategic Plan is an expression of the nuclear energy industry's serious intent to create the necessary conditions for new plant construction and operation. One of the key elements of the Strategic Plan is a comprehensive industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The NPOC plan proposes four stages of standardization in advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The first stage is established by the ALWR Utility Requirements Document which specifies owner/operator requirements at a functional level covering all elements of plant design and construction, and many aspects of operations and maintenance. The second stage of standardization is that achieved in the NRC design certification. This certification level includes requirements, design criteria and bases, functional descriptions and performance requirements for systems to assure plant safety. The third stage of standardization, commercial standardization, carries the design to a level of completion beyond that required for design certification to enable the industry to achieve potential increases in efficiency and economy. The final stage of standardization is enhanced standardization beyond design. A standardized approach is being developed in construction practices, operating, maintenance training, and procurement practices. This comprehensive standardization program enables the NRC to proceed with design certification with the confidence that standardization beyond the regulations will be achieved. This confidence should answer the question of design detail required for design certification, and demonstrate that the NRC should require no further regulatory review beyond that required by 10 CFR Part 52

  5. A critical review of constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuddusi, Luetfullah; Egrican, Niluefer

    2008-01-01

    Constructal theory applied to the volume to point or point to volume flows aims to decrease global flow resistance by furnishing low resistive flow links in the flow field. Constructal theory expects to improve the flow performance by increasing the branching of the low resistive flow links. Fourteen different constructal theory applications involving tree shaped flow networks are reviewed with the purpose to check whether the increase in branching of tree shaped flow networks leads to increased flow performance or not? In other words, the review aims to answer the question; does the evolution model of constructal theory, increasing the branching of tree shaped flow networks through the sequence of constructal designs, improve the flow performance? The review shows that constructal theory will not necessarily improve the flow performance if the internal branching of the flow field is increased, in contrast, the performance will mostly be lowered if the internal branching of the flow field is increased

  6. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  7. Airship construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-four years ago the first successful metal airship was completed and delivered to the United States Navy, the ZMC-2. Between those years and the present, very little effort or serious consideration has been given to the manufacture, design, construction, or economic impact of airships. It is important to retain and exploit the small but continually diminishing pool of airship talent that will expedite the success of the United States in what is now a pioneering venture. The relative simplicity of airship construction, utilizing the tremendous technical advances of the last 44 years, leads to the conclusion that this form of transportation holds great promise for reducing costs of military missions and improving the international competitive position of the United States in commercial applications.

  8. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  9. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  10. EDUCATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND ADMINISTRATION MAGISTRATURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION SPECIALTY (08.04.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejnik Pavel Pavlovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Paper discusses some Educational Considerations for Construction Technology and Administration Magistrature under Construction Specialty. The main requirements to the level of the enacted construction and housing maintenance and utilities standards have been described and the need for the Construction Technology and Administration Magistrature has been outlined. The Construction Technology and Administration Magistrature 3-Unit Structure meeting the Construction Specialty (08.04.01 Federal State Educational Standards has been presented. The basic Magistrature Unit consist of the following two disciplines — Scientific Research Basics and Construction Professional Basics. The basics of the Additional Unit include Construction Design — Construction Operations Preparation System, Construction and Assembly Operations — Construction Quality Control Sys-tem. In the Additional Unit, there are the options open for a number of disciplines. The Magistrature envisages a work placement and a scientific & research study.

  11. Evaluation of stainless steel reinforcement construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel reinforcement has greater corrosion resistance than that of the conventional reinforcement. In this project, bridge A6059, the first in Missouri utilizing stainless steel reinforcement in the deck, was constructed, along with bridge A...

  12. Deck forms for bridge construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-31

    Because I-girders have inherently weak torsion resistance, cross-frames and/or diaphragms are placed at close : spacing intervals to minimize the susceptibility of individual girders to instability during construction. A recent : increase in fatigue ...

  13. A pilot cohort study of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of unresponsive thin endometrium resistant to standard therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, N; Kim, A; Michaeli, T; Lee, H-J; Shohat-Tal, A; Lazzaroni, E; Barad, D H

    2013-01-01

    Is thin endometrium unresponsive to standard treatments expandable by intrauterine perfusion with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)? This cohort study is supportive of the effectiveness of G-CSF in expanding chronically unresponsive endometria. In a previous small case series, we reported the successful off-label use of G-CSF in four consecutive patients, who had previously failed to expand their endometria beyond 6.9 mm with the use of standard treatments. In a prospective observational cohort pilot study over 18 months, we described 21 consecutive infertile women with endometria change was 2.9 ± 2.0 mm, and did not vary between conception and non-conception cycles. A 19.1% ongoing clinical pregnancy rate was observed, excluding one ectopic pregnancy. Small sample size (but a highly selected patient population) in an uncontrolled cohort study and in unselected first IVF cycles at our center. This pilot study supports the utility of G-CSF in the treatment of chronically thin endometrium and suggests that such treatment will, in very adversely affected patients, result in low but very reasonable clinical pregnancy rates. This work was supported by the Foundation for Reproductive Medicine, New York, New York, USA, a not-for-profit research foundation and intramural grants from the Center for Human Reproduction (CHR)-New York. N.G. and D.H.B. are members of the board of the Foundation for Reproductive Medicine. N.G. is owner of CHR-New York, where the study was conducted. N.G. and D.H.B. have been recipients of research awards, travel grants and speaker honoraria from various pharmaceutical and medical device companies. None of these companies was, however, in any way associated with the materials and the manuscript presented here. N.G. and D.H.B. are listed as co-inventors on a number of awarded and still pending U.S. patents, none related to the materials presented here. N.G. is on the board of a medically related company, not in any way associated with

  14. KARATE WITH CONSTRUCTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Karanam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Any conventional learning process involves the traditional hierarchy of garnering of information and then recall gathered information. Constructive learning is an important research area having wide impact on teaching methods in education, learning theories, and plays a major role in many education reform movements. It is observed that constructive learning advocates the interconnection between emotions and learning. Human teachers identify the emotions of students with varying degrees of accuracy and can improve the learning rate of the students by motivating them. In learning with computers, computers also should be given the capability to recognize emotions so as to optimize the learning process. Image Processing is a very popular tool used in the process of establishing the theory of Constructive Learning. In this paper we use the Optical Flow computation in image sequences to analyze the accuracy of the moves of a karate player. We have used the Lucas-Kanade method for computing the optical flow in image sequences. A database consisting of optical flow images by a group of persons learning karate is formed and the learning rates are analyzed in order to main constructive learning. The contours of flow images are compared with the standard images and the error graphs are plotted. Analysis of the emotion of the amateur karate player is made by observing the error plots.

  15. Public-Private Ventures in Bachelor Quarters. A Solution to the Loss of Military Construction Projects. Volume 2. Appendices A through E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    analysis of those projects and initial discussions with the hotel industry representatives present an encouraging picture for the feasibility of...within the hotel industry . We chose a general standard that provides fire-resistant construction, reinforced concrete columns and beams, concrete or...implications. Further, while the Navy minimum square footage exceeds that used as a standard by the hotel industry , the Navy furnishes the room with only

  16. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  17. Bioactivity and laundering resistance of five commercially available, factory-treated permethrin-impregnated fabrics for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases: the need for a standardized testing and licensing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Pages, Frederic; Uedelhoven, Waltraud

    2016-04-01

    Personal protective measures against hematophagous vectors constitute the first line of defense against arthropod-borne diseases. In this regard, a major advance has been the development of residual insecticides that can be impregnated into clothing. Currently, however, information on specific treatment procedures, initial insecticide concentrations, arthropod toxicity, residual activity, and laundering resistance is either fragmentary or non-existent, and no World Health Organization Pesticides Evaluation Scheme or other guidelines exist for the standardized testing and licensing of insecticide-treated clothing. The aim of this study was to analyze the insecticide content, contact toxicity, laundering resistance, and residual activity of five commercially available and commonly used permethrin-treated fabrics-Insect Shield, ExOfficio, Sol's Monarch T-shirts, battle dress uniforms (BDUs), and Labonal socks-against vector-competent Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. Prior to laundering, permethrin concentrations ranged from 4300 to 870 mg/m(2) whereas, after 100 defined machine launderings, the remaining permethrin content fell to between 1800 and 20 mg/m(2), a percentage permethrin loss of 58.1 to 98.5 %. The highest 99 % knockdown (KD99) efficacy of permethrin was detected in Ae. aegypti, followed by An. stephensi and Cx. pipiens demonstrating that Ae. aegypti is the most sensitive species and Cx. pipiens the least sensitive. After 100 launderings, the remaining biocidal efficacy differed markedly among the five brands, with KD99 times varying from 38.8 ± 2.9 to >360 min for Ae. aegypti, from 44 ± 3.5 to >360 min for An. stephensi, and from 98 ± 10.6 to >360 min for Cx. pipiens. Overall, the ranking of the residual biocidal efficacies within the five brands tested was as follows: BDU ≈ Labonal > Sol's Monarch > ExOfficio > Insect Shield. When applying German Armed Forces

  18. Low Impact Development Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, Samuel R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The goal of the LID Standards is to provide guidance on the planning, design, construction and maintenance of green infrastructure (GI) features at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The success of LID at LANL is dependent on maintaining a consistent approach to achieve effective application, operation, and maintenance of these storm water control features.

  19. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    period of delay can potentially be attributed to several events falling within both parties' spheres of responsibility, commonly termed concurrent delay, is rarely regulated in construction contracts in spite of its common occurrence. This book analyses both the theoretical foundations and the practical......Delay is one of the issues most frequently encountered in today’s construction industry; it causes significant economic damage to all parties involved. Construction contracts, standard and bespoke, almost invariably consider delay from a perspective of single liability. If the event causing...... solutions to the issue of concurrent delay in a comparative perspective between common and civil law systems, with an emphasis on Danish and English law....

  20. Constructibility assessment of APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Jae; Kang, Yong Chul; Lee, Jae Gon; Lim, Woo Sang

    2003-01-01

    APR1400 (formerly KNGR) development is one of national G-7 projects sponsored by government and KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD). It is an evolutionary standard reactor with the thermal output of 4000MWt and has been adopted for Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4. The government organizations, research institutes, universities and industries have participated in the project since 1992 along with KHNP, and the standard design certification program was issued in May 2002. The project set up the top-tier requirements about the safety, economy, operability and maintainability, and constructibility in the early design stage. The requirements have been evaluated periodically during the design process, and the results were reflected to the design. This paper describes the methods for constructibility enhancement and the results of schedule analysis to assure meeting construction duration target, which is set to 48 months from the first concrete pouring to the commercial operation on the condition that learning effects are maximized at Nth plant. To meet the target schedule, the design characteristics and constructibility studies such as new construction methods and construction schedule analysis were performed. The new construction methods presented here are over the top method for NSSS components, deck plate and steel from for concrete wall and slab, automatic welding for large bore piping, and modularization of components and structure, etc. (author)

  1. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  2. A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    On August 30, 1996, OSHA issued revised standards for scaffolds. The revised standard, known as "Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry" is found in Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part, Subpart L...

  3. Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANAN GUPTA

    2017-07-06

    Jul 6, 2017 ... Keywords. niche construction; standard evolutionary theory; coevolution; natural selection; philosophy of biology; post-truth. In recent years, fairly ...... that the proximate cause of the architect's design has far greater explanatory power in ... general principle rather than a phenomenon that exists as a specific ...

  4. Niche construction in evolutionary theory: the construction of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANAN GUPTA

    2017-07-06

    Jul 6, 2017 ... Keywords. niche construction; standard evolutionary theory; coevolution; natural selection; philosophy of biology; post-truth. In recent years, fairly ... process in its own right, almost at par with natural selec- tion. Claims have .... depletion of available resources by an increasing popu- lation eventually has a ...

  5. Standartization and Terminography of New Construction Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The past ten year period showed the occurance of a great number of new construction terms in the Lithua- nian language. Thus it is necessary to collect and systematize construction terms, terminoids, quasi-terms and standardize them from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language taking into account both logic and terminology requirements. This article deals with modern construction terms from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language including newest data bases saving all actual information on them. The reseach showed that The Dictionary of Construction Terms (2003 ought to be included into The Lithuanian language Term Bank (http://terminai.vlkk.lt. It is necessary to be done for the following reasons. Firstly, because of the creation and standartization as well as sistematization process of new construction terms. Secondly, for the development of continuous scientific discusion and successful professional education. It was established that a certain number of construction terms from the point of view of the Standard Lithuanian Language should be included into new Dictionary of Construction Terms as well as into Term Bank of the Lithuanian Republic. The terms analysed in the article are concerning basement types, pile types, construction joints, also details of walls, roofs, chimneys, construction materials and etc. The analysis showed how different morphological variants and undesirable synonymous terms occur. Finally, the analysis helped to identify that the informal terms mix with formal, standard terms and conclude in incorrect term usage.

  6. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams; Projeto, construcao e caracterizacao de camaras de ionizacao para utilizacao como sistemas padroes em feixes de radiacao X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  7. New construction standard for electrical underfloor and ceiling heatings DIN VDE 0100 part 520 A3. Pt. 2. Neue Errichtungsnorm fuer elektrische Fussboden- und Deckenheizungen DIN VDE 0100 Teil 520 A3. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienhaus, H.

    1991-06-01

    Several standards have to be taken into account for the installation of underfloor and ceiling heating. Mainly DIN 19560 part 1 applies to the laying of heating elements in the floors. Apart from that there are a number of additional requirements for rooms with bath tub or shower, areas of swimming pools, agricultural premises, premises and rooms with high fire risk, exterior areas. It is particularly important to explain structure and function of the underfloor or ceiling heating to the builder-owner and user of the system. Also here the information to be given is laid down in standards. At the end of the article a comprehensive list of all standards and technical regulations concerning this field is given. (BWI). Pt. 1 published in TAB, Tech. Bau (1991) v. 22(5).

  8. Studies on the Needs of Seismic Base Isolation Concept and its Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hae [Korea Electric Association, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    seismic protection of the structures of nuclear facility rather than to solely depend on seismic resistance design alone. This can also bring cost reduction effects both in early construction and in disaster control aftermath. Domestically, various types of devices are used for seismic base isolation systems in bridge projects. The 2005 revised edition of 'the highway bridge design standard' includes seismic base isolation standards under seismic resistance design for the first time in history; however, no efforts have been made to implement this technology in other fields. Therefore, KEPIC is developing seismic base isolation technology standards for the electrical industry.

  9. Constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings and other structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research introduces a methodology of establishing indicators of fire safety of a building in relation to a guaranteed duration of steel fire-proof corrugated beams resistance in conditions of standard fire tests. Indicators of fire safety are also established in the assessment of design limits of steel fire-proof corrugated beams during design process, construction or maintenance of the building as well as in reducing economic costs when testing steel structures for fire resisting property. The suggested methodology introduces the system of actions aimed to design constructive fire protection of steel corrugated beams of buildings. Technological effect is achieved by conducting firing tests of steel construction by non-destructive methods; the evaluation of fire resistance of fire-proof elements of corrugated beams (corrugated web, upper and lower shelves is identified by the least fire-proof element of a welded I-beam. In this methodology fire resistance duration of the constituent elements of a welded I-beam with account of its fire protection ability is described with an analytic function taken as variables. These variables are intensity strength of stresses and the degree of fire protection of a compound element.

  10. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  11. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  13. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication

  14. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  15. Russian seismic standards and demands for equipment and their conformity with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovsky, S.; Ostretsov, I.

    1993-01-01

    The principle regulations of standard documents concerning seismic safety of NPPs and demands for reactor equipment conformity with international standards are presented in this report. General state of NPP safety standards is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the state of seismic design standards for NPP equipment and piping. Russian standards documents on seismic resistance of NPPs and requirements are compared to international ones

  16. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  17. Anchorage in concrete construction

    CERN Document Server

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Silva, John F

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of current fastening technology using inserts (anchor channels, headed stud), anchors (metal expansion anchor, undercut anchor, bonded anchor, concrete screw and plastic anchor) as well as power actuated fasteners in concrete. It describes in detail the fastening elements as well as their effects and load-bearing capacities in cracked and non-cracked concrete. It further focuses on corrosion behaviour, fire resistance and characteristics with earthquakes and shocks. It finishes off with the design of fastenings according to the European Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG 001), the Final Draft of the CEN Technical Specification 'Design of fastenings for use in concrete' and the American Standards ACI 318-05, Appendix D and ACI 349-01, Appendix B.

  18. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....

  19. Comparative analysis of the dynamic characteristics of the "standard" movement hands qualified athletes who specialize in synchronized swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeeva M.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of work is a comparative analysis of dynamic descriptions of different types of «standard» motion hands. In theory grounded and possibility of realization of «standard» motion hands of two kinds is practically confirmed. Information of dynamic descriptions enable construction of comparative biotkinematics model of two types of «standard» motion hands and their efficiency. The most essential indexes of motion hands are selected. It is set that on the orientation of brush advancement of sportswoman depends in any of directions. It is not exposed distinctions in the phase of distant capture between the indexes of force of resistance.

  20. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  1. Construction of secure and fast hash functions using nonbinary error-correcting codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Preneel, Bart

    2002-01-01

    constructions based on block ciphers such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), where the key size is slightly smaller than the block size; IDEA, where the key size is twice the block size; Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), with a variable key size; and to MD4-like hash functions. Under reasonable...... assumptions about the underlying compression function and/or block cipher, it is proved that the new hash functions are collision resistant. More precisely, a lower bound is shown on the number of operations to find a collision as a function of the strength of the underlying compression function. Moreover......, some new attacks are presented that essentially match the presented lower bounds. The constructions allow for a large degree of internal parallelism. The limits of this approach are studied in relation to bounds derived in coding theory....

  2. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  3. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  4. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  5. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  6. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  7. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  8. USE OF MIRROR PATTERN CUTTING OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LAKE BEACH SEINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  9. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects.

  10. Stonke Construction Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonke Construction (the Company) is located in Anchorage, Alaska. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in and around Anchorage, Alaska.

  11. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  12. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  13. Standard dilution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis B; Donati, George L; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2015-02-17

    Standard dilution analysis (SDA) is a novel calibration method that may be applied to most instrumental techniques that will accept liquid samples and are capable of monitoring two wavelengths simultaneously. It combines the traditional methods of standard additions and internal standards. Therefore, it simultaneously corrects for matrix effects and for fluctuations due to changes in sample size, orientation, or instrumental parameters. SDA requires only 200 s per sample with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Neither the preparation of a series of standard solutions nor the construction of a universal calibration graph is required. The analysis is performed by combining two solutions in a single container: the first containing 50% sample and 50% standard mixture; the second containing 50% sample and 50% solvent. Data are collected in real time as the first solution is diluted by the second one. The results are used to prepare a plot of the analyte-to-internal standard signal ratio on the y-axis versus the inverse of the internal standard concentration on the x-axis. The analyte concentration in the sample is determined from the ratio of the slope and intercept of that plot. The method has been applied to the determination of FD&C dye Blue No. 1 in mouthwash by molecular absorption spectrometry and to the determination of eight metals in mouthwash, wine, cola, nitric acid, and water by ICP OES. Both the accuracy and precision for SDA are better than those observed for the external calibration, standard additions, and internal standard methods using ICP OES.

  14. Abrasion-erosion resistance of concrete made with two aggregates, Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, T. C.

    1983-09-01

    The resistance to abrasion-erosion of two concretes made with different coarse aggregates was evaluated. The aggregates used were selected as being representative of those that may be selected for use during construction of Stonewall Jackson Dam. The two coarse aggregates were limestones from different sources. All other concrete ingredients were identical for the two mixtures. Both concretes showed very high abrasion-erosion losses when tested using the Corps of Engineers standard test method. A recommendation was made that coarse aggregates with better wear-resistant properties be selected for use in areas of the structure that may be subjected to abrasion-erosion.

  15. Enhancing R&D&i through standardization and certification: the case of the Spanish construction industry Mejorando la I+D+i mediante la normalización y la certificación: el caso del sector de la construcción Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pellicer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The advance of a community is often measured by its investment in Research, Development and Innovation (R&D&i. Western economies assume the need to investigate new techniques, materials and processes to improve the efficiency and sustainability of each productive task. Standardization and certification of R&D&i projects and management systems become suitable tools to optimize results, considering the international policy to encourage R&D&i activities. Therefore, companies seek to verify to the public administration the final destiny of the resources to R&D&i activities, obtaining fiscal advantages through the overall process. Even though construction is a highly significant industry in developed and developing economies, construction companies invest little in R&D&i compared to other sectors. The link between standardization and innovation remains a significant knowledge gap in the construction management field. In this paper, the international state of affairs regarding standardization and certification of R&D&i activities is described, highlighting the innovative characteristics of the Spanish standards UNE 166000. The results of an analysis of the Spanish construction industry, regarding standardization and certification, are also presented and discussed. This new set of standards could be a reference for other countries, always working jointly with the families ISO 9000 and 14000.El grado de desarrollo de una comunidad es medido, a menudo, por su inversión en investigación, desarrollo e innovación (I+D+i. Los países industrializados asumen la necesidad de investigar nuevas técnicas, materiales y procesos con objeto de alcanzar una mayor eficiencia y sustentabilidad en cada tarea productiva. La normalización y la certificación de la gestión de proyectos o sistemas de I+D+i supone una herramienta adecuada para optimizar los resultados, sobre todo cuando es una política internacional el incentivo de las tareas de I+D+i. Las empresas

  16. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.

    1983-06-01

    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  17. Standardization of detector control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Chikara

    2000-01-01

    Current and future detectors for high-energy and/or nuclear physics experiments require highly intelligent detector control systems. In order to reduce resources, the construction of a standardized template for the control systems based on the commercially available superviser control and data acquisition (SCADA) system has been proposed. The possibility of constructing this template is discussed and several key issues for evaluation of SCADA as the basis for such a template are presented. (author)

  18. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  19. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  20. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bulajić Snežana; Mijačević Zora; Savić-Radovanović Radoslava

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria is still limited, possibly because of the large numbers of genera and species encountered in this group, as well as variances in their resistance spectra. The EFSA considers antibiotic resistances, especially transferable resistances, an important decision criterion for determining a strain's QPS status. There are no approved standards for the phenotypic or genotypic evaluation of antibiotic resistances in food isolat...

  1. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  2. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE CORROSION OF CONSTRUCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCSE

    Results indicate that S355 and S235 steels have comparable corrosion resistance, which are much lower than that of S275. KEY WORDS: Corrosion, Steel, Salt spray, Tafel polarization, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. INTRODUCTION. Steel is an alloy used in construction and mechanical engineering.

  3. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  4. Critical analysis of the publication IEC 332-3(1992) and of the standards document CEI 20-22(1987) concerning specification of CEE directive on building materials and fireextinguishers; Analisi critica della pubblicazione IEC 332-3 (1992) e della norma CEI 20-22 (1987) in relazione alle prescrizioni della direttiva CEE sui prodotti di costruzione per quanto riguarda la propagazione dell`incendio; Critical analysis of the IEE 332-3 (1992) publication and the CEI 20-22 (1987) standard on the UE construction products directive of fire propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farneti, F. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Vercellotti, U. [Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    After a brief recall of the situation of the European international standardization, the paper presents an evaluation on the fire propagation testing techniques. Experimental analysis on zero halogen and PVC cables used in Italian power plants. The fire propagation on cable bunches in the Italian and international configuration is discussed, focusing on self-extintion of the cables tested. After having evidenced the severity, the selectivity and the limits of theactual experimental approach, the paper describes the position of these two standards in comparison with the exposure levels prescribed by UE construction products directive.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  6. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  7. Skid Resistance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  8. 77 FR 72781 - Standards Improvement Project-Phase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... regard to the Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air standards (29 CFR part... focus primarily on OSHA's construction standards. The purpose of this notice is to invite the public, including employers, employees, and employee representatives involved in the construction industry, to...

  9. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  10. Transport behaviour of commercially available 100-Omega standard resistors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schumacher, B

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Several types of commercial 100-Omega resistors can be used with the cryogenic current comparator to maintain the resistance unit, derived from the Quantized Hall Effect (QHE), and to disseminate this unit to laboratory resistance standards. Up...

  11. Construction project management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  12. Improving concrete overlay construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  13. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  14. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  15. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  16. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  17. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  18. Skin Problems in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you use at work. Find out more about construction hazards. To receive copies of this Hazard Alert ... index.html Physician’s Alert: Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Construction Workers – give this Alert to your doctor http:// ...

  19. Commensuration and Legitimacy in Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    This paper claims that commensuration is a form of valuation crucial for the legitimacy of standards. It is thus far poorly understood how standards are constructed in a legitimate manner, let alone the role of commensuration, the micro-process of converting qualities into measurable quantities...... for the purpose of comparison. The aim is to show how commensuration affects legitimacy at different phases of a standard's formation and diffusion. In order to do this, the lens is placed upon the relationship between the commensuration processes and input and output legitimacies. Research on the Active House...... legitimacy in different stages, either technical for the standard's specifications or contextual for the standard's implementation. Based on these findings, the paper offers a model of the commensurative development undergone in order to develop the legitimacy of a standard....

  20. Academic Resistance in the University: Conceptualizing the Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbut, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the phenomenon and concept of "academic resistance." Several aspects are identified: resistance as an integral part of power relations in university education, the pragmatic nature of resistance, and the impossibility of constructing an overarching conception of resistance. The author concludes that researching…

  1. Institutional model for supporting standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, M.O.; Jackson, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Restoring the nuclear option for utilities requires standardized designs. This premise is widely accepted by all parties involved in ALWR development activities. Achieving and maintaining standardization, however, demands new perspectives on the roles and responsibilities for the various commercial organizations involved in nuclear power. Some efforts are needed to define a workable model for a long-term support structure that will allow the benefits of standardization to be realized. The Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC) has developed a strategic plan that lays out the steps necessary to enable the nuclear industry to be in a position to order a new nuclear power plant by the mid 1990's. One of the key elements of the plan is the, ''industry commitment to standardization: through design certification, combined license, first-of-a-kind engineering, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants.'' This commitment is a result of the recognition by utilities of the substantial advantages to standardization. Among these are economic benefits, licensing benefits from being treated as one of a family, sharing risks across a broader ownership group, sharing operating experiences, enhancing public safety, and a more coherent market force. Utilities controlled the construction of the past generation of nuclear units in a largely autonomous fashion procuring equipment and designs from a vendor, engineering services from an architect/engineer, and construction from a construction management firm. This, in addition to forcing the utility to assume virtually all of the risks associated with the project, typically resulted in highly customized designs based on preferences of the individual utility. However, the benefits of standardization can be realized only through cooperative choices and decision making by the utilities and through working as partners with reactor vendors, architect/engineers, and construction firms

  2. Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  3. Beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ''Beyond the Standard Model'' for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e + e - colliders

  4. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  5. 1998 Construction Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the third annual survey of college and university construction in the United States. Finds that almost $5.8 billion worth of construction was completed in 1997, and $6.3 billion will be finished in 1998. Offers information on regional construction activity, profiles of new buildings on campuses, residence hall amenities, and other data.…

  6. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  7. A Duplicate Construction Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  8. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  9. Design and construction work of underground pit for existing light oil tank foundation at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Date, Masanao; Horimi, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Based on the new regulatory standards for commercial power plant reactors enforced in July 2013, Onagawa Nuclear Power Station of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. implemented various safety measure works. One of them was a measure for the existing light oil tank foundation for emergency diesel generators for Unit 2 reactor. In consideration of tornado, external fire, and earthquake resistance, the company implemented the underground pit construction for a light oil tank basement by utilizing the existing oil retaining wall and foundation. This paper reported the outline of the planning, design, and implementation of construction works, which were carried out while securing quality and safety. Upon installation of the underground pit, the company utilized the existing oil retaining wall from the viewpoint of reducing construction costs, shortening time schedule, and reducing environmental burden. As a result of checking bending and axial force, part of these values exceeded the design reference values. So, 3-dimensional shell model was applied, and the simulation results showed sufficient seismic margin. As a measure to secure seismic margin against shear force, Ceramic-Cap-bar construction method was adopted. Upon construction, the company adopted the water jet method, and devised the sequential order of construction. In parallel with the day and night work and tank installation, it constructed the top slab, which secured the time schedule and quality. (A.O.)

  10. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  11. 7 CFR 1755.510 - Construction and assembly unit drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and assembly unit drawings. 1755.510..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.510 Construction and assembly unit drawings. (a) The construction and assembly unit drawings in this section shall be used by borrowers to assist the installer in...

  12. Comment: Risk Allocation Norms of Civil Construction Contracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment discusses risk allocation under Ethiopian construction law and examines risks in civil construction contracts. The comment highlights the gaps in risk allocation norms under the standard format of construction contract that was issued by the Ethiopian Ministry of Work and Urban Development (MoWUD) in 1994 ...

  13. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative to...

  14. Resistance diagnosis and the changing epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, David

    2017-01-01

    Widespread adoption of point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POCRD) reduces ineffective antibiotic use but could increase overall antibiotic use. Indeed, in the context of a standard susceptible-infected epidemiological model with a single antibiotic, POCRD accelerates the rise of resistance in the disease-causing bacterial population. When multiple antibiotics are available, however, POCRD may slow the rise of resistance even as more patients receive antibiotic treatment, belying the conventional wisdom that antibiotics are "exhaustible resources" whose increased use necessarily promotes the rise of resistance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Exploring communication of resistance in cross-sector collaboration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    communication of resistance by meaning negotiations and counter-narratives. It examines these in a case-study from the education area concerning a cross-sector collaborative initiative in a local government that includes stakeholders from the education department, preschool centers, union representatives......, politicians, parents and children. The findings elucidate how communication of resistance both complicates and constructs the organizing of cross-sector collaboration: by constructing various stakeholders as resisters that become a barrier; by negotiating resistance as stakeholders’ diverging meanings...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Analysis and suggestions on standard system for general nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhenglong

    1999-08-01

    The standard system has been analyzed and researched for the general nuclear instruments and propounded following suggestions against the problems in standard's system: seriously adopting the international standards and recommending Chinese standards toward the world; appropriately regularizing the system's frame and the standard's configurations to make it more scientific, perfect and applicable; enhancing the construction of technical and basic standards, promoting the standardization of entire nuclear instruments; replenishing the standards of the testing methods and straightening out the standard's level, further completing the standard's system. In short, all of them are to enhance quality, readability and maneuverability of standards, to exert sufficiently the effects of standards

  18. Standardized Curriculum for General Drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: general drafting I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) introduction to mechanical drawing; (3) lettering; (4) geometric construction; (5) basic computer-assisted design (CAD); (6) orthographic…

  19. TPX tokamak construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.; Kungl, D.; Seidel, P.; Halfast, C.

    1995-01-01

    A construction management contract normally involves the acquisition of a construction management firm to assist in the design, planning, budget conformance, and coordination of the construction effort. In addition the construction management firm acts as an agent in the awarding of lower tier contracts. The TPX Tokamak Construction Management (TCM) approach differs in that the construction management firm is also directly responsible for the assembly and installation of the tokamak including the design and fabrication of all tooling required for assembly. The Systems Integration Support (SIS) contractor is responsible for the architect-engineering design of ancillary systems, such as heating and cooling, buildings, modifications and site improvements, and a variety of electrical requirements, including switchyards and >4kV power distribution. The TCM will be responsible for the procurement of materials and the installation of the ancillary systems, which can either be performed directly by the TCM or subcontracted to a lower tier subcontractor. Assurance that the TPX tokamak is properly assembled and ready for operation when turned over to the operations team is the primary focus of the construction management effort. To accomplish this a disciplined constructability program will be instituted. The constructability effort will involve the effective and timely integration of construction expertise into the planning, component design, and field operations. Although individual component design groups will provide liaison during the machine assembly operations, the construction management team is responsible for assembly

  20. 77 FR 42197 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Structural Steel and Precast Concrete 4.1 26.1 1.7 7.0 258.2 0.725 -23.5 ......... Contractors 25.5 7.0 14.0....0 ......... ......... $5.0 ......... 5.0 14.0 238140 Masonry Contractors 1.1 11.5 0.4 2.3 155.9 0...

  1. 78 FR 77334 - Small Business Size Standards: Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... fluctuations in sales due to economic conditions. Employment data by industry from Economic Census and County... presented the same information to Department of Defense (DoD) contracting personnel at their annual training...

  2. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto

    2010-02-01

    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  3. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  4. Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks and Hollow Tiles with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos; Miñano, Isabel; Aguilar, Miguel Ángel; Ortega, José Marcos; Parra, Carlos; Sánchez, Isidro

    2017-11-30

    In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to recycle the wastes generated by building companies in the construction industry, demolition wastes being the most important in terms of volume. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes in the preparation of precast non-structural concretes. To that purpose, two different percentages (15% and 30%) of natural aggregates were substituted by recycled aggregates in the manufacture of paving blocks and hollow tiles. Dosages used by the company have not been changed by the introduction of recycled aggregate. Precast elements have been tested by means of compressive and flexural strength, water absorption, density, abrasion, and slipping resistance. The results obtained show the possibility of using these wastes at an industrial scale, satisfying the requirements of the Spanish standards for these elements.

  5. Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks and Hollow Tiles with Recycled Aggregate from Construction and Demolition Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing tendency to recycle the wastes generated by building companies in the construction industry, demolition wastes being the most important in terms of volume. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes in the preparation of precast non-structural concretes. To that purpose, two different percentages (15% and 30% of natural aggregates were substituted by recycled aggregates in the manufacture of paving blocks and hollow tiles. Dosages used by the company have not been changed by the introduction of recycled aggregate. Precast elements have been tested by means of compressive and flexural strength, water absorption, density, abrasion, and slipping resistance. The results obtained show the possibility of using these wastes at an industrial scale, satisfying the requirements of the Spanish standards for these elements.

  6. 27 CFR 555.208 - Construction of type 2 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magazines. 555.208 Section 555.208 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Construction of type 2 magazines. A type 2 magazine is a box, trailer, semitrailer, or other mobile facility. (a) Outdoor magazines—(1) General. Outdoor magazines are to be bullet-resistant, fire-resistant...

  7. Architect/Engineer Liability in Construction Contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    contractors. Where the A/E actions or inactions lead a construction contractor down a path where the contractor suffers economic damage, and it can be...standard of the profession in actions brought by third parties for negligence" [Ref. 1, p. 46. :% I1 --. The architect’s liability is tied directly to...services The determination of A-E liability requires answering afffirmatively the following questions: (I) Is the construction modification

  8. 27 CFR 555.210 - Construction of type 4 magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... constructed of masonry, metal-covered wood, fabricated metal, or a combination of these materials. Foundations... posts are used, in lieu of a continuous foundation, the space under the building is to be enclosed with fire-resistant material. The walls and floors are to be constructed of, or covered with, a nonsparking...

  9. Construction time of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, João M.L.; Gallinaro, Bruno; Carajilescov, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The construction time of PWRs is studied considering published data about nuclear power plants in the world. For the 268 PWRs in operation in 2010, the mode of the construction time distribution is around 5–6 years, and 80% of the plants were built in less than 120 months. To circumvent the problem of comparing plants with different size we normalized the construction time to plants with 1 GW. We restricted the analysis to 201 PWRs which suffered less from external factors that were beyond the control of the management from 1965 to 2010. The results showed that the normalized construction time did not increase over the years and nor with the plants’ gross power level. The learning rate of the industry regarding normalized construction times showed a reduction with 95% confidence level of about 0.56±0.07 months for each 10 GW of installed capacity. Over the years the normalized construction time decreased and became more predictable. The data showed that countries with more centralized regulatory, construction and operation environments were able to build PWRs in shorter times. Countries less experienced with the nuclear technology built PWRs in longer times. - Highlights: ► The construction time of PWRs is analyzed based on historical data. ► Different factors affecting construction time are considered in the analyses. ► The normalized construction time of PWRs decreased with time and gross power level. ► Countries with more centralized institutions built PWRs more quickly

  10. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  11. Research into mechanical properties and structure of metals as part of restored construction facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustov Yuriy Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a summarized methodology of the research into small-size pilot metal samples of restored construction facilities. In the article, the co-authors demonstrate an option that provides for the analytical identification of standard characteristic values of mechanical properties, based on initial hardness HRB and conversion of hardness values using the Brinell test. Towards this end, analytical dependence of HB hardness on HRB and HRC is proposed. The numerical identification of the temporary resistance to tensile stress σ в required the pre-setting of the value of the average coefficient of relative elongation. This average coefficient was employed to identify the values of relative elongation and contraction, as well as the yield value of the metal. Standard plasticity and strength values were employed to compile an equation for complex criterion C. This criterion was employed to identify the value of relative uniform elongation and transverse contraction, and both were employed to assess the resistance to tensile stress and fatigue. The optical microscopy method was used to identify the pilot sample of the metal as structural carbon steel having grade C15. Its strength analysis based on the properties of its structural components has proven the identity between the sample metal and the aforementioned steel grade. The method proposed by the co-authors helps to identify the metals of restructured construction facilities on the basis of small-size samples to avoid the collapse of metal structures.

  12. Beyond the Standard Model (1/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.

  13. Beyond the Standard Model (5/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.

  14. Beyond the Standard Model (3/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.

  15. Beyond the Standard Model (2/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.

  16. Beyond the Standard Model (4/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    After a critical discussion of the questions left unanswered by the Standard Model, I will review the main attemps to construct new theories. In particular, I will discuss grand unification, supersymmetry, technicolour, and theories with extra dimensions.

  17. Construction Materials for Coastal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    dominant factor affecting physical properties and filtering performance, three general types of fabric construction are discussed: woven, nonwoven 4 0... absorption and bulk specific gravity (ASTM Standard C97-47 or C127-77), a soundness test (AASHTO T-104-46 or ASTM C88-76) and an abrasion test (Los...Timber 20, AeTU ACT r(Cmi tuo a ,ve, .t Ff n mrery and Idaulfv by block number) This is a comprehensive report describing design properties of materials

  18. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  19. Peculiarities of Clutch Forming Rails and Wheel Block Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiler, V. V.; Galiev, I. I.; Shiler, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The clutch of the wheel and rail is significantly influenced by the design features of the standard wheel pair, which are manifested in the presence of "parasitic" slipping of the wheels along the rails during its movement. The purpose of the presented work is to evaluate new design solutions for wheel sets. The research was carried out using methods of comparative simulation modelling and physical prototyping. A new design of the wheel pair (block wheel pair) is proposed, which features an independent rotation of all surfaces of the wheels in contact with the rails. The block construction of the wheel pair forms open mechanical contours with the track gauge, which completely eliminates the "parasitic" slippage. As a result, in the process of implementing traction or braking forces, the coupling coefficient of the block construction of the wheel pair is significantly higher than that of existing structures. In addition, in the run-out mode, the resistance to movement of the block wheel pair is half as much. All this will allow one to significantly reduce the energy consumption for traction of trains, wear of track elements and crew, and to increase the speed and safety of train traffic.

  20. The niche construction perspective: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Laland, Kevin N; Shuker, David M; Dickins, Thomas E; West, Stuart A

    2014-05-01

    Niche construction refers to the activities of organisms that bring about changes in their environments, many of which are evolutionarily and ecologically consequential. Advocates of niche construction theory (NCT) believe that standard evolutionary theory fails to recognize the full importance of niche construction, and consequently propose a novel view of evolution, in which niche construction and its legacy over time (ecological inheritance) are described as evolutionary processes, equivalent in importance to natural selection. Here, we subject NCT to critical evaluation, in the form of a collaboration between one prominent advocate of NCT, and a team of skeptics. We discuss whether niche construction is an evolutionary process, whether NCT obscures or clarifies how natural selection leads to organismal adaptation, and whether niche construction and natural selection are of equivalent explanatory importance. We also consider whether the literature that promotes NCT overstates the significance of niche construction, whether it is internally coherent, and whether it accurately portrays standard evolutionary theory. Our disagreements reflect a wider dispute within evolutionary theory over whether the neo-Darwinian synthesis is in need of reformulation, as well as different usages of some key terms (e.g., evolutionary process). © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Conformity check of JMTR to new regulatory standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watahiki, Shunsuke; Ide, Hiroshi; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Yamaura, Takayuki; Kaminaga, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    With the lesson learned from the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, also based on the international standards, the 'New regulatory standards for nuclear facilities for research! was enforced by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in December 2013. The main requirements of the new standards are as follows: (1) measures for earthquake, tsunami, and damage from the outside, (2) severity classification, (3) fire protection, (4) flood protection, (5) communication and contacting, (6) measures for the loss of external power supply, (7) monitoring equipment, and (8) expansion prevention of accident that releases a large amounts of radioactive materials. Under the new regulatory standards, it is demanded that the constructions, systems, and equipment with safety functions of the current nuclear facilities should maintain the safety functions in accordance with their importance against the basic ground motions and possible natural phenomena. For the buildings, equipment, and machineries of JMTR nuclear facilities, the severity classification was performed on each of safety function and seismic resistance. Based on the classification results, seismic evaluation and safety analysis were carried out. (A.O.)

  2. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented......, and the increased focus on body care and fitness. The contours of the emerging normal expectations are outlined and discussed in an environmental perspective....

  3. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming....... On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  4. APS beamline standard components handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  5. APS beamline standard components handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction

  6. Space construction technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    Space construction systems made feasible by an operational Space Shuttle are discussed with a view toward assembly, installation and construction support equipment. The level of construction capability will be reflected in the number of launches to accomplish a certain mission, either in terms of the mission time line or on the density of packaging in the Orbiter payload bay. It is noted that the development of construction support equipment in zero-gravity simulations should be the most productive initial activity. Crew EVAs, as well as the beam builder, cherrypicker and power distribution buses are covered in detail.

  7. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  8. Comparisons of selected frame constructions considering effects of rock bursts and earthquakes. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojan, Z.; Lipski, Z.; Raczek, R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for assessing apartment buildings with frames made of reinforced concrete or steel elements situated above coal mines in Upper Silesia are analyzed. Six buildings from 13.5 m to 37.8 m high are analyzed. Methods for design of earthquake-resistant buildings and buildings constructed in areas affected by underground coal mining are compared. Safety standards used in Israel, the FRG, the USSR, Czechoslovakia and Australia are compared to standards used in Poland for buildings in areas affected by underground mining in Upper Silesia. Loads on a building frame during a shock (caused by mining) with an energy of 10/sup 9/ J are analyzed. Force of inertia and bending moment in the building frame is calculated. Investigation results are shown in 3 tables and in a diagram. Recommendations for methods of calculating bending moment in frames of buildings affected by shocks caused by underground coal mining are made. 11 references.

  9. Effect of Environmental Actions on Engineering Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability is a very important parameter for design of the engineering constructions because of influence due to degradation processes in the form of structural steel and reinforcement corrosion caused by the environmental actions within structure lifetime. Those degradation processes are affecting the cross-sectional and structural member resistance and deformation parameters of structure. The paper is focused on the study of the corrosion characteristics of the steel bearing structures of engineering constructions to know corrosion effects on the structural steel and to develop the methodology of design for durability.

  10. Estimation method of the fracture resistance curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Keun; Lee, Kwang Hyeon; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electric Company, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Fracture resistance curves for concerned materials are required in order to perform elastic-plastic fracture mechanical analysis. Fracture resistance curve is built with J-integral values and crack extension values. The objective of this paper is to propose the estimation method of the fracture resistance curve. The estimation method of the fracture resistance curve for the pipe specimen was proposed by the load ratio method from load - displacement data for the standard specimen.

  11. Fire Resistance of Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav; Novotný, Miloslav

    2017-12-01

    Wooden structures are increasingly being used in the construction of residential buildings. A common and often published reason to avoid wooden structures is their insufficient fire resistance, which reduces bearing capacity. For this reason, composite sandwich structures began to be designed to eliminate this drawback, as well as others. Recently, however, the trend is for a return to the original, wood-only variant and a search is underway for new technical means of improving the properties of such structures. Many timber structure technologies are known, but structures made from cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels have been used very often in recent years. CLT panels, also known as X-LAM, are currently gaining popularity in Europe. In the case of CLT panels composed of several layers of boards, they can be said to offer a certain advantage in that after the surface layer of a board has burnt and the subsurface layer has dried, oxygen is not drawn to the unburned wood for further combustion and thus the burning process ceases. CLT panels do not need to be specially modified or coated with fire resistant materials, although they are usually lined with gypsum-fibre fire resistant boards due to guidelines set out in the relevant standards. This paper presents a new method for the assessment of load-bearing perimeter walls fabricated from CLT panels without the use of an inner fire-retardant lining to ensure fire resistance at the level required by European standards (i.e. those harmonized for the Czech construction industry). The calculations were verified through laboratory tests which show that better parameters can be achieved during the classification of structures from the fire resistance point of view. The aim of the article is to utilize the results of assessment and testing by an accredited laboratory in order to demonstrate the possibilities of using CLT panels for the construction of multistorey as well as multi-purpose buildings in the Czech Republic.

  12. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  13. Managing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  14. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddley, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of constructing a radiation shielding plug for use in the roof of the coolant containment vault of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described. The construction allows relative movement of that part of service cables and pipes which are carried by the fixed roof and that part which is carried by the rotatable plug. (U.K.)

  15. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...

  16. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  17. INDOT Construction Inspection Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In the last decade, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has experienced an increase in their construction projects (e.g., INDOTs : construction spending was $789 million in 2006 and increased to $1,081.4 million in 2010); while the le...

  18. Creativity of Junior High School’s Students in Designing Earthquake Resistant Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, D. N.; Kaniawati, I.; Ramalis, T. R.

    2017-09-01

    This research was stimulated by the present the territory of Indonesia is largely an area prone to earthquakes and the issue that human resources and disaster response planning process is still less competent and not optimal. In addition, the construction of houses and public facilities has not been in accordance with earthquake-resistant building standards. This study aims to develop students’ creativity through earthquake resistant building model’s projects. The research method used is descriptive qualitative method. The sample is one of the 7th grades consisting of 32 students in one of the junior high schools, Indonesia. Data was collected using an observation sheets and student worksheet. Results showed that students’ creativity in designing earthquake resistant building models varies greatly and yields new solutions to solve problems.

  19. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  20. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using ‘entre...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity.......The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...

  1. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  2. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control...... is the exercised over a specific area of institutional life through the shaping of individuals’ conduct. We argue that construction, as a coherent sector, first was rendered governable in the 1940s in order to achieve national modernisation. It is shown how the political measures that were based on the exercise...... of disciplinary power also impacted the formation of identities constituting the construction worker as a normalised subject. We then illustrate how construction since the mid-1990s has been shaped by two contrasting governmentalities framing the sector as respectively a resource area, with emphasis on innovation...

  3. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  4. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  5. Construction and analysis of cryptographic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Budaghyan, Lilya

    2015-01-01

    This book covers novel research on construction and analysis of optimal cryptographic functions such as almost perfect nonlinear (APN), almost bent (AB), planar and bent functions. These functions have optimal resistance to linear and/or differential attacks, which are the two most powerful attacks on symmetric cryptosystems. Besides cryptographic applications, these functions are significant in many branches of mathematics and information theory including coding theory, combinatorics, commutative algebra, finite geometry, sequence design and quantum information theory. The author analyzes equ

  6. An Algorithm for Fault-Tree Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm for performing certain parts of the fault tree construction process is described. Its input is a flow sheet of the plant, a piping and instrumentation diagram, or a wiring diagram of the circuits, to be analysed, together with a standard library of component functional and failure mo...

  7. Technical manual: Labour-based road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1997-01-01

    "The purpose of this manual is to provide technical staff from supervisors to engineers with a field reference which in detail explains and prescribes the work methods and technical standards applied when constructing rural roads using labour-based methods in Lao PDR.

  8. Protocol for the building construction process with regard to the implementation trajectory protocols EWN and EUN. Manual for commissioners, contractors, building management offices and energy efficiency standard advisors; Handleiding opnameprotocollen EWN en EUN. Voor opdrachtgevers, aannemers, bouwmanagementbureaus en EPN-adviseurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Duitslandweg 4, Postbus 274, 2410 AG Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In the year 2012 it was foreseen to base the energy label for new buildings on the Energy Efficiency Coefficient (EPC in Dutch). This is a protocol for residential and utility buildings, with the aim to check whether and to what extent buildings were constructed according the EPC and to determine the realized EPC. In order to gain experience with the new protocols and the voluntary ventilation test the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Houses (EWN in Dutch) and the Protocol for the Energy Label for New Utility Buildings (EUN in Dutch) were conducted in 12 newly built housing projects and 5 projects in the utility building sector. With this manual you can realize energy efficient houses and/or utility buildings that meet the standards [Dutch] In het jaar 2012 was voorzien om het nieuwbouwlabel te baseren op de EPC (Energie Prestatie Coefficient). Hiervoor is een opnameprotocol opgesteld voor de woningbouw en de utiliteitsbouw, met als doel te controleren of en in hoeverre conform de EPC is gebouwd en om de gerealiseerde EPC te bepalen. Om ervaring op te doen met de nieuwe opnameprotocollen en de vrijwillige ventilatietoets werden het Opnameprotocol Energielabel Woningen Nieuwbouw (EWN) en Opnameprotocol Energielabel Utiliteitsgebouwen Nieuwbouw (EUN) uitgevoerd bij 12 nieuwbouwprojecten in de woningbouw en 5 projecten in de utiliteitsbouw. Met deze handleiding realiseert u energiezuinige woningen en/of utiliteitsgebouwen die aan de verwachtingen voldoen.

  9. Standard Model, Higgs Boson and What Next?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE | October 2012. GENERAL | ARTICLE. Standard Model is now known to be the basis of almost ALL of known physics except gravity. It is the dynamical theory of electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Standard Model has been constructed by generalizing the century-old electrodynamics of.

  10. Construction in Occupied Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Andrew E.; Azhar, Salman; Khalfan, Malik

    2017-06-01

    Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

  11. Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Eye and Face Protection. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    On March 13, 2015, OSHA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to revise its eye and face protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and construction by updating the references to national consensus standards approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA received no significant objections from commenters and therefore is adopting the amendments as proposed. This final rule updates the references in OSHA's eye and face standards to reflect the most recent edition of the ANSI/International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) eye and face protection standard. It removes the oldest-referenced edition of the same ANSI standard. It also amends other provisions of the construction eye and face protection standard to bring them into alignment with OSHA's general industry and maritime standards.

  12. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following a comp...

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infections – to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the ... unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half ...

  14. Tunable resistance coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  15. Electrical, instrumentation, and control codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranning, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    During recent years numerous documents in the form of codes and standards have been developed and published to provide design, fabrication and construction rules and criteria applicable to instrumentation, control and power distribution facilities for nuclear power plants. The contents of this LTR were prepared by NUS Corporation under Subcontract K5108 and provide a consolidated index and listing of the documents selected for their application to procurement of materials and design of modifications and new construction at the LOFT facility. These codes and standards should be applied together with the National Electrical Code, the ID Engineering Standards and LOFT Specifications to all LOFT instrument and electrical design activities

  16. Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilga, Walter

    2017-01-01

    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein's historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space-time has a discrete spectrum, relative to classical observers in space-time. This description is covariant with respect to (continuous) coordinate transformations and meets the requirement that the spectrum is the same in every inertial system. The construction gives detailed answers to controversial questions, such as the measurement problem, the informational content of the wave function, and the completeness of quantum mechanics.

  17. Social identity in the construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. P.; Karlsen, I. L.; Kines, P.

    2015-01-01

    sites. The organization of work fosters social identification within a crew, resulting in distancing from and social categorization of site management. Social identification influences safety behaviour in the crews, where worksite safety rules may meet resistance. Future safety initiatives at large......The construction industry has one of the highest frequency levels and rates of work-related injuries, yet the evidence for successful attempts to reduce injuries is generally lacking. The motivational and (safety) behavioural implications of social identification and social categorization among...... construction labourer work crews were investigated to ascertain how their interactions are affected by the social structure and organization of work. Semi-structured group interviews and mini interviews during work were carried out with 13 concrete work crews (totalling 53 persons) at five large construction...

  18. Construction of solid waste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Whee; Lee, Kang Moo; Koo, Jun Mo; Jung, In Ha; Lee, Jong Ryeul; Kim, Sung Whan; Bae, Sang Min; Cho, Kang Whon; Sung, Suk Jong

    1989-02-01

    The Solid Waste Form Test Facility (SWFTF) is now construction at DAEDUCK in Korea. In SWFTF, the characteristics of solidified waste products as radiological homogeneity, mechanical and thermal property, water resistance and lechability will be tested and evaluated to meet conditions for long-term storage or final disposal of wastes. The construction of solid waste form test facility has been started with finishing its design of a building and equipments in Sep. 1984, and now building construction is completed. Radioactive gas treatment system, extinguishers, cooling and heating system for the facility, electrical equipments, Master/Slave manipulator, power manipulator, lead glass and C.C.T.V. has also been installed. SWFTF will be established in the beginning of 1990's. At this report, radiation shielding door, nondestructive test of the wall, instrumentation system for the utility supply system and cell lighting system are described. (Author)

  19. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  20. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...