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Sample records for resistance wall ideal

  1. Stability of ideal and resistive modes in cylindrical plasmas with resistive walls and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Xie, H.X.

    1996-01-01

    The stabilization of cylindrical plasmas by resistive walls combined with plasma rotation is analyzed. Perturbations with a single mode rational surface q=m/n in a finitely conducting plasma are treated by the resistive kink dispersion relation of Coppi. The possibilities for stabilization of ideal and resistive instabilities are explored systematically in different regions of parameter space. The study confirms that an ideal instability can be stabilized by a close-fitting wall and a rotation velocity of the order of resistive growth rate. However, the region in parameter space where such stabilization occurs is very small and appears to be difficult to exploit in experiments. The overall conclusion from the cylindrical plasma model is that resistive modes can readily be wall stabilized, whereas complete wall stabilization is hard to achieve for plasmas that are ideally unstable with the wall at infinity. 26 refs, 5 figs

  2. Stabilization of ideal plasma resistive wall modes in cylindrical geometry: The effect of resistive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical model with finite beta having an external resonant ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability has been constructed. This resonant mode has a mode rational surface, where the safety factor q equals m/n, within the plasma. In this model, the perturbed radial magnetic field for the ideal mode is nonzero between the mode rational surface and the wall, even though it must vanish at the mode rational surface. This property of the mode is in common with the toroidal external kink. Results are presented showing that in the parameter range for which this ideal mode is stable with a conducting wall but unstable with the wall at infinity, a resistive wall mode persists. However, in the presence of plasma resistivity in a resistive layer about the mode rational surface, this resistive wall mode can be stabilized by a plasma rotation frequency of order a nominal resistive instability growth rate. Furthermore, the stabilization occurs in a large gap in wall position or beta. It is also shown that for the ideal resonant mode, as well as resistive plasma modes and nonresonant ideal plasma modes, there is a maximum value of plasma rotation above which there is no stability gap. Discussions are presented suggesting that these properties may hold for the toroidal external kink. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  4. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  5. Bloch walls and the non-ideal bose gas spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, S.A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The quasi-particle spectrum of non-ideal Bose gas with domain walls in the condensate is investigated. The existence of such a system is determined from solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation which represent many-soliton systems. The walls which make the condensate non-uniform are responsible for density and velocity fields ρ(x) and υ(x) repectively. In the laboratory, the Bogoliubov spectrum, supposed to be true for an uniform condensate at rest, is changed due to the velocity field to which the quasi-particles are submited. The spectrum in the laboratory frame is obtained by considering the Galileu invariance principle and the interaction energy between the quasi-particle and its medium. The importance in considering the last two facts is illustrated by the analyse of a constant density condensate which moves uniformly in the laboratory. The many-soliton spectrum configuration and structure function are studied by the Monte Carlo method. In an approximation that assumes the quasi-particle to be point like, the condensate can be treated as locally uniform. For each event the position x of a quasi-particle and its momentum in a frame with velocity υ(x) are determined. Thus, by a convenient Galileu transformation the energy spectrum in the laboratory an be obtained. The results show a phonon spectrum which splits in two branches in the high momenta region. In this region the lower energy branch exibiths a point of minimum. Analogies with the He II are explored. (author) [pt

  6. Feedback control of resistive wall modes in the reversed field pinch

    OpenAIRE

    Yadikin, Dimitry

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of unstable current driven MHD modes is present in the re- versed τeld pinch (RFP) conτguration. An ideally conducting wall facing the plasma can stabilize the ideal MHD modes. In the presence of a resistive wall characterized by the wall time τw, fast mode rotation with the frequency exceeding the inverse wall time gives stabilization for resistive MHD modes. The ideal MHD modes in the RFP are non-rotating modes and can not be stabilized by the resistive wall. Instead they are c...

  7. Finite element limit loads for non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do-Jun; Han, Tae-Song; Huh, Nam-Su

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The lower bound bulging factor of thin-walled pipe can be used for thick-walled pipe. • The limit loads are proposed for thick-walled, transition through-wall cracked pipe. • The correction factors are proposed for estimating limit loads of transition cracks. • The limit loads of short transition cracks are similar to those of idealized cracks. - Abstract: The present paper provides plastic limit loads for non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe. These solutions are based on detailed 3-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses which can be used for structural integrity assessment of nuclear piping. To cover a practical range of interest, the geometric variables and loading conditions affecting the plastic limit loads of thick-walled pipe with non-idealized through-wall cracks were systematically varied. In terms of crack orientation, both circumferential and axial through-wall cracks were considered. As for loading conditions, axial tension, global bending, and internal pressure were considered for circumferential cracks, whereas only internal pressure was considered for axial cracks. Furthermore, the values of geometric factor representing shape characteristics of non-idealized through-wall cracks were also systematically varied. In order to provide confidence in the present FE analyses results, plastic limit loads of un-cracked, thick-walled pipe resulting from the present FE analyses were compared with the theoretical solutions. Finally, correction factors to the idealized through-wall crack solutions were developed to determine the plastic limit loads of non-idealized through-wall cracks in thick-walled pipe

  8. Pressure-induced shift of the plasma in a helical system with ideally conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    The global plasma shift is calculated analytically for a helical system with an ideal wall. The derived expression for the plasma shift, incorporating both the finite-β plasma expansion and the opposing reaction of the nearby ideal wall, can be used for interpreting the observable high-β equilibrium effects in LHD and other helical devices. (author)

  9. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Iuliana V; Walker, Louise A; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P

    2015-07-28

    The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. The C. albicans cell wall is the first line of defense against external insults, the site of immune recognition by the host, and an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Its tensile strength is conferred by

  10. COMPARISON OF SENSORS FOR RESISTIVE WALL MODE FEEDBACK CONTROL. MILESTONE No.145 ''CONTAINING PLASMA INSTABILITIES WITH METAL WALLS''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STRAIT, E.J.; CHU, M.S.; GAROFALO, A.M.; LAHAYE, R.J.; OKABAYASHI, M.; REIMERDES, H.; SCOVILLE, J.T.; TURNBULL, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 COMPARISON OF SENSORS FOR RESISTIVE WALL MODE FEEDBACK CONTROL MILESTONE No.145 CONTAINING PLASMA INSTABILITIES WITH METAL WALLS. The most serious instabilities in the tokamak are those described by ideal magneto-hydrodynamic theory. These modes limit the stable operating space of the tokamak. The ideal MHD calculations predict the stable operating space of the tokamak may be approximately doubled when a perfectly conducting metal wall is placed near the plasma boundary, compared to the case with no wall (free boundary). The unstable mode distortions of the plasma column cannot bulge out through a perfectly conducting wall. However, real walls have finite conductivity and when plasmas are operated in the regime between the free boundary stability limit and the perfectly conducting wall limit, the unstable mode encountered in that case the resistive wall mode, can leak out through the metal wall, allowing the mode to keep slowly growing. The slow growth affords the possibility of feedback stabilizing this mode with external coils. DIII-D is making good progress in such feedback stabilization research and in 2002 will use an improved set of mode sensors inside the vacuum vessel and closer to the plasma surface which are expected theoretically to improve the ability to stabilize the resistive wall mode

  11. The Effect of a Pulsed Magnetic Field on Domain Wall Resistance in Magnetic Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, R; Tehranchi, M M; Tabrizi, K Ghafoori [Department of Physics, G.C., Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19838-63113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Phirouznia, A, E-mail: Teranchi@cc.sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    The effect of a pulsed magnetic field on domain wall magnetoresistance for an ideal one-dimensional magnetic nanowire with a domain wall has been investigated. The analysis has been based on the Boltzmann transport equation, within the relaxation time approximation. The results indicate that the domain wall resistance increase when enhancing the magnetic field. The evaluation of local magnetization has been considered in the presence of a pulsed magnetic field. The time evaluation of the magnetization also has an effect on the domain wall resistance. The resistance depends on the contribution of the Zeeman and exchange interactions.

  12. Aspect Ratio Scaling of Ideal No-wall Stability Limits in High Bootstrap Fraction Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stutman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments in the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] have achieved normalized beta values twice the conventional tokamak limit at low internal inductance and with significant bootstrap current. These experimental results have motivated a computational re-examination of the plasma aspect ratio dependence of ideal no-wall magnetohydrodynamic stability limits. These calculations find that the profile-optimized no-wall stability limit in high bootstrap fraction regimes is well described by a nearly aspect ratio invariant normalized beta parameter utilizing the total magnetic field energy density inside the plasma. However, the scaling of normalized beta with internal inductance is found to be strongly aspect ratio dependent at sufficiently low aspect ratio. These calculations and detailed stability analyses of experimental equilibria indicate that the nonrotating plasma no-wall stability limit has been exceeded by as much as 30% in NSTX in a high bootstrap fraction regime

  13. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  14. Stabilization of pressure-driven external modes in tokamaks with a resistive wall and toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.; Bondeson, A.

    1994-01-01

    In recent work we have shown that it is possible to completely stabilize low n, pressure-driven external modes in tokamaks by the combined effect of resistive walls and toroidal plasma rotation. We have used numerical computation to study the wall stabilization in toroidal geometry. The spectral codes MARS and NOVA have been modified to include a resistive shell in the vacuum region surrounding the plasma. Rigid toroidal rotation was modeled by making the resistive shell rotate with an externally imposed frequency ω rot while the equilibrium was static. The plasma was treated as ideally conducting and ω rot was some fraction of the sound frequency. Furthermore, the time-constant of the resistive wall, τ ω , was taken much larger than any ideal-MHD timescale. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs

  15. Resistive Wall Mode Stability and Control in the Reversed Field Pinch

    OpenAIRE

    Yadikin, Dmitriy

    2006-01-01

    Control of MHD instabilities using a conducting wall together with external magnetic fields is an important route to improved performance and reliability in fusion devices. Active control of MHD modes is of interest for both the Advanced Tokamak and the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configurations. A wide range of unstable, current driven MHD modes is present in the RFP. An ideally conducting wall facing the plasma can in principle provide stabilization to these modes. However, a real, resistive...

  16. Theoretical axial wall angulation for rotational resistance form in an experimental-fixed partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, John Francis; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul Isidro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long base lengths of a fixed partial denture (FPD) to rotational resistance with variation of vertical wall angulation. Trigonometric calculations were done to determine the maximum wall angle needed to resist rotational displacement of an experimental-FPD model in 2-dimensional plane. The maximum wall angle calculation determines the greatest taper that resists rotation. Two different axes of rotation were used to test this model with five vertical abutment heights of 3-, 3.5-, 4-, 4.5-, and 5-mm. The two rotational axes were located on the mesial-side of the anterior abutment and the distal-side of the posterior abutment. Rotation of the FPD around the anterior axis was counter-clockwise, Posterior-Anterior (P-A) and clockwise, Anterior-Posterior (A-P) around the distal axis in the sagittal plane. Low levels of vertical wall taper, ≤ 10-degrees, were needed to resist rotational displacement in all wall height categories; 2-to-6-degrees is generally considered ideal, with 7-to-10-degrees as favorable to the long axis of the abutment. Rotation around both axes demonstrated that two axial walls of the FPD resisted rotational displacement in each direction. In addition, uneven abutment height combinations required the lowest wall angulations to achieve resistance in this study. The vertical height and angulation of FPD abutments, two rotational axes, and the long base lengths all play a role in FPD resistance form.

  17. Hemodynamic analysis in an idealized artery tree: differences in wall shear stress between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared C Weddell

    Full Text Available Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.

  18. An innovative method for ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, S.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced asymptotic matching method of ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis in tokamaks is reported. A solution method for the two dimensional Newcomb equation, a dispersion relation for an unstable ideal MHD mode in tokamaks and a new scheme for solving resistive MHD inner layer equations as an initial value problem are reported. (author)

  19. An innovative method for ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, S.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced asymptotic matching method of ideal and resistive MHD stability analysis in tokamak is reported. The report explains a solution method of two-dimensional Newcomb equation, dispersion relation for an unstable ideal MHD mode in tokamak, and a new scheme for solving resistive MHD inner layer equations as an initial-value problem. (author)

  20. Resistive Wall Mode Stabilization Studies at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effort to understand the physics of the resistive wall mode (RWM) and develop methods to control this magnetohydrodynamic mode to allow achievement of higher pressure in advanced tokamak plasmas has been an example of successful multi-institutional collaboration at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility in San Diego, California. DIII-D research in this area has produced several advances and breakthroughs following a coordinated research plan involving a sequence of measurements, development of new analysis tools, and the installation of new diagnostic and feedback stabilization hardware: Suppression of the RWM by active magnetic feedback has been demonstrated using the DIII-D six-element error field correction coil, rotational stabilization of the RWM has been demonstrated and sustained for all values of the plasma pressure from the no-wall to the ideal-wall stability limits, improved RWM feedback stabilization has been shown using a new set of 12 internal control coils, and newly developed models of feedback have shown good agreement with the measurements. By so doing, the DIII-D work on RWM stabilization has become a cornerstone of the long-term advanced tokamak program and is having impact on the world fusion program. Presently both ITER and FIRE are including plans for RWM stabilization in their programs

  1. Stabilization of the external kink and control of the resistive wall mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.; Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    One promising approach to maintaining stability of high beta tokamak plasmas is the use of a conducting wall near the plasma to stabilize low-n ideal MHD instabilities. However, with a resistive wall, either plasma rotation or active feedback control is required to stabilize the more slowly growing resistive wall modes (RWMs). Experiments in the DIII-D, PBHX-M, and HBT-EP tokamaks have demonstrated that plasmas with a nearby conducting wall can remain stable to the n = 1 ideal external kink above the beta limit predicted with the wall at infinity, with durations in DIII-D up to 30 times τ w , the resistive wall time constant. More recently, detailed, reproducible observation of the n = 1 RWM has been possible in DIII-D plasmas above the no-wall beta limit. The DIII-D measurements confirm characteristics common to several RWM theories. The mode is destabilized as the plasma rotation at the q = 3 surface decreases below a critical frequency of 1 to 7 kHz. The measured mode growth times of 2 to 8 ms agree with measurements and numerical calculations of the dominant DIII-D vessel eigenmode time constants, τ w . From its onset, the RWM has little or no toroidal rotation and rapidly reduces the plasma rotation to zero. Both DIII-D and HBT-EP have adopted the smart shell concept as an initial approach to control of these slowly growing RWMs; external coils are controlled by a feedback loop designed to make the resistive wall appear perfectly conducting by maintaining a net zero radial field at the wall. Initial experiment results from DIII-D have yielded encouraging results

  2. Resistive wall mode control code maturity: progress and specific examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yueqiang; Chapman, I T; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J; Hender, T C [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Chu, M S; Garofalo, A M; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Guo, W F [ASIPP Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Villone, F; Ambrosino, G [ENEA/CREATE, DAEIMI, Universita di Cassino, Via di Biasio 43, Cassino (France) (Italy); Albanese, R [ENEA/CREATE, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Via Claudio 21, Napoli (Italy); Baruzzo, M; Bolzonella, T; Marchiori, G; Paccagnella, R [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova, 35127 (Italy); Lanctot, M J [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); In, Y [FAR-TECH, Inc., 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA (United States); Okabayashi, M, E-mail: yueqiang.liu@ccfe.ac.u [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Two issues of the resistive wall mode (RWM) control code maturity are addressed: the inclusion of advanced mode damping physics beyond the ideal MHD description, and the possibility of taking into account the influence of 3D features of the conducting structures on the mode stability and control. Examples of formulations and computational results are given, using the MARS-F/K codes and the CarMa code. The MARS-K calculations for a DIII-D plasma shows that the fast ion contributions, which can give additional drift kinetic stabilization in the perturbative approach, also drive an extra unstable branch of mode in the self-consistent kinetic modelling. The CarMa modelling for the ITER steady state advanced plasmas shows about 20% reduction in the RWM growth rate by the volumetric blanket modules. The multi-mode analysis predicts a weak interaction between the n = 0 and the n = 1 RWMs, due to the 3D ITER walls. The CarMa code is also successfully applied to model the realistic feedback experiments in RFX.

  3. Individual domain wall resistance in submicron ferromagnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneau, R; Warin, P; Attané, J P; Petej, I; Beigné, C; Fermon, C; Klein, O; Marty, A; Ott, F; Samson, Y; Viret, M

    2002-04-15

    The resistance generated by individual domain walls is measured in a FePd nanostructure. Combining transport and magnetic imaging measurements, the intrinsic domain wall resistance is quantified. It is found positive and of a magnitude consistent with that predicted by models based on spin scattering effects within the walls. This magnetoresistance at a nanometer scale allows a direct counting of the number of walls inside the nanostructure. The effect is then used to measure changes in the magnetic configuration of submicron stripes under application of a magnetic field.

  4. An improved method to evaluate the ideal no-wall beta limit from resonant field amplification measurements in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yueqiang; Chapman, I T; Saarelma, S; Gryaznevich, M P; Hender, T C; Howell, D F, E-mail: yueqiang.liu@ukaea.org.u [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Modelling the low-n, low frequency resonant field amplification (RFA) effects for JET plasmas, using the MHD code MARS-F, offers explanations to one of the recent observations made in experiments, namely a mismatch between the measured RFA threshold and the predicted no-wall beta limit according to ideal MHD calculations. The mismatch is minimized by applying a new way of determining the RFA threshold, based on evaluating the logarithmic derivative of the RFA amplitude as a function of the normalized plasma pressure. This improved method is shown, at least in theory, to be robust in predicting the no-wall beta limit for JET plasmas.

  5. Role of the plant cell wall in gravity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Gravity resistance, mechanical resistance to the gravitational force, is a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. The cell wall is responsible for the final step of gravity resistance. The gravity signal increases the rigidity of the cell wall via the accumulation of its constituents, polymerization of certain matrix polysaccharides due to the suppression of breakdown, stimulation of cross-link formation, and modifications to the wall environment, in a wide range of situations from microgravity in space to hypergravity. Plants thus develop a tough body to resist the gravitational force via an increase in cell wall rigidity and the modification of growth anisotropy. The development of gravity resistance mechanisms has played an important role in the acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses and the evolution of land plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond ideal magnetohydrodynamics: resistive, reactive and relativistic plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N.; Dionysopoulou, K.; Hawke, I.; Comer, G. L.

    2017-06-01

    We develop a new framework for the modelling of charged fluid dynamics in general relativity. The model, which builds on a recently developed variational multi-fluid framework for dissipative fluids, accounts for relevant effects like the inertia of both charge currents and heat and, for mature systems, the decoupling of superfluid components. We discuss how the model compares to standard relativistic magnetohydronamics and consider the connection between the fluid dynamics, the microphysics and the underlying equation of state. As illustrations of the formalism, we consider three distinct two-fluid models describing (i) an Ohm’s law for resistive charged flows, (ii) a relativistic heat equation, and (iii) an equation representing the momentum of a decoupled superfluid component. As a more complex example, we also formulate a three-fluid model which demonstrates the thermo-electric effect. The new framework allows us to model neutron stars (and related systems) at a hierarchy of increasingly complex levels, and should enable us to make progress on a range of exciting problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  7. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  8. Resistive Wall Growth Rate Measurements in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab

    2016-10-05

    Impedance could represent a limitation of running high intensity beams in the Fermilab recycler. With high intensity upgrades foreseen, it is important to quantify the impedance. To do this,studies have been performed measuring the growth rate of presumably the resistive wall instability. The growth rates at varying intensities and chromaticities are shown. The measured growth rates are compared to ones calculated with the resistive wall impedance.

  9. High-n ideal and resistive shear Alfven waves in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.; Chance, M.S.

    1984-05-01

    Ideal and resistive MHD equations for the shear Alfven waves are studied in a low-β toroidal model by employing the high-n ballooning formalism. The ion sound effects are neglected. For an infinite shear slab, the ideal MHD model gives rise to a continuous spectrum of real frequencies and discrete eigenmodes (Alfven-Landau modes) with complex frequencies. With toroidal coupling effects due to nonuniform toroidal magnetic field, the continuum is broken up into small continuum bands and new discrete toroidal eigenmodes can exist inside the continuum gaps. Unstable ballooning eigenmodes are also introduced by the bad curvature when β > β/sub c/. The resistivity (n) can be considered perturbatively for the ideal modes. In addition, four branches of resistive modes are induced by the resistivity: (1) Resistive entropy modes which are stable (Δ' < 0) with frequencies approaching zero as n/sup 3/5/, (3) Resistive periodic shear Alfven waves which approach the finite frequency end points of the continuum bands and n/sup 1/2, and (4) Resistive ballooning modes which are purely growing with growth rate proportional to eta/sup 1/3/β/sup 2/3/ as eta → O and β → O

  10. Experimental studies of tearing mode and resistive wall mode dynamics in the reversed field pinch configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmberg, Jenny-Ann

    2003-06-01

    It is relatively straightforward to establish equilibrium in magnetically confined plasmas, but the plasma is frequently susceptible to a variety of instabilities that are driven by the free energy in the magnetic field or in the pressure gradient. These unstable modes exhibit effects that affect the particle, momentum and heat confinement properties of the configuration. Studies of the dynamics of several of the most important modes are the subject of this thesis. The studies are carried out on plasmas in the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration. One phenomenon commonly observed in RFPs is mode wall locking. The localized nature of these phase- and wall locked structures results in localized power loads on the wall which are detrimental for confinement. A detailed study of the wall locked mode phenomenon is performed based on magnetic measurements from three RFP devices. The two possible mechanisms for wall locking are investigated. Locking as a result of tearing modes interacting with a static field error and locking due to the presence of a non-ideal boundary. The characteristics of the wall locked mode are qualitatively similar in a device with a conducting shell system (TPE-RX) compared to a device with a resistive shell (Extrap T2). A theoretical model is used for evaluating the threshold values for wall locking due to eddy currents in the vacuum vessel in these devices. A good correlation with experiment is observed for the conducting shell device. The possibility of successfully sustaining discharges in a resistive shell RFP is introduced in the recently rebuilt device Extrap T2R. Fast spontaneous mode rotation is observed, resulting in low magnetic fluctuations, low loop voltage and improved confinement. Wall locking is rarely observed. The low tearing mode amplitudes allow for the theoretically predicted internal non-resonant on-axis resistive wall modes to be observed. These modes have not previously been distinguished due to the formation of wall

  11. Pfirsch-Tasso versus standard approaches in the plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to theoretical description of plasma stability in toroidal fusion systems with a resistive wall. Its aim is elimination of contradictions between the models recently developed for the resistive wall mode analysis and the Pfirsch-Tasso approach originated from the paper published in 1971 [D. Pfirsch and H. Tasso, Nucl. Fusion 11, 259 (1971)]. The main relations have been given there without detailed proofs. Here, a missing chain of derivations is restored and earlier unknown limitations that restrict the applicability of the Pfirsch-Tasso energy principle are established. Its replacement valid in a wider area is proposed. The new result is free from the constraints implicitly imposed in the Pfirsch-Tasso procedure and can be used with any plasma model (not necessarily ideal) and for arbitrary perturbations. The proposed extensions allow applications for analysis of the rotational stabilization and optimization of the ITER scenarios.

  12. Stabilization of the Resistive Wall Mode and Error Field Reduction by a Rotating Conducting Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    The hypothesis that the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) can be stabilized by high-speed differentially-rotating conducting walls is tested in a linear device. This geometry allows the use of cylindrical solid metal walls, whereas a torus would require a flowing liquid metal. Experiments over the past year have for the first time explored RWM stability with a rotating copper wall capable of achieving speeds (rΩw) of up to 280 km/h, equivalent to a magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) of 5. The main results are: 1) Wall rotation increases the stability window of the RWM, allowing ~ 25% more plasma current (Ip) at Rm = 5 while maintaining MHD stability. 2) Error field reduction below a critical value allows the observation of initial mode rotation, followed by braking, wall-locking, and subsequent faster growth. 3) Locking is found to depend on the direction of wall rotation (Ω̂w) with respect to the intrinsic plasma rotation, with locking to both the static wall (vacuum vessel) and rotating wall observed. Additionally, indirect effects on RWM stability are observed via the effect of wall rotation on device error fields. Wall rotation shields locking error fields, which reduces the braking torque and inhibits mode-locking. The linear superposition of error fields from guide field (Bz) solenoid misalignments and current-carrying leads is also shown to break symmetry in Ω̂w , with one direction causing stronger error fields and earlier locking irrespective of plasma flow. Vacuum field measurements further show that rotation decreases the error field penetration time and advects the field to a different orientation, as predicted by theory. Experiments are conducted on the Rotating Wall Machine, a 1.2 m long and 16 cm diameter screw-pinch with Bz ~ 500 G, where hollow-cathode injectors are biased to source up to 7 kA of Ip, exciting current-driven RWMs. MHD activity is measured through 120 edge Br, Bθ, Bz probes as well as internal Bdot, Langmuir and Mach probes. RWM

  13. Some axisymmetric equilibria for certain ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics with incompressible flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Moawad

    Full Text Available In this paper, the equilibrium properties of some ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are investigated. The governing equations are taken in the steady state for parallel and non-parallel flow to magnetic filed. The governing equations are reduced to Bernoulli-Grad-Shafranov system. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is studied. Several nonlinear equilibria of the governing equations are obtained with aid of constructed constraints. The obtained results cover several previously configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables. The possibility of applying the obtained results to magnetic confinement devices are discussed. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics, Axisymmetric plasma, Resistivity, Incompressible flows, Exact equilibria, Magnetic confinement devices

  14. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Goossens, Marcel, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences.

  15. Robust control of resistive wall modes using pseudospectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempf, M; Merkel, P; Strumberger, E; Tichmann, C; Guenter, S

    2009-01-01

    A novel methodology to design robust feedback controllers for the stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in tokamaks is presented. A linear state space model is used that describes the system composed of the plasma, the resistive wall, the active coils and the magnetic field sensors. The full three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the wall and the coils is taken into account. The control system is represented by a parametrized matrix whose robust stability properties are optimized under variations of the parameters. To make the optimization process feasible, a reduced state space model is constructed by means of a novel technique involving an orthogonal projection. The orthogonality is essential to the robust stability concept used. The latter is based upon the idea of matrix pseudospectra and therefore accounts for the sensitivity of eigenvalues. Furthermore, the transient growth of perturbations is investigated. Namely, in some theoretically stable linear systems, initial perturbations can grow by large factors before they eventually decay, rendering them practically unstable. A detailed analysis of a simple, ITER-like test case provides the following general, conceptual insights into the RWM stabilization problem: (i) it is important to consider not only the eigenvalues themselves, but also their sensitivity, (ii) transient amplification might be an issue requiring consideration and (iii) the transient peak can be substantially reduced by a careful choice of the optimization objective and the sensor configuration.

  16. Thioridazine affects transcription of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mette; Højland, Dorte Heidi; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2011-01-01

    have previously shown that the expression of some resistance genes is abolished after treatment with thioridazine and oxacillin. To further understand the mechanism underlying the reversal of resistance, we tested the expression of genes involved in antibiotic resistance and cell wall biosynthesis...... reversal of resistance by thioridazine relies on decreased expression of specific genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis....

  17. Measuring Resistive Wall Mode Stability in Real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. M.; Lanctot, M. J.; Navratil, G. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Strait, E. J.

    2009-11-01

    Measurements of the plasma response to externally applied, low-n magnetic fields can be used to determine the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability of the plasma equilibrium. Such a method, if implemented as a real-time algorithm, can be used to gate error field correction, profile control, and RWM feedback control algorithms, enabling operation close to the no-wall stability limit. In addition, the stability estimate can be used to directly update parameters in an advanced RWM controller as the plasma evolves. We have developed an efficient scheme that uses an external field rotating at a single fixed frequency. Because only one frequency is applied, the plasma response can be calculated from measurements by Fourier-analyzing the measurements at only the applied frequency and subtracting the known vacuum pickup due to the control coils. This single-frequency, Fourier-domain analysis uses a small number of arithmetical operations, which is a requisite for real-time implementation.

  18. Resistive-wall wake and impedance for nonultrarelativistic beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Zimmermann

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The usual formulas for the resistive-wall wake field are derived considering ultrarelativistic beams, traveling at the speed of light. This simplifies the calculation, and it leads to a cancellation between electric and magnetic fields. However, for proton beams below 10 GeV and for many heavy-ion beams, the velocities may significantly differ from the speed of light. In this paper, we compute the longitudinal and transverse wake fields for velocities smaller than c and examine under which conditions nonrelativistic effects become important. We illustrate our results by a few examples.

  19. Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Q.

    2002-01-01

    Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)

  20. Effects of centrifugal modification of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium on resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, J.; Aiba, N.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Toroidal rotation effects are self-consistently taken into account not only in the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis but also in the equilibrium calculation. The MHD equilibrium computation is affected by centrifugal force due to the toroidal rotation. To study the toroidal rotation effects on resistive wall modes (RWMs), a new code has been developed. The RWMaC modules, which solve the electromagnetic dynamics in vacuum and the resistive wall, have been implemented in the MINERVA code, which solves the Frieman–Rotenberg equation that describes the linear ideal MHD dynamics in a rotating plasma. It is shown that modification of MHD equilibrium by the centrifugal force significantly reduces growth rates of RWMs with fast rotation in the order of M 2  = 0.1 where M is the Mach number. Moreover, it can open a stable window which does not exist under the assumption that the rotation affects only the linear dynamics. The rotation modifies the equilibrium pressure gradient and current density profiles, which results in the change of potential energy including rotational effects. (paper)

  1. Resistance of Membrane Retrofit Concrete Masonry Walls to Lateral Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    of wall with no openings α Wall support degree of fixity β Ratio of wall curvature Bw Factor for opening in wall c Radius of curvature Δ wall...recognizing all of the relevant design variables (Yokel and Dikkers 1971). Design variables such as loading geometry, end fixity , wall stiffness, and...bottom interfaces. The last assumption is made to help develop the necessary equations for wall failure with varying degrees of end fixity . Although

  2. Resistive Wall Instability in the NLC Main Damping Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    We study transverse coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance in the NLC Main Damping Rings. We compare the growth rates of the different modes predicted by a simple theory using a simplified lattice model with the results of a detailed simulation that includes variation of the beta functions and the actual fill structure of the machine. We find that the results of the analytical calculations are in reasonable agreement with the simulations. We include a simple model of a bunch-by-bunch feedback system in the simulation to show that the instabilities can be damped by a feedback system having parameters that are realistic, and possibly conservative. The noise level on the feedback system pick-up must be low, to avoid driving random bunch-to-bunch jitter above the specified limit of 10 percent of the vertical beam size

  3. Binding of paraquat to cell walls of paraquat resistant and susceptible biotypes of Hordeum glaucum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, H.M.; Preston, C.; Powles, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Paraquat is a widely used, non-selective, light activated contact herbicide acting as a photosystem electron acceptor. Resistance to paraquat in weed species has occurred in Australia and world-wide following extensive use of this herbicide. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat in 'Hordeum glaucum' is correlated with reduced herbicide translocation and may be due to sequestration of herbicide away from its site of action by either binding to cell walls or other means. We measured paraquat binding to a cell wall fraction in resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum to determine whether differences in binding of paraquat to cell walls could explain herbicide resistance. The cell wall fraction was isolated from leaves of resistant and susceptible biotypes and incubated with 14 C-labelled paraquat. Of the total paraquat - absorbed by a cell wall preparation, about 80% remains strongly bind to the cell wall and doesn't readily exchange with solution in the absence of divalent cations. Divalent cations (Ca 2+ ,putrescine and paraquat) can competitively exchange for paraquat tightly bound to the cell wall. From kinetic experiments it seems that there are two types of binding sites in the cell wall with different affinities for paraquat. No significant differences between cell wall, characteristics of resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum have been found in any of our experiments. Therefore, increased binding of paraquat to the cell wall appears not to be a mechanism for exclusion of paraquat in resistant biotype

  4. A self-consistent nonlinear theory of resistive-wall instability in a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    A self-consistent nonlinear theory of resistive-wall instability is developed for a relativistic electron beam propagating through a grounded cylindrical resistive tube. The theory is based on the assumption that the frequency of the resistive-wall instability is lower than the cutoff frequency of the waveguide. The theory is concentrated on study of the beam current modulation directly related to the resistive-wall klystron, in which a relativistic electron beam is modulated at the first cavity and propagates downstream through the resistive wall. Because of the self-excitation of the space charge waves by the resistive-wall instability, a highly nonlinear current modulation of the electron beam is accomplished as the beam propagates downstream. A partial integrodifferential equation is obtained in terms of the initial energy modulation (ε), the self-field effects (h), and the resistive-wall effects (κ). Analytically investigating the partial integrodifferential equation, a scaling law of the propagation distance z m at which the maximum current modulation occurs is obtained. It is found in general that the self-field effects dominate over the resistive-wall effects at the beginning of the propagation. As the beam propagates farther downstream, the resistive-wall effects dominate. Because of a relatively large growth rate of the instability, the required tube length of the klystron is short for most applications

  5. Analytical modelling of resistive wall mode stabilization by rotation in toroidal tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C J; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J

    2011-01-01

    Stabilization of the resitive wall mode (RWM) may allow fusion power to be doubled for a given magnetic field in advanced tokamak operation. Experimental evidence from DIII-D and other machines suggests that plasma rotation can stabilize the RWM. Several authors (Finn 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 3782, Bondeson and Xie 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2081) have constructed analytical cylindrical models for the RWM, but these do not deal with toroidal effects. The framework of Connor et al (1988 Phys. Fluids 31 577) is used to develop ideal plasma analytic models with toroidicity included. Stepped pressure profiles and careful ordering of terms are used to simplify the analysis. First, a current driven kink mode model is developed and a dispersion relation for arbitrary current profile is calculated. Second, the external pressure driven kink mode is similarly investigated as the most important RWM arises from this mode. Using this latter model it is found that the RWM is stabilized by Alfven continuum damping with rotation levels similar to those seen in experiments. An expression for the stability of the external kink mode for more general current profiles and a resistive wall is derived in the appendix.

  6. The resistive wall mode and feedback control physics design in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment has been designed to investigate the physics of ST global mode stabilization. NSTX has R=0.86 m, a 0 p i . Sudden beta collapses have been correlated to violation of the n=1 ideal MHD beta limit using time-evolving EFIT reconstructions of experimental discharges. The resistive wall mode (RWM) was observed in experiments maximizing plasma coupling to the stabilizing conducting plates. A large rotation damping rate of -300 kHz/s was observed in RWM discharges in contrast to -75 kHz/s for plasmas exhibiting n=2 and 3 rotating modes. The computed RWM perturbed field structure from experimental equilibria was input to the VALEN code and the computed n=1 mode growth time of 4.6 ms agrees well with the experimental value of 5 ms. Increased beta improves wall coupling, and passive stabilization of an equilibrium with normalized beta of 5.2 and pressure peaking factor of 2.2 yields a growth time of 23.5 ms. This plasma would be completely stabilized by a proposed global instability feedback system. (author)

  7. Numerical Study of Equilibrium, Stability, and Advanced Resistive Wall Mode Feedback Algorithms on KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuro-Hopkins, Oksana; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bialek, J. M.; Park, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; You, K.-I.; Glasser, A. H.; Lao, L. L.

    2007-11-01

    Stability to ideal MHD kink/ballooning modes and the resistive wall mode (RWM) is investigated for the KSTAR tokamak. Free-boundary equilibria that comply with magnetic field coil current constraints are computed for monotonic and reversed shear safety factor profiles and H-mode tokamak pressure profiles. Advanced tokamak operation at moderate to low plasma internal inductance shows that a factor of two improvement in the plasma beta limit over the no-wall beta limit is possible for toroidal mode number of unity. The KSTAR conducting structure, passive stabilizers, and in-vessel control coils are modeled by the VALEN-3D code and the active RWM stabilization performance of the device is evaluated using both standard and advanced feedback algorithms. Steady-state power and voltage requirements for the system are estimated based on the expected noise on the RWM sensor signals. Using NSTX experimental RWM sensors noise data as input, a reduced VALEN state-space LQG controller is designed to realistically assess KSTAR stabilization system performance.

  8. Optimal Control Techniques for ResistiveWall Modes in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Mitchell Dobbs Pearson

    Tokamaks can excite kink modes that can lock or nearly lock to the vacuum vessel wall, and whose rotation frequencies and growth rates vary in time but are generally inversely proportional to the magnetic flux diffusion time of the vacuum vessel wall. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability is pressure limiting in tokamaks and is called the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM). Future tokamaks that are expected to operate as fusion reactors will be required to maximize plasma pressure in order to maximize fusion performance. The DIII-D tokamak is equipped with electromagnetic control coils, both inside and outside of its vacuum vessel, which create magnetic fields that are small by comparison to the machine's equilibrium field but are able to dynamically counteract the RWM. Presently for RWM feedback, DIII-D uses its interior control coils using a classical proportional gain only controller to achieve high plasma pressure. Future advanced tokamak designs will not likely have the luxury of interior control coils and a proportional gain algorithm is not expected to be effective with external control coils. The computer code VALEN was designed to calculate the performance of an MHD feedback control system in an arbitrary geometry. VALEN models the perturbed magnetic field from a single MHD instability and its interaction with surrounding conducting structures using a finite element approach. A linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control, or H 2 optimal control, algorithm based on the VALEN model for RWM feedback was developed for use with DIII-D's external control coil set. The algorithm is implemented on a platform that combines a graphics processing unit (GPU) for real-time control computation with low latency digital input/output control hardware and operates in parallel with the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS). Simulations and experiments showed that modern control techniques performed better, using 77% less current, than classical techniques when using coils external to

  9. Analytical 1D models of the wall thermal resistance of rectangular minichannels applied in heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński Witold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents four 1-dimensional models of thermal resistance of walls in a heat exchanger with rectangular minichannels. The first model is the simplest one, with a single wall separating two fluids. The second model of the so called equivalent wall takes into account total volume of intermediate walls between layers of minichannels and of side walls of minichannels. The next two more complicated models take separately into account thermal resistance of these walls. In these two models side walls are treated as fins. The results of models comparison are presented. It is shown that thermal resistance may be neglected for metal walls but it should be taken into account for the walls made of plastics. For the case of non-neglected wall thermal resistance the optimum wall thickness was derived. Minichannel heat exchangers made of plastic are larger than those built of metal, but are significantly cheaper. It makes possible to use of such exchangers in inexpensive microscale ORC installations.

  10. Locked modes and plasma-wall interaction in a reversed-field pinch with a resistive shell and carbon first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.; Bergsaaker, H.; Brunsell, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Extrap-T2 reversed-field pinch has concluded operation in the OHTE RFP configuration with a resistive shell. This paper summarizes our observations and conclusions regarding wall-locked modes, dynamo activity and plasma-wall interaction with a resistive shell and graphite first wall

  11. Locked modes and plasma-wall interaction in a reserved-field pinch with a resistive shell and carbon first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.; Bergsaaker, H.; Brunsell, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Extrap-T2 reversed-field pinch has concluded operation in the OHTE RFP configuration with a resistive shell. This paper summarizes our observations and conclusions regarding wall-locked modes, dynamo activity and plasma-wall interaction with a resistive shell and graphite first wall

  12. Positional stability of field-reversed-configurations in the presence of resistive walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, N., E-mail: nrath@trialphanenergy.com; Onofri, M.; Barnes, D. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688-7010 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We show that in a field-reversed-configuration, the plasma is unstable to either transverse or axial rigid displacement, but never to both. Driving forces are found to be parallel to the direction of displacement with no orthogonal components. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the properties of a resistive wall (geometry and resistivity) in the vicinity of the plasma do not affect whether the plasma is stable or unstable, but in the case of an unstable system determine the instability growth rate. Depending on the properties of the wall, the instability growth is dominated by plasma inertia (and not affected by wall resistivity) or dominated by ohmic dissipation of wall eddy currents (and thus proportional to the wall resistivity).

  13. Development of LRFD resistance factors for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Bridge approach embankments and many other : transportation-related applications make use of : reinforced earth retaining structures. Mechanically : Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are designed under : the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) : meth...

  14. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar.

  15. Impairment of Cellulose Synthases Required for Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Wall Formation Enhances Disease Resistance[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Blanco, Camilo; Feng, Dong Xin; Hu, Jian; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Deslandes, Laurent; Llorente, Francisco; Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Keller, Harald; Barlet, Xavier; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Anderson, Lisa K.; Somerville, Shauna; Marco, Yves; Molina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) contained in plasma membrane–localized complexes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three types of CESA subunits (CESA4/IRREGULAR XYLEM5 [IRX5], CESA7/IRX3, and CESA8/IRX1) are required for secondary cell wall formation. We report that mutations in these proteins conferred enhanced resistance to the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR1], and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW–RESISTANT5 (PMR5) and PMR6 genes. Double mutants indicated that irx-mediated resistance was independent of salicylic acid, ethylene, and jasmonate signaling. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified a set of common irx upregulated genes, including a number of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive, defense-related genes encoding antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in the synthesis and activation of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. These data as well as the increased susceptibility of ABA mutants (abi1-1, abi2-1, and aba1-6) to R. solanacearum support a direct role of ABA in resistance to this pathogen. Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. PMID:17351116

  16. Revision of Sustainable Criteria of Concrete Walls for Earthquake-Resistant Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcocer S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The seismic performance of low-rise housing has been noticeably inadequate during the most recent earthquakes occurred in Latin American countries. Moreover, the literature review revealed that some traditional techniques do not contribute to building sustainable housing. In the last decade, construction of concrete walls housing has become a preferred choice because of the speed of construction and availability of materials in most of these countries. Aimed at improving seismic design methods for this type of construction, an extensive analytical and experimental program was carried out. The experimental program included quasi-static and shaking-table tests of 47 walls with different height-to-length ratios and walls with openings. Variables studied were type of concrete, web steel ratio and type of web reinforcement. The paper presents and discusses the main results of the research program and evaluates the technical and environmental feasibility for using concrete walls for sustainable and earthquake-resistant housing. Performance of concrete walls housing is assessed in terms of key environmental and earthquake-resistant requirements. It was found that concrete wall housing is not only safe under earthquakes and easily adaptable to climate, but also it stimulates environmental conservation and promotes reducing the costs of construction, operation and maintenance.

  17. Studying boundary elements’ behaviour using masonry walls built with high-resistance bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Mejía

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the behaviour of masonry walls built with and without boundary elements at both ends when sublected to monotonic and cyclic lateral loads. The walls were designed to have the greatest resistance, following NSR-98 recommendations (normas Colombianas de diseno y construcción sismo resistente, except for shear reinforcement. XTRACT software was used for finding axial load cf bending moment and curvature cf bending moment curves. One monotonic test and two cyclic tests were performed for each type of wall. Experimental results from the walls’ lateral load cf displacement curves were used for determining their ability to dissipate energy on an inelastic range (“R” force-reduction factor for seismic loads and displacement and curvature malleability. It was found that walls built without boundary elements suffered shear failure with cracks in a stepped configuration along the bricks’ edge. The type of failure for walls built with boundary elements was shear failure in the central panel with cracks in a stepped configuration, in addition to compression failure at the edge of the boundary elements with vertical cracks on the lower part of the wall and at the contact between the wall and the boundary element. Comparison with two other studies carried out at the Universidad Nacional showed similar cyclic behaviour, regardless of the clay brick’s strength. The “R” values obtained for both types of walls were lower than the recommended values given by NSR-98. It was determined that walls having boundary element have greater displacement malleability than walls without boundary elements.

  18. The Separation Wall: a symbol of power and a site of resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address the joint Israeli and Palestinian activism that has developed in response to the building of the separation barrier or what I will term the "Separation Wall" and to argue that the tactics of resistance witnessed are informed by the networks of power bound up in and

  19. Tracking random walk of individual domain walls in cylindrical nanomagnets with resistance noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrita; Mukhopadhyay, Soumik; Ghosh, Arindam

    2010-08-06

    The stochasticity of domain-wall (DW) motion in magnetic nanowires has been probed by measuring slow fluctuations, or noise, in electrical resistance at small magnetic fields. By controlled injection of DWs into isolated cylindrical nanowires of nickel, we have been able to track the motion of the DWs between the electrical leads by discrete steps in the resistance. Closer inspection of the time dependence of noise reveals a diffusive random walk of the DWs with a universal kinetic exponent. Our experiments outline a method with which electrical resistance is able to detect the kinetic state of the DWs inside the nanowires, which can be useful in DW-based memory designs.

  20. Analytical and numerical calculations of resistive wall impedances for thin beam pipe structures at low frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermayer, U., E-mail: u.niedermayer@gsi.de [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-09-21

    The resistive wall impedance is one of the main sources for beam instabilities in synchrotrons and storage rings. The fast ramped SIS18 synchrotron at GSI and the projected SIS100 synchrotron for FAIR both employ thin (0.3 mm) stainless steel beam pipes in order to reduce eddy current effects. The lowest betatron sidebands are at about 100 kHz, which demands accurate impedance predictions in the low frequency (LF) range where the beam pipe and possibly also the structures behind the pipe are the dominating impedance sources. The longitudinal and transverse resistive wall impedances of a circular multi-layer pipe are calculated analytically using the field matching technique. We compare the impedances obtained from a radial wave model, which corresponds to the setup used in bench measurements, with the axial wave model, which corresponds to an actual beam moving with relativistic velocity. For thin beam pipes the induced wall current and the corresponding shielding properties of the pipe are important. In both models the wall current is obtained analytically. The characteristic frequencies for the onset of the wall current are calculated from equivalent lumped element circuits corresponding to the radial model. For more complex structures, like the SIS100 beam pipe, we use a numerical method, in which the impedance is obtained from the total power loss. The method is validated by the analytic expressions for circular beam pipes.

  1. Protecting cell walls from binding aluminum by organic acids contributes to aluminum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Jiao; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Jian-Li; Zheng, Shao-Jian

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids from the root apex has been demonstrated to be one major Al resistance mechanism in plants. However, whether the organic acid concentration is high enough to detoxify Al in the growth medium is frequently questioned. The genotypes of Al-resistant wheat, Cassia tora L. and buckwheat secrete malate, citrate and oxalate, respectively. In the present study we found that at a 35% inhibition of root elongation, the Al activities in the solution were 10, 20, and 50 muM with the corresponding malate, citrate, and oxalate exudation at the rates of 15, 20 and 21 nmol/cm(2) per 12 h, respectively, for the above three plant species. When exogenous organic acids were added to ameliorate Al toxicity, twofold and eightfold higher oxalate and malate concentrations were required to produce the equal effect by citrate. After the root apical cell walls were isolated and preincubated in 1 mM malate, oxalate or citrate solution overnight, the total amount of Al adsorbed to the cell walls all decreased significantly to a similar level, implying that these organic acids own an equal ability to protect the cell walls from binding Al. These findings suggest that protection of cell walls from binding Al by organic acids may contribute significantly to Al resistance.

  2. Mutations in PMR5 result in powdery mildew resistance and altered cell wall composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, John P; Raab, Theodore K; Somerville, Chris R; Somerville, Shauna C

    2004-12-01

    Powdery mildews and other obligate biotrophic pathogens are highly adapted to their hosts and often show limited host ranges. One facet of such host specialization is likely to be penetration of the host cell wall, a major barrier to infection. A mutation in the pmr5 gene rendered Arabidopsis resistant to the powdery mildew species Erysiphe cichoracearum and Erysiphe orontii, but not to the unrelated pathogens Pseudomonas syringae or Peronospora parasitica. PMR5 belongs to a large family of plant-specific genes of unknown function. pmr5-mediated resistance did not require signaling through either the salicylic acid or jasmonic acid/ethylene defense pathways, suggesting resistance in this mutant may be due either to the loss of a susceptibility factor or to the activation of a novel form of defense. Based on Fourier transform infrared analysis, the pmr5 cell walls were enriched in pectin and exhibited a reduced degree of pectin modification relative to wild-type cell walls. In addition, the mutant had smaller cells, suggesting a defect in cell expansion. A double mutant with pmr6 (defective in a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored pectate lyase-like gene) exhibited a strong increase in total uronic acid content and a more severe reduction in size, relative to the single mutants, suggesting that the two genes affect pectin composition, either directly or indirectly, via different mechanisms. These two mutants highlight the importance of the host cell wall in plant-microbe interactions.

  3. Surface Resistance Measurements and Estimate of the Beam-Induced Resistive Wall Heating of the LHC Dipole Beam Screen

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ruggiero, F; Tan, J

    1999-01-01

    An estimate of the resistive losses in the LHC beam screen is given from cold surface resistance measurements using the shielded pair technique, with particular emphasis on the effect of a high magnetic field. Two different copper coating methods, namely electro-deposition and co-lamination, have been evaluated. Experimental data are compared with theories including the anomalous skin effect and the magneto-resistance effect. It is shown whether the theory underestimates or not the losses depends strongly on the RRR value, on the magnetic field and on the surface characteristics. In the pessimistic case and for nominal machine parameters, the estimated beam-induced resistive wall heating can be as large as 260 mW/m for two circulating beams.

  4. Studies on the response of resistive-wall modes to applied magnetic perturbations in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoratto, D.; Drake, J. R.; Yadikin, D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Paccagnella, R.; Brunsell, P. R.; Bolzonella, T.; Marchiori, G.; Cecconello, M.

    2005-09-01

    Arrays of magnetic coils and sensors in the EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43 1457 (2001)] reversed-field pinch have been used to investigate the plasma response to an applied resonant magnetic perturbation in the range of the resistive-wall modes (RWMs). Measured RWM growth rates agree with predictions of a cylindrical ideal-plasma model. The linear growth of low-n marginally stable RWMs is related to the so-called resonant-field amplification due to a dominant ∣n∣=2 machine error field of about 2 G. The dynamics of the m =1 RWMs interacting with the applied field produced by the coils can be accurately described by a two-pole system. Estimated poles and residues are given with sufficient accuracy by the cylindrical model with a thin continuous wall.

  5. Resistive requirements for the vacuum wall of a tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ehat, D.; Harkness, S.D.; Norem, J.; Stevens, H.; Turner, L.

    1978-01-01

    Most conceptual designs of tokamak power reactors have incorporated a ceramic insulator in the vacuum wall to make the wall electrically non-conducting. Such a material will have to be highly resistant to radiation damage at doses up to at least 10 MW-yr/m 2 while being compatible with a coolant and a first wall whose dimensions change due to thermal cycling and radiation damage. Thus there is considerable incentive to assess the consequences of eliminating the flux breaker from the design and having a conducting boundary instead. In this initial study the question of having a finite wall resistance has been examined in terms of its major implications on both the normal and abnormal operation of a tokamak reactor. This study has been conducted within the framework of the ANL-EPR-77 design although the results should provide some guidance for future reactors as well. The EPR design referred to is a 5 m major radius tokamak with an aspect ratio of 3.5, and with an equilibrium plasma current of 7.3 MA. The vacuum chamber is designed to accommodate a non-circular plasma with a height to width ratio of up to 1.65. The basic vacuum wall design is shown in Fig. 1. It is located about 0.4 M from the plasma boundary and has an irregular polygon shape made of sixteen sections, one per TF coil interval. Variations of this design having a range of resistance values have been used in the analysis

  6. Crack resistance of austenitic pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Grueter, L.; Setz, W.; Bhandari, S.; Debaene, J.P.; Faidy, C.; Schwalbe, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    For monotonously increasing load the correct evaluation of the crack resistance properties of a structure is essential for safety analyses. Considerable attention has been given to the through-wall case, since this is generally believed to be the controlling case with regard to complete pipe failure. The maximum load conditions for circumferential crack growth in pipes under displacement-controlled loadings has been determined. The need for crack resistance curves, measured on circumferentially through-wall cracked straight pipes of austenitic stainless steel 316L under bending, is emphasized by the limitation in the data range on small specimens and by the differences in the procedures. To answer open questions and to improve calculational methods a joint fracture mechanics program is being performed by Electricite de France, Novatome and Siemens-Interatom. The working program contains experimental and theoretical investigations on the applicability of small-specimen data to real structures. 10 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Theoretical Analysis of Metamaterial Insertions for Resistive-Wall Beam-Coupling Impedance Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Danisi, A; Masi, A; Losito, R; Salvant, B

    2014-01-01

    Resistive-wall impedance usually constitutes a significant percentage of the total beam-coupling impedance budget of an accelerator. Reduction techniques often entail high electrical-conductivity coatings. This paper investigates the use of negative-permittivity or negative-permeability materials for sensibly reducing or theoretically nearly cancelling resistive-wall impedance. The proposed approach is developed by means of an equivalent transmission-line model. The effectiveness of such materials is discussed both for negative-permittivity and for negative-permeability cases, which actually show different impacts and can be then target of proper engineering. This first-stage study opens the possibility of considering metamaterials for impedance mitigation or for proper experimental setups.

  8. [Fracture resistance of thin-walled teeth restored with different post and core materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-mei; Huang, Guo-wei

    2014-06-01

    To discuss the selection of appropriate post and core materials in order to obtain better fracture resistance for thin-walled teeth. Ninety maxillary incisors were endodontically treated and the crowns were cut off. Then they were randomly divided into 9 groups. The teeth in the first 4 groups were restored with cast (A1.3 and A1.6) and fiber (B1.3 and B1.6) posts of 1.3 and 1.7 mm diameters. The teeth in the other 5 groups were enlarged to simulate the 1 mm thin-walled teeth and restored with cast (C) and fiber posts. The fiber posts were reconstructed and cemented with Unicem (D1.3 and D1.6) and ParaCore (E1.3 and E1.6). All teeth were restored with full crown, and the fracture resistance and fracture mode were analysed. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 16.0 software package. Largest fracture resistance values (610.2 ± 45.6) N were found in Group A1.3 of ordinary root canals, and no significant difference (P>0.05) existed between Group A1.3, A1.6 and B1.3, B1.6. Group C received the largest fracture resistance value(584.5 ± 121.2) N in thin-walled root canals, and fiber posts reconstructed with ParaCore cement could increase fracture resistance [E1.3,(420.6 ± 95.7) N; E1.6,(517.9 ± 67.2) N], which was significant different compared with D1.3 and D1.6 (PParacore.

  9. Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

    2012-03-27

    The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.

  10. Strain-dependent electrical resistance of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myounggu; Kim, Hyonny; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    The strain-dependent electrical resistance characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polymer composite films were investigated. In this research, polyethylene oxide (PEO) is used as the polymer matrix. Two representative volume fractions of MWCNT/PEO composite films were selected: 0.56 vol% (near the percolation threshold) and 1.44 vol% (away from the percolation threshold) of MWCNT. An experimental setup which can measure electrical resistance and strain simultaneously and continuously has been developed. Unique and repeatable relationships in resistance versus strain were obtained for multiple specimens with different volume fractions of MWCNT. The overall pattern of electrical resistance change versus strain for the specimens tested consists of linear and nonlinear regions. A resistance change model to describe the combination of linear and nonlinear modes of electrical resistance change as a function of strain is suggested. The unique characteristics in electrical resistance change for different volume fractions imply that MWCNT/PEO composite films can be used as tunable strain sensors and for application into embedded sensor systems in structures

  11. Electrical Resistivity of Pristine and Functional Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of several pristine and functional single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs deposited and dried on interdigitated electrode (IDE chips was investigated to better understand how functional groups influence their resistivity. Without the external electrical field, the resistance was generally increased for the sulfonated and fluorinated SWNTs but not for COOH-SWNTs. With a 3 V electric field applied during depositing, while no change in resistance was found for the purified pristine SWNTs, fluorinated SWNTs, COOH SWNTs, and Ni-SWNTs, a significant decrease in resistance was observed in sulfonated SWNTs and unpurified pristine SWNTs, which could be due to the alignment of SWNTs in an electric field. The alignment of the sulfonated SWNTs is most likely due to the charge of the sulfate functional group. It is interesting to note that the alignment was found in the unpurified pristine SWNTs but not in the purified pristine ones which have lessened resistivity. The lower resistivity in the purified pristine SWNTs may be due to the smaller number (<5% of impurities. The significance of this research is that hydrophilic COOH-SWNTs could be a better candidate than the hydrophobic pristine SWNTs for being used in many applications, especially in polymer nanocomposites.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  13. High Corrosion Resistance Offered by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Directly Grown Over Mild Steel Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sweety; Rekha, M. Y.; Gupta, Abhay; Srivastava, Chandan

    2018-02-01

    The inert and hydrophobic nature of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) makes them a potential material for corrosion protection coatings. In this work, a uniform coating of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) was formed over a mild steel substrate by direct decomposition of a ferrocene-benzene mixture over the substrate which was kept inside a chemical vapor deposition setup at a temperature of 800°C. The MWCNTs formed over the substrate were characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Corrosion behavior of the bare and MWCNT-coated mild steel substrate was examined through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. A significant improvement in the corrosion resistance in terms of the reduction in corrosion current and corrosion rate and increase in polarization resistance was noted in the case of the MWCNT-coated mild steel plate. Corrosion resistance increased due to MWCNT coating.

  14. Alternative Pathway to a Glycopeptide-Resistant Cell Wall in the Balhimycin Producer Amycolatopsis balhimycina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Hans-Joerg; Kalan, Lindsay; Kilian, Regina; Martin, Tobias; Wright, Gerard D; Stegmann, Evi

    2015-06-12

    Balhimycin, a vancomycin-type glycopeptide, is a lipid II targeting antibiotic produced by Amycolatopsis balhimycina. A. balhimycina has developed a self-resistance mechanism based on the synergistic action of different enzymes resulting in modified peptidoglycan. The canonical resistance mechanism against glycopeptides is the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending with acyl-d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) rather than acyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala). This reprogramming is the result of the enzymes VanH, VanA, and VanX. VanH and VanA are required to produce d-Ala-d-Lac; VanX cleaves cytosolic pools of d-Ala-d-Ala, thereby ensuring that peptidoglycan is enriched in d-Ala-d-Lac. In A. balhimycina, the ΔvanHAXAb mutant showed a reduced glycopeptide resistance in comparison to the wild type. Nevertheless, ΔvanHAXAb was paradoxically still able to produce d-Ala-d-Lac containing resistant cell wall precursors suggesting the presence of a novel alternative glycopeptide resistance mechanism. In silico analysis, inactivation studies, and biochemical assays led to the characterization of an enzyme, Ddl1Ab, as a paraloguous chromosomal d-Ala-d-Lac ligase able to complement the function of VanAAb in the ΔvanHAXAb mutant. Furthermore, A. balhimycina harbors a vanYAb gene encoding a d,d-carboxypeptidase. Transcriptional analysis revealed an upregulated expression of vanYAb in the ΔvanHAXAb mutant. VanYAb cleaves the endstanding d-Ala from the pentapeptide precursors, reducing the quantity of sensitive cell wall precursors in the absence of VanXAb. These findings represent an unprecedented coordinated layer of resistance mechanisms in a glycopeptide antibiotic producing bacterium.

  15. Influence of surrounding wall thickness on the fatigue resistance of molars restored with ceramic inlay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuma Shibata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of buccal and lingual wall thickness on the fatigue resistance of molars restored with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays. Forty human third molars were selected and divided into 4 groups, according to the remaining surrounding wall thickness chosen for inlay preparation (n = 10: G1, 2.0 mm; G2, 1.5 mm; G3, 1.0 mm; G4, 0.5 mm. All inlays were made from feldspathic ceramic blocks by a CAD/CAM system, and cemented adhesively. After 1 week stored in distilled water at 37 °C, the specimens were subjected to fatigue testing under the following protocol: 5Hz; pre-load of 200 N for 5,000 cycles, followed by increasing loads of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 N for 30,000 cycles each. The specimens were cycled until failure or completion of 185,000 cycles. The survival rate of the groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves (p > 0.05. All specimens withstood the fatigue protocol (185,000 cycles, representing a 100% survival rate. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed no difference between groups. It can be concluded that the remaining tooth wall thickness did not influence the fatigue resistance of molars restored with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays.

  16. Influence of surrounding wall thickness on the fatigue resistance of molars restored with ceramic inlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shizuma; Gondo, Renata; Araújo, Élito; Mello Roesler, Carlos Rodrigo de; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of buccal and lingual wall thickness on the fatigue resistance of molars restored with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays. Forty human third molars were selected and divided into 4 groups, according to the remaining surrounding wall thickness chosen for inlay preparation (n=10): G1, 2.0 mm; G2, 1.5 mm; G3, 1.0 mm; G4, 0.5 mm. All inlays were made from feldspathic ceramic blocks by a CAD/CAM system, and cemented adhesively. After 1 week stored in distilled water at 37 °C, the specimens were subjected to fatigue testing under the following protocol: 5Hz; pre-load of 200 N for 5,000 cycles, followed by increasing loads of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 N for 30,000 cycles each. The specimens were cycled until failure or completion of 185,000 cycles. The survival rate of the groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves (p>0.05). All specimens withstood the fatigue protocol (185,000 cycles), representing a 100% survival rate. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed no difference between groups. It can be concluded that the remaining tooth wall thickness did not influence the fatigue resistance of molars restored with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays.

  17. Stability and Control of Burning Tokamak Plasmas with Resistive Walls: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, George [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Brennan, Dylan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Cole, Andrew [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Finn, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    This project is focused on theoretical and computational development for quantitative prediction of the stability and control of the equilibrium state evolution in toroidal burning plasmas, including its interaction with the surrounding resistive wall. The stability of long pulse burning plasmas is highly sensitive to the physics of resonant layers in the plasma, sources of momentum and flow, kinetic effects of energetic particles, and boundary conditions at the wall, including feedback control and error fields. In ITER in particular, the low toroidal flow equilibrium state, sustained primarily by energetic alpha particles from fusion reactions, will require the consideration of all of these key elements to predict quantitatively the stability and evolution. The principal investigators on this project have performed theoretical and computational analyses, guided by analytic modeling, to address this physics in realistic configurations. The overall goal has been to understand the key physics mechanisms that describe stable toroidal burning plasmas under active feedback control. Several relevant achievements have occurred during this project, leading to publications and invited conference presentations. In theoretical efforts, with the physics of the resonant layers, resistive wall, and toroidal momentum transport included, this study has extended from cylindrical resistive plasma - resistive wall models with feedback control to toroidal geometry with strong shaping to study mode coupling effects on the stability. These results have given insight into combined tearing and resistive wall mode behavior in simulations and experiment, while enabling a rapid exploration of plasma parameter space, to identify possible domains of interest for large plasma codes to investigate in more detail. Resonant field amplification and quasilinear torques in the presence of error fields and velocity shear have also been investigated. Here it was found, surprisingly, that the Maxwell

  18. Development of carbon steel with superior resistance to wall thinning and fracture for nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2010-07-01

    Carbon steel is usually used for piping for secondary coolant system in nuclear power plant because of low cost and good machinability. However, it is generally reported that carbon steel was failed catastrophically because of its low resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness. Especially, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of main problems of the wall thinning of piping in the nuclear power plant. Therefore, in this project, fabrication technology of new advanced carbon steel materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide ceramics into the matrix is developed first in order to improve the resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness drastically compared to the conventional one. In order to get highly wettable fine TiC ceramic particles into molten metal, the micro-sized TiC particles were first mechanically milled by Fe (MMed TiC/Fe) in a high energy ball mill machine in Ar gas atmosphere, and then mixed with surfactant metal elements (Sn, Cr, Ni) to obtain better wettability, as this lowered surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to microscopic images revealed that an addition of MMed TiC/Fe-surfactant mixed powders favorably disperses the fine TiC particles in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when fine TiC particles were added due to the fact that they act as nucleation sites during the solidification process. As a results, a cast carbon steel dispersed with fine TiC particles shows improved mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile strength and cavitation resistance compared to that of without particles. However, the slight decrease of toughness was found

  19. Resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots calculated by boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2002-01-01

    In order to calculate the resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used. The result at 1 GHz is Re(ZL/L) = 6.689×10−3 Ω/m, Re(Zx/L) = 1.251 Ω/m2, Re(Zy/L) = 1.776 Ω/m2, andRe(2Z0,2 cos/kL) = −0.525 Ω/m2, assuming σ = 5.8 × 109 /Ωm.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF THE RESISTIVE WALL MODE STABILITY IN A ROTATING PLASMA USING ACTIVE MHD SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHU, M.S; JACKSON, G.L; LA HAYE, R.J; SCOVILLE, J.T; STRAIT, E.J

    2003-01-01

    The stability of the resistive-wall mode (RWM) in DIII-D plasmas above the conventional pressure limit, where toroidal plasma rotation in the order of a few percent of the Alfven velocity is sufficient to stabilize the n=1 RWM, has been probed using the technique of active MHD spectroscopy at frequencies of a few Hertz. The measured frequency spectrum of the plasma response to externally applied rotating resonant magnetic fields is well described by a single mode approach and provides an absolute measurement of the damping rate and the natural mode rotation frequency of the stable RWM

  1. The inaccuracy of conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuit model for two-dimensional composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Hsiao, M.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lin, K.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is to show that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite walls should not be solved by the conventionally one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because the interface temperatures are not unique. Thus PTRC model cannot be used like its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model which has the unique node electric voltage. Two typical composite wall examples, solved by CFD software, are used to demonstrate the incorrectness. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by PTRC model, and very large differences are observed between their results. This proves that the application of conventional heat transfer PTRC model to two-dimensional composite walls, introduced in most heat transfer text book, is totally incorrect. An alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional composite walls with isothermal boundaries. Results with acceptable accuracy can be obtained by the new model

  2. Thermal resistance of buffer layer in a ceramic wall of MHD generation channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Osami; Ebata, Yoshihiro; Hijikata, Kenichi.

    1982-01-01

    A wal l model is composed for obtaining the thermal resistance of the buffer layer. A buffer layer of the model is consisted to an adhesive layer and a buffer body. The adhesive layer is made of a copper plate, which is 0.3 mm thick, and adhered to the element by Refractory Method. The adhesive layer is consisted to three layers, i.e., Cu, Cu 2 O and CuO. These three layers seems to give rise to the thermal resistance. The buffer body is made of nickel wires of which radious is 0.4 mm and purity is 99.7%. All of the nickel wires are assembled in one direction which is parallel to a center line of the element, and bundled all together. Occupation ratio of nickel is about 78% in a sectional area of the buffer body. One end of the buffer body is soldered to adhesive layer by silver solder and opposite and is soldered to holder by lead solder. An element of the model is made of magnesia ceramics of which purity is about 99.9% and porosity is about 3%. A holder of the model is made of copper block. Results are as follows: (1) Thermal resistance of the buffer layer is from 1.9 to 2.5K/(W/cm 2 ). (2) Thermal resistance of the adhesive layer is from 0.43 to 0.87K/(W/cm 2 ). (3) Thermal resistance of the buffer body is calculated to about 0.7K/(W/cm 2 ) under the estimation at which the heat flows in the nickel wires only. (4) From above results, thermal resistance of silver soldering layer seems to be same as that of the adhesive layers. The buffer layer needs more value of the thermal resistance in order to apply to the MHD generation channel. Value of the thermal resistance is easily satisfied by changing of material of the buffer body, increase of thickness of the buffer layer and etc. Then this wall appears to be useful to an MHD generation channel wall. (author)

  3. THIN-WALLED CROSS SECTION SHAPE INFLUENCE ON STEEL MEMBER RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Urbańska-Galewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes why trending thin-walled technology is achieving popularity in steel construction sector. A purpose of this article is to present the influence of the cold-formed element cross-section shape on an axial compression and a bending moment resistance. The authors have considered four different shapes assuming constant section area and thickness. Calculations were based on three different steel grades taking into account local, distortional and overall buckling. The results are presented in a tabular and a graphical way and clearly confirm that cross-section forming distinctly impact the cold-formed member resistance. The authors choose these cross-sections that work better in compression state and the other (those slender and high that function more efficiently are subjected to bending.

  4. Cryptococcal phosphoglucose isomerase is required for virulence factor production, cell wall integrity and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Sun, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiao; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of virulence factor production in the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans remains to be fully illustrated. We present here a finding that a gene, encoding the glycolysis enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1), is critical for the biosynthesis of melanin and capsule, cell wall integrity and resistance to stress conditions. A leaky mutant of the yeast, LZM19, resulted from an insertion of T-DNA in the PGI1 promoter region, expressed PGI1 at a level only 1.9% of the wild type. LZM19 could synthesize the pigment melanin in the presence of 2% glucose, suggesting a status of LAC1 derepression. Phenotypically, capsule biosynthesis in LZM19 was remarkably reduced. Integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane of LZM19 were impaired based on its sensitivity to Congo red and SDS. Also, LZM19 exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress generated by 2 M NaCl or 1 M KCl, indicating possible impairment in the HOG signaling pathway. Furthermore, LZM19 failed to utilize mannose and fructose, suggesting a possible involvement of Pgi1 in the breakdown of these two sugars. Our results revealed a crucial role of PGI1 in coordination of the production of virulence factors, cell wall integrity and stress response in C. neoformans. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-07

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  6. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.

    2006-09-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  7. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecconello, M [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, Alfven Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Menmuir, S [Department of Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, School of Engineering Science, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10691 Stockhom (Sweden); Brunsell, P R [Division of Fusion Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, Alfven Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Kuldkepp, M [Department of Physics, Association EURATOM -VR, School of Engineering Science, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, SE-10691 Stockhom (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties.

  8. Rotation in a reversed field pinch with active feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, M; Menmuir, S; Brunsell, P R; Kuldkepp, M

    2006-01-01

    Active feedback stabilization of multiple resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been successfully proven in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. One of the features of plasma discharges operated with active feedback stabilization, in addition to the prolongation of the plasma discharge, is the sustainment of the plasma rotation. Sustained rotation is observed both for the internally resonant tearing modes (TMs) and the intrinsic impurity oxygen ions. Good quantitative agreement between the toroidal rotation velocities of both is found: the toroidal rotation is characterized by an acceleration phase followed, after one wall time, by a deceleration phase that is slower than in standard discharges. The TMs and the impurity ions rotate in the same poloidal direction with also similar velocities. Poloidal and toroidal velocities have comparable amplitudes and a simple model of their radial profile reproduces the main features of the helical angular phase velocity. RWMs feedback does not qualitatively change the TMs behaviour and typical phenomena such as the dynamo and the 'slinky' are still observed. The improved sustainment of the plasma and TMs rotation occurs also when feedback only acts on internally non-resonant RWMs. This may be due to an indirect positive effect, through non-linear coupling between TMs and RWMs, of feedback on the TMs or to a reduced plasma-wall interaction affecting the plasma flow rotation. Electromagnetic torque calculations show that with active feedback stabilization the TMs amplitude remains well below the locking threshold condition for a thick shell. Finally, it is suggested that active feedback stabilization of RWMs and current profile control techniques can be employed simultaneously thus improving both the plasma duration and its confinement properties

  9. Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes

  10. Harmonic cavities and the transverse mode-coupling instability driven by a resistive wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venturini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rf harmonic cavities on the transverse mode-coupling instability (TMCI is still not very well understood. We offer a fresh perspective on the problem by proposing a new numerical method for mode analysis and investigating a regime of potential interest to the new generation of light sources where resistive wall is the dominant source of transverse impedance. When the harmonic cavities are tuned for maximum flattening of the bunch profile we demonstrate that at vanishing chromaticities the transverse single-bunch motion is unstable at any current, with growth rate that in the relevant range scales as the 6th power of the current. With these assumptions and radiation damping included, we find that for machine parameters typical of 4th-generation light sources the presence of harmonic cavities could reduce the instability current threshold by more than a factor two.

  11. Using the column wall itself as resistive heater for fast temperature gradients in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ruben; Pursch, Matthias; Desmet, Gert

    2015-11-13

    A new system is proposed for applying fast temperature gradients in liquid chromatography. It consists of a 0.7 mm × 150 mm fused-silica column coated with a 50 μm Nickel-layer, which is connecting with a power source and a temperature control system to perform fast and reproducible temperature gradients using the column wall itself as a resistive heater. Applying a current of 4A and passive cooling results in a maximal heating and cooling rate of, respectively, 71 and -21 °C/min. Multi-segment temperature gradients were superimposed on mobile phase gradients to enhance the selectivity for three sets of mixtures (pharmaceutical compounds, a highly complex mixture and an insecticide sample). This resulted in a higher peak count or better selectivities for the various mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Harmonic cavities and the transverse mode-coupling instability driven by a resistive wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of rf harmonic cavities on the transverse mode-coupling instability (TMCI) is still not very well understood. We offer a fresh perspective on the problem by proposing a new numerical method for mode analysis and investigating a regime of potential interest to the new generation of light sources where resistive wall is the dominant source of transverse impedance. When the harmonic cavities are tuned for maximum flattening of the bunch profile we demonstrate that at vanishing chromaticities the transverse single-bunch motion is unstable at any current, with growth rate that in the relevant range scales as the 6th power of the current. With these assumptions and radiation damping included, we find that for machine parameters typical of 4th-generation light sources the presence of harmonic cavities could reduce the instability current threshold by more than a factor two.

  13. Implementation of model predictive control for resistive wall mode stabilization on EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.

    2015-10-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) method for stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch is presented. The system identification technique is used to obtain a linearized empirical model of EXTRAP T2R. MPC employs the model for prediction and computes optimal control inputs that satisfy performance criterion. The use of a linearized form of the model allows for compact formulation of MPC, implemented on a millisecond timescale, that can be used for real-time control. The design allows the user to arbitrarily suppress any selected Fourier mode. The experimental results from EXTRAP T2R show that the designed and implemented MPC successfully stabilizes the RWM.

  14. \\mathscr{H}_2 optimal control techniques for resistive wall mode feedback in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Mitchell; Hanson, Jeremy; Bialek, Jim; Navratil, Gerald

    2018-04-01

    DIII-D experiments show that a new, advanced algorithm enables resistive wall mode (RWM) stability control in high performance discharges using external coils. DIII-D can excite strong, locked or nearly locked external kink modes whose rotation frequencies and growth rates are on the order of the magnetic flux diffusion time of the vacuum vessel wall. Experiments have shown that modern control techniques like linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control require less current than the proportional controller in use at DIII-D when using control coils external to DIII-D’s vacuum vessel. Experiments were conducted to develop control of a rotating n  =  1 perturbation using an LQG controller derived from VALEN and external coils. Feedback using this LQG algorithm outperformed a proportional gain only controller in these perturbation experiments over a range of frequencies. Results from high βN experiments also show that advanced feedback techniques using external control coils may be as effective as internal control coil feedback using classical control techniques.

  15. Beam heat load due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance in COLDDIAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalbuoni, S.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Spataro, B.

    2012-11-01

    One of the still open issues for the development of superconductive insertion devices is the understanding of the heat intake from the electron beam. With the aim of measuring the beam heat load to a cold bore and the hope to gain a deeper understanding in the underlying mechanisms, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) was built. It is equipped with the following instrumentation: retarding field analyzers to measure the electron flux, temperature sensors to measure the beam heat load, pressure gauges, and mass spectrometers to measure the gas content. Possible beam heat load sources are: synchrotron radiation, wakefield effects due to geometrical and resistive wall impedance and electron/ion bombardment. The flexibility of the engineering design will allow the installation of the cryostat in different synchrotron light sources. COLDDIAG was first installed in the Diamond Light Source (DLS) in 2011. Due to a mechanical failure of the thermal transition of the cold liner, the cryostat had to be removed after one week of operation. After having implemented design changes in the thermal liner transition, COLDDIAG has been reinstalled in the DLS at the end of August 2012. In order to understand the beam heat load mechanism it is important to compare the measured COLDDIAG parameters with theoretical expectations. In this paper we report on the analytical and numerical computation of the COLDDIAG beam heat load due to coupling impedances deriving from unavoidable step transitions, ports used for pumping and diagnostics, surface roughness, and resistive wall. The results might have an important impact on future technological solutions to be applied to cold bore devices.

  16. Influence of Surrounding Soil Conditions and Joint Sealing on Seepage Resistance of a Sheet Pile Wall, Three Dimensional Numerical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Eugeniusz; Wyjadlowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present 3D numerical calculations results of the seepage resistance of sheet pile (SP) wall with sealed joints. In the present work the leakage through SP wall was determined for one joint of full length. In the analysed example, the SP wall passed through one kind of soil but some conditions (permeability of joint and of surrounding soil) changed depending on the adopted assumptions. To find the distribution of the total head in the calculation area Laplace equation was used. To determine the velocity field Darcy's law was adopted. In the first step, the discharge flowing through the single joint of SP wall based on 3D numerical simulations was determined. In the next step, the joint resistance was estimated and the discharge was found analytically. The results obtained using these two methods were compared. And the conclusions are as follows: it seems possible to estimate the „joint permeability” coefficient using numerical methods, in some conditions the analytical results are far away from numerical ones, due to the nonlinear pressure distribution along the joint, it is necessary to collect in-situ data to confirm the usefulness and reliability of obtained solutions and to proposed more complete methods of determination of SP wall seepage resistance.

  17. Infill Walls Contribution on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of a Typical Mid-rise RC Framed Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoiu, Teodora; Popa, Anca

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of the autoclaved aerated concrete infill walls on the progressive collapse resistance of a typical RC framed structure. The 13-storey building located in Brăila (a zone with high seismic risk in Romania) was designed according to the former Romanian seismic code P13-70 (1970). Two models of the structure are generated in the Extreme Loading® for Structures computer software: a model with infill walls and a model without infill walls. Following GSA (2003) Guidelines, a nonlinear dynamic procedure is used to determine the progressive collapse risk of the building when a first-storey corner column is suddenly removed. It was found that, the structure is not expected to fail under the standard GSA loading: DL+0.25LL. Moreover, if the infill walls are introduced in the model, the maximum vertical displacement of the node above the removed column is reduced by about 48%.

  18. Elevated Cell Wall Chitin in Candida albicans Confers Echinocandin Resistance In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keunsook K.; MacCallum, Donna M.; Jacobsen, Mette D.; Walker, Louise A.; Odds, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans cells with increased cell wall chitin have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C. albicans cells with elevated chitin levels have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vivo. BALB/c mice were infected with C. albicans cells with normal chitin levels and compared to mice infected with high-chitin cells. Caspofungin therapy was initiated at 24 h postinfection. Mice infected with chitin-normal cells were successfully treated with caspofungin, as indicated by reduced kidney fungal burdens, reduced weight loss, and decreased C. albicans density in kidney lesions. In contrast, mice infected with high-chitin C. albicans cells were less susceptible to caspofungin, as they had higher kidney fungal burdens and greater weight loss during early infection. Cells recovered from mouse kidneys at 24 h postinfection with high-chitin cells had 1.6-fold higher chitin levels than cells from mice infected with chitin-normal cells and maintained a significantly reduced susceptibility to caspofungin when tested in vitro. At 48 h postinfection, caspofungin treatment induced a further increase in chitin content of C. albicans cells harvested from kidneys compared to saline treatment. Some of the recovered clones had acquired, at a low frequency, a point mutation in FKS1 resulting in a S645Y amino acid substitution, a mutation known to confer echinocandin resistance. This occurred even in cells that had not been exposed to caspofungin. Our results suggest that the efficacy of caspofungin against C. albicans was reduced in vivo due to either elevation of chitin levels in the cell wall or acquisition of FKS1 point mutations. PMID:21986821

  19. TarO-specific inhibitors of wall teichoic acid biosynthesis restore β-lactam efficacy against methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Wang, Hao; Labroli, Marc; Koseoglu, Sandra; Zuck, Paul; Mayhood, Todd; Gill, Charles; Mann, Paul; Sher, Xinwei; Ha, Sookhee; Yang, Shu-Wei; Mandal, Mihir; Yang, Christine; Liang, Lianzhu; Tan, Zheng; Tawa, Paul; Hou, Yan; Kuvelkar, Reshma; DeVito, Kristine; Wen, Xiujuan; Xiao, Jing; Batchlett, Michelle; Balibar, Carl J; Liu, Jenny; Xiao, Jianying; Murgolo, Nicholas; Garlisi, Charles G; Sheth, Payal R; Flattery, Amy; Su, Jing; Tan, Christopher; Roemer, Terry

    2016-03-09

    The widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has dramatically eroded the efficacy of current β-lactam antibiotics and created an urgent need for new treatment options. We report an S. aureus phenotypic screening strategy involving chemical suppression of the growth inhibitory consequences of depleting late-stage wall teichoic acid biosynthesis. This enabled us to identify early-stage pathway-specific inhibitors of wall teichoic acid biosynthesis predicted to be chemically synergistic with β-lactams. We demonstrated by genetic and biochemical means that each of the new chemical series discovered, herein named tarocin A and tarocin B, inhibited the first step in wall teichoic acid biosynthesis (TarO). Tarocins do not have intrinsic bioactivity but rather demonstrated potent bactericidal synergy in combination with broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics against diverse clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci as well as robust efficacy in a murine infection model of MRSA. Tarocins and other inhibitors of wall teichoic acid biosynthesis may provide a rational strategy to develop Gram-positive bactericidal β-lactam combination agents active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Resistive wall modes in a reversed field pinch with interchangeable shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Philip; Barrick, Greg; Robertson, Scott

    1992-04-01

    Resistive wall modes have been investigated in a reversed field pinch (Reversatron IIi [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-16, 667 (1988)]) operated with three different boundary conditions: (1) a copper shell having a magnetic penetration time τs comparable to the discharge duration, (2) a brass shell having τs comparable to the setting-up time, and (3) no shell, which gives τs much shorter than the setting-up time. The brass shell is found to impede the growth of the m=1, n=-6 ``on-axis'' mode observed to grow in the setting-up phase of no-shell discharges. In the sustainment phase, there is a higher level of m=1 modes than with the copper shell and the discharge duration, ion temperature, and plasma current are reduced. The mode spectrum is broad in the sustainment phase and the degradation in discharges cannot be attributed to any single mode. There is evidence for transient mode locking resulting in a slinky mode in copper-shell discharges.

  1. A matching problem revisited for stability analysis of resistive wall modes in flowing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, J.; Tokuda, S.; Aiba, N.

    2010-01-01

    The classical matching problem for magnetohydrodynamic stability analysis is revisited to study effects of the plasma flow on the resistive wall modes (RWMs). The Newcomb equation, which describes the marginal states and governs the regions except for the resonant surface, is generalized to analyze the stability of flowing plasmas. When there exists no flow, the singular point of the Newcomb equation and the resonant surface degenerate into the rational surface. The location of the rational surface is prescribed by the equilibrium, hence the inner layer, which must contain the resonant surface, can be set a priori. When the flow exists, the singular point of the Newcomb equation splits in two due to the Doppler shift. Additionally, the resonant surface deviates from the singular points and the rational surface if the resonant eigenmode has a real frequency. Since the location of the resonant surface depends on the unknown real frequency, it can be determined only a posteriori. Hence the classical asymptotic matching method cannot be applied. This paper shows that a new matching method that generalizes the asymptotic one to use the inner layer with finite width works well for the stability analysis of flowing plasmas. If the real frequency is limited in a certain range such as the RWM case, the resonance occurs somewhere in the finite region around the singular points, hence the inner layer with finite width can capture the resonant surface.

  2. Simulations of Resistive-Wall Instability in the ILC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej; Byrd, John

    2005-01-01

    Options being considered for the ILC Damping Rings include lattices with circumferences up to 17 km. The circumference, beam current and beam energy place the damping rings in a regime where resistive-wall instability is a concern, particularly as there are very demanding tolerances on the bunch-to-bunch jitter. Generally, it is possible to make good analytical estimates of the coupled-bunch growth rates in a storage ring, but particular features of the damping rings (including the fill pattern, large variations of the lattice functions and beam-pipe cross-section in different parts of the ring, and transverse beam coupling in the long straight sections) make it desirable to study the coupled-bunch instabilities using simulations. Here, we present the results of simulations of the transverse instabilities using a detailed lattice model. A bunch-by-bunch feedback system will be needed to suppress the instabilities, and a model for an appropriate feedback system is included in the simulations.

  3. Resistive wall modes in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.

    2003-10-01

    Resistive wall modes (RWM) in the reversed field pinch are studied and a detailed comparison of experimental growth rates and linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is made. RWM growth rates are experimentally measured in the thin shell device EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1 (2001)]. Linear MHD calculations of RWM growth rates are based on experimental equilibria. Experimental and linear MHD RWM growth rate dependency on the equilibrium profiles is investigated experimentally by varying the pinch parameter Θ=Bθ(a)/ in the range Θ=1.5-1.8. Quantitative agreement between experimental and linear MHD growth rates is seen. The dominating RWMs are the internal on-axis modes (having the same helicity as the central equilibrium field). At high Θ, external nonresonant modes are also observed. For internal modes experimental growth rates decrease with Θ while for external modes, growth rates increase with Θ. The effect of RWMs on the reversed-field pinch plasma performance is discussed.

  4. Sex education and ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  5. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  6. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem from the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionsless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior. (orig.)

  7. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior

  8. Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems Subjected to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    is the lateral displacement at the height-wise center of the wall, y is the crack depth through the thickness, and α is the degree of fixity at the...unreinforced masonry wall are assumed to be fully fixed. Eq. (4) accounts for partial end fixities ( ) of the top and bottom interfaces of the

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer application affects lodging resistance by altering secondary cell wall synthesis in japonica rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wujun; Wu, Longmei; Ding, Yanfeng; Yao, Xiong; Wu, Xiaoran; Weng, Fei; Li, Ganghua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-09-01

    Stem mechanical strength is an important agricultural quantitative trait that is closely related to lodging resistance in rice, which is known to be reduced by fertilizer with higher levels of nitrogen. To understand the mechanism that regulates stem mechanical strength in response to nitrogen, we analysed stem morphology, anatomy, mechanical properties, cell wall components, and expression of cell wall-related genes, in two varieties of japonica rice, namely, Wuyunjing23 (lodging-resistant variety) and W3668 (lodging-susceptible variety). The results showed that higher nitrogen fertilizer increased the lodging index in both varieties due to a reduction in breaking strength and bending stress, and these changes were larger in W3668. Cellulose content decreased slightly under higher nitrogen fertilizer, whereas lignin content reduced remarkably. Histochemical staining revealed that high nitrogen application decreased lignin deposition in the secondary cell wall of the sclerenchyma cells and vascular bundle cells compared with the low nitrogen treatments, while it did not alter the pattern of cellulose deposition in these cells in both Wuyunjing23 and W3668. In addition, the expression of the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, OsPAL, OsCoMT, Os4CL3, OsCCR, OsCAD2, OsCAD7, OsCesA4, and OsCesA7, were also down-regulated under higher nitrogen conditions at the early stage of culm growth. These results suggest that the genes involved in lignin biosynthesis are down-regulated by higher nitrogen fertilizer, which causes lignin deficiency in the secondary cell walls and the weakening of mechanical tissue structure. Subsequently, this results in these internodes with reduced mechanical strength and poor lodging resistance.

  10. An ideal job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kurt J

    2012-01-01

    A brief personal history illustrates how fortunate I was to have stumbled into a career in plant pathology, which turned out to be the ideal job for me. Several of the people who steered me or facilitated my development in research on plant diseases are mentioned. Starting with my PhD research, I have had the good fortune to indulge a career-long fascination with epidemiology and genetics of disease resistance in plants, particularly coevolution of gene-for-gene host-pathogen systems. I hope that my example may inspire others of like minds to consider a research career in plant pathology.

  11. Thioridazine Induces Major Changes in Global Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsing, Mette; Klitgaard, Janne Kudsk; Atilano, Magda L.

    2013-01-01

    Subinhibitory concentrations of the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ) are well-known to enhance the killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by β-lactam antibiotics, however, the mechanism underlying the synergy between TDZ and β-lactams is not fully understood. In the pres......Subinhibitory concentrations of the neuroleptic drug thioridazine (TDZ) are well-known to enhance the killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by β-lactam antibiotics, however, the mechanism underlying the synergy between TDZ and β-lactams is not fully understood....... In the present study, we have examined the effect of a subinhibitory concentration of TDZ on antimicrobial resistance, the global transcriptome, and the cell wall composition of MRSA USA300. We show that TDZ is able to sensitize the bacteria to several classes of antimicrobials targeting the late stages...

  12. Cell Wall Changes in Amphotericin B-Resistant Strains from Candida tropicalis and Relationship with the Immune Responses Elicited by the Host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesa-Arango, A.C.; Rueda, C.; Roman, E.; Quintin, J.; Terron, M.C.; Luque, D.; Netea, M.G.; Pla, J.; Zaragoza, O.

    2016-01-01

    We have morphologically characterizedCandida tropicalisisolates resistant to amphotericin B (AmB). These isolates present an enlarged cell wall compared to isolates of regular susceptibility. This correlated with higher levels of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell wall but not with detectable changes in

  13. Smooth muscle cell function and organization of the resistance artery wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenç Tuna, B.

    2014-01-01

    Remodeling of the vascular wall occurs in several cardiovascular pathologies. A structural change in diameter necessarily involves reorganization in both cellular and extracellular matrix components. The significance of matrix remodeling in vascular pathologies is well appreciated, while plasticity

  14. Overexpression of Rice Wall-Associated Kinase 25 (OsWAK25) Alters Resistance to Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkenrider, Mitch; Sharma, Rita; De Vleesschauwer, David; Tsao, Li; Zhang, Xuting; Chern, Mawsheng; Canlas, Patrick; Zuo, Shimin; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Wall-associated kinases comprise a sub-family of receptor-like kinases that function in plant growth and stress responses. Previous studies have shown that the rice wall-associated kinase, OsWAK25, interacts with a diverse set of proteins associated with both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Here, we show that wounding and BTH treatments induce OsWAK25 transcript expression in rice. We generated OsWAK25 overexpression lines and show that these lines exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype and enhanced expression of rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog 1), OsPAL2, PBZ1 and PR10. Furthermore, these lines show resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Magnaporthe oryzae, yet display increased susceptibility to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Cochliobolus miyabeanus. PMID:26795719

  15. Covalent cross-linking of cell-wall polysaccharides through esterified diferulates as a maize resistance mechanism against corn borers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Rios, Jaime; Santiago, Rogelio; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Malvar, Rosa A

    2015-03-04

    There is strong evidence to suggest that cross-linking of cell-wall polymers through ester-linked diferulates has a key role in plant resistance to pests; however, direct experimentation to provide conclusive proof is lacking. This study presents an evaluation of the damage caused by two corn borer species on six maize populations particularly selected for divergent diferulate concentrations in pith stem tissues. Maize populations selected for high total diferulate concentration had 31% higher diferulates than those selected for low diferulates. Stem tunneling by corn borer species was 29% greater in the population with the lowest diferulates than in the population with the highest diferulates (31.7 versus 22.6 cm), whereas total diferulate concentration was negatively correlated with stem tunneling by corn borers. Moreover, orthogonal contrasts between groups of populations evaluated showed that larvae fed in laboratory bioassays on pith stem tissues from maize populations with higher diferulates had 30-40% lower weight than larvae fed on the same tissues from maize populations with lower diferulates. This is the first report that shows a direct relationship between diferulate deposition in maize cell walls and corn borer resistance. Current findings will help to develop adapted maize varieties with an acceptable level of resistance against borers and be useful in special kinds of agriculture, such as organic farming.

  16. Roles of the Skn7 response regulator in stress resistance, cell wall integrity and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Shi, Liang; Hu, Yanru; Liu, Rui; Ren, Ang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Mingwen

    2018-05-01

    The transcription factor Skn7 is a highly conserved fungal protein that participates in a variety of processes, including oxidative stress adaptation, fungicide sensitivity, cell wall biosynthesis, cell cycle, and sporulation. In this study, a homologous gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Skn7 was cloned from Ganoderma lucidum. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the functions of Skn7, and the two knockdown strains Skn7i-5 and Skn7i-7 were obtained in G. lucidum. The knockdown of GlSkn7 resulted in hypersensitivity to oxidative and cell wall stresses. The concentrations of chitin and β-1,3-glucan distinctly decreased in the GlSkn7 knockdown strains compared with those of the wild type (WT). In addition, the expression of cell wall biosynthesis related genes was also significantly down-regulated and the thickness of the cell wall also significantly reduced in the GlSkn7 knockdown strains. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and ganoderic acids biosynthesis increased significantly in the GlSkn7 knockdown strains. Interestingly, the level of intracellular ROS and the content of ganoderic acids decreased after N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, was added, indicating that GlSkn7 might regulate ganoderic acids biosynthesis via the intracellular ROS level. The transcript level of GlSkn7 were up-regulated in osmotic stress, heat stress and fungicide condition. At the same time, the content of ganoderic acids in the GlSkn7 knockdown strains also changed distinctly in these conditions. Overall, GlSkn7 is involved in stress resistance, cell wall integrity and ganoderic acid biosynthesis in G. lucidum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility Study to Reduce Thermal Resistance of Finned Containment Wall in Simplified OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwi; Kang, Hie Chan; Noh, Hyung Gyun

    2016-01-01

    This concept is securing of cooling capability by using finned containment itself, it could be another alternative for achieving decompression of containment as heat sink. The objective of this study is a feasibility test to estimate the heat transfer performance from the finned containment wall in case of OPR1000. The commercial code, ANSYS CFX 16 was used in this work. The number of grids is about 1.8 million. Therefore, 250mm rebar affects more considerable than that of 50mm to the temperature distribution. For this reasons, temperature distribution of z-axis direction was showed significant changes in (c). The heat transfer in three types of containment was 267.6W, 265.2W and 307.8W, respectively. The Type B case increased up to 15% of heat transfer than the baseline containment building. Three different types of containment wall were tested by numerical simulation to understand the cooling performance of finned containment wall. We can conclude as follows: For the finned containment wall type A that fins are installed inside and outside with the same rebar configuration of conventional containment building, the heat transfer is almost the same as conventional containment wall. The finned containment wall type B that volume fraction of rebar is increased transfer the heat 15% more compared with conventional one. The cross-sectional area or volume fraction of the rebar to attach fin is important to enhance the heat transfer. The fin efficiency of the fin is very low as 3.1% in the present cases.

  18. Effect of tetrahedral amorphous carbon coating on the resistivity and wear of single-walled carbon nanotube network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Ajai, E-mail: ajai.iyer@aalto.fi; Etula, Jarkko; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I. [NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Espoo (Finland); Novikov, Serguei [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-05-14

    Single walled carbon nanotube networks (SWCNTNs) were coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) to improve the mechanical wear properties of the composite film. The ta-C deposition was performed by using pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc method resulting in the generation of C+ ions in the energy range of 40–60 eV which coalesce to form a ta-C film. The primary disadvantage of this process is a significant increase in the electrical resistance of the SWCNTN post coating. The increase in the SWCNTN resistance is attributed primarily to the intrinsic stress of the ta-C coating which affects the inter-bundle junction resistance between the SWCNTN bundles. E-beam evaporated carbon was deposited on the SWCNTNs prior to the ta-C deposition in order to protect the SWCNTN from the intrinsic stress of the ta-C film. The causes of changes in electrical resistance and the effect of evaporated carbon thickness on the changes in electrical resistance and mechanical wear properties have been studied.

  19. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Little, Jaime L; Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis , exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Recovery of BMIPP uptake and regional wall motion in insulin resistant patients following angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Takayuki; Ishii, Yoshinao; Hirasawa, Kunihiko; Tateda, Kunihiko; Takeuchi, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Kenjiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2003-01-01

    The effect of insulin resistance (IR) on the fatty acid metabolism of myocardium, and therefore on the recovery of left ventricular (LV) wall motion, has not been established in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of consecutive 58 non-diabetic AMI patients who had successfully undergone emergency coronary angioplasty were analyzed retrospectively. They were categorized into 2 groups, normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The parameters of OGTT, myocardial scintigraphy (n=58) (thallium-201 (Tl) and iodine-123-β-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP)) and left ventriculography (n=24) were compared in the 2 groups after reperfusion (acute phase) and 3-4 weeks after the AMI (chronic phase). The IR, estimated by the serum concentration of insulin at 120 min (IRI 120') of the OGTT and by the HOMA (the homeostasis model assessment) index, was higher in the IGT group than in NGT group. An inverse correlation was found between the recovery of regional LV wall motion in the ischemic lesion and the IRI 120' and HOMA index. Although the recovery of BMIPP uptake from the acute to the chronic phase was higher in the IGT group, it was only correlated with the degree of IRI 120', not with the HOMA. IR accompanied by IGT can negatively influence the recovery of regional LV wall motion. (author)

  1. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Narusaka

    Full Text Available Housaku Monogatari (HM is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  2. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  3. Analytic study on low- external ideal infernal modes in tokamaks with large edge pressure gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Daniele; Graves, J. P.; Lazzaro, E.; Mariani, A.; Nowak, S.; Cooper, W. A.; Wahlberg, C.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of pressure driven infernal type perturbations near the plasma edge is addressed analytically for a circular limited tokamak configuration which presents an edge flattened safety factor. The plasma is separated from a metallic wall, either ideally conducting or resistive, by a vacuum region. The dispersion relation for such types of instabilities is derived and discussed for two classes of equilibrium profiles for pressure and mass density.

  4. An analytic scaling relation for the maximum tokamak elongation against n  =  0 MHD resistive wall modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Freidberg, Jeffrey; Cerfon, Antoine; Greenwald, Martin

    2017-06-01

    A highly elongated plasma is desirable in order to increase plasma pressure and energy confinement to maximize fusion power output. However, there is a limit to the maximum achievable elongation which is set by vertical instabilities driven by the n  =  0 MHD mode. This limit can be increased by optimizing several parameters characterizing the plasma and the wall. The purpose of our study is to explore how and to what extent this can be done. Specifically, we extend many earlier calculations of the n  =  0 mode and numerically determine scaling relations for the maximum elongation as a function of dimensionless parameters describing (1) the plasma profile ({βp} and l i ), (2) the plasma shape (ɛ and δ), (3) the wall radius (b/a) and (4) most importantly the feedback system capability parameter γ {τw} . These numerical calculations rely on a new formulation of n  =  0 MHD theory we recently developed (Freidberg et al 2015 J. Plasma Phys. 81 515810607, Lee et al 2015 J. Plasma Phys. 81 515810608) that reduces the 2D stability problem into a 1D problem. This method includes all the physics of the ideal MHD axisymmetric instability while reducing the computation time significantly, so that many parameters can be explored during the optimization process. The scaling relations we present include the effects of the optimal triangularity and the finite aspect ratio on the maximum elongation, and can be useful for determining optimized plasma shapes in current experiments and future tokamak designs.

  5. Thermal resistances of air in cavity walls and their effect upon the thermal insulation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Cherier, M.K.; Hamdani, M.; Benamrane, N. [Application of Renewable Energies in Arid and Semi Arid Environments /Applied Research Unit on Renewable Energies/ EPST Development Center of Renewable Energies, URAER and B.P. 88, ZI, Gart Taam Ghardaia (Algeria); Benouaz, T. [University of Tlemcen, BP. 119, Tlemcen R.p. 13000 (Algeria); Yaiche, M.R. [Development Center of Renewable Energies, CDER and B.P 62, 16340, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria)

    2013-07-01

    The optimum thickness in cavity walls in buildings is determined under steady conditions; the heat transfer has been calculated according to ISO 15099:2003. Two forms of masonry units are investigated to conclude the advantage of high thermal emissivity. The paper presents also some results from a study of the thermal insulation performance of air cavities bounded by thin reflective material layer 'eta = 0.05'. The results show that the most economical cavity configuration depends on the thermal emissivity and the insulation material used.

  6. Redox Control of Aphid Resistance through Altered Cell Wall Composition and Nutritional Quality1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Brwa; Marcus, Sue E.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning plant perception of phloem-feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was explored using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype, and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was decreased significantly in TAO plants compared with other lines. Leaf sugar levels were increased and maximum extractable AO activities were decreased in response to aphids in all genotypes. Transcripts encoding the Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, signaling components involved in ethylene and other hormone-mediated pathways, photosynthetic electron transport components, sugar, amino acid, and cell wall metabolism, were increased significantly in the TAO plants in response to aphid perception relative to other lines. The levels of galactosylated xyloglucan were decreased significantly in response to aphid feeding in all the lines, the effect being the least in the TAO plants. Similarly, all lines exhibited increases in tightly bound (1→4)-β-galactan. Taken together, these findings identify AO-dependent mechanisms that limit aphid infestation. PMID:28743764

  7. Redox Control of Aphid Resistance through Altered Cell Wall Composition and Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Brwa; McGowan, Jack; Pastok, Daria; Marcus, Sue E; Morris, Jenny A; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Hancock, Robert D; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-09-01

    The mechanisms underpinning plant perception of phloem-feeding insects, particularly aphids, remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the role of apoplastic redox state in controlling aphid infestation was explored using transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) plants that have either high (PAO) or low (TAO) ascorbate oxidase (AO) activities relative to the wild type. Only a small number of leaf transcripts and metabolites were changed in response to genotype, and cell wall composition was largely unaffected. Aphid fecundity was decreased significantly in TAO plants compared with other lines. Leaf sugar levels were increased and maximum extractable AO activities were decreased in response to aphids in all genotypes. Transcripts encoding the Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog F, signaling components involved in ethylene and other hormone-mediated pathways, photosynthetic electron transport components, sugar, amino acid, and cell wall metabolism, were increased significantly in the TAO plants in response to aphid perception relative to other lines. The levels of galactosylated xyloglucan were decreased significantly in response to aphid feeding in all the lines, the effect being the least in the TAO plants. Similarly, all lines exhibited increases in tightly bound (1→4)-β-galactan. Taken together, these findings identify AO-dependent mechanisms that limit aphid infestation. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Effect of compressive strain on electric resistance of multi-wall carbon nanotube networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Olejník, R.; Kimmer, D.; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2011), s. 294-304 ISSN 1745-8080 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : MWNT network * electric resistance * buckypaper * strain effect Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2011

  9. Multi-wall carbon nanotube networks as potential resistive gas sensors for organic vapor detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Svoboda, P.; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 7 (2011), s. 2499-2507 ISSN 0008-6223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * KMnO 4 oxidation * electrical resistance * organic vapor detection * adsorption/desorption cycles Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 5.378, year: 2011

  10. Comparison between Laboratory Measurements, Simulations and Analytical Predictions of the Resistive Wall Transverse Beam Impedance at low frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Kroyer, T; Métral, E; Salvant, B

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the resistive wall transverse beam impedance at the first unstable betatron line (8 kHz) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is of paramount importance for understanding and controlling the related coupled-bunch instability. Until now only novel analytical formulas were available at this frequency. Recently, laboratory measurements and numerical simulations were performed to crosscheck the analytical predictions. The experimental results based on the measurement of the variation of a probe coil inductance in the presence of i) sample graphite plates, ii) stand-alone LHC collimator jaws and iii) a full LHC collimator assembly are presented in detail. The measurement results are compared to both analytical theories and simulations. In addition, the consequences for the understanding of the LHC impedance are discussed.

  11. Control over the resonance wavelength of fibre Bragg gratings using resistive coatings based on single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, Yu. G.; Medvedkov, O. I.; Vasil'ev, S. A.; Kopylova, D. S.; Yakovlev, V. Ya.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that a thin resistive coating based on single-wall carbon nanotubes applied to the lateral surface of an optical fibre allows it to be uniformly heated up to a temperature of ∼ 400 \\circ{\\text{C}} without damage to the coating. Using a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) as an example, we assess the efficiency of resonance wavelength thermal tuning and examine frequency characteristics that can be achieved using such coating. In particular, we show that the resonance wavelength of the FBG can be tuned over 3.2 {\\text{nm}} with an efficiency of 8.7 {\\text{nm}} {\\text{W}}-1 and time constant of ∼ 0.4 {\\text{s}}.

  12. Improved model predictive control of resistive wall modes by error field estimator in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.

    2016-12-01

    Many implementations of a model-based approach for toroidal plasma have shown better control performance compared to the conventional type of feedback controller. One prerequisite of model-based control is the availability of a control oriented model. This model can be obtained empirically through a systematic procedure called system identification. Such a model is used in this work to design a model predictive controller to stabilize multiple resistive wall modes in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. Model predictive control is an advanced control method that can optimize the future behaviour of a system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss an additional use of the empirical model which is to estimate the error field in EXTRAP T2R. Two potential methods are discussed that can estimate the error field. The error field estimator is then combined with the model predictive control and yields better radial magnetic field suppression.

  13. Resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of resistive wall instabilities and tearing mode dynamics in the EXTRAP T2R thin shell (τw=6 ms) reversed field pinch are described. A nonresonant mode (m=1,n=-10) with the same handedness as the internal field grows nearly exponentially with an average growth time of about 2.6 ms (less than 1/2 of the shell time) consistent with linear stability theory. The externally nonresonant unstable modes (m=1,n>0), predicted by linear stability theory, are observed to have only low amplitudes (in the normal low-Θ operation mode of the device). The radial field of the dominant internally resonant tearing modes (m=1,n=-15 to n=-12) remain low due to spontaneous fast mode rotation, corresponding to angular phase velocities up to 280 krad/s. Phase aligned mode structures are observed to rotate toroidally with an average angular velocity of 40 krad/s, in the opposite direction of the plasma current. Toward the end of the discharge, the radial field of the internally resonant modes grows as the modes slow down and become wall-locked, in agreement with nonlinear computations. Fast rotation of the internally resonant modes has been observed only recently and is attributed to a change of the front-end system (vacuum vessel, shell, and TF coil) of the device.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey against antibiotic-resistant strains of the cell wall-free bacteria Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillitt, K L; Jenkins, R E; Spiller, O B; Beeton, M L

    2017-03-01

    The susceptibility of the cell wall-free bacterial pathogens Ureaplasma spp. to Manuka honey was examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Manuka honey for four Ureaplasma urealyticum and four Ureaplasma parvum isolates was determined. Sensitivity to honey was also compared to clinical isolates with resistance to tetracycline, macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Finally step-wise resistance training was utilized in an attempt to induce increased tolerance to honey. The MIC was dependent on the initial bacterial load with 7·5 and 18·0% w/v honey required to inhibit U. urealyticum at 1 and 10 6 colour changing units (CCU), respectively, and 4·8 and 15·3% w/v required to inhibit U. parvum at 1 and 10 6  CCU respectively. MIC values were consistently lower for U. parvum compared with U. urealyticum. Antimicrobial activity was seen against tetracycline-resistant, erythromycin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates at 10 5  CCU. No resistance to honey was observed with 50 consecutive challenges at increasing concentrations of honey. This is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey against a cell wall-free bacterial pathogen. The antimicrobial activity was retained against antibiotic-resistant strains and it was not possible to generate resistant mutants. Manuka honey is known to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, with the bacterial cell wall being suggested as a predominant site of action. This study has demonstrated that Manuka honey has activity against Ureaplasma spp., a genus of cell wall-free bacteria which are intrinsically resistant to many available antibiotics making treatment inherently difficult. This is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey against a bacterial pathogen, in the absence of a cell well and opens scope for the use of components of Manuka honey as a therapeutic among Ureaplasma infections. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Loss of plasmid-mediated resistance after conversion of a group B streptococcus strain to a stable cell wall deficient variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Slomska, J; Caravano, R; El-Solh, N

    1979-01-01

    A group B streptococcus strain carrying plasmid DNA determining resistance to several drugs was converted by penicillin to cell wall (CW) defective and then to CW deficient variants (L-forms). The stable CW deficient variants became susceptible to antibiotics in study. Dye-buoyant density analysis of the DNA of CW deficient variants showed that the loss of antibiotic resistance was associated with the loss of extrachromosomal DNA.

  16. Temporary formation of highly conducting domain walls for non-destructive read-out of ferroelectric domain-wall resistance switching memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Bai, Zi Long; Chen, Zhi Hui; He, Long; Zhang, David Wei; Zhang, Qing Hua; Shi, Jin An; Park, Min Hyuk; Scott, James F.; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jiang, An Quan

    2018-01-01

    Erasable conductive domain walls in insulating ferroelectric thin films can be used for non-destructive electrical read-out of the polarization states in ferroelectric memories. Still, the domain-wall currents extracted by these devices have not yet reached the intensity and stability required to drive read-out circuits operating at high speeds. This study demonstrated non-destructive read-out of digital data stored using specific domain-wall configurations in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films formed in mesa-geometry structures. Partially switched domains, which enable the formation of conductive walls during the read operation, spontaneously retract when the read voltage is removed, reducing the accumulation of mobile defects at the domain walls and potentially improving the device stability. Three-terminal memory devices produced 14 nA read currents at an operating voltage of 5 V, and operated up to T = 85 °C. The gap length can also be smaller than the film thickness, allowing the realization of ferroelectric memories with device dimensions far below 100 nm.

  17. Ectopic expression of a novel OsExtensin-like gene consistently enhances plant lodging resistance by regulating cell elongation and cell wall thickening in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunfen; Li, Ying; Hu, Zhen; Hu, Huizhen; Wang, Guangya; Li, Ao; Wang, Youmei; Tu, Yuanyuan; Xia, Tao; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

    2018-01-01

    Plant lodging resistance is an important integrative agronomic trait of grain yield and quality in crops. Although extensin proteins are tightly associated with plant cell growth and cell wall construction, little has yet been reported about their impacts on plant lodging resistance. In this study, we isolated a novel extensin-like (OsEXTL) gene in rice, and selected transgenic rice plants that expressed OsEXTL under driven with two distinct promoters. Despite different OsEXTL expression levels, two-promoter-driven OsEXTL-transgenic plants, compared to a rice cultivar and an empty vector, exhibited significantly reduced cell elongation in stem internodes, leading to relatively shorter plant heights by 7%-10%. Meanwhile, the OsEXTL-transgenic plants showed remarkably thickened secondary cell walls with higher cellulose levels in the mature plants, resulting in significantly increased detectable mechanical strength (extension and pushing forces) in the mature transgenic plants. Due to reduced plant height and increased plant mechanical strength, the OsEXTL-transgenic plants were detected with largely enhanced lodging resistances in 3 years field experiments, compared to those of the rice cultivar ZH11. In addition, despite relatively short plant heights, the OsEXTL-transgenic plants maintain normal grain yields and biomass production, owing to their increased cellulose levels and thickened cell walls. Hence, this study demonstrates a largely improved lodging resistance in the OsEXTL-transgenic rice plants, and provides insights into novel extensin functions in plant cell growth and development, cell wall network construction and wall structural remodelling. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Resistive wall mode feedback control in EXTRAP T2R with improved steady-state error and transient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2007-10-01

    Experiments in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch [P. R. Brunsell, H. Bergsåker, M. Cecconello et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] on feedback control of m =1 resistive wall modes (RWMs) are compared with simulations using the cylindrical linear magnetohydrodynamic model, including the dynamics of the active coils and power amplifiers. Stabilization of the main RWMs (n=-11,-10,-9,-8,+5,+6) is shown using modest loop gains of the order G ˜1. However, other marginally unstable RWMs (n=-2,-1,+1,+2) driven by external field errors are only partially canceled at these gains. The experimental system stability limit is confirmed by simulations showing that the latency of the digital controller ˜50μs is degrading the system gain margin. The transient response is improved with a proportional-plus-derivative controller, and steady-state error is improved with a proportional-plus-integral controller. Suppression of all modes is obtained at high gain G ˜10 using a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controller.

  19. Existence of ideal knots

    CERN Document Server

    González, O

    2002-01-01

    Ideal knots are curves that maximize the scale invariant ratio of thickness to length. Here we present a simple argument to establish the existence of ideal knots for each knot type and each isotopy class and show that they are $C^{1,1}$ curves.

  20. Topological Valley Transport at Bilayer Graphene Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    resistances are lower than that expected from the semiconductor bandgap in ideal bilayer graphene , presumably owing to impurities and defects in our devices...LETTER doi:10.1038/nature14364 Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls Long Ju1*, Zhiwen Shi1*, Nityan Nair1, Yinchuan Lv1...Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene . A tunable bandgap can be

  1. The maize disease resistance gene Htn1 against northern corn leaf blight encodes a wall-associated receptor-like kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Severine; Scheuermann, Daniela; Krattinger, Simon G; Kessel, Bettina; Wicker, Thomas; Herren, Gerhard; Fitze, Mirjam N; Breen, James; Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Keller, Beat

    2015-07-14

    Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Exserohilum turcicum is an important foliar disease of maize that is mainly controlled by growing resistant maize cultivars. The Htn1 locus confers quantitative and partial NCLB resistance by delaying the onset of lesion formation. Htn1 represents an important source of genetic resistance that was originally introduced from a Mexican landrace into modern maize breeding lines in the 1970s. Using a high-resolution map-based cloning approach, we delimited Htn1 to a 131.7-kb physical interval on chromosome 8 that contained three candidate genes encoding two wall-associated receptor-like kinases (ZmWAK-RLK1 and ZmWAK-RLK2) and one wall-associated receptor-like protein (ZmWAK-RLP1). TILLING (targeting induced local lesions in genomes) mutants in ZmWAK-RLK1 were more susceptible to NCLB than wild-type plants, both in greenhouse experiments and in the field. ZmWAK-RLK1 contains a nonarginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase domain, typically found in plant innate immune receptors. Sequence comparison showed that the extracellular domain of ZmWAK-RLK1 is highly diverse between different maize genotypes. Furthermore, an alternative splice variant resulting in a truncated protein was present at higher frequency in the susceptible parents of the mapping populations compared with in the resistant parents. Hence, the quantitative Htn1 disease resistance in maize is encoded by an unusual innate immune receptor with an extracellular wall-associated kinase domain. These results further highlight the importance of this protein family in resistance to adapted pathogens.

  2. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  3. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F.; Jos? Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Guti?rrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expres...

  4. Ideals in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, G J; Simpson, J A; Thomas, G; Giles, L

    1999-01-01

    This research examined lay relationship and partner ideals in romantic relationships from both a social-cognitive and an evolutionary perspective. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the qualities of an ideal partner were represented by 3 factors (partner warmth-trustworthiness, vitality-attractiveness, and status-resources), whereas the qualities of an ideal relationship were represented by 2 factors (relationship intimacy-loyalty and passion). A confirmatory factor analysis in Study 3 replicated these factor structures but found considerable overlap across the partner and relationship dimensions. Studies 4 and 5 produced convergent and discriminant validity evidence for all 5 factors. Study 6 indicated that the higher the consistency between the ideals and related assessments of the current partner and relationship, the more positively the current relationship was evaluated.

  5. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training decreases peripheral but not central artery wall thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Munckhof, I.C.L. van den; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of exercise training on conduit artery wall thickness in type 2 diabetes. We examined the local and systemic impact of exercise training on superficial femoral (SFA), brachial (BA), and carotid artery (CA) wall thickness in type 2 diabetes patients and

  6. Magic bullets to fight resistance : Uncovering how peptide-antibiotics break down the bacterial cell envelope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros-Silva, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288254600; Jekhmane, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412782715; Breukink, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120305100; Weingarth, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330985655

    The rapid rise of resistant bacteria urgently calls for novel antibiotics that are robust to resistance development. Ideal templates could be peptide-antibiotics that destroy the bacterial cell wall by binding to its membrane-anchored precursor lipid II at irreplaceable phosphate groups. Indeed,

  7. Quantum Interference Control of Ballistic Magneto- resistance in a Magnetic Nanowire Containing Two Atomic- Size Domain Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fallahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoresistance of a one-dimensional electron gas in a metallic ferromagnetic nanowire containing two atomic-size domain walls has been investigated in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. The magnetoresistance is calculated in the ballistic regime, within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. It has been demonstrated that the conductance of a magnetic nanowire with double domain walls can be controlled through the domain walls separation. Also, we have represented another alternative way that enables us to handle easily the magnetoresistance of such a system as well as its conductance by utilizing the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction induced by the external gates.

  8. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  9. Arabidopsis wat1 (walls are thin1)-mediated resistance to the bacterial vascular pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, is accompanied by cross-regulation of salicylic acid and tryptophan metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denancé, Nicolas; Ranocha, Philippe; Oria, Nicolas; Barlet, Xavier; Rivière, Marie-Pierre; Yadeta, Koste A; Hoffmann, Laurent; Perreau, François; Clément, Gilles; Maia-Grondard, Alessandra; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Savelli, Bruno; Fournier, Sylvie; Aubert, Yann; Pelletier, Sandra; Thomma, Bart P H J; Molina, Antonio; Jouanin, Lise; Marco, Yves; Goffner, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of Arabidopsis WAT1 (Walls Are Thin1), a gene required for secondary cell-wall deposition, conferred broad-spectrum resistance to vascular pathogens, including the bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and the fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum. Introduction of NahG, the bacterial salicylic acid (SA)-degrading salicylate hydroxylase gene, into the wat1 mutant restored full susceptibility to both R. solanacearum and X. campestris pv. campestris. Moreover, SA content was constitutively higher in wat1 roots, further supporting a role for SA in wat1-mediated resistance to vascular pathogens. By combining transcriptomic and metabolomic data, we demonstrated a general repression of indole metabolism in wat1-1 roots as shown by constitutive down-regulation of several genes encoding proteins of the indole glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway and reduced amounts of tryptophan (Trp), indole-3-acetic acid and neoglucobrassicin, the major form of indole glucosinolate in roots. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the wat1 mutant to R. solanacearum was partially restored when crossed with either the trp5 mutant, an over-accumulator of Trp, or Pro35S:AFB1-myc, in which indole-3-acetic acid signaling is constitutively activated. Our original hypothesis placed cell-wall modifications at the heart of the wat1 resistance phenotype. However, the results presented here suggest a mechanism involving root-localized metabolic channeling away from indole metabolites to SA as a central feature of wat1 resistance to R. solanacearum. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  11. Acceleration sensors in abdominal wall position as a non-invasive approach to detect early breathing alterations induced by intolerance of increased airway resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Bruells, Christian S; Rossaint, Rolf; Steffen, Henning; Disselhorst-Klug, Catherine; Czaplik, Michael; Zoremba, Norbert

    2017-11-10

    Early detection of respiratory overload is crucial to mechanically ventilated patients, especially during phases of spontaneous breathing. Although a diversity of methods and indices has been established, there is no highly specific approach to predict respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate acceleration sensors in abdominal and thoracic wall positions to detect alterations in breathing excursions in a setting of gradual increasing airway resistance. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers were committed to a standardized protocol of a two-minutes step-down spontaneous breathing on a 5 mm, 4 mm and then 3 mm orally placed endotracheal tube. Accelerator sensors in thoracic and abdominal wall position monitored breathing excursions. 15 participants passed the breathing protocol ("completed" group), 14 individuals cancelled the protocol due to subjective intolerance to the increasing airway resistance ("abandoned" group). Gradual increased respiratory workload led to a significant decrease of acceleration in abdominal wall position in the "abandoned" group compared to the "completed" group (p breathing alterations prior to respiratory failure. EK 309-15; by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany. Retrospectively registered 28th of December 2015.

  12. Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in sitiens, an abscisic acid-deficient tomato mutant, involves timely production of hydrogen peroxide and cell wall modifications in the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselbergh, Bob; Curvers, Katrien; Franca, Soraya C; Audenaert, Kris; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Van Breusegem, Frank; Höfte, Monica

    2007-08-01

    Plant defense mechanisms against necrotrophic pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, are considered to be complex and to differ from those that are effective against biotrophs. In the abscisic acid-deficient sitiens tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, which is highly resistant to B. cinerea, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was earlier and stronger than in the susceptible wild type at the site of infection. In sitiens, H(2)O(2) accumulation was observed from 4 h postinoculation (hpi), specifically in the leaf epidermal cell walls, where it caused modification by protein cross-linking and incorporation of phenolic compounds. In wild-type tomato plants, H(2)O(2) started to accumulate 24 hpi in the mesophyll layer and was associated with spreading cell death. Transcript-profiling analysis using TOM1 microarrays revealed that defense-related transcript accumulation prior to infection was higher in sitiens than in wild type. Moreover, further elevation of sitiens defense gene expression was stronger than in wild type 8 hpi both in number of genes and in their expression levels and confirmed a role for cell wall modification in the resistant reaction. Although, in general, plant defense-related reactive oxygen species formation facilitates necrotrophic colonization, these data indicate that timely hyperinduction of H(2)O(2)-dependent defenses in the epidermal cell wall can effectively block early development of B. cinerea.

  13. Resistance to cereal rusts at the plant cell wall - what can we learn from other host-pathogen systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, N.C.; Niks, R.E.; Schulze-Lefert, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of plant cells to resist invasion by pathogenic fungi at the cell periphery (pre-invasion resistance) differs from other types of resistance that are generally triggered after parasite entry and during differentiation of specialised intracellular feeding structures. Genetic sources of

  14. Cofinalities of Borel ideals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušák, M.; Rojas-Rebolledo, D.; Zapletal, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, 1-2 (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Borel ideals * natural numbers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.201200079/abstract

  15. Quaternions and ideal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshraghi, H [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), School of Physics, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gibbon, J D [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-29

    After a review of some of the recent works by Holm and Gibbon on quaternions and their application to Lagrangian flows, particularly the incompressible Euler equations and the equations of ideal MHD, this paper investigates the compressible and relativistic Euler equations using these methods.

  16. Delivering ideal employee experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D; Tyink, Steve; Kubiak, Curt

    2009-05-01

    Employee-centric strategies have moved from employee satisfaction and brand awareness to employee "affinity" or "attachment." In today's marketplace, occupational health nurses understand that differentiation (i.e., the perception of uniqueness) is the direct result of superior employee interactions, which lead to better employee care, enduring employee relationships, loyal employees, and satisfied employers. What drives employees to occupational health nurse attachment? The answer is a passion for rising above the competition to create ideal employee experiences.

  17. Documentation for Calculations of Standard Fire Resistance of Slabs and Walls of Concrete with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    that the methods are applicable for slabs and walls of light weight aggregate concrete. It is shown that the temperatures for standard fire exposed cross sections can be calculated, that the ultimate moment capacity can be calculated for slabs, and that the anchorage capacity and the shear tension capacity can...... the transient strains into account....

  18. Isolation of Lactococcus lactis Mutants Simultaneously Resistant to the Cell Wall-Active Bacteriocin Lcn972, Lysozyme, Nisin, and Bacteriophage c2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roces, Clara; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Rodríguez, Ana; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) is a nonlantibiotic bacteriocin that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. In this work, two mutants resistant to Lcn972, Lactococcus lactis D1 and D1-20, with high (>320 arbitrary units [AU]/ml) and low (80 AU/ml) susceptibilities, respectively, have been isolated. Resistance to Lcn972 did not impose a burden to growth under laboratory conditions, nor did it substantially alter the physicochemical properties of the cell surface. However, the peptidoglycan of the mutants featured a higher content of muropeptides with tripeptide side chains than the wild-type strain, linking for the first time peptidoglycan remodelling to bacteriocin resistance. Moreover, L. lactis lacking a functional d,d-carboxypeptidase DacA (i.e., with a high content of pentapeptide side chain muropeptides) was shown to be more susceptible to Lcn972. Cross-resistance to lysozyme and nisin and enhanced susceptibility to penicillin G and bacitracin was also observed. Intriguingly, the Lcn972-resistant mutants were not infected by the lytic phage c2 and less efficiently infected by phage sk1. Lack of c2 infectivity was linked to a 22.6-kbp chromosomal deletion encompassing the phage receptor protein gene pip. The deletion also included maltose metabolic genes and the two-component system (TCS) F. However, a clear correlation between these genes and resistance to Lcn972 could not be clearly established, pointing to the presence of as-yet-unidentified mutations that account for Lcn972 resistance. PMID:22504807

  19. Stiffness of reinforced concrete walls resisting in-place shear -- Tier 2: Aging and durability of concrete used in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, P.J.M.; Moehle, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Reinforced concrete walls are commonly used in power-plant construction to resist earthquake effects. Determination of wall stiffness is of particular importance for establishing design forces on attached equipment. Available experimental data indicate differences between the measured and calculated stiffness of walls in cases where concrete mechanical properties are well defined. Additional data indicate that in-situ concrete mechanical properties may differ significantly from those specified in design. The work summarized in this report was undertaken to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete considering aging and deterioration. Existing data on mechanical properties of concrete are evaluated, and new tests are carried out on concrete cylinders batched for nuclear power plants and stored under controlled conditions for up to twenty years. It is concluded that concretes batched for nuclear power plants commonly have 28-day strength that exceeds the design value by at least 1000 psi. Under curing conditions representative of those in the interior of thick concrete elements, strength gain with time can be estimated conservatively using the expression proposed by ACI Committee 209, with strengths at 25 years being approximately 1.3 times the 28-day strength. Young's modulus can be estimated using the expression given by ACI Committee 318. Variabilities in mechanical properties are identified. A review of concrete durability identified the main causes and results of concrete deterioration that are relevant for the class of concretes and structures commonly used in nuclear power plants. Prospects for identifying the occurrence and predicting the extent of deterioration are discussed

  20. Multi-wall carbon nanotube-embedded lithium cobalt phosphate composites with reduced resistance for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Rustomji, Cyrus S.; Cho, Hyung-Man; Chun, Dongwon; Jung, Jae-Young; Caldwell, Elizabeth; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Jun Hyun; Jin, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    Lithium cobalt phosphate (LCP) is a high-voltage cathode material used in highenergy- density lithium-ion batteries. With a novel composite synthesis method, multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-embedded LCP nanocomposites (LCPCNT composites) are synthesized to enhance the electrical conductance of LCP particles, reducing charge-transfer resistance. The LCP-CNT composites with enhanced electrical conductance approximately doubled cell capacity compared to a cell with a bare LCP cathode. The crystal structure of LCP-CNT composite particles is characterized by X-ray diffraction; the microstructures of the embedded MWCNTs inside LCP particles are confirmed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam procedures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the charge-transfer resistance of the cell with the LCP-CNT composite (1.0 wt. % CNT) cathode decreases to ~80 Ω, much smaller than the ~150 Ω charge-transfer resistance of the bare-LCP cathode cell. Based on battery test and impedance analysis, the main factors affecting the capacity increment are the reduced charge transfer resistance and the uniform distribution of MWCNTs, which is formed during the gelation step of the LCP synthesis procedure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. TiO2 coated multi-wall carbon nanotube as a corrosion inhibitor for improving the corrosion resistance of BTESPT coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhu, Hongzheng; Zhuang, Chen; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Longqiang; Dong, Lihua; Yin, Yansheng

    2016-01-01

    The composite coatings of TiO 2 coated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)/bis-[triethoxysilylpropyl]tetrasulfide (BTESPT) with different components were prepared on AA 2024 by the cathodic electrophoretic deposition technique and the experimental conditions were optimized to attain the appropriate volume ratio. The modified MWCNTs obviously improved the corrosion resistance of BTESPT and BTESPT/TiO 2 coatings, especially for the long-term corrosion resistance ability because of the good dispersion of MWCNTs. The geometry of composite coatings were explored by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectra and the surface coverage rate (θ), the results indicate that the composite coatings produce good cross-linked structure at the interfacial layer, the coating compactness increases gradually with the addition of TiO 2 and/or MWCNTs, and the composite coating effectively postpones the production of cracks with the addition of MWCNTs. - Highlights: • The composite coatings with different components were prepared on AA 2024 by the cathodic electrophoretic deposition technology. • The formation of composite coating on AA 2024 surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance ability. • The composite coating with a TiO 2 to MWCNTs volume ratio of 4/1 shows the best corrosion resistance. • The kinetic evaluation of inhibitive behavior for different coatings against immersion time was explored.

  2. Kelvin's ideal foam structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaire, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Among his many extraordinary accomplishments, Kelvin was a pioneer of crystallography, elasticity and materials science. These interests came together to inspire his speculation on the nature of the ether in 1887. He conceived it to be an ordered liquid foam, of minimal surface area. Kelvin's ideal structure of foam has been realised in the laboratory only recently. In the meantime it was surpassed (in terms of surface area minimisation) by the Weaire-Phelan foam, which is the basis for one of the main buildings of the Beijing Olympics.

  3. Impaired Chloroplast Biogenesis in Immutans, an Arabidopsis Variegation Mutant, Modifies Developmental Programming, Cell Wall Composition and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V Pogorelko

    Full Text Available The immutans (im variegation mutation of Arabidopsis has green- and white- sectored leaves due to action of a nuclear recessive gene. IM codes for PTOX, a plastoquinol oxidase in plastid membranes. Previous studies have revealed that the green and white sectors develop into sources (green tissues and sinks (white tissues early in leaf development. In this report we focus on white sectors, and show that their transformation into effective sinks involves a sharp reduction in plastid number and size. Despite these reductions, cells in the white sectors have near-normal amounts of plastid RNA and protein, and surprisingly, a marked amplification of chloroplast DNA. The maintenance of protein synthesis capacity in the white sectors might poise plastids for their development into other plastid types. The green and white im sectors have different cell wall compositions: whereas cell walls in the green sectors resemble those in wild type, cell walls in the white sectors have reduced lignin and cellulose microfibrils, as well as alterations in galactomannans and the decoration of xyloglucan. These changes promote susceptibility to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Enhanced susceptibility can also be explained by repressed expression of some, but not all, defense genes. We suggest that differences in morphology, physiology and biochemistry between the green and white sectors is caused by a reprogramming of leaf development that is coordinated, in part, by mechanisms of retrograde (plastid-to-nucleus signaling, perhaps mediated by ROS. We conclude that variegation mutants offer a novel system to study leaf developmental programming, cell wall metabolism and host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Modeling MHD Equilibrium and Dynamics with Non-Axisymmetric Resistive Walls in LTX and HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.; Levesque, J.; Boyle, D. P.; Hughes, P.

    2017-10-01

    In experimental magnetized plasmas, currents in the first wall, vacuum vessel, and other conducting structures can have a strong influence on plasma shape and dynamics. These effects are complicated by the 3D nature of these structures, which dictate available current paths. Results from simulations to study the effect of external currents on plasmas in two different experiments will be presented: 1) The arbitrary geometry, 3D extended MHD code PSI-Tet is applied to study linear and non-linear plasma dynamics in the High Beta Tokamak (HBT-EP) focusing on toroidal asymmetries in the adjustable conducting wall. 2) Equilibrium reconstructions of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) in the presence of non-axisymmetric eddy currents. An axisymmetric model is used to reconstruct the plasma equilibrium, using the PSI-Tri code, along with a set of fixed 3D eddy current distributions in the first wall and vacuum vessel [C. Hansen et al., PoP Apr. 2017]. Simulations of detailed experimental geometries are enabled by use of the PSI-Tet code, which employs a high order finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids that are generated directly from CAD models. Further development of PSI-Tet and PSI-Tri will also be presented. This work supported by US DOE contract DE-SC0016256.

  5. The resistance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide: involvement of cell wall integrity pathway and emerging role for YAP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Morais Marcos A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB is an antiseptic polymer that is mainly used for cleaning hospitals and pools and combating Acantamoeba infection. Its fungicide activity was recently shown by its lethal effect on yeasts that contaminate the industrial ethanol process, and on the PE-2 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the main fermenting yeasts in Brazil. This pointed to the need to know the molecular mechanism that lay behind the cell resistance to this compound. In this study, we examined the factors involved in PHMB-cell interaction and the mechanisms that respond to the damage caused by this interaction. To achieve this, two research strategies were employed: the expression of some genes by RT-qPCR and the analysis of mutant strains. Results Cell Wall integrity (CWI genes were induced in the PHMB-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain JP-1, although they are poorly expressed in the PHMB-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE2 strain. This suggested that PHMB damages the glucan structure on the yeast cell wall. It was also confirmed by the observed sensitivity of the yeast deletion strains, Δslg1, Δrom2, Δmkk2, Δslt2, Δknr4, Δswi4 and Δswi4, which showed that the protein kinase C (PKC regulatory mechanism is involved in the response and resistance to PHMB. The sensitivity of the Δhog1 mutant was also observed. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assay and gene expression analysis showed that the part played by YAP1 and CTT1 genes in cell resistance to PHMB is unrelated to oxidative stress response. Thus, we suggested that Yap1p can play a role in cell wall maintenance by controlling the expression of the CWI genes. Conclusion The PHMB treatment of the yeast cells activates the PKC1/Slt2 (CWI pathway. In addition, it is suggested that HOG1 and YAP1 can play a role in the regulation of CWI genes.

  6. To detect anomalies in diaphragm walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are potentially ideal retaining walls for deep excavations in densely built-up areas, as they cause no vibrations during their construction and provide structural elements with high strength and stiffness. In the recent past, however, several projects using diaphragm walls as soil

  7. A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.

  8. Certain variants of multipermutohedron ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipermutohedron ideals have rich combinatorial properties. An explicit combinatorial formula for the multigraded Betti numbers of a multipermutohedron ideal and their Alexander duals are known. Also, the dimension of the Artinian quotient of an Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal is the number of generalized ...

  9. N-Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Primes Plants for Cell Wall Reinforcement and Induces Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens via the Salicylic Acid/Oxylipin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sebastian T; Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Samans, Birgit; Stein, Elke; Neumann, Christina; Schikora, Marek; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel; Becker, Annette; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2014-06-01

    The ability of plants to monitor their surroundings, for instance the perception of bacteria, is of crucial importance. The perception of microorganism-derived molecules and their effector proteins is the best understood of these monitoring processes. In addition, plants perceive bacterial quorum sensing (QS) molecules used for cell-to-cell communication between bacteria. Here, we propose a mechanism for how N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), a group of QS molecules, influence host defense and fortify resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. N-3-oxo-tetradecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (oxo-C14-HSL) primed plants for enhanced callose deposition, accumulation of phenolic compounds, and lignification of cell walls. Moreover, increased levels of oxylipins and salicylic acid favored closure of stomata in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection. The AHL-induced resistance seems to differ from the systemic acquired and the induced systemic resistances, providing new insight into inter-kingdom communication. Consistent with the observation that short-chain AHLs, unlike oxo-C14-HSL, promote plant growth, treatments with C6-HSL, oxo-C10-HSL, or oxo-C14-HSL resulted in different transcriptional profiles in Arabidopsis. Understanding the priming induced by bacterial QS molecules augments our knowledge of plant reactions to bacteria and suggests strategies for using beneficial bacteria in plant protection. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajek, T.; Ballance, S.; Limpens, J.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands head the list of ecosystems with the largest known reservoirs of organic carbon (C). The bulk of this C is stored in decomposition-resistant litter of one bryophyte genus: Sphagnum. Understanding how Sphagnum litter chemistry controls C mineralization is essential for

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies of active control of resistive wall mode growth in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. R.; Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J. A.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Bolzonella, T.; Manduchi, G.; Marrelli, L.; Ortolani, S.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.; Bondeson, A.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2005-07-01

    Active feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) has been demonstrated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. The control system includes a sensor consisting of an array of magnetic coils (measuring mode harmonics) and an actuator consisting of a saddle coil array (producing control harmonics). Closed-loop (feedback) experiments using a digital controller based on a real time Fourier transform of sensor data have been studied for cases where the feedback gain was constant and real for all harmonics (corresponding to an intelligent-shell) and cases where the feedback gain could be set for selected harmonics, with both real and complex values (targeted harmonics). The growth of the dominant RWMs can be reduced by feedback for both the intelligent-shell and targeted-harmonic control systems. Because the number of toroidal positions of the saddle coils in the array is half the number of the sensors, it is predicted and observed experimentally that the control harmonic spectrum has sidebands. Individual unstable harmonics can be controlled with real gains. However if there are two unstable mode harmonics coupled by the sideband effect, control is much less effective with real gains. According to the theory, complex gains give better results for (slowly) rotating RWMs, and experiments support this prediction. In addition, open loop experiments have been used to observe the effects of resonant field errors applied to unstable, marginally stable and robustly stable modes. The observed effects of field errors are consistent with the thin-wall model, where mode growth is proportional to the resonant field error amplitude and the wall penetration time for that mode harmonic.

  12. The Cerato-Platanin protein Epl-1 from Trichoderma harzianum is involved in mycoparasitism, plant resistance induction and self cell wall protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Costa, Mariana do Nascimento; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Ricci de Azevedo, Rafael; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Noronha, Eliane F.; José Ulhoa, Cirano; Neves Monteiro, Valdirene; Elena Cardoza, Rosa; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Nascimento Silva, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum species are well known as biocontrol agents against important fungal phytopathogens. Mycoparasitism is one of the strategies used by this fungus in the biocontrol process. In this work, we analyzed the effect of Epl-1 protein, previously described as plant resistance elicitor, in expression modulation of T. harzianum genes involved in mycoparasitism process against phytopathogenic fungi; self cell wall protection and recognition; host hyphae coiling and triggering expression of defense-related genes in beans plants. The results indicated that the absence of Epl-1 protein affects the expression of all mycoparasitism genes analyzed in direct confrontation assays against phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as well as T. harzianum itself; the host mycoparasitic coiling process and expression modulation of plant defense genes showing different pattern compared with wild type strain. These data indicated the involvement T. harzianum Epl-1 in self and host interaction and also recognition of T. harzianum as a symbiotic fungus by the bean plants. PMID:26647876

  13. A comparative study of 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance in multiwall and single-wall carbon nanotube bolometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongtao; Kamal, Rayyan; Wu, Judy Z

    2011-07-01

    The 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are investigated in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film bolometers since both affect the bolometer detectivity directly. A comparison is made between the MWCNT film bolometers and their single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) counterparts. The intrinsic noise level in the former has been found at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in the latter, which outweighs the moderately lower TCR absolute values in the former and results in higher bolometer detectivity in MWCNT bolometers. Interestingly, reduced noise and enhanced TCR can be obtained by improving the inter-tube coupling using thermal annealing in both SWCNT and MWCNT films, suggesting much higher detectivity may be achieved via engineering the inter-tube coupling.

  14. Monomial ideals, computations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, Philippe; Sáenz-de-Cabezón, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This work covers three important aspects of monomials ideals in the three chapters "Stanley decompositions" by Jürgen Herzog, "Edge ideals" by Adam Van Tuyl and "Local cohomology" by Josep Álvarez Montaner. The chapters, written by top experts, include computer tutorials that emphasize the computational aspects of the respective areas. Monomial ideals and algebras are, in a sense, among the simplest structures in commutative algebra and the main objects of combinatorial commutative algebra. Also, they are of major importance for at least three reasons. Firstly, Gröbner basis theory allows us to treat certain problems on general polynomial ideals by means of monomial ideals. Secondly, the combinatorial structure of monomial ideals connects them to other combinatorial structures and allows us to solve problems on both sides of this correspondence using the techniques of each of the respective areas. And thirdly, the combinatorial nature of monomial ideals also makes them particularly well suited to the devel...

  15. Self-sustaining erosion-resistant low-Z coatings for first wall and limiter applications. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; DeWald, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that dilute alkali-metal alloys at surface facing a Tokamak plasma might be used to provide a self-sustaining low-Z alkali-metal surface which would shield the structural component of the alloy from erosion. At the same time, the alkali-metal overlayer could be expected to primarily sputter as secondary ions, which are returned to the wall and limiter without entering the plasma. In order to achieve this goal, a number of conditions which may be mutually exclusive must be met. Several of these conditions are analyzed, providing information on the feasibility and expected limits of performance for dilute alloys of Li in Al, Si, and Cu

  16. Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hajek, T.; Ballance, S.; Limpens, J.; Verhoeven, J.T.A.; Zijlstra, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum-dominated peatlands head the list of ecosystems with the largest known reservoirs of organic carbon (C). The bulk of this C is stored in decomposition-resistant litter of one bryophyte genus: Sphagnum. Understanding how Sphagnum litter chemistry controls C mineralization is essential for understanding potential interactions between environmental changes and C mineralization in peatlands. We aimed to separate the effects of phenolics from structural polysaccharides on decay of Sphagnu...

  17. Space Sciences and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M.

    Erwin Schrodinger suggested that " Scientific knowledge forms part of the idealistic background of human life", which exalted man from a nude and savage state to true humanity [Science and Humanism, Cambridge, 1961, p9]. Modern space sciences an space exploration are a brilliant demonstration of the validity of Schrodinger's thesis on Idealism. Moreover, Schrodingers thesis could be considered also as a basic principle for the New Educational Space Philosophical Project "TIMAEUS"."TIMAEUS" is not only an attempt to to start a new dialogue between Science, the Humanities and Religion; but also it is an origin of the cultural innovations of our so strange of globilisation. TIMAEUS, thus, can reveal Idealism as something more fundamental , more refined, more developed than is now accepted by the scientific community and the piblic. TIMAEUS has a significant cultural agenda, connected with the high orbital performance of the synthetic arts, combining a knowledge of the truly spiritual as well as the universal. In particular, classical ballet as a synthetic art can be a new and powerful perfector and re-creator of the real human, real idealistic, real complex culture in orbit. As is well known, Carlo Blasis, the most important dance theorist of the 19t h .century, made probably the first attempts to use the scientific ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton for the understanding of the gravitational nature of balance and allegro in ballet. In particular Blasis's idea of the limited use of the legs in classical dance realised by the gifted pupils of Enrico Cecchetti - M.Fokine, A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky, with thinkable purity and elegance of style. V.Nijinsky in his remarkable animation of the dance of two dimensional creatures of a Euclidean flat world (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune,1912) discovered that true classical dance has some gravitational limits. For example, Nijinsky's Faunes and Nymphs mut use running on the heels (In accordance with "Partitura" 1916); they

  18. A first attempt at few coils and low-coverage resistive wall mode stabilization of EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J.; Brunsell, Per R.; Drake, James R.; Frassinetti, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    The reversed-field pinch features resistive-shell-type instabilities at any (vanishing and finite) plasma pressure. An attempt to stabilize the full spectrum of these modes using both (i) incomplete coverage and (ii) few coils is presented. Two empirically derived model-based control algorithms are compared with a baseline guaranteed suboptimal intelligent-shell-type (IS) feedback. Experimental stabilization could not be achieved for the coil array subset sizes considered by this first study. But the model-based controllers appear to significantly outperform the decentralized IS method.

  19. Fabrication of Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array/Ti heterojunctions with low resistance state for broadband photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Mianyang Teachers’ College (Mianyang Normal University), Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Guowei; Dong, Zhanmin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Zhu, Jia-Lin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Sun, Jia-Lin, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-01

    A broadband photodetector based on Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array /Ti multilayer heterojunction structures has been fabricated. A pre-electroforming process at a voltage bias of 35 V was used to switch the photodetector from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. At a voltage bias of 1 V under 532-nm laser illumination in air, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 15.41 mA W{sup −1}, which is enhanced by approximately 1.91 times when compared with that of device before deposition of Au nanoparticles. In addition, in a vacuum under a voltage bias of 1 V, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 23.29 mA W{sup −1} and 6.85 mA W{sup −1} at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The surface plasmon polaritons of the Au nanoparticles allowed extension of the sensitivity of the photosensitive regions into the mid-infrared range. The experimental results show that the device photoresponsivity reached 2.26 mA W{sup −1} at a voltage bias of 1 V under 10.6-µm laser illumination in air.

  20. Alexander duals of multipermutohedron ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Definition 2.1) is a monomial ideal in the polynomial ring R. Many properties of the ... which is the number of labeled trees on (n + 1) vertices. Thus ... is called a tree ideal. The vertices of the first barycentric subdivision of an (n − 1)-simplex can be naturally labeled with the min- imal generators of the tree ideal I(1, 2,...,n). [n].

  1. The feasibility of removable prefab diaphragm walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaarouk, R.; De Gijt, J.G.; Braam, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    A diaphragm wall is a cast in-situ reinforced concrete retaining wall applied in, among others, quay walls. The main advantages of this type of retaining wall are that it can be made in almost every preferred length and that it can resist high structural loads. However, there are several

  2. Cell Wall Diversity in Forage Maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, A.F.; Noordam-Boot, C.M.M.; Dolstra, Oene; Weijde, van der Tim; Combes, Eliette; Dufour, Philippe; Vlaswinkel, Louis; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies are ideal platforms for assessing the extent of genetic diversity, inferring the genetic architecture, and evaluating complex trait interrelations for cell wall compositional and bioconversion traits relevant to bioenergy applications. Through the characterization of a forage

  3. Sequential interactions of silver-silica nanocomposite (Ag-SiO2NC) with cell wall, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Jiya, J.; Rameez, M.J.; Anand, P.B.; Anantharaman, M.R.; Nair, S.

    The study was carried out to understand the effect of silver-silica nanocomposite (Ag-SiO sub(2)NC) on the cell wall integrity, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a multiple drug-resistant bacterium Bacterial sensitivity...

  4. Sequential interactions of silver-silica nanocomposite (Ag-SiO2 NC) with cell wall, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Jiya, J.; Rameez, M.J.; Anand, P.B.; Anantharaman, M.R.; Nair, S.

    The study was carried out to understand the effect of silver–silica nanocomposite (Ag-SiO sub(2)NC) on the cell wall integrity, metabolism and genetic stability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a multiple drug-resistant bacterium. Bacterial sensitivity...

  5. Heat transfer and hydraulic resistance when cooling the turbulent chemically reacting N2O4 reversible 2NO2 reversible 2NO + O2 flow in a tube at high wall temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoino, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental set up, a method and experimental results of the study of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance under conditions of cooling the dissociating coolant flow at elevated wall temperatures of the tube (Tsub(w) 2 O 4 reversible 2NO 2 reversible 2NO + O 2 chemically reacting turbulent flow in a tube are considered

  6. Arylthiazole antibiotics targeting intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Islam; Elsebaei, Mohamed M; Mohammad, Haroon; Hagras, Mohamed; Peters, Christine E; Hegazy, Youssef A; Cooper, Bruce; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit; Abulkhair, Hamada S; Seleem, Mohamed N; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S

    2017-10-20

    The promising antibacterial potency of arylthiazole antibiotics is offset by their limited activity against intracellular bacteria (namely methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)), similar to many clinically-approved antibiotics. The failure to target these hidden pathogens is due to the compounds' lack of proper characteristics to accumulate intracellularly. Fine tuning of the size and polar-surface-area of the linking heteroaromatic ring provided a new series of 5-thiazolylarylthiazoles with balanced properties that allow them to sufficiently cross and accumulate inside macrophages infected with MRSA. The most promising compound 4i exhibited rapid bactericidal activity, good metabolic stability and produced over 80% reduction of intracellular MRSA in infected macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  8. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  9. A mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance, cell wall integrity maintenance and cellulase production regulation in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Wang

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, 'budded' hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest

  10. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor in plants (SYP, have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR. Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance (SAR in response to bacterial pathogen infection and induced systemic resistance (ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors

  11. Preparation and property investigation of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films as high-performance electric heating (resistive heating element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/epoxy composite films with a thickness of ~700 µm is prepared by a sequential process of premixing, post dispersing, film casting, and thermal curing. The effects of the physical shear dispersion on the properties of conductive polymer composites as the electric heating element are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that highly efficient conductive networks form with shear dispersions of MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. The electrical resistivity decreases sharply from ~1015 Ω·cm for the neat epoxy resin to ~102 Ω·cm for the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs in accordance with the percolation behaviour, and a low percolation threshold of ~0.018 wt% is fitted. The electric heating behaviour of the composite film is observed at a low MWCNT content of 0.05 wt% due to the high electrical conductivity. For the composite film with 2.0 wt% MWCNTs, an equilibrium temperature of 115 °C is reached at an applied voltage of 40 V within 30 s. The excellent electric heating behaviour, including the rapid temperature response, electric heating efficiency, and operational stability, is primarily related to the conductive two-dimensional networks consisting of MWCNTs and the thermodynamically stable polymer matrix.

  12. Field topologies in ideal and near-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic field topology frozen in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and its breakage in near-ideal MHD are reviewed in two parts, clarifying and expanding basic concepts. The first part gives a physically complete description of the frozen field topology derived from magnetic flux conservation as the fundamental property, treating four conceptually related topics: Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of three dimensional (3D) MHD, Chandrasekhar-Kendall and Euler-potential field representations, magnetic helicity, and inviscid vortex dynamics as a fluid system in physical contrast to ideal MHD. A corollary of these developments clarifies the challenge of achieving a high degree of the frozen-in condition in numerical MHD. The second part treats field-topology breakage centered around the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem on a general incompatibility of a continuous magnetic field with the dual demand of force-free equilibrium and an arbitrarily prescribed, 3D field topology. Preserving field topology as a global constraint readily results in formation of tangential magnetic discontinuities, or, equivalently, electric current-sheets of zero thickness. A similar incompatibility is present in the steady force-thermal balance of a heated radiating fluid subject to an anisotropic thermal flux conducted strictly along its frozen-in magnetic field in the low- β limit. In a weakly resistive fluid the thinning of current sheets by these general incompatibilities inevitably results in sheet dissipation, resistive heating and topological changes in the field notwithstanding the small resistivity. Strong Faraday induction drives but also macroscopically limits this mode of energy dissipation, trapping or storing free energy in self-organized ideal-MHD structures. This property of MHD turbulence captured by the Taylor hypothesis is reviewed in relation to the Sun's corona, calling for a basic quantitative description of the breakdown of flux conservation in the low-resistivity limit

  13. An Ideal Integrating Bolometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys.  The detector, the Ideal Integrating Bolometer (IIB) is able to...

  14. Spaces of ideal convergent sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, M; Sharma, Sunil K

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ = (M(k)). We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces.

  15. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Salinas-Grenet, Hernán; Sandoval, Omar; Recabarren, Camilo; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Soto-Alvear, Sylvana; Orellana, Ariel; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment) lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR). Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance in response to bacterial pathogen infection and ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors can affect the number, anatomy and physiology of

  16. The Root Hair Specific SYP123 Regulates the Localization of Cell Wall Components and Contributes to Rizhobacterial Priming of Induced Systemic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Furlán, Cecilia; Salinas-Grenet, Hernán; Sandoval, Omar; Recabarren, Camilo; Arraño-Salinas, Paulina; Soto-Alvear, Sylvana; Orellana, Ariel; Blanco-Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways. One member of this family, SYP123, is expressed specifically in the root hairs and accumulated in the growing tip region. This study shows evidence of the SYP123 role in polarized trafficking using knockout insertional mutant plants. We were able to observe defects in the deposition of cell wall proline rich protein PRP3 and cell wall polysaccharides. In a complementary strategy, similar results were obtained using a plant expressing a dominant negative soluble version of SYP123 (SP2 fragment) lacking the transmembrane domain. The evidence presented indicates that SYP123 is also regulating PRP3 protein distribution by recycling by endocytosis. We also present evidence that indicates that SYP123 is necessary for the response of roots to plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) in order to trigger trigger induced systemic response (ISR). Plants with a defective SYP123 function were unable to mount a systemic acquired resistance in response to bacterial pathogen infection and ISR upon interaction with rhizobacteria. These results indicated that SYP123 was involved in the polarized localization of protein and polysaccharides in growing root hairs and that this activity also contributed to the establishment of effective plant defense responses. Root hairs represent very plastic structures were many biotic and abiotic factors can affect the number, anatomy and physiology of

  17. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...

  18. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  19. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  20. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  1. Idealism and materialism in perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Brown, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Koenderink (2014, Perception, 43, 1-6) has said most Perception readers are deluded, because they believe an 'All Seeing Eye' observes an objective reality. We trace the source of Koenderink's assertion to his metaphysical idealism, and point to two major weaknesses in his position-namely, its dualism and foundationalism. We counter with arguments from modern philosophy of science for the existence of an objective material reality, contrast Koenderink's enactivism to his idealism, and point to ways in which phenomenology and cognitive science are complementary and not mutually exclusive.

  2. Temperature and the Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisley, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Presents some organized ideas in thermodynamics which are suitable for use with high school (GCE A level or ONC) students. Emphases are placed upon macroscopic observations and intimate connection of the modern definition of temperature with the concept of ideal gas. (CC)

  3. Low upper bounds of ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Antonin; Slaman, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    We show that there is a low T-upper bound for the class of K-trivial sets, namely those which are weak from the point of view of algorithmic randomness. This result is a special case of a more general characterization of ideals in Δ02 T-degrees for which there is a low T-upper bound.

  4. Certain variants of multipermutohedron ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This sequence is called the reduced Mayer–. Vietoris sequence. Since the multigraded Betti numbers of a monomial ideal are given in terms of the dimension of reduced homology groups of the upper Koszul simplicial complex with coefficients in the field k, the Mayer–Vietoris sequence can be used to compute ˜Hi(Kb(I ...

  5. Hvid er et usynligt ideal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Salget af hudblegecremer er eksploderet. Hvorfor drømmer så mange om at få lys hud? Hvorfor vil børn hellere lege med hvide dukker end brune? Svaret er, at hvid er et globalt ideal. Interview med Dorthe Staunæs og Les Back....

  6. Ideals in algebras of unbounded operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermann, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a continuation of investigations on ideals in algebras of unbounded operators. A general procedure is given to get ideals in L + (D) starting with ideals in B(H). A definition of the two types of ideals is given: one contains only bounded operators, the other involves both bounded and unbounded operators. Some algebraic properties of ideals Ssub(phi)(D) derived from the well-known symmetrically normed ideals Ssub(phi) are investigated. Topologies in such ideals are introduced, and some results connected with topological properties of these ideals are given

  7. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  8. Distribution of chloride, pH, resistivity, and sulfate levels in backfill for mechanically-stabilized earth walls and implications for corrosion testing : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Road construction projects often require mechanically stabilized earth (MSE), earthwork : construction in which soil is retained by walls and reinforced with wire mesh, metal strips, : and structural geosynthetics (geotextile or geogrid). The fill so...

  9. Distribution of chloride, pH, resistivity, and sulfate levels in backfill for mechanically-stabilized earth walls and implications for corrosion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The ultimate goals of this research were to improve quality, speed completion, and reduce risk in mechanically-stabilized : earth (MSE) wall projects. Research objectives were to assure (1) that variability in the corrosion properties of soil (pH, : ...

  10. Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in sitiens, an Abscisic Acid-Deficient Tomato Mutant, Involves Timely Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and Cell Wall Modifications in the Epidermis1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselbergh, Bob; Curvers, Katrien; França, Soraya C.; Audenaert, Kris; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Van Breusegem, Frank; Höfte, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Plant defense mechanisms against necrotrophic pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, are considered to be complex and to differ from those that are effective against biotrophs. In the abscisic acid-deficient sitiens tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, which is highly resistant to B. cinerea, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was earlier and stronger than in the susceptible wild type at the site of infection. In sitiens, H2O2 accumulation was observed from 4 h postinoculation (hpi), specifically in the leaf epidermal cell walls, where it caused modification by protein cross-linking and incorporation of phenolic compounds. In wild-type tomato plants, H2O2 started to accumulate 24 hpi in the mesophyll layer and was associated with spreading cell death. Transcript-profiling analysis using TOM1 microarrays revealed that defense-related transcript accumulation prior to infection was higher in sitiens than in wild type. Moreover, further elevation of sitiens defense gene expression was stronger than in wild type 8 hpi both in number of genes and in their expression levels and confirmed a role for cell wall modification in the resistant reaction. Although, in general, plant defense-related reactive oxygen species formation facilitates necrotrophic colonization, these data indicate that timely hyperinduction of H2O2-dependent defenses in the epidermal cell wall can effectively block early development of B. cinerea. PMID:17573540

  11. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  12. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  13. The Circuit Ideal of a Vector Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, Tristram; Thomas, Rekha

    The circuit ideal, $\\ica$, of a configuration $\\A = \\{\\a_1, ..., \\a_n\\} \\subset \\Z^d$ is the ideal generated by the binomials ${\\x}^{\\cc^+} - {\\x}^{\\cc^-} \\in \\k[x_1, ..., x_n]$ as $\\cc = \\cc^+ - \\cc^- \\in \\Z^n$ varies over the circuits of $\\A$. This ideal is contained in the toric ideal, $\\ia$, ...

  14. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  15. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  16. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  17. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics on a moving mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Federico; Vogelsberger, Mark; Kannan, Rahul; Mocz, Philip; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker

    2018-02-01

    In certain astrophysical systems the commonly employed ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation breaks down. Here, we introduce novel explicit and implicit numerical schemes of ohmic resistivity terms in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We include these non-ideal terms for two MHD techniques: the Powell 8-wave formalism, and a constrained transport scheme, which evolves the cell-centred magnetic vector potential. We test our implementation against problems of increasing complexity, such as one- and two-dimensional diffusion problems, and the evolution of progressive and stationary Alfvén waves. On these test problems our implementation recovers the analytic solutions to second order accuracy. As first applications, we investigate the tearing instability in magnetised plasmas and the gravitational collapse of a rotating magnetised gas cloud. In both systems resistivity plays a key role. In the former case, it allows for the development of the tearing instability through reconnection of the magnetic field lines. In the latter, the adopted (constant) value of ohmic resistivity has an impact on both the gas distribution around the emerging proto-star and the mass loading of magnetically-driven outflows. Our new non-ideal MHD implementation opens up the possibility to study magneto-hydrodynamical systems on a moving mesh beyond the ideal MHD approximation.

  18. The ideal imaging AR waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, David J.

    2017-06-01

    Imaging waveguides are a key development that are helping to create the Augmented Reality revolution. They have the ability to use a small projector as an input and produce a wide field of view, large eyebox, full colour, see-through image with good contrast and resolution. WaveOptics is at the forefront of this AR technology and has developed and demonstrated an approach which is readily scalable. This paper presents our view of the ideal near-to-eye imaging AR waveguide. This will be a single-layer waveguide which can be manufactured in high volume and low cost, and is suitable for small form factor applications and all-day wear. We discuss the requirements of the waveguide for an excellent user experience. When enhanced (AR) viewing is not required, the waveguide should have at least 90% transmission, no distracting artifacts and should accommodate the user's ophthalmic prescription. When enhanced viewing is required, additionally, the waveguide requires excellent imaging performance, this includes resolution to the limit of human acuity, wide field of view, full colour, high luminance uniformity and contrast. Imaging waveguides are afocal designs and hence cannot provide ophthalmic correction. If the user requires this correction then they must wear either contact lenses, prescription spectacles or inserts. The ideal imaging waveguide would need to cope with all of these situations so we believe it must be capable of providing an eyebox at an eye relief suitable for spectacle wear which covers a significant range of population inter-pupillary distances. We describe the current status of our technology and review existing imaging waveguide technologies against the ideal component.

  19. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  20. Moderate temperature-dependent surface and volume resistivity and low-frequency dielectric constant measurements of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Guggilla, Padmaja; Reedy, Angela; Ijaz, Quratulann; Janen, Afef; Uba, Samuel; Curley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we have reported measurements of temperature-dependent surface resistivity of pure and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNCT) doped amorphous Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) thin films. In the temperature range from 22 °C to 40 °C with humidity-controlled environment, we found the surface resistivity to decrease initially, but to rise steadily as the temperature continued to increase. Moreover, electric surface current density (Js) was measured on the surface of pure and MWCNT doped PVA thin films. In this regard, the surface current density and electric field relationship follow Ohm's law at low electric fields. Unlike Ohmic conduction in metals where free electrons exist, selected captive electrons are freed or provided from impurities and dopants to become conduction electrons from increased thermal vibration of constituent atoms in amorphous thin films. Additionally, a mechanism exists that seemingly decreases the surface resistivity at higher temperatures, suggesting a blocking effect for conducting electrons. Volume resistivity measurements also follow Ohm's law at low voltages (low electric fields), and they continue to decrease as temperatures increase in this temperature range, differing from surface resistivity behavior. Moreover, we report measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss as a function of temperature and frequency. Both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were observed to be highest for MWCNT doped PVA compared to pure PVA and commercial paper, and with frequency and temperature for all samples.

  1. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  3. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  4. Ideal MHD Stability Prediction and Required Power for EAST Advanced Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junjie; Li Guoqiang; Qian Jinping; Liu Zixi

    2012-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first fully superconducting tokamak with a D-shaped cross-sectional plasma presently in operation. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and required power for the EAST advanced tokamak (AT) scenario with negative central shear and double transport barrier (DTB) are investigated. With the equilibrium code TOQ and stability code GATO, the ideal MHD stability is analyzed. It is shown that a moderate ratio of edge transport barriers' (ETB) height to internal transport barriers' (ITBs) height is beneficial to ideal MHD stability. The normalized beta β N limit is about 2.20 (without wall) and 3.70 (with ideal wall). With the scaling law of energy confinement time, the required heating power for EAST AT scenario is calculated. The total heating power P t increases as the toroidal magnetic field B T or the normalized beta β N is increased. (magnetically confined plasma)

  5. Ideal MHD Stability Prediction and Required Power for EAST Advanced Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjie; Li, Guoqiang; Qian, Jinping; Liu, Zixi

    2012-11-01

    The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first fully superconducting tokamak with a D-shaped cross-sectional plasma presently in operation. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and required power for the EAST advanced tokamak (AT) scenario with negative central shear and double transport barrier (DTB) are investigated. With the equilibrium code TOQ and stability code GATO, the ideal MHD stability is analyzed. It is shown that a moderate ratio of edge transport barriers' (ETB) height to internal transport barriers' (ITBs) height is beneficial to ideal MHD stability. The normalized beta βN limit is about 2.20 (without wall) and 3.70 (with ideal wall). With the scaling law of energy confinement time, the required heating power for EAST AT scenario is calculated. The total heating power Pt increases as the toroidal magnetic field BT or the normalized beta βN is increased.

  6. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  7. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory : Non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Kattenbelt, Carolien; Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  8. DTUsat the Ideal CDIO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René

    2016-01-01

    documentation and knowledge management. The engineering education brings the student skills within mathematics, physics, specific engineering disciplines and the ability to dissolve and analyze any technical challenge. This however is only half the picture of a real life engineering job. The other half; inter...... solution is likewise challenging. The conceiving, designing, implementation and operation phases in the CDIO education aims to bring the student through a scenario simulating real life engineering. A satellite mission constitutes an ideal case for a CDIO project. Designing, building, launching...... documentation throughout the project that could drain valuable man-power resources from a student satellite project yielding the actual satellite construction impossible. From the very onset of the DTUsat-2 project we acknowledged this dilemma and chose a strategy in which we simplified and standardized both...

  9. DTUsat the Ideal CDIO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René

    2016-01-01

    solution is likewise challenging. The conceiving, designing, implementation and operation phases in the CDIO education aims to bring the student through a scenario simulating real life engineering. A satellite mission constitutes an ideal case for a CDIO project. Designing, building, launching...... and ends with a report or more rarely a prototype the DTUsat project involved +90 students over 9 years, achieving more than 1100 ECTS and ended with an orbiting satellite. In this paper I will go through the challenges faced and our solutions to the creation of the DTUsat-2 project....... documentation throughout the project that could drain valuable man-power resources from a student satellite project yielding the actual satellite construction impossible. From the very onset of the DTUsat-2 project we acknowledged this dilemma and chose a strategy in which we simplified and standardized both...

  10. Patient pathway: the ideal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corless, Lynsey; Brew, Iain

    2018-02-07

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can be a devastating complication of cirrhosis, affecting patients and their families. Multidisciplinary community and specialist teams must work together with patients and their families to recognise HE, identify and treat problems early, and minimise time spent unwell or in hospital. Primary care provides an ideal setting for patient education and reinforcement of the salient points on self-care. In the acute setting, the use of care pathways can ensure that the critical aspects of pharmacological, dietetic and supportive care are offered in a timely fashion to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article discusses strategies that can be used in primary and secondary care to help teams deliver excellent practice in HE management.

  11. Masculinity Ideals in a Contemporary Danish Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2015-01-01

    What are the prevailing masculinity ideals among contemporary Danish men? As one of the Nordic welfare states, Denmark has for decades focused on gender equality and changes in the gendered division of labour. Research has suggested a shift in masculinity ideals, but processes of change comprise ...... negotiations and variations between the men. Thus, the article concludes that in a Danish context we can identify authoritative masculinity ideals that do not reproduce patriarchy or support traditional masculinity ideals in an unambiguous way....

  12. Qualities of Ideal Teacher Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Tunca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally, the relationship between the teacher educators' qualities and the quality of teacher education has not been discussed extensively in the literature. At the same time, various studies can be found in the eastern literature examining the characteristics of faculty members at the education faculties. The effect of teacher educators over teacher candidates has not been explored, and in this sense, there is limited number of studies examining faculty members at education faculties in Turkey. Mostly employing quantitative research designs, these studies have focused on faculty members in terms of various characteristics However, which qualities that faculty members should have as a whole have not been studied. However, faculty members, as well as teachers who are a matter of debate in terms of the qualities they are supposed to have should be examined in research studies. In this context, this study aims to identify the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have from the perspective of education faculty students as future teachers. The current research is a qualitative study in phenomenology design. The participants of the study are third and fourth year 214 pre-service teachers from the departments of Science and Technology Teaching, Pre-School Teacher Education, Classroom Teacher Education, Social Studies Teaching and Turkish Language Teaching. Criterion sampling was used for participant selection. The data gathering tool consisted of an open-ended question that would reveal the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have based on teacher candidates’ views. Junior and senior teacher candidates’ views were asked and the data were analyzed according to content analysis approach. As a result, the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have been gathered under five main themes including ‘professional roles and responsibilities, professional values, personal characteristics, professional ethic

  13. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  14. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  15. Shear Tests and Calculation of Shear Resistance with the PC Program RFEM from Thin Partition Walls of Brick in Old Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korjenic Sinan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the shear capacity of partition walls in old buildings based on shear tests which were carried out under real conditions in an existing building. There were experiments conducted on different floors and in each case, the maximum recordable horizontal force and the horizontal displacement of the respective mortar were measured. At the same time material studies and material investigations were carried out in the laboratory. The material parameters were used for the calculation of the precise shear capacity of each joint. In the shear tests, the maximum displacement of a mortar joint was determined at a maximum of two to four millimetres. Furthermore, no direct linear relationship between the theoretical load (wall above it and the shear stress occurred could be detected in the analysis of the experiment, as it was previously assumed.

  16. Lacunary ideal convergence of multiple sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal I is a family of subsets of N×N which is closed under taking finite unions and subsets of its elements. In this article, the concept of lacunary ideal convergence of double sequences has been introduced. Also the relation between lacunary ideal convergent and lacunary Cauchy double sequences has been established. Furthermore, the notions of lacunary ideal limit point and lacunary ideal cluster points have been introduced and find the relation between these two notions. Finally, we have studied the properties such as solidity, monotonic.

  17. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  18. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Makoto; Koizumi, Makoto; Nishihara, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The first wall of a thermonuclear device is constituted with inner wall tiles, e.g. made of graphite and metal substrates for fixing them. However, since the heat expansion coefficient is different between the metal substrates and intermediate metal members, thermal stresses are caused to deteriorate the endurance of the inner wall tiles. In view of the above, low melting metals are disposed at the portion of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates and, further, a heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates. Under the thermal load, for example, during operation of the thermonuclear device, the low melting metals at the portion of contact are melted into liquid metals to enhance the state of contact between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrate to reduce the heat resistance and improve the heat conductivity. Even if there is a difference in the heat expansion coefficient between the inner wall tiles and the metal substrates, neither sharing stresses not thermal stresses are caused. Further, since the heat pipe structure is incorporated into the metal substrates, the lateral unevenness of the temperature in the metal substrates can be eliminated. Thus, the durability of the inner wall tiles can be improved. (N.H.)

  19. Domain wall diffusion and domain wall softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W T; Salje, E K H; Bismayer, U

    2003-01-01

    A number of experimental and computational studies of materials have shown that transport rates in domain walls may significantly differ from those in the bulk. One possible explanation for enhanced transport in a domain wall is that the domain wall is elastically soft with respect to the bulk. We investigate the softening of a ferroelastic domain wall in a simple, generic model. We calculate saddle point energies of solute atoms in the bulk and domain wall, using a geometry such that variation in the saddle point energy cannot be attributed to the structural differences of the bulk and the wall, but must instead be attributed to softening of the wall. Our results show a reduction of the saddle point energy in the wall, thus indicating that, in this model at least, domain walls are elastically soft compared with the bulk. A simple analysis based on an Einstein model allows us to explain the observed softening of the wall

  20. Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Adam N.; Love, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making. PMID:24955325

  1. Idealization of The Real Stirling Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Červenka Libor

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a potential idealization of the real Stirling cycle. This idealization is performed by modifying the piston movement corresponding to the ideal Stirling cycle. The focus is on the cycle thermodynamics with respect to the indicated efficiency and indicated power. A detailed 1-D simulation model of a Stirling engine is used as a tool for this assessment. The model includes real non-zero volumes of heater, regenerator, cooler and connecting pipe. The model is created in the GT...

  2. Changing Masculinity Ideals in a Danish Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    The purpose of this paper is to localize and discuss different masculinity ideals in a Danish context, and how these are overlapping and competing. The paper is based primarily on results from five focus group interviews with higher and lower educated men, respectively (n=50). This qualitative...... of the paper is an empirical analysis of different masculinity ideals in contemporary Danish society (the emotional man, the ideal masculine worker, and the involved father). The analysis indicates that dominant masculinity ideals in Denmark are relatively oriented towards families and towards gender equality...

  3. Control of Microstructures and the Practical Properties of API X80 Grade Heavy-Wall High-Frequency Electric Resistance-Welded Pipe with Excellent Low-Temperature Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Sota; Nakata, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Shunsuke; Okabe, Takatoshi; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes development of heavy-walled API X80 grade high-frequency electric resistance-welded (HFW) line pipes and conductor-casing pipes with wall thicknesses up to 20.6 mm. A fine bainitic-ferrite microstructure, which is preferable for low-temperature toughness, was obtained by optimizing the carbon content and applying the thermomechanical controlled hot-rolling process. As a result, the Charpy ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was well below 227 K (-46 °C) in the base metal of the HFW line pipe. When the controlled hot-rolling ratio (CR) was increased from 23 to 48 pct, the area average grain size decreased from 15 to 8 μm. The dependence of CTOD properties on CR was caused by the largest grain which is represented by the area average grain size. No texture development due to the increase of CR from 23 to 48 pct was observed. In addition, because controlled in-line heat treatment of the longitudinal weld seam also produced the fine bainitic-ferrite microstructure at the weld seam, DBTT was lower than 227 K (-46 °C) at the weld portion. The developed pipes showed good girth weldability without preheat treatment, and fracture in the tensile test initiated from the base metal in all cases.

  4. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  5. First wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite and C/C composite are used recently for the first wall of a thermonuclear device since materials with small atom number have great impurity allowable capacity for plasmas. Among them, those materials having high thermal conduction are generally anisotropic and have an upper limit for the thickness upon production. Then, anisotropic materials are used for a heat receiving plate, such that the surfaces of the heat receiving plate on the side of lower heat conductivity are brought into contact with each other, and the side of higher thermal conductivity is arranged in parallel with small radius direction and the toroidal direction of the thermonuclear device. As a result, the incident heat on an edge portion can be transferred rapidly to the heat receiving plate, which can suppress the temperature elevation at the surface to thereby reduce the amount of abrasion. Since the heat expansion coefficient of the anisotropic materials is great in the direction of the lower heat conductivity and small in the direction of the higher heat conductivity, the gradient of a thermal load distribution in the direction of the higher heat expansion coefficient is small, and occurrence of thermal stresses due to temperature difference is reduced, to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  6. Ideal MHD stability analysis of KSTAR target AT mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S.M.; Kim, J.H.; You, K.I.; Kim, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A main research objective of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device is to demonstrate the steady-state operation capability of high-performance AT (Advanced Tokamak) mode. To meet this goal, it is critical for KSTAR to have a good MHD stability boundary, particularly against the high-beta ideal instabilities such as the external kink and the ballooning modes. To support this MHD stability KSTAR has been designed to have a strong plasma shape and a close interval between plasma and passive- plate wall. During the conceptual design phase of KSTAR, a preliminary study was performed to estimate the high beta MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using PEST and VACUUM codes and it was shown that the target AT mode can be stable up to β N ∼ 5 with a well-defined plasma pressure and current profiles. Recently, a new calculation has been performed to estimate the ideal stability limit in various KSTAR operating conditions using DCON code, and it has been observed that there is some difference between the new and old calculation results, particularly in the dependence of the maximum β N value on the toroidal mode number. Here, we thus present a more detailed analysis of the ideal MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using various codes, which include GATO as well as PEST and DCON, in the comparison of calculation results among the three codes. (author)

  7. In Vivo Studies Suggest that Induction of VanS-Dependent Vancomycin Resistance Requires Binding of the Drug to d-Ala-d-Ala Termini in the Peptidoglycan Cell Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Min Jung; Novotna, Gabriela; Hesketh, Andrew R.; Hill, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    VanRS two-component regulatory systems are key elements required for the transcriptional activation of inducible vancomycin resistance genes in bacteria, but the precise nature of the ligand signal that activates these systems has remained undefined. Using the resistance system in Streptomyces coelicolor as a model, we have undertaken a series of in vivo studies which indicate that the VanS sensor kinase in VanB-type resistance systems is activated by vancomycin in complex with the d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala) termini of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) precursors. Complementation of an essential d-Ala-d-Ala ligase activity by constitutive expression of vanA encoding a bifunctional d-Ala-d-Ala and d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) ligase activity allowed construction of strains that synthesized variable amounts of PG precursors containing d-Ala-d-Ala. Assays quantifying the expression of genes under VanRS control showed that the response to vancomycin in these strains correlated with the abundance of d-Ala-d-Ala-containing PG precursors; strains producing a lower proportion of PG precursors terminating in d-Ala-d-Ala consistently exhibited a lower response to vancomycin. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with vancomycin or teicoplanin to saturate and mask the d-Ala-d-Ala binding sites in nascent PG also blocked the transcriptional response to subsequent vancomycin exposure, and desleucyl vancomycin, a vancomycin analogue incapable of interacting with d-Ala-d-Ala residues, failed to induce van gene expression. Activation of resistance by a vancomycin–d-Ala-d-Ala PG complex predicts a limit to the proportion of PG that can be derived from precursors terminating in d-Ala-d-Lac, a restriction also enforced by the bifunctional activity of the VanA ligase. PMID:23836175

  8. A Review of Double-Walled and Triple-Walled Carbon Nanotube Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Fujisawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs and TWNTs consist of coaxially-nested two and three single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs. They act as the geometrical bridge between SWNTs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, providing an ideal model for studying the coupling interactions between different shells in MWNTs. Within this context, this article comprehensively reviews various synthetic routes of DWNTs’ and TWNTs’ production, such as arc discharge, catalytic chemical vapor deposition and thermal annealing of pea pods (i.e., SWNTs encapsulating fullerenes. Their structural features, as well as promising applications and future perspectives are also discussed.

  9. Evaluating human enhancements: the importance of ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roduit, Johann A R; Baumann, Holger; Heilinger, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Is it necessary to have an ideal of perfection in mind to identify and evaluate true biotechnological human "enhancements", or can one do without? To answer this question we suggest employing the distinction between ideal and non-ideal theory, found in the debate in political philosophy about theories of justice: the distinctive views about whether one needs an idea of a perfectly just society or not when it comes to assessing the current situation and recommending steps to increase justice. In this paper we argue that evaluating human enhancements from a non-ideal perspective has some serious shortcomings, which can be avoided when endorsing an ideal approach. Our argument starts from a definition of human enhancement as improvement, which can be understood in two ways. The first approach is backward-looking and assesses improvements with regard to a status quo ante. The second, a forward-looking approach, evaluates improvements with regard to their proximity to a goal or according to an ideal. After outlining the limitations of an exclusively backward-looking view (non-ideal theory), we answer possible objections against a forward-looking view (ideal theory). Ultimately, we argue that the human enhancement debate would lack some important moral insights if a forward-looking view of improvement is not taken into consideration.

  10. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  11. Toric ideals and diagonal 2-minors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Katsampekis (Anargyros)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLet $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set ${1,\\ldots,n}$. An algebraic object attached to $G$ is the ideal $P_G$ generated by diagonal 2-minors of an $n \\times n$ matrix of variables. In this paper we first provide some general results concerning the ideal $P_G$. It is also proved that

  12. Non-ideal dust acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konefka, F; Contreras, J P; Puerta, J; Castro, E; MartIn, P

    2008-01-01

    The dispersion relation for dust acoustic waves (DA waves) functionally depends on the state equation for the charged dust grains. The ideal gas equation is usually used for studying the effect of temperature on this dispersion relation. However, since the space occupied by the grains can be important in high-density plasmas, the non-ideal effects can be important in this case. This paper analyses the dispersion relation for DA waves, when more precise state equations are used as those described for Pade approximants. The correction to the usual wave equation has been determined and the break point in density, where the ideal gas-state equation has been found. The non-ideal effects are more important for short wavelength ones, and the limits where those effects become important are also studied. Since there are several experimental results for these kinds of waves, the importance of the non-ideal effects in these cases is analysed in detail.

  13. Weinhold'length in an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study thermodynamic length of an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas using Weinhold metric in a two-dimensional state space. We give explicit relation between length at constant entropy and work.

  14. Seismic performance on stiffness and hysteresis loop of interior wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wall-slab is a system suitable for use in the field of high-rise building where the main load resisting system is in the form rigidly connected wall-slab member. This paper presents the performance of a full-scale wall-slab joint in tunnel form system subjected to lateral cyclic loading. The objectives are to determine seismic ...

  15. Second Order Ideal-Ward Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to introduce a concept of second order ideal-ward continuity in the sense that a function f is second order ideal-ward continuous if I-limn→∞Δ2f(xn=0 whenever I-limn→∞Δ2xn=0 and a concept of second order ideal-ward compactness in the sense that a subset E of R is second order ideal-ward compact if any sequence x=(xn of points in E has a subsequence z=(zk=(xnk of the sequence x such that I-limk→∞Δ2zk=0 where Δ2zk=zk+2-2zk+1+zk. We investigate the impact of changing the definition of convergence of sequences on the structure of ideal-ward continuity in the sense of second order ideal-ward continuity and compactness of sets in the sense of second order ideal-ward compactness and prove related theorems.

  16. Rectangular Blocks vs Polygonal Walls in Archaeoseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-G. Hinzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed or deformed walls in ancient structures constitute important evidence in archaeoseismology, where damage is interpreted in terms of earthquake ground motion. A large variety of wall types have been developed during the millennia in different cultural backgrounds. Often walls with polygonal-shaped building blocks are regarded as more earthquake-resistant than a wall consisting of rectangular elements and, as is sometimes speculated, that the irregular wall types were intentionally developed for that purpose. We use simply structured discrete element models of four walls with different block geometries, perfect rectangular, an Inka-type structure and two polygonal designs, to test their dynamic behavior. In addition to an analytic calculation of ground motion, we use measured strong motion signals as boundary conditions for the 3D wall models with varying height to width ratios. At peak ground accelerations between 1.0 and 9.0 m/s2 and major frequencies of 0.5 to 3 Hz, numeric experiments with the horizontally applied analytic ground motions result in clear differences in the resistance of the four wall types with the rectangular block wall being most vulnerable. For more complex measured 3D motions the Inka-type wall proves more stable than the rectangular block wall; however, height to width ratio still has equally strong influence on the stability. Internal deformation of non-collapsed walls shows some correlation with the parameters of the driving motion. For simple impulsive ground motions, a peak ground displacement threshold exists between toppling and remaining upright for all four models but peak acceleration cannot be reliably back calculated.

  17. Investigation of Antibacterial and Fouling Resistance of Silver and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Doped Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-co-Hexafluoropropylene) Composite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macevele, Lutendo E; Moganedi, Kgabo L M; Magadzu, Takalani

    2017-07-13

    Composite membranes were successfully prepared using a phase-inversion method. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) profiles has confirmed formation of 4.8 wt % Ag/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP), 3 wt % Ag-MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP (EDX surface composition of Ag nanoparticles) and 1.5 wt % MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP composite membranes. The MWCNTs crystallites are mainly encapsulated by a layer of PVDF-HFP, as evidenced by disappearance of graphitic peak. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have depicted the formation of microporous structure, with few MWCNTs on the surface and strongly interacting with PVDF-HFP as demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data. The data indicated an increase in porosity, swellability and water content of the PVDF-HFP membrane with the addition of MWCNTs and/or Ag nanoparticles, showing an improved hydrophilicity. The 1.5 wt % MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP composite membrane showed good desalination and fouling resistance rates, which correlates with a low water contact angle. The combined effects of Ag nanoparticles and MWCNTs do not promote fouling resistance of PVDF-HFP membranes, as shown during NaCl microfiltration (this is linked with high water contact angle as compared to that of MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP composite). Both 1.5 wt % MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP and 3 wt % Ag-MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP composite membranes prevented the bacteria passing through the membrane (100% bacterial load reduction). The surface of 3 wt % Ag-MWCNTs/PVDF-HFP showed good bactericidal and non-leaching properties of the dopant materials (MWCNTs and Ag), as evidenced by bacterial growth on the edges of the membranes.

  18. Perumusan Model Moneter Berdasarkan Perilaku Gas Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Resmiyanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah disusun sebuah model moneter yang berdasarkan perilaku gas ideal. Model disusun dengan menggunakan metode kias/analogi. Model moneter gas ideal mengiaskan jumlah uang beredar dengan volume gas, daya beli dengan tekanan gas dan produksi barang dengan suhu gas. Model ini memiliki formulasi yang berbeda dengan Teori Kuantitas Uang (Quantity Theory of Money yang dicetuskan oleh Irving Fisher, model moneter Marshal-Pigou dari Cambridge serta model moneter ala Keynes. Selama ini 3 model tersebut dianggap sebagai model yang mapan dalam teori moneter pada buku-buku teks ekonomi. Model moneter gas ideal dapat menjadi cara pandang baru terhadap sistem moneter.

  19. Surface dependency in thermodynamics of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Altug

    2004-01-01

    The Casimir-like size effect rises in ideal gases confined in a finite domain due to the wave character of atoms. By considering this effect, thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas confined in spherical and cylindrical geometries are derived and compared with those in rectangular geometry. It is seen that an ideal gas exhibits an unavoidable quantum surface free energy and surface over volume ratio becomes a control variable on thermodynamic state functions in microscale. Thermodynamics turns into non-extensive thermodynamics and geometry difference becomes a driving force since the surface over volume ratio depends on the geometry

  20. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McGregor Olney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  1. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  2. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  3. Stability of certain families of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria posses a number of symmetries that may be used to generate a family of hitherto unknown equilibria if there exists a foliation of the original one by magnetic surfaces. In addition to the possibility of producing analytic equilibria from old ones, this family is studied to find among its members those with minimal energy, those lasting longer under slightly resistive conditions, and those linearly stable. It is shown that in general none of these properties implies any other, thus clarifying the difference among these concepts

  4. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random order that were either focused explicitly (thin-ideal program) or indirectly (soap opera) on the thin ideal or were neutral in content. Afterwards, they filled out questionnaires concerning their body dissatisfaction. Only older preadolescent girls (11-12 years old) showed greater body dissatisfaction after watching the thin-ideal focused television clip than after watching the neutral television clip. After watching thin-ideal focused television, they desired a thinner body figure than after watching neutral television. The findings imply that watching (adult) thin-ideal television directly affects the ideal body figure in older preadolescent girls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutrosophic Crisp Points & Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to define the so called "neutrosophic crisp points" and "neutrosophic crisp ideals", and obtain their fundamental properties. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

  6. A simple probabilistic model of ideal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossinsky, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a discrete 3D model of ideal gas based on the idea that, on the microscopic level, the particles move randomly (as in ASEP models), instead of obeying Newton's laws as prescribed by Boltzmann.

  7. Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal of c...... it examines the journalists’ reactions to discrepancies in relation to their organizational commitment. The results suggest that discrepancies do have a negative impact on journalists’ commitment. Further implications for research and practice of the findings are discussed.......Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...

  8. Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Morvan, P; Stock, B

    2005-09-01

    A hitherto unexamined problem for the "Kantian ideal" that one should always treat patients as ends in themselves, and never only as a means to other ends, is explored in this paper. The problem consists of a prima facie conflict between this Kantian ideal and the reality of medical practice. This conflict arises because, at least presently, medical practitioners can only acquire certain skills and abilities by practising on live, human patients, and given the inevitability and ubiquity of learning curves, this learning requires some patients to be treated only as a means to this end. A number of ways of attempting to establish the compatibility of the Kantian Ideal with the reality of medical practice are considered. Each attempt is found to be unsuccessful. Accordingly, until a way is found to reconcile them, we conclude that the Kantian ideal is inconsistent with the reality of medical practice.

  9. Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

  10. Mellem bureaukrati, klient og professionelle idealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm Larsen, Niels; Johnsen, Helle; Larsen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Between Bureaucracy, Clients and Professional Ideals – a Sociological Approach to Midwifes Experiences Monitoring Fetal Heartbeat Using Different Technologies. This article examines professionals’ perspectives on shifts in status of technologies. The article builds on data from focus group interv...

  11. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  12. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a seque...

  13. Childlessness Intentions and Ideals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miettinen, Anneli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Eurobarometer Surveys 2001–2011 we examine trends and correlates of childlessness intentions and ideals across Europe over the past decade. We distinguish childlessness as a personal preference (personal ideal number of children is zero from intended childlessness (intention to have no children as these reflect somewhat different dimensions of childlessness as a conscious decision. We find that, on average, childlessness as a personal preference is relatively rare in Europe, although in some western European countries a sizeable proportion of young adults express a desire to have no children. Intentional childlessness is slightly more common than ideal childlessness is, since about 11% of currently childless young adults aged 18 to 40 years in Europe intend to have no children. We analyse factors related to childlessness intentions and ideals on the individual and country levels. A weaker individual socioeconomic position influences the intention to remain childless through various channels, such as unemployment or low socioeconomic status. Associations between individual’s social position and ideal childlessness are less clear. Results also indicate that macro-economic conditions do not have a direct impact on intentional childlessness, whereas a higher prevalence of traditional family values in a country is related to a lower likelihood of individuals considering childlessness to be their ideal family form.

  14. Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.

  15. Ideal strength of bcc molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weidong; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Morris, J. W.

    2002-09-01

    The behavior of bcc Mo and Nb under large strain was investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density-functional method. We calculated the ideal shear strength for the {211} and {011} slip systems and the ideal tensile strength in the direction, which are believed to provide the minimum shear and tensile strengths. As either material is sheared in either of the two systems, it evolves toward a stress-free tetragonal structure that defines a saddle point in the strain-energy surface. The inflection point on the path to this tetragonal ``saddle-point'' structure sets the ideal shear strength. When either material is strained in tension along , it initially follows the tetragonal, ``Bain,'' path toward a stress-free fcc structure. However, before the strained crystal reaches fcc, its symmetry changes from tetragonal to orthorhombic; on continued strain it evolves toward the same tetragonal saddle point that is reached in shear. In Mo, the symmetry break occurs after the point of maximum tensile stress has been passed, so the ideal strength is associated with the fcc extremum as in W. However, a Nb crystal strained in becomes orthorhombic at tensile stress below the ideal strength. The ideal tensile strength of Nb is associated with the tetragonal saddle point and is caused by failure in shear rather than tension. In dimensionless form, the ideal shear and tensile strengths of Mo (τ*=τm/G111=0.12, σ*=σm/E100=0.078) are essentially identical to those previously calculated for W. Nb is anomalous. Its dimensionless shear strength is unusually high, τ*=0.15, even though the saddle-point structure that causes it is similar to that in Mo and W, while its dimensionless tensile strength, σ*=0.079, is almost the same as that of Mo and W, even though the saddle-point structure is quite different.

  16. EDUCATIONAL IDEAL OF UKRAINIAN ETHNOPEDAGOGIES: CARPATHIAN VECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Lysenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Educational ideal, methods, forms and means of folk-educational influence on its formation, starting from the first years of baby’s life are topical problems for researchers. The main element is an aim. The aim is an ideal image of the expecting result which is regarded as a guide for the educational activity of a certain ethnic community. The content of the notion of educational ideal is the imagery about the most important qualities of a personality, their manners, culture of relationship in the society, behavior. Ukrainian mentality is practicality, rationality, generosity, intellect in general. It is fully reflected in the pedagogical aim. At the same time mental means spiritual. That is something in thoughts and intents of a person. It is important to emphasize that Ukrainian ethos was formed on the basis of several groups, not only having formed a nation, but also having synthesized the temperament, traditions and customs, clothes and everyday life, culture in general. Hutsul, Boyko, Lemko (121 ethnic groups all together differ by the uniqueness of the appearance. At the same time their internal essence, that is educational ideal, world view, ethic morals, are unchangeable. Educational ideal is historically determined. Esthetic strategies, formation of creativity, development of the abilities by the means of folk crafts and trades, upbringing of a host pierce through the educational ideal of nowadays Ukrainians. The people aim to bring up their children as true citizens: good kids mean quiet old age, while with evil children old age becomes a hell. Thus, the educational ideal of the Ukrainians should be considered as a basis for modern educational technologies projection.

  17. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  18. Electrical resisitivity of mechancially stablized earth wall backfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Michael; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey; Koehn, Weston

    2017-06-01

    Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining walls utilized in transportation projects are typically backfilled with coarse aggregate. One of the current testing procedures to select backfill material for construction of MSE walls is the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials standard T 288: ;Standard Method of Test for Determining Minimum Laboratory Soil Resistivity.; T 288 is designed to test a soil sample's electrical resistivity which correlates to its corrosive potential. The test is run on soil material passing the No. 10 sieve and believed to be inappropriate for coarse aggregate. Therefore, researchers have proposed new methods to measure the electrical resistivity of coarse aggregate samples in the laboratory. There is a need to verify that the proposed methods yield results representative of the in situ conditions; however, no in situ measurement of the electrical resistivity of MSE wall backfill is established. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) provides a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the bulk resistivity of backfill material in situ. The objective of this study was to characterize bulk resistivity of in-place MSE wall backfill aggregate using ERT. Five MSE walls were tested via ERT to determine the bulk resistivity of the backfill. Three of the walls were reinforced with polymeric geogrid, one wall was reinforced with metallic strips, and one wall was a gravity retaining wall with no reinforcement. Variability of the measured resistivity distribution within the backfill may be a result of non-uniform particle sizes, thoroughness of compaction, and the presence of water. A quantitative post processing algorithm was developed to calculate mean bulk resistivity of in-situ backfill. Recommendations of the study were that the ERT data be used to verify proposed testing methods for coarse aggregate that are designed to yield data representative of in situ conditions. A preliminary analysis suggests that ERT may be utilized

  19. Reality television and the muscular male ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallesasse, Starla L; Kluck, Annette S

    2013-06-01

    Although researchers have examined the negative effects of viewing reality television (RTV) on women's body image, this research has not been extended to men. Exploring the extent to which RTV depicts men who embody the muscular ideal may enhance our understanding of the potential influence of this media genre. We explored the extent to which RTV depicted men who embodied the muscular ideal using a quantitative content analysis. Based on binomial tests, the primary male cast members of programs airing on networks popular among young adult men during the Fall 2009 broadcast season were more muscular, with lower levels of body fat, than average U.S. men. The chest-to-waist and shoulder-to-waist ratios of these cast members did not differ as a function of program type (i.e., reality drama, endurance, and romance). Young men who view RTV programs included in the present study would be exposed to an unrepresentative muscular ideal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  1. Degree of coupling in high-rise mixed shear walls structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple method of analysis is presented to determine the influence of single shear walls (SSW) on the degree of coupling DoC and on the peak shear demand PSD for beams of coupled shear walls (CSW) in mixed shear wall structures (MSW). Non-coupled lateral load resisting structures such as singular planar walls and ...

  2. Publishing to become an 'ideal academic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    over a two-year period in a recently merged Finnish university. I focus specifically on how a translocal discourse of competitive performance measurement and standards of academic excellence are accomplished in the local construction of the “ideal academic” as a person who publishes articles in A level......In this paper I offer an Institutional Ethnography, from the standpoint of female academics, of the construction of the “ideal academic” and quality journal publications as a central feature in this construct. I draw on interview transcripts, field notes, texts and artefacts produced and collected...

  3. Betti numbers of powers of ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioia Failla

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Let A=K[x1, ..... ,xn] be a standard graded polynomial ring over a field K, let M = (x_1, .... , x_n be the graded maximal ideal and I a graded ideal of A. For each i the Betti numbers b_i(I^k of I^k are polynomial functions for k>>0. We show that if I is M-primary, then these polynomial functions have the same degree for all i .

  4. Pre-ideals of Basic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krňávek, Jan; Kühr, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Basic algebras are a generalization of MV-algebras, also including orthomodular lattices and lattice effect algebras. A pre-ideal of a basic algebra is a non-empty subset that is closed under the addition ⊕ and downwards closed with respect to the underlying order. In this paper, we study the pre-ideal lattices of algebras in a particular subclass of basic algebras which are closer to MV-algebras than basic algebras in general. We also prove that finite members of this subclass are exactly finite MV-algebras.

  5. On power idealization filter topologies of lattice implication algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Zhong; Wu, Xiu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces.

  6. Simple correlation for predicting detonation velocity of ideal and non-ideal explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-07-30

    This paper describes a simple method for prediction of detonation velocity of ideal and non-ideal explosives. A non-ideal aluminized and nitrated explosive can have Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity significantly different from that expected from existing thermodynamic computer codes for equilibrium and steady-state calculations. Detonation velocity of explosives with general formula C(a)H(b)N(c)O(d)Al(e) can be predicted only from values of a, b, c, d, e and a specific structural parameter without using any assumed detonation products, heat of formation and experimental data. Predicted detonation velocities by this procedure for ideal and non-ideal explosives show good agreement with respect to experimental values as compared to computed results of BKWR and BKWS equations of state.

  7. Mathematics and geometry towards ideality in «Domus»’s ideal houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Chiodo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1942 and 1943 the editor of the journal «Domus» invited the most important Italian architects to design their ideal houses: fifteen projects designed by seventeen architects were published. They are most instructive to try to understand, firstly, what the philosophical notion of ideal means and, secondly, why mathematical and geometric tools are extensively used to work on ideality, namely, to design ideal houses. The first part of the article focuses on the philosophical foundations of ideality and, after an overview of the fifteen projects, on the use of the golden ratio in two particularly meaningful cases. The second part of the article focuses on the cases in which there is a hidden use of the golden ratio, on the use of the modulus and on the use of the number 2.

  8. Second-mode control in hypersonic boundary layers over assigned complex wall impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Victor; Patel, Danish; Chapelier, Jean-Baptiste; Scalo, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The durability and aerodynamic performance of hypersonic vehicles greatly relies on the ability to delay transition to turbulence. Passive aerodynamic flow control devices such as porous acoustic absorbers are a very attractive means to damp ultrasonic second-mode waves, which govern transition in hypersonic boundary layers under idealized flow conditions (smooth walls, slender geometries, small angles of attack). The talk will discuss numerical simulations modeling such absorbers via the time-domain impedance boundary condition (TD-IBC) approach by Scalo et al. in a hypersonic boundary layer flow over a 7-degree wedge at freestream Mach numbers M∞ = 7.3 and Reynolds numbers Rem = 1.46 .106 . A three-parameter impedance model tuned to the second-mode waves is tested first with varying resistance, R, and damping ratio, ζ, revealing complete mode attenuation for R hypersonic transition experiments by Dr. Wagner and co-workers at DLR-Göttingen.

  9. Ideal clocks—a convenient fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorek, Krzysztof; Dragan, Andrzej; Louko, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    We show that no device built according to the rules of quantum field theory can measure proper time along its path. Highly accelerated quantum clocks experience the Unruh effect, which inevitably influences their time rate. This contradicts the concept of an ideal clock, whose rate should only depend on the instantaneous velocity. (paper)

  10. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  11. Structural arrest in an ideal gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, W. van; Das, C.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined

  12. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  13. Quantization of an Ideal Monoatomic Gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Quantization of an Ideal Monoatomic Gas. E Fermi. Classics Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 82-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0082-0096. Author Affiliations.

  14. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  15. Joint Custody: A Viable and Ideal Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Douglas F.; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    Defines and restructures custodial rights and remedies of parents involved in a divorce proceeding. Conveys an alternative to custodial awards as they exist today and points toward joint custody as an ideal solution and viable alternative that cries out for acceptance. (Author)

  16. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  17. Principal ideal languages and synchronizing automata

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Vladimir V.; Maslennikova, Marina I.; Pribavkina, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    We study ideal languages generated by a single word. We provide an algorithm to construct a strongly connected synchronizing automaton for which such a language serves as the language of synchronizing words. Also we present a compact formula to calculate the syntactic complexity of this language.

  18. Quantum cryptography with an ideal local relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedalieri, Gaetana; Ottaviani, Carlo; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    We consider two remote parties connected to a relay by two quantum channels. To generate a secret key, they transmit coherent states to the relay, where the states are subject to a continuous-variable (CV) Bell detection. We study the ideal case where Alice's channel is lossless, i.e., the relay ...

  19. Maximally differential ideals in regular local rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may either be maximally differential under a set of derivations or a set of higher derivations,. i.e, Hasse–Schmidt derivations. We also extend our result (Theorem 4 of [7]) about the structure of a maximally differ- ential ideal in positive characteristic to unequal characteristic case. 2. Results. By a ring we mean a commutative ...

  20. How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-01-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight…

  1. Consumer satisfaction - an unattainable ideal? | Erasmus | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verbruikerstevredenheid, 'n na-aankoopevaluering dat 'n gekose produk aan 'n verbruiker se verwagtinge voldoen of dit oortref (Engel et al, 1995), word algemeen as die ideale uitkoms van verbruikersbesluitneming voorgehou. Verbruikerstevredenheid verlig die interne spanningstoestand (kognitiewe dissonansie) wat ...

  2. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  3. Ideal family population In a rural Tswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... It is a matter of concern that family-planning advice is often given without consideration of the cultural norms which influence the client. A questionnaire was used to discover what 350 rural Tswanas believed the ideal number of children to be; results were tabulated according to age and sex. It appears·.

  4. Reduction of a family of ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Rodak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we prove that there exists a simultaneous reduction of one-parameter family of $\\mathfrak{m}_{n}$-primary ideals in the ring of germs of holomorphic functions. As a corollary we generalize the result of A. P\\l{}oski \\cite{ploski} on the semicontinuity of the \\L{}ojasiewicz exponent in a multiplicity-constant deformation.

  5. Tel Aviv. Tracing the Ideal City dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In descriptions of Tel Aviv often occur reflections about the ideal “first Hebrew city”. A gap between real Tel Aviv and its visionary model is a commonplace. Nevertheless, links between them are plentiful, although they are discussed either with irony or with pathos. The paper gives a cursory review of some of such links.

  6. THE ACCOUNT OF OPTIONS SHEET OF WALLS PROFILE LARSEN IN THE DESIGN OF EXCAVATIONS SUPPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A. Mangushev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bending stiffness and strength of steel sheet retaining walls is strongly dependent on shear resistance of pile interlocks. This fact, usually, is not taken into account in domestic practice of design and construction of sheet walls

  7. THE ACCOUNT OF OPTIONS SHEET OF WALLS PROFILE LARSEN IN THE DESIGN OF EXCAVATIONS SUPPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid A. Mangushev; Alexandr B. Fadeev

    2017-01-01

    Bending stiffness and strength of steel sheet retaining walls is strongly dependent on shear resistance of pile interlocks. This fact, usually, is not taken into account in domestic practice of design and construction of sheet walls

  8. Application of flexi-wall in noise barriers renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Daee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing noise barriers (sound walls in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The results of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound wall application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound wall applications was also developed.

  9. Structural arrest in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ketel, Willem; Das, Chinmay; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-04-08

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined at their midpoints. The crosses have random but fixed orientation. The static properties of this system are those of an ideal gas, and its collision frequency can be computed analytically. For number densities NL(3)/V>1, the single-particle diffusivity goes to zero. As the system is completely structureless, standard mode-coupling theory cannot describe the observed structural arrest. Nevertheless, the system exhibits many dynamical features that appear to be mode-coupling-like. All high-density incoherent intermediate scattering functions collapse onto master curves that depend only on the wave vector.

  10. Extra-Training I-deals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgoibar, Patricia; Lindholst, Morten

    2016-01-01

    illustrates the negotiation process between a team manager at TNK - a leading multinational software development company- and one of his team members. The employee is willing to negotiate an I-deal with the objective of attending a training course abroad. This case is a two-party employment deal......-making exercise. The roles in this exercise are: a) the employee who initiates the I-deal; and b) the manager. The case could be used also as a three-party exercise, including the role of the facilitator. The case aims are twofold: a) engage students in exploring a win-win-win-win agreement; and b) demonstrating...... agreements of a nonstandard nature that individual employees negotiate with their employer regarding terms which benefit each party (Rousseau, 2000). The key question is to find the way in which these agreements are beneficial to the company, the manager, the employee and the co-workers. This case...

  11. Estimating local heat transfer coefficients from thin wall temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizov, I. M.; Davletshin, I. A.; Paereliy, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    An approach to experimental estimation of local heat transfer coefficient on a plane wall has been described. The approach is based on measurements of heat-transfer fluid and wall temperatures during some certain time of wall cooling. The wall was a thin plate, a printed circuit board, made of composite epoxy material covered with a copper layer. The temperature field can be considered uniform across the plate thickness when heat transfer is moderate and thermal resistance of the plate in transversal direction is low. This significantly simplifies the heat balance written for the wall sections that is used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient. The copper layer on the plate etched to form a single strip acted as resistance thermometers that measured the local temperature of the wall.

  12. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  13. Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs

  14. Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma and it is...... and the Shafranov shift. The method had pedagogical merits as it simplifies the calculations, improves the physical understanding and facilitates an assessment of the approximations made in the calculations....

  15. Note on the ideal frame formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Martin

    2017-09-01

    An implementation of the ideal frame formulation of perturbed Keplerian motion is presented which only requires the integration of a differential system of dimension 7, contrary to the 8 variables traditionally integrated with this approach. The new formulation is based on the integration of a scaled version of the Eulerian set of redundant parameters and slightly improves runtime performance with respect to the 8-dimensional case while retaining comparable accuracy.

  16. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  17. Neutrosophic Commutative N -Ideals in BCK-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Zun Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a neutrosophic commutative N -ideal in BCK-algebras is introduced, and several properties are investigated. Relations between a neutrosophic N-ideal and a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are discussed. Characterizations of a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are considered.

  18. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  19. A model of the ideal molecular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2014-03-01

    We utilize two manifestations of the phenomena of the quasiliquid phase on the surface of molecular crystals to formulate a universal thermodynamic theory describing the thickness of the layer as a function of the liquid phase activity. We use direct measurements of the liquid thickness as a function of temperature and measurements of the acceleration of thermal decomposition as a function of temperature approaching the melting point to illustrate the mechanism. We show that given the existence of a liquid phase below the melting point the ideal liquid activity is necessarily a fixed function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We use this activity to create a reduced formula for the liquid thickness generally applicable to the molecular surface. We provide a prediction of the mechanism and kinetics of quasiliquid formation and show that the phase exists as a metastable kinetic steady state. We show that to first order the principle controlling feature of the system is the configurational entropy of the liquid/solid interface, rather than the specifics of the surface potential energy. This is analogous to other bulk colligative phenomena such as ideal gas and solution theories, and is thus an ideal, universal formulation of inherent, thermodynamically driven, surface disorder.

  20. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  1. Soft ideal topological space and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Borah

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce fuzzy soft ideal and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological spaces and some properties of this space. Also we introduce fuzzy soft $I$-open set, fuzzy soft $\\alpha$-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft pre-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft semi-$I$-open set and fuzzy soft $\\beta$-$I$-open set and discuss some of their properties.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT IN SIMPLE MASONRY WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor BURLAN-ROTAR; Constantin D. STANESCU; Liliana CAINICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Humidity measurement in thick walls indicate under what conditions is exploited a building. Any type of moisture walls, superficial or deep, give information about possible cracks or infiltration of water. The electromagnetic techniques for measuring soil humidity (by resistivity) has been known for a long time. It can be used to measure walls moisture. Conductivity is preferable in inductive techniques, as instrumentation readings are generally directly proportional to conductivi...

  3. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...

  4. Expression and characterization of a novel spore wall protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic, spore-forming parasites. The environmentally resistant spores, which harbor a rigid cell wall, are critical for their survival outside their host cells and host-to-host transmission. The spore wall comprises two major layers: the exospore and the endospore. In Nosema ...

  5. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin ideal animated characters or (2) animated characters with no thin ideal features or (3) 'real' human actors with no thin ideal features. After watching, their state body satisfaction was measured. Girls with higher levels of thin ideal internalisation showed higher body satisfaction after exposure to the thin ideal characters than after exposure to animated or real characters featuring no thin ideal features. No differences on body satisfaction between the exposure conditions were found in girls with lower levels of thin ideal internalisation. The results might suggest that young girls who internalised the thin ideal are inspired by thin ideal characters in children's media.

  6. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  7. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  8. The ideal science student and problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an

  9. Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Atherton

    Full Text Available Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.

  10. Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the

  11. Generalized Ideal Gas Equations for Structureful Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We have derived generalized ideal gas equations for a structureful universe consistingof all forms of matters. We have assumed a universe that contains superclusters. Superclusters arethen made of clusters. Each cluster can be further divided into smaller ones and so on. We havederived an expression for the entropy of such a universe. Our model is rather independent of thegeometry of the intermediate clusters. Our calculations are valid for a non-interacting universewithin non-relativistic limits. We suggest that structure formation can reduce the expansion rateof the universe.

  12. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  13. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of the NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Guo Yong; Isaev, Maxim Yu; Ku, Long-Poe; Mikhailov, M.; Redi, M.H; Sanchez, Raul; Subbotin, A; Hirshman, Steven Paul; Cooper, W. Anthony; Monticello, D.; Reiman, A.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is extensively analyzed using the most advanced three-dimensional MHD codes. It is shown that the NCSX is stable to finite-n MHD modes, including the vertical mode, external kink modes and ballooning modes. However, high-n external kink modes that peak near the plasma edge are found to be weakly unstable. A global calculation shows that finite-n ballooning modes are significantly more stable than the local infinite-n modes

  14. Ideal quantum reading of optical memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Quantum reading is the art of exploiting the quantum properties of light to retrieve classical information stored in an optical memory with low energy and high accuracy. Focusing on the ideal scenario where noise and loss are negligible, we review previous works on the optimal strategies for minimal-error retrieving of information (ambiguous quantum reading) and perfect but probabilistic retrieving of information (unambiguous quantum reading). The optimal strategies largely overcome the optimal coherent protocols (reminiscent of common CD readers), further allowing for perfect discrimination. Experimental proposals for optical implementations of optimal quantum reading are provided.

  15. Kant y el ideal del sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la posible influencia del estoicismo en algunos aspectos precisos de la ética kantiana. Se intenta defender la tesis de que, aunque Kant critica muchas veces la ética estoica y en especial su eudemonismo, también adopta en su ética algunas de las posiciones estoicas y las incorpora en ciertos aspectos clave de su propia Doctrina de la virtud. En especial, se intenta mostrar cómo adopta Kant el ideal del sabio estoico y una de sus características más notables: la apatía.

  16. Ideal functional outcomes for amputation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robert H; Melton, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    This article provides a generalized overview of amputation classifications and the idealized outcomes for upper and lower amputations at their respective levels. The following levels are discussed: above knee/transfemoral, below knee/transtibial, above elbow/transhumeral, below elbow/transradial, and bilateral for upper and lower extremities. This classification defines a framework for clinicians to share with patients so that they understand the potential for their expected functional outcomes regarding mobility and activities of daily living, both with and without a prosthesis. Moreover, it addresses some of the vocational and avocational needs of the individual regarding amputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of an idealized Y-Shaped Extracardiac Fontan Baffle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiguang; Feinstein, Jeffrey; Mohan Reddy, V.; Marsden, Alison

    2008-11-01

    Research has showed that vascular geometries can significantly impact hemodynamic performance, particularly in pediatric cardiology, where anatomy varies from one patient to another. In this study we optimize a newly proposed design for the Fontan procedure, a surgery used to treat single ventricle heart patients. The current Fontan procedure connects the inferior vena cava (IVC) to the pulmonary arteries (PA's) via a straight Gore-Tex tube, forming a T-shaped junction. In the Y-graft design, the IVC is connected to the left and right PAs by two branches. Initial studies on the Y-graft design showed an increase in efficiency and improvement in flow distribution compared to traditional designs in a single patient-specific model. We now optimize an idealized Y-graft model to refine the design prior to patient testing. A derivate-free optimization algorithm using Kriging surrogate functions and mesh adaptive direct search is coupled to a 3-D finite element Navier-Stokes solver. We will present optimization results for rest and exercise conditions and examine the influence of energy efficiency, wall shear stress, pulsatile flow, and flow distribution on the optimal design.

  18. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  19. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  20. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  1. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  2. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  3. Ideal MHD stability and characteristics of edge localized modes on CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ze-Yu; Chan, V. S.; Zhu, Yi-Ren; Jian, Xiang; Chen, Jia-Le; Cheng, Shi-Kui; Zhu, Ping; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Xia, Tian-Yang; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Wang, Xiao-Gang; the CFETR Physics Team

    2018-01-01

    Investigation on the equilibrium operation regime, its ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability and edge localized modes (ELM) characteristics is performed for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). The CFETR operation regime study starts with a baseline scenario (R  =  5.7 m, B T  =  5 T) derived from multi-code integrated modeling, with key parameters {{β }N},{{β }T},{{β }p} varied to build a systematic database. These parameters, under profile and pedestal constraints, provide the foundation for the engineering design. The long wavelength low-n global ideal MHD stability of the CFETR baseline scenario, including the wall stabilization effect, is evaluated by GATO. It is found that the low-n core modes are stable with a wall at r/a  =  1.2. An investigation of intermediate wavelength ideal MHD modes (peeling ballooning modes) is also carried out by multi-code benchmarking, including GATO, ELITE, BOUT++ and NIMROD. A good agreement is achieved in predicting edge-localized instabilities. Nonlinear behavior of ELMs for the baseline scenario is simulated using BOUT++. A mix of grassy and type I ELMs is identified. When the size and magnetic field of CFETR are increased (R  =  6.6 m, B T  =  6 T), collisionality correspondingly increases and the instability is expected to shift to grassy ELMs.

  4. Tv nyheder: Journalistiske Idealer er under Pres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2013-01-01

    som tv-journalisterne ville ønske det. Tv-journalister har mange store idealer om god journalistik og public service. Men de vilkår journalisterne arbejder under gør idealerne nærmest umulige at opnå i dagligdagen. I dag er det ikke de journalistiske idealer men markedskræfterne der driver de...... Journalist” inside Public Service TV Newsrooms in the UK and Denmark’. Under ph.d.- studiet har jeg tilbragt halvandet år med deltager-observation på de fire største tv-redaktioner i England og Danmark. Jeg har observeret og deltaget i det daglige arbejde på redaktionerne hos TV Avisen og TV2 Nyhederne og i...... licensfinansieret tv-station. Men der tog jeg fejl. Jeg ledte efter forskelligheder, men fandt ligheder. Efterhånden som feltstudiet tog fat gik det op for mig at journalisterne på de fire forskellige tv-stationer arbejdede og tænkte ens. Derudover gik det op for mig at mange af journalisterne på de forskelligt...

  5. A civil engineering approach to ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that a magnetic field can be conceived as a medium where an isotropic compressive stress, B 2 /2μ 0 , is superimposed on a tensile stress, B 2 /μ 0 , parallel to the lines of force. When a stationary ideal MHD plasma is present in the magnetic field, the particle pressure adds to the magnetic stresses to form a combined stress tensor. Calculations of plasma equilibria based on this concept are very similar to calculations in civil engineering of static structures based on compressive, tensile, and shear stresses. Therefore the very simple physical pictures known from civil engineering when used in plasma physics provide simple physical understanding and facilitate the physical interpretation of the results. In an earlier paper the concept was used to derive and discuss the equilibrium equations for θ-, Z-, and screw pinches and the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma with circular cross sections of the flux surfaces. Here the concept is used to discuss the virial theorem and to obtain a simple physical interpretation of this theorem. We also reconsider the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma and show that a situation where all flux surfaces have circular cross sections cannot be an exact solution to the ideal MHD equations. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse[1985]. Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs

  7. Prerequisites of ideal safety-critical organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Michiru; Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Goto, Manabu; Sakuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the prerequisites of ideal safety-critical organizations, marshalling arguments of 4 areas of organizational research on safety, each of which has overlap: a safety culture, high reliability organizations (HROs), organizational resilience, and leadership especially in safety-critical organizations. The approach taken in this study was to retrieve questionnaire items or items on checklists of the 4 research areas and use them as materials of abduction (as referred to in the KJ method). The results showed that the prerequisites of ideal safety-oriented organizations consist of 9 factors as follows: (1) The organization provides resources and infrastructure to ensure safety. (2) The organization has a sharable vision. (3) Management attaches importance to safety. (4) Employees openly communicate issues and share wide-ranging information with each other. (5) Adjustments and improvements are made as the organization's situation changes. (6) Learning activities from mistakes and failures are performed. (7) Management creates a positive work environment and promotes good relations in the workplace. (8) Workers have good relations in the workplace. (9) Employees have all the necessary requirements to undertake their own functions, and act conservatively. (author)

  8. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  9. Decomposition of fuzzy continuity and fuzzy ideal continuity via fuzzy idealization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Abbas, S.E.; Abd El-baki, S.A.; Saber, Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, El-Naschie has shown that the notion of fuzzy topology may be relevant to quantum paretical physics in connection with string theory and E-infinity space time theory. In this paper, we study the concepts of r-fuzzy semi-I-open, r-fuzzy pre-I-open, r-fuzzy α-I-open and r-fuzzy β-I-open sets, which is properly placed between r-fuzzy openness and r-fuzzy α-I-openness (r-fuzzy pre-I-openness) sets regardless the fuzzy ideal topological space in Sostak sense. Moreover, we give a decomposition of fuzzy continuity, fuzzy ideal continuity and fuzzy ideal α-continuity, and obtain several characterization and some properties of these functions. Also, we investigate their relationship with other types of function.

  10. [Use and versatility of titanium for the reconstruction of the thoracic wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córcoles Padilla, Juan Manuel; Bolufer Nadal, Sergio; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Gálvez Muñoz, Carlos; Rodriguez Paniagua, José Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Chest wall deformities/defects and chest wall resections, as well as complex rib fractures require reconstruction with various prosthetic materials to ensure the basic functions of the chest wall. Titanium provides many features that make it an ideal material for this surgery. The aim is to present our initial results with this material in several diseases. From 2008 to 2012, 14 patients were operated on and titanium was used for reconstruction of the chest wall. A total of 7 patients had chest wall tumors, 2 with sternal resection, 4 patients with chest wall deformities/defects and 3 patients with severe rib injury due to traffic accident. The reconstruction was successful in all cases, with early extubation without detecting problems in the functionality of the chest wall at a respiratory level. Patients with chest wall tumors including sternal resections were extubated in the operating room as well as the chest wall deformities. Chest trauma cases were extubated within 24h from internal rib fixation. There were no complications related to the material used and the method of implementation. Titanium is an ideal material for reconstruction of the chest wall in several clinical situations allowing for great versatility and adaptability in different chest wall reconstructions. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  12. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Chattopadhyay, Abhishek; Shukla, Mukund; Zoń, Jerzy; Saxena, Praveen K

    2012-05-30

    Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together

  13. Ideals and anti-ideals students of the basic and senior school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Sobkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of representations of the ideals and anti-ideals in secondary and high schools students. The study is important due to connection with the peculiarities of modern adolescent socialization in the context of contemporary social cultural realities. Shaping the world view in students is significantly influenced by the choice of values and the social role model. In this regard, the aim of this study was to examine gender and age dynamics of different groups of personalities related to the politics and spiritual culture in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents. Aggravation of the internal and external political situation, politically-oriented media content and society as a whole, the introduction of information technologies in various spheres of life, the «western» background of cultural values and information environment, the shift of sex-role identification has a significant influence on gender-specific and age-specific dynamics and significance of different groups of personalities in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents are based on the data of content analysis and a questionnaire survey of 2,273 students, grades 5-11. The features of the structure of ideals and anti-idials of boys and girls, which are formed under the influence of gender identification are characterized. The analysis of the students’ groups of ideals and anti-idials is held depending on their belonging to the Russian and foreign cultures. The students’ representations of the ideals and anti-idials are of a mixed structure, dominated by the personalities of the real people in comparison with the images (characters of works of literature, cinema, cartoons. The sphere of political culture and ideology (politicians, historical figures that presents male personalities is significant for boys. For girls, besides politics, the literary field (writers and movie actors is more important, where the

  14. Assembly and enlargement of the primary cell wall in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Growing plant cells are shaped by an extensible wall that is a complex amalgam of cellulose microfibrils bonded noncovalently to a matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and structural proteins. Cellulose is synthesized by complexes in the plasma membrane and is extruded as a self-assembling microfibril, whereas the matrix polymers are secreted by the Golgi apparatus and become integrated into the wall network by poorly understood mechanisms. The growing wall is under high tensile stress from cell turgor and is able to enlarge by a combination of stress relaxation and polymer creep. A pH-dependent mechanism of wall loosening, known as acid growth, is characteristic of growing walls and is mediated by a group of unusual wall proteins called expansins. Expansins appear to disrupt the noncovalent bonding of matrix hemicelluloses to the microfibril, thereby allowing the wall to yield to the mechanical forces generated by cell turgor. Other wall enzymes, such as (1-->4) beta-glucanases and pectinases, may make the wall more responsive to expansin-mediated wall creep whereas pectin methylesterases and peroxidases may alter the wall so as to make it resistant to expansin-mediated creep.

  15. Thermal shielding walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takenori.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the amount of heat released from a pressure vessel and reliably shield neutron fluxes and gamma rays from a reactor core by the addition of cooling ducts in a thermal shielding wall provided with a blower and an air cooling cooler. Constitution: A thermal shielding wall is located on a pedestal so as to surround a pressure vessel and the pressure vessel is located by way of a skirt in the same manner. Heat insulators are disposed between the pressure vessel and the shielding wall while closer to the skirt in the skirt portion and closer to the shielding wall in the vessel body portion. A plurality of cooling ducts are arranged side by side at the inner side in the shielding wall. A through-duct radially passing through the wall is provided in the lower portion thereof and a blower fan for cooling air and a cooler for cooling returned air are connected by way of a communication duct to the other end of the through-duct. This enables to provide a shielding wall capable of suppressing the amount of heat released from the pressure vessel as much as possible and giving more effective cooling. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Palash B.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.

  17. Methicillin-resistant septal peptidoglycan synthesis in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, B J; Nadakavukaren, M J

    1983-01-01

    In a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, electron micrographs showed that cell wall septa continued to be formed in the presence of methicillin, although they became distorted and enlarged. The results indicated that peripheral cell wall synthesis was inhibited. It is concluded that a methicillin-resistant mode of septal peptidoglycan synthesis is an important determinant of methicillin resistance.

  18. [Abdominal wall prostheses. Biomechanic and histological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, A M; Zhang, J; Amouroux, J; Chevrel, J P

    1996-01-01

    The best prosthetic material is one which provides the best mechanical resistance with the best biological tolerance. In order to assess the mechanical and histological properties of abdominal wall prostheses, we performed experimental tests in animal models comparing four materials: polypropylene, dacron, polyglactine 910 and a dacron-polyglactine 910 composite. One hundred thirty rabbits were used including 10 controls and 120 test animals. A medial laparotomy was closed with an antemuscular aponevrotic prosthesis in the test animals. Animals were sacrificed at one, two and three months after the operation. Abdominal wall and prosthesis samples were tested to determine resistance to pressure and extension, deformability and elasticity. Histology tests were also done to determine resistance quality and biological tolerance. Dacron was tolerated best and was less resistant than polypropylene, though resistance was satisfactory. There was no advantage with polyglactine compared with non-resorbable prostheses; its only indication would be a septic site. The composite material tested had a resistance comparable with that of dacron but was less well tolerated.

  19. Symmetry transforms for ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I

    2002-11-01

    A method for constructing ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria is introduced. The method consists of the application of symmetry transforms to any known MHD equilibrium [ O. I. Bogoyavlenskij, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 8616, (2000)]. The transforms break the geometrical symmetries of the field-aligned solutions and produce continuous families of the nonsymmetric MHD equilibria. The method of symmetry transforms also allows to obtain MHD equilibria with current sheets and exact solutions with noncollinear vector fields B and V. A model of the nonsymmetric astrophysical jets outside of their accretion disks is developed. The total magnetic and kinetic energy of the jet is finite in any layer c(1)ball lightning with dynamics of plasma inside the fireball.

  20. Engaging distortions: are we idealizing marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds-Raacke, J M; Bearden, E S; Carriere, N J; Anderson, E M; Nicks, S D

    2001-03-01

    The present study was an investigation of the premarital status of engagement in terms of relationship satisfaction and marital expectations using the Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMS) and its two subscales of Idealistic Distortion (ID) and Marital Satisfaction (MS) (D. G. Fournier, D. H. Olson, & J. M. Druckman, 1983). There were 104 students (23 men and 81 women), of which 15 were married, 19 were engaged, and 70 had extended dating relationships. On average, participants had been in the relationship for 3.8 years, and the mean age was 22 years. Results demonstrated that individuals engaged to be married had significantly higher idealistic distortion scores (M = 86.89) than did either married individuals (M = 56.67) or those in extended dating relationships (M = 61.19). Finally, a negative relation was found between length of relationships and marital satisfaction subscores. Results are discussed in light of factors contributing to such idealized thinking.

  1. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  2. An ideal characterization of the Clifford operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The Clifford operators are an important and well-studied subset of quantum operations, in both the qubit and higher-dimensional qudit cases. While there are many ways to characterize this set, this paper aims to provide an ideal characterization, in the sense that it has the same characterization in every finite dimension, is characterized by a minimal set of gates, is constructive, and does not make any assumptions about non-Clifford operations or resources (such as the use of ancillas or the ability to make measurements). While most characterizations satisfy some of these properties, this appears to be the first characterization satisfying all of the above. As an application, we use these results to briefly analyze characterizations of Clifford embeddings, that is, the action of logical Clifford operations acting on qunits embedded in higher-dimensional qudits, inside the qudit Clifford framework.

  3. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  4. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  5. Layers in Crater Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    22 January 2004 This January 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows three distinct bands of layered material exposed in the wall of a south, middle-latitude meteor impact crater wall. Talus--debris shed from erosion of the wall--has piled up on the slopes below the layered outcrop. This picture is located near 45.5oS, 85.9oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the right/lower right.

  6. Blood Flow in Idealized Vascular Access for Hemodialysis: A Review of Computational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Remuzzi, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Although our understanding of the failure mechanism of vascular access for hemodialysis has increased substantially, this knowledge has not translated into successful therapies. Despite advances in technology, it is recognized that vascular access is difficult to maintain, due to complications such as intimal hyperplasia. Computational studies have been used to estimate hemodynamic changes induced by vascular access creation. Due to the heterogeneity of patient-specific geometries, and difficulties with obtaining reliable models of access vessels, idealized models were often employed. In this review we analyze the knowledge gained with the use of computational such simplified models. A review of the literature was conducted, considering studies employing a computational fluid dynamics approach to gain insights into the flow field phenotype that develops in idealized models of vascular access. Several important discoveries have originated from idealized model studies, including the detrimental role of disturbed flow and turbulent flow, and the beneficial role of spiral flow in intimal hyperplasia. The general flow phenotype was consistent among studies, but findings were not treated homogeneously since they paralleled achievements in cardiovascular biomechanics which spanned over the last two decades. Computational studies in idealized models are important for studying local blood flow features and evaluating new concepts that may improve the patency of vascular access for hemodialysis. For future studies we strongly recommend numerical modelling targeted at accurately characterizing turbulent flows and multidirectional wall shear disturbances.

  7. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Spruijt-Metz, D.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random

  8. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Spruijt-Metz, D.; van Strien, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random

  9. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random

  10. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  11. Promoting Spiritual Ideals through Design Thinking in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Wong, Yew-Leong

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of the debates on religious education in public or state schools, we argue for the introduction of "spiritual ideals" into the public school curriculum. We distinguish our notion of spiritual ideals from "religious ideals" as conceptualised by De Ruyter and Merry. While we agree with De Ruyter and Merry that…

  12. Black and White Adolescent Females Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Kathy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…

  13. Characterization of Distributive and Standard Ideals in Semilattices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    introduced and studied by Hashimoto (1952); and Gratzer and Schmidt (1961). Properties of distributive ideals of Birkhoff (1967) are considered in our work. In this paper we studied the notion of distributive (dually) ideal and standard ideal in a semilattice of Gratzer (1978) and produced a characterization theorem of ...

  14. From the ideal market to the ideal clinic: constructing a normative standard of fairness for human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha

    2011-02-01

    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.

  15. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  16. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  17. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  18. Tubular separate first wall for ITER-EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzuto, A.; Riccardi, B.; Salpietro, E.; Malavasi, G.

    1994-01-01

    The tubular solution first wall is the most suitable one to cope with the thermal stresses, the use of double wall reduces the risk of leaks inside the vacuum vessel by avoiding the growth of a crack through both walls: the soft brazing in between wall stops the growth of a crack from one tube to the other. The eddy currents induced in the tubes are low and the Halo current flowing poloidally in the tubes exert a radial pressure which is supported by the blanket box via ad hoc supporting points provided in between first wall and blanket. The tubes can be made of steel to resist a heat flux of up to 1 MW/m 2 . For higher heat loads copper or vanadium can be used. The tubular first wall can be replaced independently from the blanket. The thermo-hydraulic electro-magnetic and dynamic analysis confirm the viability of the solution proposed

  19. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  20. Behavior of precast ferrocement thin walls under cyclic loading: an experimental and analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alveiro Bedoya Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin ferrocement walls are the structural elements that comprise the earthquake resistant system of housing built with this material. This article presents the results drawn from an experimental campaign carried out over full-scale precast ferrocement thin walls, which were assessed under cyclic loading conditions. The tests assessed the strength of the walls, their hysteretic behavior, ductility, energy dissipation, equivalent damping, their coefficient of energy dissipation and their characteristic failure mode when subjected to cyclic loading conditions. Finally, an analytical model that modeled the nonlinear dynamic behavior exhibited by ferrocement walls was implemented; its feasibility and potential use in earthquake resistant design of ferrocement walls was evaluated.

  1. A Study on Hybrid Precast walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, S.; Chidambaram, C. R.; Karthikeyan, K.; Santhi, M. Helen

    2017-07-01

    This study proposes an innovative wall system so called as hybrid precast walls (HW). HW uses both mild steel and high strength steel angles for flexural resistance across horizontal joint. High strength steel plates are used for steel angles connection at the horizontal precast joint and also at places where angles cross which assist for the re-centering property of the HW walls. HW is designed with mild steel to yield both tension and compression whereas the steel angles provide re-centering capability and thereby reducing lateral displacements. Efficiency of the structure depends upon the performance of both reinforcements accordingly to what it is meant to be. This paper presents the seismic performance studies of HW under gradually applied lateral static load. Experimental studies were carried out which account for steel yielding, concrete cracking and crushing.

  2. Stability of the n=1 ideal internal kink for large aspect ratio Shafranov equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Bussac, M.N.

    1991-09-01

    Stability limits for the ideal internal kink mode are calculated analytically for the Shafranov current profile using the large aspect ratio expansion. For equilibria with q(a)>2 and circular cross section, the maximum stable poloidal beta is below 0.1. In the absence of a conducting wall, an equilibrium with q(a)<2 is unstable at arbitrarily small positive poloidal beta or shear inside the q = 1 surface. The effects of non-circularity are discussed and quantitative results are given for elliptic cross sections. (author) 2 figs., 10 refs

  3. A study of ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The ideal conditions for sodium purification in diffusion type cold traps are studied. It is known that the temperature profile along axial direction (x) of the trap must follow the condition (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 , in order to avoid crystals deposition on the wall and the consequent premature plugging. In the present work it is showed that (∂ T/∂ x) 2 ≤ 0 condition is necessary but not sufficient. A temperature profile which satisfies both conditions is found and its practical obtention is presented. (L.C.J.A.)

  4. The cyclicity of a cubic system with nonradical Bautin ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskyy, Viktor; Romanovski, Valery G.; Shafer, Douglas S.

    We present a method for investigating the cyclicity of an elementary focus or center of a polynomial system of differential equations by means of complexification of the system and application of algorithms of computational algebra, showing an approach to treating the case that the Bautin ideal B of focus quantities is not a radical ideal (more precisely, when the ideal B is not radical, where B is the ideal generated by the shortest initial string of focus quantities that, like the Bautin ideal, determines the center variety). We illustrate the method with a family of cubic systems.

  5. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  6. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  7. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  8. [Tuberculosis and the modern ideal of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, T C

    2003-08-20

    Sunlight and fresh air belong to the everyday life's myths. It has influenced our times and personal lives as much as industrialization. Today we are hardly aware of the multiple and omnipresent consequences of this myth. The modern movement with all its facets including modern architecture is barely conceivable without it. What is the link between this triad with all its effects and tuberculosis, the oldest and most important infectious disease which still claims more than 3 million deaths per year worldwide? Tuberculosis was treated by sunlight and fresh air at all times. This treatment was at its zenith during the second half of the 19th century after Hermann Brehmer had initiated this treatment within sanatoria in 1862. The sanatorium vogue lasted until the middle of the last century when streptomycin was isolated by Selman Waksman 1943. A new type of hospital was necessary for treating the patients with sunlight and fresh air: the sanatorium with its wide windows, sheltered open balconies, terraces and "Liegehallen". In return, this airy type of building was the forrunner of a new architectural style, called "Neues Bauen". The latter has profoundly influenced our modern ideal of living since Le Corbusiier built the Villa Savoye, one of the architectural highlights of the 20th century.

  9. Axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G.N.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the ideal MHD equilibrium states of an axisymmetric plasma with incompressible flows are governed by an elliptic partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function ψ containing five surface quantities along with a relation for the pressure. Exact equilibria are constructed including those with non vanishing poloidal and toroidal flows and differentially varying radial electric fields. Unlike the case in cylindrical incompressible equilibria with isothermal magnetic surfaces which should have necessarily circular cross sections [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and H. Tasso, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1492 (1997)], no restriction appears on the shapes of the magnetic surfaces in the corresponding axisymmetric equilibria. The latter equilibria satisfy a set of six ordinary differential equations which for flows parallel to the magnetic field B can be solved semianalytically. In addition, it is proved the non existence of incompressible axisymmetric equilibria with (a) purely poloidal flows and (b) non-parallel flows with isothermal magnetic surfaces and vertical stroke B vertical stroke = vertical stroke B vertical stroke (ψ) (omnigenous equilibria). (orig.)

  10. A full ranking for decision making units using ideal and anti-ideal points in DEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegarinegad, A; Jahanshahloo, G; Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, M

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure for ranking decision making units in data envelopment analysis, based on ideal and anti-ideal points in the production possibility set. Moreover, a model has been introduced to compute the performance of a decision making unit for these two points through using common set of weights. One of the best privileges of this method is that we can make ranking for all decision making units by solving only three programs, and also solving these programs is not related to numbers of decision making units. One of the other advantages of this procedure is to rank all the extreme and nonextreme efficient decision making units. In other words, the suggested ranking method tends to seek a set of common weights for all units to make them fully ranked. Finally, it was applied for different sets holding real data, and then it can be compared with other procedures.

  11. Application of the ideal profile method to identify an ideal sufu for nonregular consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Ping; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-02-06

    Sufu is a fermented soybean food with unique odor, flavor, and texture, which might not be appreciated by nonregular consumers. To identify the attributes that nonregular consumers appreciated, 12 commercial products bought from a Hong Kong market were tested by 113 consumers according to the ideal profile method (IPM), and rated on 22 attributes. Data provided from nonregular consumers were consistent at both panel and consumer levels. The predicted ideal profile received a higher hedonic score (7.0) than the tested products (6.0). Compared with commercial samples, the ideal sufu has low intensity in the attributes of fermented (aroma and flavor), moldy (aroma), and hard (texture), but high intensity in the soybean-like (aroma and flavor) and sesame oil-like (aroma and flavor) attributes. IPM could be used as an alternative approach to collect sensory profiles and preference data directly from consumers for product characterization. It could also be applied to identify the attributes that nonregular consumers appreciated. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. O ideal de Baudelaire por Walter Benjamin Baudelaire's ideal by Walter Benjamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ferreira Gatti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina a interpretação feita por Walter Benjamin dos poemas de Charles Baudelaire marcados pela noção de ideal, a qual se opõe ao spleen. Benjamin encontra aí o esforço de rememoração de uma experiência plena, a qual constituiria, por sua vez, um elemento essencial à compreensão da modernidade como impossibilidade desta forma de experiência. Com as noções de beleza e de aura, o artigo busca ainda salientar a importância da categoria da distância para a configuração desta forma de experiência.This paper examines the interpretation made by Walter Benjamin of Baudelaire's poems determined by the notion of Ideal, which is opposed to the concept of spleen. The Ideal is identified by Benjamin as the effort of remembrance of a full experience, which constitutes an essential element to the understanding of modernity as the impossibility of such kind of experience. At last the explanation of the concepts of beauty and aura is introduced to emphasize the importance of the category of distance to the configuration of this form of experience.

  13. Noise characteristics of an ideal shunted Josephson Junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations have been made of the effect of intrinsic noise current on the I--V characteristic and voltage noise spectral density S/sub v/(f) of an ideal Josephson element shunted by a capacitor and resistor. The minimum value of the parameter β/sub c/ at which hysteresis appears in the quasistatic I--V characteristic is greater than the noise-free value of approx. =1. Moreover, as β/sub c/ is increased, a region of large differential resistance R/sub d/ appears in the I--V characteristic that is associated with a large increase in S/sub v/(0). In this regime the noise current is seen to cause random switching between the super-conducting and nonzero voltage states. For all bias conditions, S/sub v/(f)>R/sub d/ 2 S/sub I/(f) where S/sub I/(f) is the spectral density of the intrinsic current noise. A comparison is made between these results and previous calculations. The implications for low-noise superconducting devices are discussed

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT IN SIMPLE MASONRY WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor BURLAN-ROTAR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement in thick walls indicate under what conditions is exploited a building. Any type of moisture walls, superficial or deep, give information about possible cracks or infiltration of water. The electromagnetic techniques for measuring soil humidity (by resistivity has been known for a long time. It can be used to measure walls moisture. Conductivity is preferable in inductive techniques, as instrumentation readings are generally directly proportional to conductivity and inversely proportional to resistivity. The operating principle of this method is: a Tx coil transmitter, supplied with alternatingcurrent at an audio frequency, is placed on the wall. An Rx coil receiver is located at a short distance, s, (on the wall away from the Tx coil. The magnetic field varies in time and the Tx coil induces very small currents in the wall. These currents generate a secondary magnetic field, Hs, which is sensed by the Rx receiver coil, together, with primary magnetic field Hp. The ratio of the secondary field, Hs, to the primary magnetic field, Hp, (Hs/Hp is directly proportional to wall conductivity. Measuring this ratio, it is possible to construct a device which measures the wall conductivity by contactless, direct-reading electromagnetic technique (linear meter. This technique for measuring conductivity by electromagnetic induction, using Very Low Frequency (VLF, is a non-intrusive, non-destructive sampling method. The measurements can be done quickly and are not expensive.

  15. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.; Jensen, B.; Tien, J.K.; Panayotou, N.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to provide information on important phenomena occurring when a hot, dense plasma containing a transverse magnetic field is brought into sudden contact with a cold metal wall. Computational simulation has been used to study the physics of the fusion plasma boundary layer which forms at the plasma-wall interface. Thermal, magnetic, and neutral gas boundary layers rapidly develop. The rate of energy transfer to the metal wall is computed and compared with experimental data. The agreement is rather good. Candidate fusion-reactor first wall materials have been exposed repeatedly to a warm (T/sub i/ approximately 600 eV) deuterium plasma containing a transverse 1.0 W/m 2 magnetic field. Polished samples were subjected to 6 x 10 21 eV cm -2 , the energy flux expected at the first wall in about one year operation of a tokamak fusion power reactor. Stainless steels show significant erosion at grain boundaries, formation of deuterium blisters on the surface, evidence of surface melting to a depth of 25 μm, and rapid resolidification. Some cracking is observed, which extends for about a grain size length along grain boundaries into the bulk material. Decrease in tensile ductility is also measured, indicative of possible hydrogen embrittlement

  16. Koers and the ideal of Christian scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël F.M. Strauss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Commemorating the 75-year existence of the journal Koers is connected to the Reformational tradition, from Calvin to Kuyper, Stoker, Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven – all thinkers who realised that the biblical starting point of life indeed touches the heart, the religious root, of humankind and therefore cannot remain restricted to church life and religion in its narrow sense, but must come to expression in all walks of life. This awareness was a fruit of the Christian worldview and lifeview which currently is confronted by the Big Bang claims and by neo-Darwinism – both movements taking on cultic dimensions with an intolerance towards everyone who does not accept their perspective. Their attitude generated serious reactions on two websites, the impact of which was discussed in this article. Some problems entailed in Darwinism and physicalistic materialism were highlighted, before attention was given to the status of natural laws and normative principles. Particular attention was given to the elimination of God’s law and the way in which modern Humanism explored the two cornerstones of modern nominalism, up to the point where human understanding was elevated to become the a priori formal law-giver of nature. This legacy was continued both by the later developments within the Baden school of neo-Kantian thought and Postmodernism,which is placed within the context of the three succeeding epistemic ideals of the past three centuries. Rationality can only fulfil its true calling when it accounts for the cohering diversity within reality without becoming a victim of any form of reductionism – and by following this guiding star, Koers will continue to strengthen its invaluable contribution to the advancement of Christian scholarship.

  17. Thermal treatment wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Knauss, Kevin G.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  18. Edge localized linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability studies in an extended-magnetohydrodynamic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, B. J.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Zhu, P.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Howell, E. C.

    2010-03-01

    A linear benchmark between the linear ideal MHD stability codes ELITE [H. R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002)], GATO [L. Bernard et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981)], and the extended nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al.., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is undertaken for edge-localized (MHD) instabilities. Two ballooning-unstable, shifted-circle tokamak equilibria are compared where the stability characteristics are varied by changing the equilibrium plasma profiles. The equilibria model an H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. For both equilibria, NIMROD accurately reproduces the transition to instability (the marginally unstable mode), as well as the ideal growth spectrum for a large range of toroidal modes (n =1-20). The results use the compressible MHD model and depend on a precise representation of "ideal-like" and "vacuumlike" or "halo" regions within the code. The halo region is modeled by the introduction of a Lundquist-value profile that transitions from a large to a small value at a flux surface location outside of the pedestal region. To model an ideal-like MHD response in the core and a vacuumlike response outside the transition, separate criteria on the plasma and halo Lundquist values are required. For the benchmarked equilibria the critical Lundquist values are 108 and 103 for the ideal-like and halo regions, respectively. Notably, this gives a ratio on the order of 105, which is much larger than experimentally measured values using Te values associated with the top of the pedestal and separatrix. Excellent agreement with ELITE and GATO calculations are made when sharp boundary transitions in the resistivity are used and a small amount of physical dissipation is added for conditions very near and below marginal ideal stability.

  19. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  20. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 = 0 and U(R) be the set of all unit elements of R. Let m, n be positive integers such that m > n. In this article, we study a generalization of n-absorbing ideals. A proper ideal I of R is called an (m, n)- absorbing ideal if whenever a1 ··· am ∈ I for a1,...,am ∈ R \\ U(R), then there are n.

  1. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ 0 /p 0 ) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ 0 is the permeability, and p 0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  2. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Pullin, D. I.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R = √μ0/p0 I/(2π) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then

  3. Ideal of millers and bakers: 'Sofija'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denčić Srbislav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The winter wheat cultivar Sofija was developed by crossing varieties ZG 965/76 and Panonija. The semi-dwarf stature, good yield ability, very good resistance to low temperatures, lodging and prevalent disease are the main agronomic characteristics of the cultivar. The most importance and valuable character of cv Sofija is it's bread-making quality. According to preliminary long term data the cultivar possess high protein content (> 14%, sedimentation value (> 50, wet gluten (> 35, crumb number (> 6, etc. Regarding to bread-making parameters cv. Sofija is on the level or even better than cv. Partizanka, while yield capacity is on the level of high yielded domestic wheat cultivars Evropa 90 and Pobeda. .

  4. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    -plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...

  5. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Carriquiry, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  6. eWALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Mihaylov, Mihail; Anggorojati, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    challenge with impact in multiple sectors. In this paper we present an innovative ICT solution, named eWALL, that aims to address these challenges by means of an advanced ICT infrastructure and home sensing environment; thus differentiating from existing eHealth and eCare solutions. The system of e...

  7. Study on Shear Performance of Cold-formed Steel Composite Wall with New Type of stud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chungang; Yue, Sizhe; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Zhuangnan

    2018-03-01

    The shear resistance of single oriented-strand board wall and single gypsum board wall can be improved in different degrees by increasing strength of steel. The experimental data of literatures were used, and the test specimens had been simulated and validated by ABAQUS finite element analysis. According to the research, it showed that the compressive bearing capacity of the new stud composite wall was much better than the common stud composite wall, so the establishment and research of all models had been based on the new section stud. The analysis results show that when using new type of stud the shear resistance of the single oriented-strand board wall can be improved efficiently by increasing strength of steel, but the shear resistance of the single gypsum wall can be increased little.

  8. O ideal em questão The Ideal on focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoffmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da formulação lacaniana segundo a qual "em todo psicanalisante, há um discípulo de Aristóteles", o artigo pretende abordar o impasse atual no governo de si e dos outros articulando-o à servidão voluntária ao ideal platônico do filósofo-rei. Propondo pensar a questão de como sair dessa servidão, o autor versa sobre as críticas de Aristóteles, Arendt e Leo Strauss a uma política elaborada com base no modelo da família.Based on the Lacanian formulation that "in every psychoanalysand, there is a disciple of Aristotle", the article aims to address the current impasse in the government of self and others linking it to voluntary servitude to the platonic ideal of the philosopher-king. Proposing to consider the question of how to get out of this bondage, the author discusses the criticism of Aristotle, Arendt and Leo Strauss to a policy which is based on the family model.

  9. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  10. Effects of opening in shear walls of 30- storey building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tall towers and multi-storey buildings have fascinated mankind from the beginning of civilization, their construction being initially for defense and subsequently for ecclesiastical purposes. These tall buildings because of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake actions tends to snap the building in shear and push it over in bending. In general, the rigidity (i.e. Resistance to lateral deflection and stability (i.e. Resistance to overturning moments requirement become more important. Shear walls (Structural walls contribute significant lateral stiffness, strength, and overall ductility and energy dissipation capacity. In many structural walls a regular pattern of openings has to be provided due to various functional requirements such as to accommodate doors, windows and service ducts. Such type of openings reduces the stiffness of the shear wall to some extent depending on the shape and size of the opening. In the present parametric study, efforts are made to investigate and critically assess the effects of various size of openings in shear walls on the responses and behaviors of multi-storey buildings. The 30 storey Prototype buildings with different types of openings in shear wall with and without incorporating the volume of shear wall reduced in the boundary elements are analyzed using software E-TABS using Response spectrum method (1893(Part-1-2002 and Time history method.

  11. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  12. On an ideal in algebras of unbounded operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermann, W.

    1977-01-01

    The closure of the set of finite dimensional operators with respect to different topologies is considered. The obtained ideals have many properties similar to those of the ideal of completely continuous operators on the Hilbert space. For example, on some appropriate assumptions all continuous functionals are normal, irreducible representations are equivalent to the identical representation and so on

  13. Critical thinking abilities among prospective educators: ideals versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical thinking abilities among prospective educators: ideals versus realities. BJJ Lombard, MM Grosser. Abstract. One of the key educational ideals of the African Renaissance is the elevation of learners to the highest level of human development. The challenge put forward to the education and training sector is to provide ...

  14. Health discourses, slimness ideals and attitudes to physical activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; With-Nielsen, Ninna; Lenneis, Verena

    2017-01-01

    they ascribed great importance. The internalization of current ideals of the slim and fit body fueled aspirations but did not necessarily lead to the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. We conclude that health messages and body ideals often cause anxieties and guilt among young women, which may...

  15. On the relations between parents' ideals and children's autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Schinkel, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of ideals and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of

  16. Moral Idealism and Social Reality: a Textual Analysis of Festus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    between moral idealism and social reality in Festus Iyayi‟s The Contract. Key Words: Moral, Idealism, Social Reality .... It is the way that society functions and there is nothing that can be done about it… The way the society ... principle, part of the establishment he so stridently condemns. At the onset of his accepting the job ...

  17. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students.

  18. Ideal Convergence of k-Positive Linear Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Gadjiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some ideal convergence results of k-positive linear operators defined on an appropriate subspace of the space of all analytic functions on a bounded simply connected domain in the complex plane. We also show that our approximation results with respect to ideal convergence are more general than the classical ones.

  19. Neo-liberalism, Human Security, and Pan-Africanist Ideals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    security in both its classical and modern connotations as well as. Pan-Africanist ideals. ... emptied of their being 'through dispossession or slavery, or socially, ..... Modern concepts of human rights, human security and development could all be distilled from the variegated ideals propagated by the early and later-day Pan-.

  20. Sexual body ideal among Zulu women: Continuity and change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa the western thin ideal has heavy racial overtones for the majority of blacks, who are still shrouded by a minority white culture that continues to dominate 17 years after the apartheid era ended. Whether for or against the contemporary western 'thin ideal', for the above women there is no escaping the cultural ...

  1. The "Body Beautiful": English Adolescents' Images of Ideal Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Lloyd, Barbara; Dugan, Shaun; Halliwell, Emma; Jacobs, Neil; Cramer, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examine qualities capturing adolescents' images of ideal bodies for both genders. Data from questionnaires and discussions of photographs indicate that body-image ideals are multidimensional, show systematic gender differences, and become more conventional with age. Adolescents' own body mass links systematically to body-image…

  2. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjørk, R., E-mail: rabj@dtu.dk

    2016-10-15

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach cylinder, although the field is generated with higher efficiency. The most efficient Halbach cylinder is shown to generate a field exactly twice as large as the equivalent ideal remanence magnet. - Highlights: • The ideal cylindrical magnet that produces a uniform field in the bore is examined in detail. • An ideal magnet is one that utilizes the magnets most efficiently. • The ideal magnet always produce a field lower than half of its maximum remanence. • The ideal magnet is compared to the Halbach cylinder. • The Halbach cylinder always produce a larger field than an equivalently sized ideal magnet.

  3. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjørk, R.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach cylinder, although the field is generated with higher efficiency. The most efficient Halbach cylinder is shown to generate a field exactly twice as large as the equivalent ideal remanence magnet. - Highlights: • The ideal cylindrical magnet that produces a uniform field in the bore is examined in detail. • An ideal magnet is one that utilizes the magnets most efficiently. • The ideal magnet always produce a field lower than half of its maximum remanence. • The ideal magnet is compared to the Halbach cylinder. • The Halbach cylinder always produce a larger field than an equivalently sized ideal magnet.

  4. Ideal MHD stability of high poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Chance, M.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Jardin, S.C.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Phillips, M.W.; Hughes, M.H.; Kesner, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments in TFTR have expanded the operating space of the device to include plasmas with values of var-epsilon β p dia ≡ 2μ 0 var-epsilon perpendicular >/ p >> 2 as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta β N dia ≡ β t perpendicular aB t /10 -8 I p as large as 4.7. At values of var-epsilon β p dia ≥ 1.3, a separatrix was observed to enter the vacuum vessel, producing a naturally diverted discharge. Plasmas with large values of var-epsilon β p dia were created with both the plasma current, I p , held constant and with I p decreased, or ramped down, before the start of neutral beam injection. A convenient characterization of the change in I p using experimental parameters can be defined by the ratio of I p before the ramp down, to I p during the neutral beam heating phase, F I p . The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria is investigated to determine their location in stability space, and to study the role of plasma current and pressure profile modification in the creation of these high var-epsilon β p and β N plasmas. The evolution of these plasmas is modelled from experimental data using the TRANSP code. Two-dimensional equilibria are computed from the TRANSP results and used as input to both high and low-n stability codes including PEST. The high var-epsilon β p equilibria, which generally have an oblate cross-sectional shape, are in the first stability region to high-n ballooning modes. At constant I p , these equilibria generally have maximum pressure gradients near the magnetic axis and are stable to n=1 modes without a stabilizing conducting wall. The effect of the current profile shape on the stability of low-n kink/ballooning modes and the requirements for these plasmas to access the second stability region are examined. 6 refs

  5. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. Performance Analyses of IDEAL Algorithm on Highly Skewed Grid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available IDEAL is an efficient segregated algorithm for the fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This algorithm has now been extended to the 3D nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates. Highly skewed grids in the nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates can decrease the convergence rate and deteriorate the calculating stability. In this study, the feasibility of the IDEAL algorithm on highly skewed grid system is analyzed by investigating the lid-driven flow in the inclined cavity. It can be concluded that the IDEAL algorithm is more robust and more efficient than the traditional SIMPLER algorithm, especially for the highly skewed and fine grid system. For example, at θ = 5° and grid number = 70 × 70 × 70, the convergence rate of the IDEAL algorithm is 6.3 times faster than that of the SIMPLER algorithm, and the IDEAL algorithm can converge almost at any time step multiple.

  8. Electronic properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-09-01

    The electronic properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotube has been studied using the model based on infinitely long carbon atoms wrapped along a base helix of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs). The problem is solved semiclassically, and current density J, resistivity ρ, thermopower α z , and electrical power factor P calculated. It is noted that the current density j displays negative differential conductivity, whiles the resistivity ρ increases with increasing electrical field. ρ also slowly increases at low temperatures and then gradually increases with increasing temperature. The thermopower α z shows interesting behaviour. Very intriguing is the electrical power factor which shows relatively large values. (author)

  9. Nonlinear oscillations of a coupled autoparametrical system with ideal and nonideal sources of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal and nonideal autoparametrical system excited by DC motor with unbalanced mass is presented in this work. The system consists of the body of mass M which is hung on a nonlinear spring with a nonlinear damper, and a pendulum of the length l and mass m mounted to the body of mass M. It is assumed that the motion of the pendulum is damped by nonlinear resistive forces. Vibrations of both models (ideal and nonideal are researched. Solutions for the system response are presented for specific values of the parameters of system and the energy transfer between modes of vibrations is studied. Next excited vibrations for both models have been examined analytically and numerically. Except different kinds of periodic vibrations, there may also appear chaotic vibrations.

  10. Performance analysis on free-piston Stirling cryocooler based on an idealized mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. X.; Chao, Y. J.; Gan, Z. H.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Free-piston Stirling cryocoolers have extensive applications for its simplicity in structure and decrease in mass. However, the elimination of the motor and the crankshaft has made its thermodynamic characteristic different from that of Stirling cryocoolers with displacer driving mechanism. Therefore, an idealized mathematical model has been established, and with this model, an attempt has been made to analyse the thermodynamic characteristic and the performance of free-piston Stirling cryocooler. To certify this mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the model and a numerical model. This study reveals that due to the displacer damping force necessary for the production of cooling capacity, the free-piston Stirling cryocooler is inherently less efficient than Stirling cryocooler with displacer driving mechanism. Viscous flow resistance and incomplete heat transfer in the regenerator are the two major causes of the discrepancy between the results of the idealized mathematical model and the numerical model.

  11. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE: Confronting the Ideal Worker Norm in a White-Collar Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin L; Ammons, Samantha K; Chermack, Kelly; Moen, Phyllis

    2010-05-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations "accommodate" individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status.

  12. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  13. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Light shining through walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  15. The American Heart Association Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effoe, Valery S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Chen, Haiying; Joseph, Joshua J; Norwood, Arnita F; Bertoni, Alain G

    2017-06-21

    The concept of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association primarily for coronary heart disease and stroke prevention, may apply to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. Our sample included 2668 adults in the Jackson Heart Study with complete baseline data on 6 of 7 American Heart Association CVH metrics (body mass index, healthy diet, smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity). Incident diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes mellitus drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6.5%. A summary CVH score from 0 to 6, based on presence/absence of ideal CVH metrics, was derived for each participant. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios. Mean age was 55 years (65% women) with 492 incident diabetes mellitus events over 7.6 years (24.6 cases/1000 person-years). Three quarters of participants had only 1 or 2 ideal CVH metrics; no participant had all 6. After adjustment for demographic factors (age, sex, education, and income) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, each additional ideal CVH metric was associated with a 17% diabetes mellitus risk reduction (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). The association was attenuated with further adjustment for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00). Compared with participants with 1 or no ideal CVH metric, diabetes mellitus risk was 15% and 37% lower in those with 2 and ≥3 ideal CVH metrics, respectively. The AHA concept of ideal CVH is applicable to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. These associations were largely explained by insulin resistance. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  17. Domain Walls with Strings Attached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2001-08-20

    We have constructed a bulk and brane action of IIA theory which describes a pair of BPS domain walls on S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2}, with strings attached. The walls are given by two orientifold O8-planes with coincident D8-branes and F1-D0-strings are stretched between the walls. This static configuration satisfies all matching conditions for the string and domain wall sources and has 1/4 of unbroken supersymmetry.

  18. Airtightness of the window-wall interface in masonry brick walls

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Bossche, Nathan; Huyghe, Willem; Moens, Jan; Janssens, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades there has been an increased focus on enhanced thermal resistance of building components and as a consequence, the relative importance of airtightness on the overall energy losses of buildings has increased significantly. The construction industry requires practical information on the airtightness of individual construction elements and building envelope interfaces. A literature review on the airtightness of window-wall interfaces has shown that no experimental data are avai...

  19. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  20. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  1. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  2. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  3. Sonographic assessment of splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de; Jedrzejczyk, M.; Ignee, A. [Medical Department II, Caritas-Krankenhaus, Uhlandstr. 7, D-97980 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The intestinal wall can be visualized using high resolution transabdominal ultrasound. The normal intestinal wall thickness in the terminal ileum, cecum, and right and left colon is <2 mm when examined with graded compression. It is important to appreciate that a contracted intestinal segment can be misinterpreted as a thickened wall. Vascularisation can be mainly displayed in the second hyperechoic layer (submucosal layer) as well as vessels penetrating the muscularis propria. Imaging of the gastrointestinal wall is dependent on the experience of the examiner as well dependent on the equipment used. Acute or chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is accompanied by increased perfusion of the mesentery, which can be displayed non-quantitatively with colour duplex. In contrast, ischemia is characterised by hypoperfusion of the mesenteric arteries and the bowel wall. The most promising sonographic approach in assessing splanchnic arteries and the bowel wall is combining the analysis of superior and inferior mesenteric inflow by pulsed Doppler scanning (systolic and diastolic velocities, resistance index) with the end-organ vascularity by colour Doppler imaging diminishing the influence of examination technique only displaying bowel wall vascularity. Colour Doppler imaging has been described as helpful in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease, celiac disease, mesenteric artery stenosis and other ischemic gastrointestinal diseases, graft versus host disease and hemorrhagic segmental colitis.

  4. Integrity of the first wall in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi

    2004-07-01

    Future fusion power reactors DREAM and A-SSTR2, which have been conceptually designed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, use the SiC/SiC composite material as the first wall of the blanket because of its characteristics of high heat-resistance and low radiation material. DEMO reactor, which was conceptually designed in 2001, uses the low activation ferritic steel as the first-wall material of the blanket. The problems in the thermal structural design of the plasma facing component such as the blanket first wall and the divertor plate which receives very high heat flux were examined in the design of the fusion power reactors. Compact high fusion power reactor must give high heat flux and high-speed neutron flux from the plasma to the first wall and the divertor plate. In this environmental situation, the micro cracks should be generated in material of the first wall. Structural integrity of the first wall would be very low during the operation of the reactor, if those micro-cracks grow in a crack having significant size by the fatigue or the creep. The crack penetration in the first wall can be a factor which threatens the safety of the fusion power reactor. This paper summarizes the problems on the structural integrity in the first wall made of the SiC/SiC composite material or the ferritic steel. (author)

  5. Cell wall biology: perspectives from cell wall imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kieran J D; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul

    2011-03-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth, are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon, and, in addition, impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants, polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  6. LOCAL COLLISION SIMULATION OF AN SC WALL USING ENERGY ABSORBING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUL-HUN CHUNG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the local damage of a turbine in an auxiliary building of a nuclear power plant due to an external impact by using the LS-DYNA finite element program. The wall of the auxiliary building is SC structure and the material of the SC wall plate is high manganese steel, which has superior ductility and energy absorbance compared to the ordinary steel used for other SC wall plates. The effects of the material of the wall, collision speed, and angle on the magnitude of the local damage were evaluated by local collision analysis. The analysis revealed that the SC wall made of manganese steel had significantly less damage than the SC wall made of ordinary steel. In conclusion, an SC wall made of manganese steel can have higher effective resistance than an SC wall made of ordinary steel against the local collision of an airplane engine or against a turbine impact.

  7. IDEAL framework in surgical innovation applied on laparoscopic niche repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, C; Vervoort, Anke J M W; Mol, Ben Willem; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K; Huirne, Judith A F; Brölmann, Hans A M

    2017-08-01

    The research objective of the current systematic literature review is to classify the laparoscopic niche repair according to the IDEAL framework of 'innovation stages' and to recommend the required research setting to facilitate safe and properly timed implementation of the technique. In doing so, we are also able to evaluate the practical applicability of the IDEAL framework. A systematic search of the available literature on laparoscopic niche repair was performed in PubMed, Embase, and the Wiley/Cochrane library. Articles were classified according to the IDEAL framework and recommendations were given on additional required research before the technique can be safely implemented. Practical applicability of the IDEAL framework was also evaluated. Introduction of laparoscopic niche repair matches Idea (1) and Development (2a), according to the stages of IDEAL framework, although most studies are retrospective and complications have not been registered structurally in a considerable number of the articles. As feasibility and safety have been more or less established and surgery has been further developed we enter stage 2b (Exploration) and need prospective trials preferably comparing the effectiveness of laparoscopic niche repair to expectant management, the current standard care. Available studies were classified with the use of the IDEAL framework, achieving an overall IDEAL stage to be 2a Development. As clinical outcomes, though poorly registered, have been substantially improved, laparoscopic niche repair needs to be carried forward by more advanced study designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  9. First wall for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Yoji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the thermal stresses resulted to tiles and suppress the temperature rise for mounting jigs in first walls for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A support mounting rod as a tile mounting and fixing jig and a fixing support connected therewith are disposed to the inside of an armour tile composed of high melting material and, further, a spring is disposed between the lower portion of the tile and the base plate. The armour tile can easily be fixed to the base plate by means of the resilient member by rotating the support member and abutting the support member against the support member abutting portion of the base plate. Further, since the contact and fixing surface of the armour tile and the fixing jig is situated below the tile inside the cooled base plate, the temperature rise can be suppressed as compared with the usual case. Since screw or like other clamping portion is not used for fixing the tile, heat resistant ceramics can be used with no restriction only to metal members, to thereby moderate the restriction in view of the temperature. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived...... and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach cylinder, although the field is generated with higher efficiency. The most efficient Halbach cylinder is shown...... to generate a field exactly twice as large as the equivalent ideal remanence magnet....

  11. Ideal kingship in the late medieval world: The Ottoman case

    OpenAIRE

    Yelçe, Zeynep Nevin; Yelce, Zeynep Nevin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of the ideal ruler as seen through the eyes of the members of late medieval societies. Throughout the study, main features attributed to the ideal ruler in various cultures have been pursued. Comparing the concepts and attributes apparent in these cultures, it has become possible to talk about a single ideal of kingship as far as the "Christian" and "Muslim" realms of the late medieval era is concerned. The early Ottoman enterprise has b...

  12. Normative Aesthetics: the Ideal Audience and Art Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ks, Sunaryono Basuki

    1997-01-01

    Reader-Response Criticism proposes a new way of looking at literary text. One of the writers of this criticism discusses about 'literary competence' which entails the idea of 'ideal reader'. The writer proposes the idea of 'ideal audience' to work with fields of art other than literature. In an attempt to give the proper appreciation of art, norms are required, and norms in art can be arrived at using the concept of 'ideal audience'. It is a fact that norms are normally contextual, not univer...

  13. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...... oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...

  14. Reduction of sound transmission through fuselage walls by alternate resonance tuning (A.R.T.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Gottwald, James A.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of alternate resonance tuning (ART) to block sound transmission through light-weight flexible paneled walls by controlling the dynamics of the wall panels is considered. Analytical results for sound transmission through an idealized panel wall illustrate the effect of varying system parameters and show that one or more harmonics of the incident sound field can be cancelled by the present method. Experimental results demonstrate that very large transmission losses with reasonable bandwidths can be achieved by a simple ART panel barrier in a duct.

  15. Do the Particles of an Ideal Gas Collide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the collisional properties as a logically essential component of the ideal gas model since an actual intraparticle process cannot support observable anisotropic velocity distributions without collisions taken into account. (CC)

  16. Computer program for calculation of ideal gas thermodynamic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Mc Bride, B. J.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates ideal gas thermodynamic properties for any species for which molecular constant data is available. Partial functions and derivatives from formulas based on statistical mechanics are provided by the program which is written in FORTRAN 4 and MAP.

  17. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  18. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  19. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses, controlling for BMI. Higher susceptibility for thin ideal media was directly related to higher scores on all eating styles, and indirectly related to higher restrained and emotional eating through elevated levels of body dissatisfaction. So, thin ideal media susceptibility was not only related to restraint through body dissatisfaction, but also directly. Emotional eaters might be more vulnerable for negative affect, whereas external eaters might be more sensitive to external cues in general.

  20. Measurable Control System Security through Ideal Driven Technical Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Sean McBride; Marie Farrar; Zachary Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a small set of security ideals as a framework to establish measurable control systems security. Based on these ideals, a draft set of proposed technical metrics was developed to allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture. The technical metrics development effort included review and evaluation of over thirty metrics-related documents. On the bases of complexity, ambiguity, or misleading and distorting effects the metrics identified during the reviews were determined to be weaker than necessary to aid defense against the myriad threats posed by cyber-terrorism to human safety, as well as to economic prosperity. Using the results of our metrics review and the set of security ideals as a starting point for metrics development, we identified thirteen potential technical metrics - with at least one metric supporting each ideal. Two case study applications of the ideals and thirteen metrics to control systems were then performed to establish potential difficulties in applying both the ideals and the metrics. The case studies resulted in no changes to the ideals, and only a few deletions and refinements to the thirteen potential metrics. This led to a final proposed set of ten core technical metrics. To further validate the security ideals, the modifications made to the original thirteen potential metrics, and the final proposed set of ten core metrics, seven separate control systems security assessments performed over the past three years were reviewed for findings and recommended mitigations. These findings and mitigations were then mapped to the security ideals and metrics to assess gaps in their coverage. The mappings indicated that there are no gaps in the security ideals and that the ten core technical metrics provide significant coverage of standard security issues with 87% coverage. Based

  1. A social-eco-democrat between ideals and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of discovering what is generally important vis-à-vis human being, through dealing with seemingly local topics, was the ideal of a late Serbian philosopher, ethicist and social theorist Prof. Dr. Svetozar Stojanović, the ideal that he, by his own self-understanding, was persistently explored. The rediscovery of his world-view initiated by his recent passing, has a potential to arouse momentous thinking on the principles of identity transformation.

  2. On the Prime Ideals of C[0,1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    It is well known that the set C[0, 1] of real-valued continuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1] has a natural ring structure. Its maximal ide- als are known to be points. Here we show that although there exist prime ideals which are not maximal, the zero set is again a singleton. In par- ticular, each prime ideal is contained ...

  3. Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2013-07-05

    In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.

  4. The ideal mixing departure in vector meson physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epele, L.; Fanchiotti, H.; Grunfeld, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we study the departure from the ideal φ-ω mixing angle within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In this context we show that the flavor symmetry breaking is unable to produce the shifting of the ideal mixing. We found that a nonet symmetry breaking in the neutral vector sector is necessary to regulate the non-strange content of the φ meson. The phenomenology is well described by our proposal. (orig.)

  5. The ideal restructuring of migrant families in the immigration law

    OpenAIRE

    Encarnación La Spina

    2013-01-01

    The legal configuration of kinship ties in immigration law is governed by a restrictive logic that combines a dependent and nuclear composition with mismatches in the concrete form of managing the distances, the dynamics and the times at origin and destination. The family model in immigration law has an ideal and dominant approach openly excluding other family realities in the social context. Law in an inherent tendency towards the ideal doesn’t allow a legitimate choice between autonomy and ...

  6. IDEALS GENERATED BY LINEAR FORMS AND SYMMETRIC ALGEBRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Restuccia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ideals generated by linear forms in the variables X1 : : : ;Xn in the polynomial ring R[X1; : : : ;Xn], being R a commutative, Noetherian ring with identity. We investigate when a sequence a1; a2; : : : ; am of linear forms is an ssequence, in order to compute algebraic invariants of the symmetric algebra of the ideal I = (a1; a2; : : : ; am.

  7. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential i...

  8. Social Network Project for IDEAL in CS5604

    OpenAIRE

    Harb, Islam; Jin, Yilong; Cedeno, Vanessa; Mallampati, Sai Ravi Kiran; Bulusu, Bhaskara Srinivasa Bharadwaj

    2015-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Digital Event Archiving and Library) project involves VT faculty, staff, and students, along with collaborators around the world, in archiving important events and integrating the digital library, and archiving approaches to support the Research and Development related to important events. An objective of the CS5604 (Information Retrieval), Spring 2015 course, was to build a state-of-the-art information retrieval system, in support of the IDEAL project. Students were di...

  9. The Impact of the Ideal Thin Body Image on Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have postulated that the thin-ideal image portrayed in the media leads to body dissatisfaction and negative self-appraisals among women; however, there is little research that has directly examined the effects of these images on women. The purpose of this research investigation was to experimentally examine the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal on women's affect, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and level of internalization of the thin body image. This study also...

  10. Radiation of ultrarelativistic particles passing through ideal and mosaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    When a charged particle passes through an ideal crystal, then besides the transition radiation, a new kind of radiation, connected with the periodic structure of the crystal is produced. The influence of mosaic structure of a crystal on the intensity of this radiation is considered. Simple analytical expressions for the integral intensity of this radiation for the case of an ideal crystal are obtained. The results show, that the integral radiation intensity depends weakly on the degree of crystal perfection

  11. Ideal triangulations of 3-manifolds II: taut and angle structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ensil; Rubinstein, J. Hyam

    2005-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers in which we investigate ideal triangulations of the interiors of compact 3-manifolds with tori or Klein bottle boundaries. Such triangulations have been used with great effect, following the pioneering work of Thurston. Ideal triangulations are the basis of the computer program SNAPPEA of Weeks and the program SNAP of Coulson, Goodman, Hodgson and Neumann. Casson has also written a program to find hyperbolic structures on such 3-manifolds, by solving T...

  12. The magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørk, R.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the magnetic properties of the hollow cylindrical ideal remanence magnet. This magnet is the cylindrical permanent magnet that generates a uniform field in the cylinder bore, using the least amount of magnetic energy to do so. The remanence distribution of this magnet is derived and the generated field is compared to that of a Halbach cylinder of equal dimensions. The ideal remanence magnet is shown in most cases to generate a significantly lower field than the equivalent Halbach ...

  13. Local and integral disruption forces on the tokamak wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.; Kiramov, D. I.

    2018-04-01

    The disruption-induced forces on the tokamak wall are evaluated analytically within the standard large-aspect-ratio model that implies axisymmetry, circular plasma and wall, and absence of halo currents. Additionally, the ideal-wall reaction is assumed. The disruptions are modelled as rapid changes in the plasma pressure (thermal quench (TQ)) and net current (current quench (CQ)). The force distribution over the poloidal angle is found as a function of these inputs. The derived formulas allow comparison of the TQ- and CQ-produced forces calculated differently, with and without account of the poloidal current induced in the wall. The latter variant represents the inherent property of the codes treating the wall as a set of toroidal filaments. It is proved here that such a simplification leads to unacceptably large errors in the simulated forces for both TQs and CQs. It is also shown that the TQ part of the force must prevail over that due to CQ in the high-β scenarios developed for JT-60SA and ITER.

  14. Seismic Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Slit Shear Walls Energy Dissipators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Băetu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The types of slit walls energy dissipators, from monolith or precast reinforced concrete, proposed by researchers and the seismic behaviour of these types of walls are described. The overall ductility of the structure increases, considering the energy dissipation solutions proposed by the researchers of the reinforced concrete walls, resulting a supplementary safety for the structure. The objective of these solutions is to create an ideal structure for tall multi-storey buildings, that behaves as a rigid structure at low seismic action and turns into a flexible one in case of a high intensity earthquake action. The solutions for increasing ductility proposed in this paper are viable and easily to use in constructions practice. For the analysis of slit wall, the researchers used a series of analytical calculation methods, among the most important being the equivalent frame method and the finite element method, both presented s. 3 of the paper. The researchers concluded that by using this calculations methods, the dynamic behaviour of the reinforced concrete slit walls can be simulated very accurate and realistic.

  15. Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona; Huon, Gail

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's body shame and appearance anxiety, and to establish whether the effects depend on advertisement type and on participant self-objectification. Participants were 39 female university students. Twenty-four magazine advertisements comprised 12 body-related and 12 non-body-related products, one half of each with, and the other one half without, idealized images. Preexposure and post exposure body shame and appearance anxiety measures were recorded. Appearance anxiety increased after viewing advertisements featuring idealized images. There was also a significant interaction between self-objectification level and idealized body (presence vs. absence). No differences emerged for body-related compared with non-body-related product advertisements. The only result for body shame was a main effect for time. Participants' body shame increased after exposure to idealized images, irrespective of advertisement type. Although our findings reveal that media-portrayed idealized images detrimentally affect the body image of young women, they highlight the individual differences in vulnerability and the different effects for different components of body image. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention and early intervention of body image and dieting-related disorders. ( Copyright 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and ideal cardiovascular health in European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Huybrechts, Inge; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Artero, Enrique G; Labayen, Idoia; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Polito, Angela; Manios, Yannis; González-Gross, Marcela; Marcos, Ascensión; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Kafatos, Anthony; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Ortega, Francisco B

    2015-05-15

    We studied in European adolescents (i) the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and ideal cardiovascular health as defined by the American Heart Association and (ii) whether there is a cardiorespiratory fitness threshold associated with a more favourable cardiovascular health profile. Participants included 510 (n=259 girls) adolescents from 9 European countries. The 20 m shuttle run test was used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined as meeting ideal levels of the following components: four behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and three factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose). Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with a higher number of ideal cardiovascular health components in both boys and girls (both p for trend ≤0.001). Levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly higher in adolescents meeting at least four ideal components (13% higher in boys, pfitness in identifying the presence of at least four ideal cardiovascular health components (43.8 mL/kg/min in boys and 34.6 mL/kg/min in girls, both pfitness level associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile in adolescents. The fitness standards could be used in schools as part of surveillance and/or screening systems to identify youth with poor health behaviours who might benefit from intervention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM is considered one of the oldest construction materials being until the end of XIXth century, the basic material for: foundations, walls, columns, volts, staircases, floor joints, roofs, retaining walls, drainage channels, barrages, etc. Construction with URM elements posses a series of advantages such as: fire resistance, thermal an acoustic insulations between interior and outside spaces, humidity resistance. However the URM elements have some significant inconveniences such as: large self weight (heaviness causes cracks in the other elements of structures, reduced mechanical strengths in comparison with other traditional materials (steel and concrete, low tenacity, great manual labor consumptions, and vulnerability to earthquakes. Various factors cause deteriorations which must be overcome by strengthening solutions. Some strengthening solutions based on fiber reinforced polymers (FRP products applied directly on URM brick walls are presented in the paper.

  18. The collapse of a molecular cloud core to stellar densities using radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, James; Bate, Matthew R.; Price, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    We present results from radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations that follow the collapse of rotating, magnetized, molecular cloud cores to stellar densities. These are the first such calculations to include all three non-ideal effects: ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity, and the Hall effect. We employ an ionization model in which cosmic ray ionization dominates at low temperatures and thermal ionization takes over at high temperatures. We explore the effects of varying the cosmic ray ionization rate from ζcr = 10-10 to 10-16 s-1. Models with ionization rates ≳10-12 s-1 produce results that are indistinguishable from ideal MHD. Decreasing the cosmic ray ionization rate extends the lifetime of the first hydrostatic core up to a factor of 2, but the lifetimes are still substantially shorter than those obtained without magnetic fields. Outflows from the first hydrostatic core phase are launched in all models, but the outflows become broader and slower as the ionization rate is reduced. The outflow morphology following stellar core formation is complex and strongly dependent on the cosmic ray ionization rate. Calculations with high ionization rates quickly produce a fast (≈14 km s-1) bipolar outflow that is distinct from the first core outflow, but with the lowest ionization rate, a slower (≈3-4 km s-1) conical outflow develops gradually and seamlessly merges into the first core outflow.

  19. Height-related scaling of phloem anatomy and the evolution of sieve element end wall types in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Pace, Marcelo R; Xu, Qiyu; Li, Yongqing; Chen, Shaolin

    2017-04-01

    In the sieve elements (SEs) of the phloem, carbohydrates are transported throughout the whole plant from their site of production to sites of consumption or storage. SE structure, especially of the pore-rich end walls, has a direct effect on translocation efficiency. Differences in pore size and other features were interpreted as an evolutionary trend towards reduced hydraulic resistance. However, this has never been confirmed. Anatomical data of 447 species of woody angiosperms and gymnosperms were used for a phylogenetic analysis of end wall types, calculation of hydraulic resistance and correlation analysis with morphological and physiological variables. end wall types were defined according to pore arrangement: either grouped into a single area (simple) or into multiple areas along the end wall (compound). Convergent evolution of end wall types was demonstrated in woody angiosperms. In addition, an optimization of end wall resistance with plant height was discovered, but found to be independent of end wall type. While physiological factors also showed no correlation with end wall types, the number of sieve areas per end wall was found to scale with SE length. The results exclude the minimization of hydraulic resistance as evolutionary driver of different end wall types, contradicting this long-standing assumption. Instead, end wall type might depend on SE length. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Numerical simulations of tests masonry walls from ceramic block using a detailed finite element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Salajka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with an analysis of the behaviour of brick ceramic walls. The behaviour of the walls was analysed experimentally in order to obtain their bearing capacity under static loading and their seismic resistance. Simultaneously, numerical simulations of the experiments were carried out in order to obtain additional information on the behaviour of masonry walls made of ceramic blocks. The results of the geometrically and materially nonlinear computations were compared to the results of the performed tests.

  1. Multi-level nonlinear modeling verification scheme of RC high-rise wall buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Alwaeli, W.; Mwafy, A.; Pilakoutas, K.; Guadagnini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete (RC) high-rise wall buildings are designed and detailed to respond well beyond the elastic range under the expected earthquake ground motions. However, despite their considerable section depth, in terms of analysis, RC walls are still often treated as linear elements, ignoring the effect of deformation compatibility. Due to the limited number of available comprehensive experimental studies on RC structural wall systems subjected to cycling loading, few...

  2. Vascular narrowing in pulmonary arterial hypertension is heterogeneous: rethinking resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rol, N.; Timmer, E.M.; Faes, T.J.; Noordegraaf, A.V.; Grunberg, K.; Bogaard, H.J.; Westerhof, N.

    2017-01-01

    In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance is associated with structural narrowing of small (resistance) vessels and increased vascular tone. Current information on pulmonary vascular remodeling is mostly limited to averaged increases in wall

  3. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  4. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinthe Le Gall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  5. Numerical study of a modified Trombe wall solar collector system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Snežana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical analysis of efficiency of the modified Trombe wall with forced convection. The analyzed system comprises a double glass glazing, and a massive wall with opening and central channel in it. In order to increase the efficiency, a fan is provided at the bottom vent of the wall. It is more advanced as compared with simple Trombe solar wall with a relatively low thermal resistance, which is taken as a reference in experimental analysis. The mathematical model, composed for the massive solar wall efficiency, is usually very complicated and assessment of the thermal behavior requires the use of thermal simulation techniques. This paper presents steady-state and one-dimensional mathematical model for simplified analysis of thermal efficiency of modified Trombe solar wall. The results from presented model were analyzed to predict the effects of variations in the operational parameters on the solar wall efficiency: solar radiation intensity, air velocity in the entrance duct, and room air temperature. The results have been compared with the available experimental study, and the comparison has shown satisfactory agreement. The obtained results have be used for simple and fast running design tools that designers can use in the early phases of the design process for approximate calculations of efficiency of the passive solar heating systems.

  6. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Geotechnical LFRD calculations of settlement and bearing capacity of GDOT shallow bridge foundations and retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    The AASHTO codes for Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) regarding shallow bridge foundations : and walls have been implemented into a set of spreadsheet algorithms to facilitate the calculations of bearing : capacity and footing settlements on na...

  8. Live-bed scour experiments with 45 wing-wall abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The armour-layer gradually increases the effective bed shear resistance, which restricts the development of scour hole. 4. Maximum equilibrium local scour depth around 45. ◦ wing-wall abutment. Maximum equilibrium local scour depth at 45. ◦ wing-wall abutment in non-cohesive bed sedi- ments depends on the variables ...

  9. Dynamics of monopole walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, R., E-mail: rafael.maldonado@durham.ac.uk; Ward, R.S., E-mail: richard.ward@durham.ac.uk

    2014-06-27

    The moduli space of centred Bogomolny–Prasad–Sommerfield 2-monopole fields is a 4-dimensional manifold M with a natural metric, and the geodesics on M correspond to slow-motion monopole dynamics. The best-known case is that of monopoles on R{sup 3}, where M is the Atiyah–Hitchin space. More recently, the case of monopoles periodic in one direction (monopole chains) was studied a few years ago. Our aim in this note is to investigate M for doubly-periodic fields, which may be visualized as monopole walls. We identify some of the geodesics on M as fixed-point sets of discrete symmetries, and interpret these in terms of monopole scattering and bound orbits, concentrating on novel features that arise as a consequence of the periodicity.

  10. Abdominal wall hernias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Mortensen, Joachim H; Lorentzen, Lea

    2016-01-01

    that abdominal wall hernia formation is associated with altered collagen metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers for type IV and V collagen turnover in patients with multiple hernias and control subjects without hernia. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 88 men (mean age, 62 years......) with a history of more than 3 hernia repairs and 86, age-matched men without hernias. Biomarkers for synthesis of collagen type IV (P4NP) and type V (P5CP) as well as breakdown (C4M and C5M) were measured in serum by validated, solid-phase, competitive assays. Collagen turnover was indicated by the ratio between...... the biomarker for synthesis and breakdown. RESULTS: Type IV collagen turnover was 1.4-fold increased in patients with multiple hernias compared to control subjects (P turnover was 1.7-fold decreased (P

  11. Bacterial Cell Wall Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

    Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

  12. Flexoelectricity in nematic domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Steve J

    2008-07-01

    Flexoelectric effects are studied in the domain walls of a nematic liquid crystal device showing the Freedericksz transition. Walls parallel to the alignment direction have a strong twist distortion and an electro-optic effect dominated by e1-e3 is seen. Walls perpendicular to the alignment direction have a strong splay-bend distortion and an electro-optic effect dominated by e1+e3 is seen. This allows the study of both flexoelectric coefficient combinations in a single device.

  13. The strong effect of gaps on the required shaping of the ITER first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Divertor tokamaks such as ITER also need limiters, namely for startup, rampdown, as well as protection of the main wall from normal and off-normal loads during the diverted phase. In future fusion devices the volume within the magnetic coils will be at a premium and it will be important to make the limiters as thin as possible. A continuous, or almost continuous, wall-limiter can be made thinner than a set of well spaced discrete limiters. The need to be able to remove and replace the components of a wall-limiter requires that its individual panels in fact be discrete but the gaps between the panels should be made as small as possible relative to the panel width to maximize the wall coverage and to minimize the extent of exposed panel edges. The modularity of a wall-limiter leads inevitably to misalignments. The gaps and misalignments reduce the power-handling capability of a modular wall-limiter relative to an ideal wall-limiter, i.e. one without any gaps or misalignments. It is shown that even small gaps and radial misalignments between the individual panels of a modular wall-limiter can require so much shaping, i.e. chamfering, of the panels in order to protect the panel edges that the peak deposited power flux density on the panel face considerably exceeds that for an ideal wall-limiter, typically by an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, compared with a set of discrete limiters which are separated by gaps larger than the limiter toroidal size, a modular, small-gap wall-limiter can still be thinner and can have lower peak deposited power flux densities (MW m -2 ), for a given total power load (MW).

  14. Cell wall evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ulrik Fangel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often heavy reinforced with lignin that provides the required durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. The rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, development of high-throughput methods for cell wall analyses, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonise land and subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources.

  15. Tetracycline Antibiotics and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Trudy H

    2016-04-01

    Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms. New chemistry approaches have enabled the creation of synthetic derivatives with improved in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, ensuring that the full potential of the class can be explored for use against current and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of asymmetric wall force in ITER disruptions with fast current quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.

    2018-02-01

    One of the problems caused by disruptions in tokamaks is the asymmetric electromechanical force produced in conducting structures surrounding the plasma. The asymmetric wall force in ITER asymmetric vertical displacement event (AVDE) disruptions is calculated in nonlinear 3D MHD simulations. It is found that the wall force can vary by almost an order of magnitude, depending on the ratio of the current quench time to the resistive wall magnetic penetration time. In ITER, this ratio is relatively low, resulting in a low asymmetric wall force. In JET, this ratio is relatively high, resulting in a high asymmetric wall force. Previous extrapolations based on JET measurements have greatly overestimated the ITER wall force. It is shown that there are two limiting regimes of AVDEs, and it is explained why the asymmetric wall force is different in the two limits.

  17. Influence of non-ideality on aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, S.; Ceulemans, K.; Müller, J.-F.

    2008-09-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a complex mixture of water and organic molecules. Its composition is determined by the presence of semi-volatile or non-volatile compounds, their vapor pressure and activity coefficient. The activity coefficient is a non-ideality effect and is a complex function of SOA composition. In a previous publication, the detailed chemical mechanism (DCM) for α-pinene oxidation and subsequent aerosol formation BOREAM was presented. In this work, we investigate with this DCM the impact of non-ideality by simulating smog chamber experiments for α-pinene degradation and aerosol formation. Several versions of the UNIFAC method are tested for this purpose, and missing parameters for e.g. hydroperoxides and nitrates are inferred from fittings to activity coefficient data generated using the SPARC model. It turns out that for most experiments, non-ideality has only a limited impact on the interaction between the organic molecules, and therefore on SOA yields and composition, when water uptake is ignored. Still, for ozonolysis experiments with low amounts of volatile organic carbon (low-VOC), the UNIFAC parameterization of Raatikainen et al. leads to significantly higher SOA yields (by up to a factor 1.6) compared to the ideal case and to other parameterizations. Water uptake is model dependent, in the order: ideal>UNIFAC-Raatikainen>UNIFAC-Peng>UNIFAC-Hansen≍UNIFAC-Magnussen≍UNIFAC-Ming. In the absence of salt dissolution, phase splitting from pure SOA is unlikely.

  18. Ideal Standards, Acceptance, and Relationship Satisfaction: Latitudes of Differential Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Buyukcan-Tetik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether the relations of consistency between ideal standards and perceptions of a current romantic partner with partner acceptance and relationship satisfaction level off, or decelerate, above a threshold. We tested our hypothesis using a 3-year longitudinal data set collected from heterosexual newlywed couples. We used two indicators of consistency: pattern correspondence (within-person correlation between ideal standards and perceived partner ratings and mean-level match (difference between ideal standards score and perceived partner score. Our results revealed that pattern correspondence had no relation with partner acceptance, but a positive linear/exponential association with relationship satisfaction. Mean-level match had a significant positive association with actor’s acceptance and relationship satisfaction up to the point where perceived partner score equaled ideal standards score. Partner effects did not show a consistent pattern. The results suggest that the consistency between ideal standards and perceived partner attributes has a non-linear association with acceptance and relationship satisfaction, although the results were more conclusive for mean-level match.

  19. Tensile strength study of the abdominal wall following laparotomy synthesis using three types of surgical wires in Wistar rats Estudo da resistência tênsil da parede abdominal após síntese de laparotomia usando três tipos de fios cirúrgicos em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Félix Rossi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the tensile strength of the abdominal wall following laparotomy synthesis utilizing three types of surgical wires. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were randomized into three groups of ten rats each. Each group underwent a 3cm-laparotomy which was closed with 3-0 polyglactin 910, polyglecrapone and catgut wires. After 63 days, euthanasia was performed and part of the abdominal wall was removed with which a strip was produced measuring 2.0 cm in length by 6.0 cm in width comprising the abdominal muscles with the implanted mesh. The sample was fixed in a mechanical test machine in which constant force was applied contrary to the tissue strips. Maximum force was considered, expressed in Newton, until full rupture of the tissue occurred. The non-parametrical Kruskal - Wallis test was used for the statistical analysis, admitting pOBJETIVO: Estudar a resistência tênsil da parede abdominal após síntese de laparotomia utilizando três tipos de fios cirúrgicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos da linhagem Wistar randomizados em três grupos de dez exemplares cada um. Em cada grupo fez-se uma laparotomia de dois centímetros que foi fechada com fios 3-0 de poliglactina 910, poliglecaprone e categute. Após 63 dias, foi feita a eutanásia e retirou-se uma área da parede abdominal com a qual fez-se uma tira medindo 2,0 cm de comprimento por 6,0 cm de largura englobando os músculos abdominais com a tela implantada. A amostra foi fixada em máquina de ensaios mecânicos na qual se aplicou força constante contrária às tiras de tecido. Foi considerada a força máxima expressa em Newton até ocorrer a ruptura total da amostra. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se teste não paramétrico de Kruskal - Wallis admitindo-se p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A média de resistência do grupo categute foi ligeiramente menor (33.50 N ao da poliglactina (34.23 N, sendo essa diferença não estatisticamente significativa (p=0,733. O grupo poliglecaprone foi o que

  20. Spiral blood flows in an idealized 180-degree curved artery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Kulkarni, Varun; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of cardiovascular flows has been greatly advanced by the Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) technique and its potential for three-dimensional velocity encoding in regions of anatomic interest. The MRV experiments were performed on a 180-degree curved artery model using a Newtonian blood analog fluid at the Richard M. Lucas Center at Stanford University employing a 3 Tesla General Electric (Discovery 750 MRI system) whole body scanner with an eight-channel cardiac coil. Analysis in two regions of the model-artery was performed for flow with Womersley number=4.2. In the entrance region (or straight-inlet pipe) the unsteady pressure drop per unit length, in-plane vorticity and wall shear stress for the pulsatile, carotid artery-based flow rate waveform were calculated. Along the 180-degree curved pipe (curvature ratio =1/7) the near-wall vorticity and the stretching of the particle paths in the vorticity field are visualized. The resultant flow behavior in the idealized curved artery model is associated with parameters such as Dean number and Womersley number. Additionally, using length scales corresponding to the axial and secondary flow we attempt to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of various structures observed during the pulsatile flow cycle. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE), MRV measurements in collaboration with Prof. John K. Eaton and, Dr. Chris Elkins at Stanford University.