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Sample records for resistance trends smart

  1. A Review of Ten Years of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Biedenbach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of antimicrobial agent resistance provides important information to guide microbiologists and infectious disease specialists understanding of the control and the spread of resistance mechanisms within the local environment. Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the community and in local hospital environments is essential to guide effective empiric therapy. The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART has monitored the in vitro susceptibility patterns of clinical Gram-negative bacilli to antimicrobial agents collected worldwide from intra-abdominal infections since 2002 and urinary tract infections since 2009. Resistance trends, with a particular focus on carbapenem resistance and the rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs, were analyzed. Isolates from intra-abdominal infections (n = 92,086 and urinary-tract infections (n = 24,705 were collected and tested using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. This review presents carbapenem susceptibility and ESBL rates over ten years of SMART study analysis, including key publications during this period. The SMART study has proved to be a valuable resource in determining pathogen prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility over the last ten years and continues to provide evidence for regulatory susceptibility breakpoints and clinical decision making.

  2. A Review of Ten Years of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Hackel, Meredith; Badal, Robert; Bouchillon, Sam; Hawser, Stephen; Biedenbach, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial agent resistance provides important information to guide microbiologists and infectious disease specialists understanding of the control and the spread of resistance mechanisms within the local environment. Continued monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns in the community and in local hospital environments is essential to guide effective empiric therapy. The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) has monitored the in vitro susceptibility patterns of clinical Gram-negative bacilli to antimicrobial agents collected worldwide from intra-abdominal infections since 2002 and urinary tract infections since 2009. Resistance trends, with a particular focus on carbapenem resistance and the rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), were analyzed. Isolates from intra-abdominal infections (n = 92,086) and urinary-tract infections (n = 24,705) were collected and tested using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. This review presents carbapenem susceptibility and ESBL rates over ten years of SMART study analysis, including key publications during this period. The SMART study has proved to be a valuable resource in determining pathogen prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility over the last ten years and continues to provide evidence for regulatory susceptibility breakpoints and clinical decision making.

  3. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buran Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for researchers and engineers studying Smart Grid technologies.

  4. Smart City trends and ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijs, Lisanne; Witte, P.A.; de Klerk, Daniel; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Research into smart city projects and applications has been increasing in recent years (Meijer & Bolivar, 2015). The smart city concept is mostly considered from a technology-oriented perspective that stresses the usage of data technologies, big data and ICT to ‘smarten up’ cities. In contrast,

  5. Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum-betalactamase among Gram-negative bacilli in Latin America: 2008 update from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virginia Villegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This analysis of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART evaluated the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America in 2008, with emphasis on susceptibility trends of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. METHODS: Clinical isolates were recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI from 23 centers in 10 Latin American countries. Isolates were sent to a central laboratory for confirmation of identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBL testing, following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Of 1,003 Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal infections, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the most commonly isolated organisms, and 26.8% of E. coli and 37.7% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL positive. Ertapenem and imipenem were the most consistently active agents tested; 99% of ESBLpositive E. coli isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and 100% to imipenem as well, and 91% of ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ertapenem and 98% to imipenem. Quinolones and cephalosporins were less active, achieving 1.5% to 76% inhibition against ESBL-producing E. coli and 3.5% to 61% inhibition against K. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: Local and unit-specific surveillance data is particularly important for selection of empiric therapy and in community-acquired infections as they can help the clinician with antibiotic selection by providing guidance regarding the likely pathogens and their resistance profiles. Our data also confirm the increasing frequency with which ESBL-producing organisms are found in the community setting, with 31.4% of communityacquired and 24.9% of hospital-acquired infections found to produce ESBLs. Imipenem and ertapenem are the most active agents tested for ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  6. Smart grids opportunities, developments, and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A B M Shawkat

    2013-01-01

    This book provides up to date knowledge, research results, and innovations in smart grids spanning design, implementation, analysis and evaluation of smart grid solutions to the challenging problems in all areas of the power industry.

  7. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  8. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, AmpC β-Lactamases, and Carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Causing Intra-Abdominal Infections in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  9. Overview Smart Hotel di Indonesia yang Merupakan Trend Baru dalam Industri Perhotelan

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Adiati

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays we can find out many taglines featuring the word Smart Hotel or Smart Traveler. Smart traveler is those who travel in a smart way. We called it smart because they choose the accomodation and the transportation wisely, in accordance with requirements and budget. Meanwhile Smart Hotel tagline comes up since there are many smart travelers who travel a lot to the cities around the world. Smart Hotels are hotels who try to accommodate the current market demands. The latest trend for the t...

  10. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  11. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  14. Trends and Potentials of the Smart Grid Infrastructure: From ICT Sub-System to SDN-Enabled Smart Grid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebeom Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context and situational awareness are key features and trends of the smart grid and enable adaptable, flexible and extendable smart grid services. However, the traditional hardware-dependent communication infrastructure is not designed to identify the flow and context of data, and it focuses only on packet forwarding using a pre-defined network configuration profile. Thus, the current network infrastructure may not dynamically adapt the various business models and services of the smart grid system. To solve this problem, software-defined networking (SDN is being considered in the smart grid, but the design, architecture and system model need to be optimized for the smart grid environment. In this paper, we investigate the state-of-the-art smart grid information subsystem, communication infrastructure and its emerging trends and potentials, called an SDN-enabled smart grid. We present an abstract business model, candidate SDN applications and common architecture of the SDN-enabled smart grid. Further, we compare recent studies into the SDN-enabled smart grid depending on its service functionalities, and we describe further challenges of the SDN-enabled smart grid network infrastructure.

  15. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  16. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  17. Overview Smart Hotel di Indonesia yang Merupakan Trend Baru dalam Industri Perhotelan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Adiati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we can find out many taglines featuring the word Smart Hotel or Smart Traveler. Smart traveler is those who travel in a smart way. We called it smart because they choose the accomodation and the transportation wisely, in accordance with requirements and budget. Meanwhile Smart Hotel tagline comes up since there are many smart travelers who travel a lot to the cities around the world. Smart Hotels are hotels who try to accommodate the current market demands. The latest trend for the travelers is only a clean and comfort accommodation with affordable price but covers all the basic things needed for the travelers. Nowadays, travelers pass most of the time out of the hotel for doing business or either for visiting tourism objects. Typical smart hotels are hotels with 2 stars or 3 stars rating. Even though it is 2 or 3 star hotel, the service is as good as the higher ratings.Some of the hotel management or hotel group try to suite the demand by releasing 2 star or 3 star brand. And in the future, the 2 star or 3 star hotel is the hotel who will rapidly grow and take the majority market since the price is affordable and suites the budget. 

  18. Present Situation and Future Development Trend of Smart Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Fengfan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, our daily clothes are changing quietly. Wearable smart clothing has gradually the leading role in the clothing market. This article first explains the concept of wearable intelligent clothing in china, and then I analyze the various types of wearable smart clothing that is currently facing problems, and summarized about the key points and future directions of wearable intelligent clothing design. From the beginning of 2013, smart watches, bracelets, glasses have entered the public vision, become a "trendsetter who sought the object", this year the industry was identified as "the first year of wearable equipment". In simple terms, a wearable device is a portable device that can be worn directly on the body, or integrated into the user's clothing or accessories. However, with the development of wireless sensor technology, kinds of wearable smart clothing gradually appeared in people's life, the smart clothing is made up of small chip, electronic components, power equipment, embedded into clothing, can achieve a specific function, in order to facilitate people's life.

  19. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  20. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  1. Trends and Challenges in Smart Healthcare Research: A Journey from Data to Wisdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanas, Agusti; Fran, Casino; Batista, Edgar; Rallo Moya, Roberto J.

    2017-10-12

    Smart Healthcare is a relatively new context-aware healthcare paradigm influenced by several fields of knowledge, namely medical informatics, communications and electronics, bioengineering, ethics and so on. Thus, many challenging problems are related to smart healthcare but in many cases they are explored individually in their respective fields and, as a result, they are not always known by the smart healthcare research community working in more specific domains. The aim of this article is to identify some of the most relevant trends and research lines that are going to affect the smart healthcare field in the years to come. To do so, the article considers a systematic approach that classifies the identified research trends and problems according to their appearance within the data life cycle, this is, from the data gathering in the physical layer (lowest level) until their final use in the application layer (highest level). By identifying and classifying those research trends and challenges, we help to pose questions that the smart healthcare community will need to address. Consequently, we set a common ground to explore important problems in the field, which will have significant impact in the years to come.

  2. High precision silicon piezo resistive SMART pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Instruments for test and calibration require a pressure sensor that is precise and stable. Market forces also dictate a move away from single measurand test equipment and, certainly in the case of pressure, away from single range equipment. A pressure 'module' is required which excels in pressure measurement but is interchangble with sensors for other measurands. A communications interface for such a sensor has been specified. Instrument Digital Output Sensor (IDOS) that permits this interchanagability and allows the sensor to be inside or outside the measuring instrument. This paper covers the design and specification of a silicon diaphragm piezo resistive SMART sensor using this interface. A brief history of instrument sensors will be given to establish the background to this development. Design choices of the silicon doping, bridge energisation method, temperature sensing, signal conversion, data processing, compensation method, communications interface will be discussed. The physical format of the 'in-instrument' version will be shown and then extended to the packaging design for the external version. Test results will show the accuracy achieved exceeds the target of 0.01%FS over a range of temperatures

  3. High precision silicon piezo resistive SMART pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Instruments for test and calibration require a pressure sensor that is precise and stable. Market forces also dictate a move away from single measurand test equipment and, certainly in the case of pressure, away from single range equipment. A pressure `module' is required which excels in pressure measurement but is interchangble with sensors for other measurands. A communications interface for such a sensor has been specified. Instrument Digital Output Sensor (IDOS) that permits this interchanagability and allows the sensor to be inside or outside the measuring instrument. This paper covers the design and specification of a silicon diaphragm piezo resistive SMART sensor using this interface. A brief history of instrument sensors will be given to establish the background to this development. Design choices of the silicon doping, bridge energisation method, temperature sensing, signal conversion, data processing, compensation method, communications interface will be discussed. The physical format of the `in-instrument' version will be shown and then extended to the packaging design for the external version. Test results will show the accuracy achieved exceeds the target of 0.01%FS over a range of temperatures.

  4. Evaluation of SmartStax and SmartStax PRO maize against western corn rootworm and northern corn rootworm: efficacy and resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Graham P; Carroll, Matthew W; Evans, Sean P; Rule, Dwain M; Willse, Alan R; Clark, Thomas L; Storer, Nicholas P; Flannagan, Ronald D; Samuel, Luke W; Meinke, Lance J

    2017-09-01

    Cases of western corn rootworm (WCR) field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 and other corn rootworm (CRW) control traits have been reported. Pyramid products expressing multiple CRW traits can delay resistance compared to single trait products. We used field studies to assess the pyramid CRW corn products, SmartStax (expressing Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) and SmartStax PRO (expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and DvSnf7), at locations with high WCR densities and possible Cry3Bb1 resistance, and to assess the reduction in adult emergence attributable to DvSnf7 and other traits. Insect resistance models were used to assess durability of SmartStax and SmartStax PRO to WCR resistance. SmartStax significantly reduced root injury compared to non-CRW-trait controls at all but one location with measurable WCR pressure, while SmartStax PRO significantly reduced root injury at all locations, despite evidence of Cry3Bb1 resistance at some locations. The advantage of SmartStax PRO over SmartStax in reducing root damage was positively correlated with root damage on non-CRW-trait controls. DvSnf7 was estimated to reduce WCR emergence by approximately 80-95%, which modeling indicated will improve durability of Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 compared to SmartStax. The addition of DvSnf7 in SmartStax PRO can reduce root damage under high WCR densities and prolong Cry3Bb1 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 durability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. An overview of trends in distribution network planning: A movement towards smart planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Hu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Distribution network planning, historically known as a ‘predict and provide’ process, seeks to determine a set of optimal network solutions for supplying electric demands spatially distributed over a geographic area. Today, the rapid development and deployment of distributed generation and smart...... grid products (e.g., control, communication, and new economic measures) call for urgent improvements in distribution network planning to allow the utilities to proactively modernize their existing distribution grids. This paper reviews the current practices in this area and the emerging trends towards...

  6. Antigen Presentation Keeps Trending in Immunotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbasi, Anusha; Ribas, Antoni

    2018-04-19

    Through a gain-of-function kinome screen, MEX3B was identified as a mediator of resistance to T-cell immunotherapy not previously identified using CRISPR-based screens. MEX3B is a posttranscriptional regulator of HLA-A, validating the critical role of tumor-intrinsic antigen presentation in T-cell immunotherapy and indicating a new putative molecular target. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 1-3. ©2018 AACR. See related article by Huang et al., p. xxxx . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Energy Management strategies for Smart Home Regarding Uncertainties: State of the art, Trends, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi, Mojtaba; Hajizadeh, Amin; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    The advent of Smart grid and high-energy demand for electricity has provided new opportunities for energy management systems (EMSs) in a smart home (SH). Energy management strategies play a key role in performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy resources, Heat Pumps (HP......), and Plug-in Electrical Vehicle (PEV) energy storages. This paper presents a critical review and analysis of different energy management strategies for SH to handle the uncertainties involved in renewable energy resources, home load demands, PEV charging requirements, and household comfort. In addition...

  8. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  9. Trends in biomedical engineering: focus on Smart Bio-Materials and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Bozzini, Sabrina; Candiani, Gabriele; Cigada, Alberto; De Nardo, Luigi; Farè, Silvia; Ganazzoli, Fabio; Gastaldi, Dario; Levi, Marinella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Migliavacca, Francesco; Osellame, Roberto; Petrini, Paola; Raffaini, Giuseppina; Resnati, Giuseppe; Vena, Pasquale; Vesentini, Simone; Zunino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The present article reviews on different research lines, namely: drug and gene delivery, surface modification/modeling, design of advanced materials (shape memory polymers and biodegradable stents), presently developed at Politecnico di Milano, Italy. For gene delivery, non-viral polycationic-branched polyethylenimine (b-PEI) polyplexes are coated with pectin, an anionic polysaccharide, to enhance the polyplex stability and decrease b-PEI cytotoxicity. Perfluorinated materials, specifically perfluoroether, and perfluoro-polyether fluids are proposed as ultrasound contrast agents and smart agents for drug delivery. Non-fouling, self-assembled PEG-based monolayers are developed on titanium surfaces with the aim of drastically reducing cariogenic bacteria adhesion on dental implants. Femtosecond laser microfabrication is used for selectively and spatially tuning the wettability of polymeric biomaterials and the effects of femtosecond laser ablation on the surface properties of polymethylmethacrylate are studied. Innovative functionally graded Alumina-Ti coatings for wear resistant articulating surfaces are deposited with PLD and characterized by means of a combined experimental and computational approach. Protein adsorption on biomaterials surfaces with an unlike wettability and surface-modification induced by pre-adsorbed proteins are studied by atomistic computer simulations. A study was performed on the fabrication of porous Shape Memory Polymeric structures and on the assessment of their potential application in minimally invasive surgical procedures. A model of magnesium (alloys) degradation, in a finite element framework analysis, and a bottom-up multiscale analysis for modeling the degradation mechanism of PLA matrices was developed, with the aim of providing valuable tools for the design of bioresorbable stents.

  10. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  11. Mycoplasma bovis: mechanisms of resistance and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eLysnyansky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  12. Assessment of trends of ofloxacin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ofloxacin (OFX is one of the potent fluoroquinolone (FQ recommended to treat MDR-TB. Over a decade, the preexposure of this drug for the treatment of other bacterial infections has resulted in acquisition of FQ resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Considering this possibility, a study was undertaken in a tertiary care center in the capital city (India to assess the drug resistance trends of OFX among susceptible and multidrug resistant (MDR strains of M. tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 M. tuberculosis isolates (47 susceptible to first-line drugs and 55 MDR isolates were screened for susceptibility testing of OFX with a critical concentration of 2 μg/ml by Lowenstein Jensen (LJ proportion method. Results: The results showed 40 (85.1% isolates among 47 susceptible isolates and 34 (61.8% isolates among 55 MDR isolates, were found to be susceptible to OFX. Fisher′s exact test showed significant P-value (0.0136 demonstrating 1.377 fold (95% confidence interval increased risk to become resistant to OFX than susceptible isolates. These finding shows decreased OFX susceptibility is not only limited to MDR isolates but also increasingly seen in susceptible strains as a result of drug abuse. Conclusions: Our finding were not alarming, but highlights the general risk of acquiring resistance to OFX, jeopardizing the potential for these drugs to be used as second-line anti-TB agents in the management of drug-resistant TB and creating incurable TB strains .

  13. Energy Management strategies for Smart Home Regarding Uncertainties: State of the art, Trends, and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi, Mojtaba; Hajizadeh, Amin; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    The advent of Smart grid and high-energy demand for electricity has provided new opportunities for energy management systems (EMSs) in a smart home (SH). Energy management strategies play a key role in performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy resources, Heat Pumps (HP......), and Plug-in Electrical Vehicle (PEV) energy storages. This paper presents a critical review and analysis of different energy management strategies for SH to handle the uncertainties involved in renewable energy resources, home load demands, PEV charging requirements, and household comfort. In addition......, the present paper provides a comprehensive study of work on EMS, with a focus on stochastic modeling approaches and their effect on SH operations and outcomes. This review of different stochastic energy management strategies will be entirely helpful for SH development....

  14. Distribution of ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region during 2008-14: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the antimicrobial resistance and assess the molecular characteristics of β-lactamases (ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases and carbapenemases) among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that caused intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients hospitalized in the Asia-Pacific region during 2008-14. Multiplex PCR was used to detect the specific types of β-lactamase in 2893 isolates with MICs of ertapenem >0.5 mg/L. In-hospital acquisition times for most isolates were also delineated. Among 2728 (94.3%) isolates proven with β-lactamase production, the rates of non-susceptibility to imipenem were low (average = 7.9%) among IAI Enterobacteriaceae isolates from all Asia-Pacific countries except Vietnam (17.7%) and the Philippines (10.2%). A stepwise and significant increase in annual rates of carbapenemase production among these isolates was noted. CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 were the dominant ESBL variants in most IAI Enterobacteriaceae species. The most abundant AmpC β-lactamase variants were bla CMY-2 among isolates of Escherichia coli and bla DHA-1 among isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, the IAI Enterobacteriaceae isolates harbouring a bla CMY-2 or bla DHA-1 allele were associated with high community-acquired rates (38.0% and 42.6%, respectively). AmpC ACT and MIR variants were mostly detected in Enterobacter species. The bla NDM-1,4,5,7 -harbouring isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were most commonly identified among IAI isolates from Vietnam and the Philippines. Also of note, bla OXA-48 -harbouring IAI Enterobacteriaceae isolates were detected exclusively in Vietnam. The high resistance burden in Vietnam and the Philippines warrants aggressive control policies to combat the worsening trend in antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae species causing IAIs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  15. Resistance patterns among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai: trends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T K; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005-2007 and 27.8% in 2011-2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (pMumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within the community.

  16. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  17. Simulation-based Validation of Smart Grids - Status Quo and Future Research Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbrink, C.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rohjans, S.

    2017-01-01

    Smart grid systems are characterized by high complexity due to interactions between a traditional passive network and active power electronic components, coupled using communication links. Additionally, automation and information technology plays an important role in order to operate and optimize...... such cyber-physical energy systems with a high(er) penetration of fluctuating renewable generation and controllable loads. As a result of these developments the validation on the system level becomes much more important during the whole engineering and deployment process, today. In earlier development stages...

  18. Resistance patterns and trends of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: 5-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB strains were emerged when multidrug-resistant TB (MDR- TB was inadequately treated. Inadequate treatment of MDR-TB cases may result in additional resistance especially non-XDR-TB and then XDR-TB. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence, resistance patterns and trends of the XDR-TB strains among the MDR-TB at a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India Methods: A total of 430 Mycobacterium isolates were underwent NAP test and TB MPT64 Ag test for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Drug-susceptibility test (DST was performed over MTBC for the first line drugs by 1% proportion method (Bactec and for the second-line drugs by 1% proportion method (Lowenstein- Jensen media. The XDR-TB status was further confirmed by line probe assay (GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Results: Among the 430 isolates of mycobacterium, 365 (84.9% were MTBC and 139 (38.1% were MDR-TB respectively. Further 97 MDR-TB from “highly suspected drug resistant-TB (DR-TB” cases among MDR-TB were tested with second line drugs in which 15 (15.5% XDR-TB and 82 (84.5% were non-XDR-TB. Regarding XDR-TB status, using the 1% proportion method a 100% agreement was seen with the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Resistance patterns of XDR-TB were as; 10/15 (66.7% as isoniazid + rifampicin + ciprofloxacin + amikacin resistance and 5/15 (33.3% as isoniazid + rifampicin + ciprofloxacin + amikacin + kanamycin resistance. Conclusion:The prevalence of XDR-TB was 15.5% among MDR-TB. Hence laboratory testing of “highly suspected drug resistant-TB” isolates should be done for both first and second line drugs simultaneously especially in developing countries.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 169-175

  19. Empirical mode decomposition and k-nearest embedding vectors for timely analyses of antibiotic resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Douglas; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major worldwide public health concern. In clinical settings, timely antibiotic resistance information is key for care providers as it allows appropriate targeted treatment or improved empirical treatment when the specific results of the patient are not yet available. To improve antibiotic resistance trend analysis algorithms by building a novel, fully data-driven forecasting method from the combination of trend extraction and machine learning models for enhanced biosurveillance systems. We investigate a robust model for extraction and forecasting of antibiotic resistance trends using a decade of microbiology data. Our method consists of breaking down the resistance time series into independent oscillatory components via the empirical mode decomposition technique. The resulting waveforms describing intrinsic resistance trends serve as the input for the forecasting algorithm. The algorithm applies the delay coordinate embedding theorem together with the k-nearest neighbor framework to project mappings from past events into the future dimension and estimate the resistance levels. The algorithms that decompose the resistance time series and filter out high frequency components showed statistically significant performance improvements in comparison with a benchmark random walk model. We present further qualitative use-cases of antibiotic resistance trend extraction, where empirical mode decomposition was applied to highlight the specificities of the resistance trends. The decomposition of the raw signal was found not only to yield valuable insight into the resistance evolution, but also to produce novel models of resistance forecasters with boosted prediction performance, which could be utilized as a complementary method in the analysis of antibiotic resistance trends.

  20. Bacterial resistance and impetigo treatment trends: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Scott; Levy, Moise; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2012-01-01

    Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. The prevalence of colonization and infection with resistant strains is continually increasing, forcing clinicians to reevaluate treatment strategies. Newer topical agents are effective in treating infections with resistant strains and may help minimize resistance and adverse effects from systemic agents. Use of topical disinfectants to decrease colonization is an important adjunctive measure. Physicians should be aware of local resistance patterns in impetigo to help guide therapy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Resistance among Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Latin American countries: SMART 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Karlowsky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infection that are frequently resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens were collected from hospitalized patients in 11 Latin American countries from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART global surveillance program. In total, 2113 isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAI and 970 isolates from urinary tract infections (UTI were tested against antimicrobial agents using standardized CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Of the agents tested, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility (% for K. pneumoniae (92.2, 92.3, Enterobacter spp. (97.5, 92.1, and P. aeruginosa (85.3, 75.2 isolates from both IAI and UTI, respectively. Ertapenem (68.5, 62.6 and imipenem (79.2, 75.9 showed substantially higher rates of susceptibility (% than other β-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam (35.9, 37.4 against ESBL-positive isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively. Rates of susceptibility to all agents tested against A. baumannii were ≤30.9%. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from Latin America demonstrated compromised in vitro susceptibility to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum, parenteral antimicrobial agents. Continued surveillance is warranted. New antimicrobial agents with potent activity against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens are urgently needed.

  2. Increasing trend of metronidazole resistance in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori are gram negative spiral bacteria that colonize the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Antibiotic resistance is an ever increasing problem with the treatment of ...

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Trend of Bacteria from Clinical Isolates: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, antimicrobials have proven useful for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the immergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major challenge to public health in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from clinical sources.

  4. Population and age-group trends in weekend sun protection and sunburn over two decades of the SunSmart programme in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, J K; Warne, C D; Dobbinson, S J; Wakefield, M A; Hill, D J

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high skin cancer burden in Australia, the multicomponent, community-wide SunSmart programme has worked since 1988 to reduce excessive sun exposure.  To examine trends in key sun-protection behaviours and sunburn for the Melbourne population from 1987 to 2007, and examine for the first time patterns of change among age groups.   Representative cross-sectional weekly telephone surveys of weekend sun protection and sunburn were conducted over 11 of the summers in the period 1987-88 to 2006-07. Trends were analysed for the population and for age groups, adjusting for ambient temperature and ultraviolet radiation, which are environmental determinants of sun-related behaviour and sunburn.   The general pattern of trends suggests two distinct periods, one with rapid improvement in behaviours (more sunscreen use, less unprotected body exposure and less sunburn) from 1987-88 to 1994-95, and the second from 1997-98 to 2006-07 with fewer changes in behaviours noted. The age-group analyses showed a similar pattern of change over time across groups, with a few notable exceptions.  The similarity of the pattern of trends among age groups suggests that external influences including the SunSmart programme's activity had a relatively similar impact across the population. Sun-related behaviours continue to be amenable to change. More recent relative stability with some declines in sun protection suggests further intensive campaigns and other strategies may be needed to maintain previous successes and to achieve more universal use of sun protection. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  6. Resistance among Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Latin American countries: SMART 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Lob, Sibylle H; Sahm, Daniel F

    Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are important etiologic agents of nosocomial infection that are frequently resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens were collected from hospitalized patients in 11 Latin American countries from 2013 to 2015 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program. In total, 2113 isolates from intra-abdominal infections (IAI) and 970 isolates from urinary tract infections (UTI) were tested against antimicrobial agents using standardized CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Of the agents tested, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility (%) for K. pneumoniae (92.2, 92.3), Enterobacter spp. (97.5, 92.1), and P. aeruginosa (85.3, 75.2) isolates from both IAI and UTI, respectively. Ertapenem (68.5, 62.6) and imipenem (79.2, 75.9) showed substantially higher rates of susceptibility (%) than other β-lactams, including piperacillin-tazobactam (35.9, 37.4) against ESBL-positive isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively. Rates of susceptibility to all agents tested against A. baumannii were ≤30.9%. Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from Latin America demonstrated compromised in vitro susceptibility to commonly prescribed broad-spectrum, parenteral antimicrobial agents. Continued surveillance is warranted. New antimicrobial agents with potent activity against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens are urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibiotic resistance and trend of urinary pathogens in general outpatients from a major urban city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Kiffer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the antimicrobial resistance patterns of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections (UTI in outpatients in São Paulo, Brazil, as well as the Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance trend. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outpatients urine cultures were collected from January 2000 to December 2003. Statistical analysis considered positive results for one bacterial species with colony count > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done on age group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square and the chi-square test for trend to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates among age groups and ordering in the E. coli resistance rates per year, respectively. RESULTS: There were 37,261 positive results with Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 32,530 (87.3% and Gram-positive cocci in 2,570 (6.9% cultures. E. coli had the highest prevalence (71.6%. Susceptibility tests were performed in 31,716 cultures. E. coli had elevated resistance rates (> 30% to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Significant differences between age groups and ordering among years were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is precluded in the population studied due to elevated resistance rates (> 30% among most prevalent pathogens. Significant resistance rate differences among age groups and years were observed, particularly for fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones should be used with caution. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for primary, non-complicated urinary tract infections.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  9. Resistance trends in gram-negative bacteria: surveillance results from two Mexican hospitals, 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morfin-Otero Rayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-acquired infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance trends of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospital-acquired infections is important for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The information obtained from antimicrobial resistant programs from two hospitals from Mexico will be helpful in the selection of empiric therapy for hospital-acquired gram-negative infections. Findings Two thousand one hundred thirty two gram-negative bacteria collected between January 2005 and December 2010 from hospital-acquired infections occurring in two teaching hospitals in Mexico were evaluated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria, with >50% of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Klebsiella spp. showed resistance rates similar to Escherichia coli for ceftazidime (33.1% vs 33.2%, but exhibited lower rates for levofloxacin (18.2% vs 56%. Of the samples collected for the third most common gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, >12.8% were resistant to the carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. The highest overall resistance was found in Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to carbapenems. Conclusions E. coli was the most common nosocomial gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study and was found to have the second-highest resistance to fluoroquinolones (>57.9%, after Acinetobacter spp. 81.2%. This finding represents a disturbing development in a common nosocomial and community pathogen.

  10. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshayeb, Ayman A; Ahmed, Abdelazim A; El Siddig, Marmar A; El Hussien, Adil A

    2017-11-14

    Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax - b). Minimum bactericidal concentration's predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n e x ) and the predictive coefficient R 2  > 0 current antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of community-acquired agents causing outbreaks.

  11. Temporal trends and risks factors for antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae urinary isolates from outpatients in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard-Rabenirina, Stéphanie; Malespine, Joyce; Ducat, Célia; Sadikalay, Syndia; Falord, Mélanie; Harrois, Dorothée; Richard, Vincent; Dozois, Charles; Breurec, Sébastien; Talarmin, Antoine

    2016-06-24

    Urinary tract infections are bacterial infections most commonly encountered in the community. The resistance rate of uropathogens to commonly prescribed antibiotics has increased worldwide but there are no published data concerning the resistance of strains isolated from community-acquired UTI in Guadeloupe. To assess the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from outpatients in Guadeloupe we conducted a prospective study from December 2012 to May 2014 among outpatients consulting at private and public laboratories for urine analysis. Risk factors for E. coli resistance to amoxicillin, third-generation cephalosporin, and ciprofloxacin were also determined. To study the trends of E. coli resistance rates over the past 10 years, data on the susceptibility patterns of E. coli from 2003 to 2014 were also collected from three major laboratories for a retrospective study. During the prospective study, we isolated 1293 bacterial strains from the urine of outpatients presenting for urine analysis. The most commonly isolated bacteria were E. coli (57 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.5 %). Thirty seven per cent of the E. coli strains were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance rates to third generation cephalosporin were low for E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae (3.1 and 12.2 % respectively) and mostly due to the presence of an Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase. Resistance to cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin was moderate (17.8 and 15.6 % respectively). However, the resistance rate of E. coli to ciprofloxacin has significantly increased during the last 10 years. Risk factors were consistent with previously reported data, especially for the increasing ciprofloxacin resistance with age. General practitioners in Guadeloupe need to be better informed to favor the prescription of fosfomycin-trometamol to reduce the risk of resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  12. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Elshayeb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. Objectives The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Methods Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. Results A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax − b. Minimum bactericidal concentration’s predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n ex and the predictive coefficient R2 > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. Conclusion This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current

  13. Quantifying the Trends in Land Surface Temperature and Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity in Mediterranean Cities in View of Smart Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Polydoros

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter for the estimation of urban fluxes as well as for the assessment of the presence and strength of the surface urban heat island (SUHI. In an urban environment, LST depends on the way the city has been planned and developed over time. To this end, the estimation of LST needs adequate spatial and temporal data at the urban scale, especially with respect to land cover/land use. The present study is divided in two parts: at first, satellite data from MODIS-Terra 8-day product (MOD11A2 were used for the analysis of an eighteen-year time series (2001–2017 of the LST spatial and temporal distribution in five major cities of the Mediterranean during the summer months. LST trends were retrieved and assessed for their statistical significance. Secondly, LST values and trends for each city were examined in relation to land cover characteristics and patterns in order to define the contribution of urban development and planning on LST; this information is important for the drafting of smart urbanization policies and measures. Results revealed (a positive LST trends in the urban areas especially during nighttime ranging from +0.412 °K in Marseille to +0.923 °K in Cairo and (b the SUHI has intensified during the last eighteen years especially during daytime in European Mediterranean cities, such as Rome (+0.332 °K and Barcelona (+0.307 °K.

  14. EFISIENSI ENERGI SMART HOME ( RUMAH PINTAR BERBASIS REMOTE RELAY DAN LDR (LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Abdul Rozaq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi saat ini sangat berkembang pesat, dan dapat dirasakan dalam dunia industri maupun masyarakat biasa.Dengan memanfaatkan teknologi yang ada sekarang salah satunya adalah remot relay sebagai alat untuk mengendalikan alat rumah tangga seperti lampu, pagar, pintu jendela dan sebagainya.Metode penelitian dalam penelitian ini adalah riset dan pengembangan. Rencana kerja dari alat ini adalah dengan menggunakan dua mode yaitu mode manual dan mode otomatis, dengan perincian cara pengendalian pada masing-masing beban. Pertama untuk lampu pada kondisi otomatis akan menggunakan LDR sehingga tidak perlumenyalakan lampu pada malam hari dan mematikan lampu pada siang hari. Pada kondisi manual pada tombol ditekan pertama untuk menyalakan lampu dan ditekan yang kedua akan mematikan lampu.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa alat bekerja dengan baik, dimana untuk kondisi kendali otomatis, pada waktu kondisi siang maka lampu akan mati dan kondisi malam lampu menyala, kemudian untuk kondisi kendali manualnya, pada sistem ini dapat dilakukan kendali menggunakan remote sejauh 90 meter. Tingkat efisiensi dengan memanfaatkan sistem ini 53% lebih efisien dibandingkan dengan tidak memanfaatkan sistem smart home.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evaluation of pathogen burden and drug-resistance trends in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.; Hussain, S.; Ahmad, A.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the pathogen burden and antibiotic-resistance trends of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among hospitalised patients at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design:Retrospective, hospital record-based, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study:Microbiology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2016. Methodology:A total of 5,960 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of bacterial infections, admitted to the hospital. Microbial identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern were carried out and analysed. Results:Out of a total of 5,960 samples, Pseudomonas aeruginosawas isolated from 1,268 (21.2%) specimens. Department-wise isolation rate was n=600 (42.9%), n=268 (15.4%), n=201 (12.6%), and n=199 (16.0%) from intensive care unit (ICU), surgical units, medical units, and Gynae wards, respectively (p<0.0001). Sample-wise isolation rate was, wound swabs n=448 (35%), urine n=356 (28%), sputum n=187 (14 %), tracheal aspirate n=127 (10%), blood n=99 (7%), and broncho-alveolar lavage n=51 (4%) (p<0.0001). Drug-resistance pattern showed low rates for carbapenems (meropenem n=440 (35%), Imipenem n=436 (34%) and beta-lactam + beta-lactamase inhibitor combination (piperacillin+ tazobactam n=437 (34%) while alarming rates were observed for cephalosporins (ceftazidime n=716 (56%), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin n=690 (54%), cefoperazone+sulbactam n=685 (54%), aminoglycosides (gentamicin, n=669 (53%), amikacin n=608 (48%), and monobactams (aztreonam n=666 (52%). Decreasing trend was observed only for amikacin 63% to 37%, aztreonam showed similar pattern throughout, while there was an increasing trend of drug resistance in all groups of antibiotics. Conclusion:Emerging drug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaare probably linked to the injudicious use of antibiotics, leading to ineffective empirical therapy. Therefore, we suggest that culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing should

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in Western Taiwan: SMART Program 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsi-Shu Huang

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: The resistance of RGM in Taiwan is not as high as previously reported (notably for tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin, but reduction in the susceptibility rates of clarithromycin and imipenem for the M. fortuitum and M. abscessus groups demonstrates the importance of in vitro susceptibility testing of clinically important isolates, as susceptibility may differ in different geographical areas, even regionally, and over time.

  17. Cryptanalysis of Three Password-Based Remote User Authentication Schemes with Non-Tamper-Resistant Smart Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote user authentication is the first step to guarantee the security of online services. Online services grow rapidly and numerous remote user authentication schemes were proposed with high capability and efficiency. Recently, there are three new improved remote user authentication schemes which claim to be resistant to various attacks. Unfortunately, according to our analysis, these schemes all fail to achieve some critical security goals. This paper demonstrates that they all suffer from offline dictionary attack or fail to achieve forward secrecy and user anonymity. It is worth mentioning that we divide offline dictionary attacks into two categories: (1 the ones using the verification from smart cards and (2 the ones using the verification from the open channel. The second is more complicated and intractable than the first type. Such distinction benefits the exploration of better design principles. We also discuss some practical solutions to the two kinds of attacks, respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a reference model to deal with the first kind of attack and proved its effectiveness by taking one of our cryptanalysis schemes as an example.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory.

  19. "Fool Me Once, Shame on You; Fool Me Twice, Shame on Me": African American Students' Reclamation of Smartness as Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman Hoff, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    In African American culture competing value systems shape the definition and value of smartness. This article will explore African American "sayins" as a tool to transmit the counter-hegemonic cultural value of smartness. "Sayins," a facet of the African American oral tradition, are drawn from the deep structures of African…

  20. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    EFSA's Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004 was published in December 2005. The zoonoses, meaning infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans, affected over 380,000 EU citizens in 2004....... Often the human form of the disease is acquired through contaminated food. According to the report, the two most frequently reported zoonotic diseases in humans were Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. These bacteria were also commonly found in food and animals. The report includes information...... of 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  1. Trends of 9,416 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Decicera Colombo Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: a resistance of hospital-acquired bacteria to multiple antibiotics is a major concern worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate multidrugresistant (MDR bacteria, clinical specimens, origin of specimen and trends, and correlate these with bacterial sensitivity and consumption of antimicrobials. Methods: 9,416 bacteria of nosocomial origin were evaluated in a tertiary hospital, from 1999 to 2008. MDR was defined for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB as resistance to two or more classes/groups of antibiotics. Results: GNB MDR increased by 3.7 times over the study period (p<0.001. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent (36.2%. Over the study period, there were significant 4.8-fold and 14.6-fold increases for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae (p<0.001, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of isolates of MDR GNB were isolated in intensive care units. The resistance of A. baumannii to carbapenems increased from 7.4 to 57.5% during the study period and concomitant with an increased consumption. Conclusion: that decade showed prevalence of GNB and a gradual increase in MDR GNB. There was an increase in carbapenem resistance of 50.1% during the study.

  2. Prediction of HIV-1 sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibodies shows a trend towards resistance over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Anna; Pfeifer, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Treatment with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has proven effective against HIV-1 infections in humanized mice, non-human primates, and humans. Due to the high mutation rate of HIV-1, resistance testing of the patient's viral strains to the bNAbs is still inevitable. So far, bNAb resistance can only be tested in expensive and time-consuming neutralization experiments. Here, we introduce well-performing computational models that predict the neutralization response of HIV-1 to bNAbs given only the envelope sequence of the virus. Using non-linear support vector machines based on a string kernel, the models learnt even the important binding sites of bNAbs with more complex epitopes, i.e., the CD4 binding site targeting bNAbs, proving thereby the biological relevance of the models. To increase the interpretability of the models, we additionally provide a new kind of motif logo for each query sequence, visualizing those residues of the test sequence that influenced the prediction outcome the most. Moreover, we predicted the neutralization sensitivity of around 34,000 HIV-1 samples from different time points to a broad range of bNAbs, enabling the first analysis of HIV resistance to bNAbs on a global scale. The analysis showed for many of the bNAbs a trend towards antibody resistance over time, which had previously only been discovered for a small non-representative subset of the global HIV-1 population.

  3. Penicillin-Resistant trend of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamishi, Setareh; Moradkhani, Sepideh; Mahmoudi, Shima; Hosseinpour-Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Pourakbari, Babak

    2014-08-01

    The high prevalence of resistance to penicillin by Streptococcus pneumoniaeis considered as a great concern, particularly in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the changing trend of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) in Asia over a 20 years period. A review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database, Google Scholar, Scopus, two Persian scientific search engines "Scientific Information Database" (www.sid.ir), and "Mag Iran" (www.magiran.com) through 1993 to 2013. Our study provides a unique chance to investigate the changing trend in PSSP in Asia over a 20 years period. Susceptibility rates among different centers in each country varied widely. In Malaysia, the PSSP rate decreased from 97.2% in 1995-1996 to 69% in 2000. In Singapore, PSSP levels decreased from 72.6% in 1997 to 30.5% in 2007-2008. In Iran, PSSP ranged from 0% to 100%. In Taiwan, the rate of PSSP was 60.3% in 1995 and countries such as Vietnam, Singapore, Philippines, Pakistan, Nepal, Kuwait, Korea and Indonesia.

  4. National Prevalence and Trends of HIV Transmitted Drug Resistance in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Garrido-Rodríguez, Daniela; Ormsby, Christopher E.; Hernández-Juan, Ramón; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; González-Hernández, Luz A.; Torres-Escobar, Indiana; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) remains an important concern for the management of HIV infection, especially in countries that have recently scaled-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) access. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a study to assess HIV diversity and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence and trends in Mexico. 1655 ART-naïve patients from 12 Mexican states were enrolled from 2005 to 2010. TDR was assessed from plasma HIV pol sequences using Stanford scores and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. TDR prevalence fluctuations over back-projected dates of infection were tested. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Mexico (99.9%). TDR prevalence (Stanford score>15) in the country for the study period was 7.4% (95% CI, 6.2∶8.8) and 6.8% (95% CI, 5.7∶8.2) based on the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. NRTI TDR was the highest (4.2%), followed by NNRTI (2.5%) and PI (1.7%) TDR. Increasing trends for NNRTI (p = 0.0456) and PI (p = 0.0061) major TDR mutations were observed at the national level. Clustering of viruses containing minor TDR mutations was observed with some apparent transmission pairs and geographical effects. Conclusions TDR prevalence in Mexico remains at the intermediate level and is slightly lower than that observed in industrialized countries. Whether regional variations in TDR trends are associated with differences in antiretroviral drug usage/ART efficacy or with local features of viral evolution remains to be further addressed. PMID:22110765

  5. The demise of multidrug-resistant HIV-1: the national time trend in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Jurgen; Theys, Kristof; Carvalho, Ana Patricia; Valadas, Emília; Duque, Luis Miguel; Teófilo, Eugénio; Faria, Telo; Faria, Domitília; Vera, José; Aguas, Maria João; Peres, Susana; Mansinho, Kamal; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Despite a decreasing mortality and morbidity in treated HIV-1 patients, highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) can still fail due to the development of drug resistance. Especially, multidrug-resistant viruses pose a threat to efficient therapy. We studied the changing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) over time in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in Portugal. We used data of 8065 HIV-1-infected patients followed from July 2001 up to April 2012 in 22 hospitals located in Portugal. MDR at a specific date of sampling was defined as no more than one fully active drug (excluding integrase and entry inhibitors) at that time authorized by the Portuguese National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED), as interpreted with the Rega algorithm version 8.0.2. A generalized linear mixed model was used to study the time trend of the prevalence of MDR. We observed a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of MDR over the last decade, from 6.9% (95% CI: 5.7-8.4) in 2001-03, 6.0% (95% CI: 4.9-7.2) in 2003-05, 3.7% (95% CI: 2.8-4.8) in 2005-07 and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1-2.2) in 2007-09 down to 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3-0.9) in 2009-12 [OR=0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.86); P<0.001]. In July 2011 the last new case of MDR was seen. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 is decreasing over time in Portugal, reflecting the increasing efficiency of HAART and the availability of new drugs. Therefore, in designing a new drug, safety and practical aspects, e.g. less toxicity and ease of use, may need more attention than focusing mainly on efficacy against resistant strains.

  6. Longitudinal trends of HIV drug resistance in a large Canadian cohort, 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, G; Brumme, C J; Shoveller, J; Lima, V D; Harrigan, P R

    2018-02-01

    We aim to identify long-term trends in HIV drug resistance before and after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. IAS-USA (2015) mutations were identified in 23 271 HIV protease-reverse transcriptase sequences from 6543 treatment naïve adults in British Columbia. Participants who started cART between 1996 and 2014 were followed until April 2016. Equality of proportions test was used to compare the percentage of participants with acquired drug resistance (ADR) or transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in 1996, to those in 2014. Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate time to ADR in four drug resistance categories. Multivariable regression odds ratios (OR) of ADR for select clinical variables were determined by 5-year eras of cART initiation. The proportion of individuals with ADR declined from 39% (51/132) to 3% (8/322) in 1996-2014 (p 16 years of therapy. After 5 years on therapy, participants initiating cART in 1996-2000 had 5.5-times more 3TC/FTC ADR, 5.3-times more other nRTI ADR, 4.7-times more NNRTI ADR, and 24-times more PI ADR than those starting in 2011-2014. The individuals with highest odds of developing ADR in 1996-2010 were adherent to regimens at levels between 60% and 80%, which shifted to 40% adherent in 2011-2014. HIV drug resistance transitioned from being primarily selected de-novo to being driven by TDR. Among those who started treatment in the past 5 years, ADR is rare and observed mostly in the lowest adherence strata. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HIV pretreatment drug resistance trends in three geographic areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Quiroz-Morales, Verónica S; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Barrera-Arellano, Carlos A; Casillas-Rodríguez, Jesús; Romero-Mora, Karla A; Gómez-Palacio-Schjetnan, María; Murakami-Ogasawara, Akio; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) levels to NNRTI approaching 10% have recently been reported in Mexico. However, subnational differences may exist in PDR prevalence and transmission dynamics. We longitudinally assessed HIV PDR in three geographic areas of Mexico. HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals were recruited from 2008 to 2016, from the Central Metropolitan Zone (CMZ), Cancun and Tijuana (1194, 773 and 668 respectively). PDR was estimated using the Stanford HIVdb tool from plasma HIV pol sequences. A higher proportion of females, lower education and lower employment rate were observed in Tijuana, while a higher proportion of MSM was observed in the CMZ (P Mexico. Even when increasing trends in efavirenz resistance were observed in the three areas, our observations support that, in a large country such as Mexico, subnational surveillance and locally tailored interventions to address drug resistance may be a reasonable option. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The role of smart home in smart real estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allameh, E.; Heidari Jozam, M.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Beetz, J.; Mozaffar, F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review an emerging type of dwelling, indicated as Smart Home, with a focus on future user lifestyles and needs. Trends toward sustainability and technological changes dramatically alter the concepts of Smart Home. Consequently, real estate decisions are

  9. Recent trends in hardware security exploiting hybrid CMOS-resistive memory circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Shubham; Suri, Manan

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review and insight of recent trends in the field of random number generator (RNG) and physically unclonable function (PUF) circuits implemented using different types of emerging resistive non-volatile (NVM) memory devices. We present a detailed review of hybrid RNG/PUF implementations based on the use of (i) Spin-Transfer Torque (STT-MRAM), and (ii) metal-oxide based (OxRAM), NVM devices. Various approaches on Hybrid CMOS-NVM RNG/PUF circuits are considered, followed by a discussion on different nanoscale device phenomena. Certain nanoscale device phenomena (variability/stochasticity etc), which are otherwise undesirable for reliable memory and storage applications, form the basis for low power and highly scalable RNG/PUF circuits. Detailed qualitative comparison and benchmarking of all implementations is performed.

  10. The smart - development and technology; Der smart - Entwicklung und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goppelt, G.

    1999-06-01

    The smart is the first representative of a radically new vehicle concept, with minimum space requirements and trend-setting in terms of ecology, safety, and individualism. The new design is not rooted in any tradition. The contribution describes the development process and constructional features of the smart. [Deutsch] Der smart ist der erste Vertreter eines voellig neuen Fahrzeugkonzepts. Bei kleinstem Raumbedarf soll er neue Massstaebe bei Oekologie, Sicherheit und Individualitaet setzen. Entstanden ist eine konsequente Neukonstruktion, die sich von bisherigen Traditionen loest. In diesem Beitrag sind der Entwicklungsprozess sowie die Konstruktionsmerkmale des smart beschrieben. (orig.)

  11. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  12. The demise of multidrug-resistant HIV-1: the national time trend in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Jurgen; Theys, Kristof; Carvalho, Ana Patricia; Valadas, Emília; Duque, Luis Miguel; Teófilo, Eugénio; Faria, Telo; Faria, Domitília; Vera, José; Águas, Maria João; Peres, Susana; Mansinho, Kamal; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge; Mansinho, Kamal; Cláudia Miranda, Ana; Aldir, Isabel; Ventura, Fernando; Nina, Jaime; Borges, Fernando; Valadas, Emília; Doroana, Manuela; Antunes, Francisco; João Aleixo, Maria; João Águas, Maria; Botas, Júlio; Branco, Teresa; Vera, José; Vaz Pinto, Inês; Poças, José; Sá, Joana; Duque, Luis; Diniz, António; Mineiro, Ana; Gomes, Flora; Santos, Carlos; Faria, Domitília; Fonseca, Paula; Proença, Paula; Tavares, Luís; Guerreiro, Cristina; Narciso, Jorge; Faria, Telo; Teófilo, Eugénio; Pinheiro, Sofia; Germano, Isabel; Caixas, Umbelina; Faria, Nancy; Paula Reis, Ana; Bentes Jesus, Margarida; Amaro, Graça; Roxo, Fausto; Abreu, Ricardo; Neves, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Despite a decreasing mortality and morbidity in treated HIV-1 patients, highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) can still fail due to the development of drug resistance. Especially, multidrug-resistant viruses pose a threat to efficient therapy. We studied the changing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) over time in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in Portugal. Patients and methods We used data of 8065 HIV-1-infected patients followed from July 2001 up to April 2012 in 22 hospitals located in Portugal. MDR at a specific date of sampling was defined as no more than one fully active drug (excluding integrase and entry inhibitors) at that time authorized by the Portuguese National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED), as interpreted with the Rega algorithm version 8.0.2. A generalized linear mixed model was used to study the time trend of the prevalence of MDR. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of MDR over the last decade, from 6.9% (95% CI: 5.7–8.4) in 2001–03, 6.0% (95% CI: 4.9–7.2) in 2003–05, 3.7% (95% CI: 2.8–4.8) in 2005–07 and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) in 2007–09 down to 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3–0.9) in 2009–12 [OR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75–0.86); P < 0.001]. In July 2011 the last new case of MDR was seen. Conclusions The prevalence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 is decreasing over time in Portugal, reflecting the increasing efficiency of HAART and the availability of new drugs. Therefore, in designing a new drug, safety and practical aspects, e.g. less toxicity and ease of use, may need more attention than focusing mainly on efficacy against resistant strains. PMID:23228933

  13. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in urine cultures: Antibiotic susceptibility trends over a decade at a tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Liam; Papa, Nathan; Aliyu, Sani H; Dev, Harveer; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Al-Hayek, Samih

    2016-03-01

    Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infection and vancomycin-resistant strains are more difficult to treat. The purpose of this surveillance program was to assess the prevalence of and determine the risk factors for vancomycin resistance in adults among urinary isolates of Enterococcus sp. and to detail the antibiotic susceptibility profile, which can be used to guide empirical treatment. From 2005 to 2014 we retrospectively reviewed 5,528 positive Enterococcus sp. urine cultures recorded in a computerized laboratory results database at a tertiary teaching hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Of these cultures, 542 (9.8%) were vancomycin resistant. No longitudinal trend was observed in the proportion of vancomycin-resistant strains over the course of the study. We observed emerging resistance to nitrofurantoin with rates climbing from near zero to 40%. Ampicillin resistance fluctuated between 50% and 90%. Low resistance was observed for linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Female sex and inpatient status were identified as risk factors for vancomycin resistance. The incidence of vancomycin resistance among urinary isolates was stable over the last decade. Although resistance to nitrofurantoin has increased, it still serves as an appropriate first choice in uncomplicated urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp.

  14. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in urine cultures: Antibiotic susceptibility trends over a decade at a tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Toner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infection and vancomycin-resistant strains are more difficult to treat. The purpose of this surveillance program was to assess the prevalence of and determine the risk factors for vancomycin resistance in adults among urinary isolates of Enterococcus sp. and to detail the antibiotic susceptibility profile, which can be used to guide empirical treatment. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014 we retrospectively reviewed 5,528 positive Enterococcus sp. urine cultures recorded in a computerized laboratory results database at a tertiary teaching hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Results: Of these cultures, 542 (9.8% were vancomycin resistant. No longitudinal trend was observed in the proportion of vancomycin- resistant strains over the course of the study. We observed emerging resistance to nitrofurantoin with rates climbing from near zero to 40%. Ampicillin resistance fluctuated between 50% and 90%. Low resistance was observed for linezolid and quinupristin/ dalfopristin. Female sex and inpatient status were identified as risk factors for vancomycin resistance. Conclusions: The incidence of vancomycin resistance among urinary isolates was stable over the last decade. Although resistance to nitrofurantoin has increased, it still serves as an appropriate first choice in uncomplicated urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus sp.

  15. Philosophical Approach to Engineering Education Under the Introduction of the Smart Grid Concept in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makienko Marina A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of power industry in the world today is driven by two main trends: the search for renewable energy sources and their use and the energy efficiency which require the development of smart grids. This paper brings up the issue of staff training for professional development of the Smart Grid technology and for use of its elements by customers in households. The problem of consumer readiness for the use of smart meters was studied. It was revealed that the considerable part of the respondents was not familiar with the definition of Smart Grid. That required the development of communication skills by energy engineering students and their social activity as well. The reasons mentioned make actual the following elements of engineering education: social responsibility, stress resistance, ability to forecast the future.

  16. Monitoring Trends in Insecticide Resistance of Field Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Guizhou Province, China, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Xue; Li, Wen-Hong; Cheng, Ying; Li, Feng-Liang; Ye, Zhao-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012–2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S. furcifera in Guizhou. Overall, S. furcifera from five regions in Guizhou showed a trend toward decreased susceptibility to isoprocarb (resistance ratio [RR] 0.82–3.59), susceptibility to low resistance against thiamethoxam (RR 0.27–9.69), susceptibility to moderate resistance to imidacloprid (RR 0.71–26.06), and decreased susceptibility to moderate resistance to chlorpyrifos (RR 4.63–19.58). The resistance to pymetrozine (RR 10.48–84.65) was moderate to high, and that to buprofezin (RR 6.36–412.43) was low to very high. In conclusion, the use of buprofezin and pymetrozine to control S. furcifera should be reduced in Guizhou Province, whereas prudent use at a reasonable frequency of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid can continue. Isoprocarb and thiamethoxam are the best choices for effective management of S. furcifera. Rotations using alternative insecticides with different modes of action are recommended for regions in which resistance is at a moderate level. PMID:28334150

  17. Monitoring Trends in Insecticide Resistance of Field Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Guizhou Province, China, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Xue; Jin, Dao-Chao; Li, Wen-Hong; Cheng, Ying; Li, Feng-Liang; Ye, Zhao-Chun

    2017-04-01

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insecticides in five populations of S. furcifera from Guizhou Province was monitored yearly using the rice-stem dipping method in 2012-2015 to precisely understand current resistance levels and to estimate trends in the development of insecticide resistance in S. furcifera in Guizhou. Overall, S. furcifera from five regions in Guizhou showed a trend toward decreased susceptibility to isoprocarb (resistance ratio [RR] 0.82-3.59), susceptibility to low resistance against thiamethoxam (RR 0.27-9.69), susceptibility to moderate resistance to imidacloprid (RR 0.71-26.06), and decreased susceptibility to moderate resistance to chlorpyrifos (RR 4.63-19.58). The resistance to pymetrozine (RR 10.48-84.65) was moderate to high, and that to buprofezin (RR 6.36-412.43) was low to very high. In conclusion, the use of buprofezin and pymetrozine to control S. furcifera should be reduced in Guizhou Province, whereas prudent use at a reasonable frequency of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid can continue. Isoprocarb and thiamethoxam are the best choices for effective management of S. furcifera. Rotations using alternative insecticides with different modes of action are recommended for regions in which resistance is at a moderate level. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. Smart assistants for smart homes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasch, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The smarter homes of tomorrow promise to increase comfort, aid elderly and disabled people, and help inhabitants save energy. Unfortunately, smart homes today are far from this vision – people who already live in such a home struggle with complicated user interfaces, inflexible home configurations, and difficult installation procedures. Under these circumstances, smart homes are not ready for mass adoption. This dissertation addresses these issues by proposing two smart assistants for smart h...

  19. Smart Cities for Smart Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning.......This position paper presents the concept of smart cities for smart children before highlighting three concrete projects we are currently running in order to investigate different aspects of the underlying concept like social-relational interaction and situated and experiential learning....

  20. Trends in darunavir resistance-associated mutations and phenotypic resistance in commercially tested United States clinical samples between 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathouwers, Erkki; Gupta, Soumi; Haddad, Mojgan; Paquet, Agnes; de Meyer, Sandra; Baugh, Bryan

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 samples submitted by clinicians from the United States for routine drug susceptibility testing (PhenoSense GT) were evaluated for genotypic and phenotypic resistance to darunavir and other protease inhibitors (PIs). Among these samples (Monogram Biosciences database January 2006-June 2012; N=78,843), isolates harboring zero IAS-USA darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) increased from 77.7% in 2006 to 92.8% through the first half of 2012 (H1 2012; upward trend, p=0.0008); a downward trend seen for samples with three or more darunavir RAMs (7.5% in 2006 and 2.6% in H1 2012; p=0.002). Among samples with any PI resistance (N=15,932), samples harboring zero darunavir RAMs gradually increased (39.9% in 2006 vs. 55.0% in H1 2012; upward trend, p=0.005), but three or more darunavir RAMs did not change over time (21.7% in 2006 and 19.2% in H1 2012; p=0.27). During this period, the frequency of the 11 individual darunavir RAMs (IAS-USA 2011 list) decreased among all samples. The frequency of each darunavir RAM in PI-resistant samples decreased or remained relatively stable. The prevalence of samples with phenotypic resistance to darunavir (partial-to-full) decreased over time in all samples (8.2% in 2006 vs. 2.3% in H1 2012), as did resistance to other PIs (p<0.006 for all PIs). Phenotypic resistance to darunavir and other PIs also decreased in PI-resistant samples (darunavir: 23.9% in 2006 vs. 17.1% in H1 2012; p<0.013 for all PIs). Since approval of darunavir in 2006, there was a significant decrease in prevalence of samples with genotypic and phenotypic resistance to darunavir in commercially tested HIV-1 isolates. Furthermore, the prevalence of phenotypic resistance to darunavir was lower than all other PIs.

  1. Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Buchacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE. Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P=0.05. Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P=0.010 as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P<0.001. Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%, and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%, but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs.

  2. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  3. State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruela García, Gonzalo; Luque Ruiz, Irene; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The current social impact of new technologies has produced major changes in all areas of society, creating the concept of a smart city supported by an electronic infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology. This paper presents a review of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Visible Light Communication (VLC) and their use and influence within different areas of the development of the smart city. The document also presents a review of Big Data Solutions for the management of information and the extraction of knowledge in an environment where things are connected by an “Internet of Things” (IoT) network. Lastly, we present how these technologies can be combined together to benefit the development of the smart city. PMID:27886087

  4. State of the Art, Trends and Future of Bluetooth Low Energy, Near Field Communication and Visible Light Communication in the Development of Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruela García, Gonzalo; Luque Ruiz, Irene; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2016-11-23

    The current social impact of new technologies has produced major changes in all areas of society, creating the concept of a smart city supported by an electronic infrastructure, telecommunications and information technology. This paper presents a review of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Near Field Communication (NFC) and Visible Light Communication (VLC) and their use and influence within different areas of the development of the smart city. The document also presents a review of Big Data Solutions for the management of information and the extraction of knowledge in an environment where things are connected by an "Internet of Things" (IoT) network. Lastly, we present how these technologies can be combined together to benefit the development of the smart city.

  5. Smart mobility in smart cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baucells, Aleta N.

    2016-07-01

    Cities are currently undergoing a transformation into the Smart concept, like Smartphones or SmartTV. Many initiatives are being developed in the framework of the Smart Cities projects, however, there is a lack of consistent indicators and methodologies to assess, finance, prioritize and implement this kind of projects. Smart Cities projects are classified according to six axes: Government, Mobility, Environment, Economy, People and Living. (Giffinger, 2007). The main objective of this research is to develop an evaluation model in relation to the mobility concept as one of the six axes of the Smart City classification and apply it to the Spanish cities. The evaluation was carried out in the 62 cities that made up in September 2015 the Spanish Network of Smart Cities (RECI- Red Española de Ciudades Inteligentes). This research is part of a larger project about Smart Cities’ evaluation (+CITIES), the project evaluates RECI’s cities in all the axes. The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives. (Author)

  6. Automatic generation of smart earthquake-resistant building system: Hybrid system of base-isolation and building-connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasagi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A base-isolated building may sometimes exhibit an undesirable large response to a long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motion and a connected building system without base-isolation may show a large response to a near-fault (rather high-frequency earthquake ground motion. To overcome both deficiencies, a new hybrid control system of base-isolation and building-connection is proposed and investigated. In this new hybrid building system, a base-isolated building is connected to a stiffer free wall with oil dampers. It has been demonstrated in a preliminary research that the proposed hybrid system is effective both for near-fault (rather high-frequency and long-duration, long-period earthquake ground motions and has sufficient redundancy and robustness for a broad range of earthquake ground motions.An automatic generation algorithm of this kind of smart structures of base-isolation and building-connection hybrid systems is presented in this paper. It is shown that, while the proposed algorithm does not work well in a building without the connecting-damper system, it works well in the proposed smart hybrid system with the connecting damper system.

  7. SMART-NPA evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, G. H.; Yoon, H. Y.; Kim, H. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWt integral reactor which is currently under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for desalination and electricity generation. SMART-NPA is the second user interface part of TASS/SMR in order to improve GUI(Graphic User Interface). Using SMART-NPA the analyzer not only can see the running status of SMART but make change of major SMART parameters. TASS/SMR, the calculation part, was written in Fortran whereas the first user interface part, called TASSWin, was written in Visual C{sup ++}. For these reason, the ActiveX control was chosen as the solution of SMART-NPA development. The five ActiveX controls were built in Visual Basic. They were Overview, Primary, Secondary, PRHRS and Control Panel ActiveX controls. They were contained in tab control, and can easily selected by user. They could communicate with TASSWin using many interface functions. The graph screens were also developed for the display of major variable's trend. The purpose of this report is the verification of SMART-NPA. The input decks were 100-200-100% power maneuvering operation, Feed Line Break Accident and user's input on Control Panel. The results of SMART-NPA for these cases were compared with the results of TASS/SMR stand alone version. The comparison results were same respectively. And all screens of SMART-NPA reflected the calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was calculated results of TASS/SMR very well. That means SMART-NPA was verified. 9 refs., 30 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  8. Current trends of human infections and antibiotic resistance of the genus Shewanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, K; Bekal, S; Usongo, V; Touati, A

    2017-08-01

    Shewanella spp. are commonly known as environmental bacteria and are most frequently isolated from aquatic areas. Currently, diseases syndromes and multidrug resistance have increasingly been reported in the genus Shewanella. Some species are associated with various infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections, as well as bacteremia. Generally, these bacteria are opportunistic and mostly affect people with an impaired immune system. This genus is also a probable vehicle and progenitor of antibiotic resistance genes. In fact, several resistance genes and mobile genetic elements have been identified in some resistant species isolated from environmental or clinical settings. These genes confer resistance to different antibiotic classes, including those used in therapies such as β-lactams and quinolones, and are generally located on the chromosome. Recently, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmid harboring several drug resistance genes associated with transposons and integrons has been identified in Shewanella xiamenensis. These antibiotic resistance genes can circulate in the environment and contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review describes different aspects of Shewanella, focusing on the infections caused by this genus, as well as their role in the propagation of antibiotic resistance via mobile genetic elements.

  9. Smart logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woensel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture focuses on Smart Logistics referring to these intelligent managerial decisions related to the design, operations and control of the transportation chain processes in an efficient and cost-effective way. The starting point for Smart Logistics is the key observation that the real-life

  10. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    transaction costs by providing seamless real-time payments. In addition, digital legal tender that is based on blockchain technology can provide a foundation for customizable “smart money” which can be used to manage the appropriation of money and its use. In essence, the smart money is a customizable value...

  11. FRP confined smart concrete/mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhu, P. S.; Choi, K. G.; Wu, Y. T.; Huang, Z. Y.; Shan, B.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined smart concrete/mortar sensors were invented and validated for significantly improved measurement range. Several trial mixes were made using cement mortar and micron-phase graphite powders at different mix proportions. Compressive loading tests were conducted on smart mortar cylinder specimens with or without FRP confinement. Two-probe method was used to detect the electrical resistance of the smart cement mortar specimens. Strong correlation was recognized between the stress and electric resistance of the smart mortar. The test results indicated that the FRP wrapping could significantly enlarge the range of such self-sensing property as a consequence of confinement.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic nontyphoidal Salmonella: an alarming trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G B; Schwarz, S

    2016-12-01

    Zoonotic bacteria of the genus Salmonella have acquired various antimicrobial resistance properties over the years. The corresponding resistance genes are commonly located on plasmids, transposons, gene cassettes, or variants of the Salmonella Genomic Islands SGI1 and SGI2. Human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates mainly result from ingestion of contaminated food. The two predominantly found Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars in the USA and in Europe are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Many other nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars have been implicated in foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. Summary reports of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates over time suggest a moderate to low level of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug-resistance. However, serovar-specific analyses showed in part a steady state, a continuous decline, or a recent increase in resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. Resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents, e.g. third-generation cephalosporins and (fluoro)quinolones is part of many monitoring programmes and the corresponding results confirm that extended-spectrum β-lactamases are still rarely found in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, whereas resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is prevalent at variable frequencies among different serovars from humans and animals in different countries. Although it is likely that nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from animals represent a reservoir for resistance determinants, it is mostly unknown where and when Salmonella isolates acquired resistance properties and which exchange processes have happened since then. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Smart Home Test Bed for Undergraduate Education to Bridge the Curriculum Gap from Traditional Power Systems to Modernized Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinran; Li, Fangxing; Chen, Chien-fei

    2015-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to modernize old power grid infrastructures to form future smart grids, which will achieve efficient, flexible energy consumption by using the latest technologies in communication, computing, and control. Smart grid initiatives are moving power systems curricula toward smart grids. Although the components of smart grids…

  14. Antituberculosis drug resistance in the south of Vietnam: prevalence and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huong, Nguyen T.; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Duong, Bui D.; Co, Nguyen V.; Bosman, Maarten C.; Kim, Sang-Jae; van Soolingen, Dick; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence that the DOTS (directly observed therapy, short course) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control can contain the emergence and spread of drug resistance in the absence of second-line treatment. We compared drug-resistance levels between 1996 and 2001 in the south

  15. Changing patterns and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at referral centre in Northern India: A 4-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: India has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB, although there is little data on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Although MDR-TB has existed for long time in India, very few diagnostic laboratories are well-equipped to test drug sensitivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB, first-line drug resistance patterns and its changing trends in northern India in the 4 years. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study from July 2007 to December 2010. Microscopy, culture by Bactec460 and p-nitro-α-acetylamino-β-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP test was performed to isolate and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb complex (MTBC. Drug sensitivity testing (DST was performed by 1% proportional method (Bactec460 for four drugs: Rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. Various clinical and demographical profiles were evaluated to analyse risk factors for development of drug resistance. Results: We found the overall prevalence rate of MDR-TB to be 38.8%, increasing from 36.4% in 2007 to 40.8% in 2010. we found that the prevalence of MDR-TB in new and previously treated cases was 29.1% and 43.3% ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. The increasing trend of MDR-TB was more likely in pulmonary TB when compared with extra-pulmonary TB ( P < 0.05; CI 95%. Conclusions: we found a high prevalence (38.8% of MDR-TB both in new cases (29.1% and previously treated cases (43.3%.This study strongly highlights the need to make strategies for testing, surveillance, monitoring and management of such drug-resistant cases.

  16. The application and development of artificial intelligence in smart clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiong

    2018-03-01

    This paper mainly introduces the application of artificial intelligence in intelligent clothing. Starting from the development trend of artificial intelligence, analysis the prospects for development in smart clothing with artificial intelligence. Summarize the design key of artificial intelligence in smart clothing. Analysis the feasibility of artificial intelligence in smart clothing.

  17. Acinetobacter spp. Infections in Malaysia: A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance Trends, Mechanisms and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rani, Farahiyah; A Rahman, Nor Iza; Ismail, Salwani; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Cleary, David W; Clarke, Stuart C; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii - calcoaceticus complex, which have become a global public health threat due to increasing resistance to carbapenems and almost all other antimicrobial compounds. High rates of resistance have been reported among countries in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia. In this review, we examine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Acinetobacter spp. hospital isolates from Malaysia over a period of nearly three decades (1987-2016) with data obtained from various peer-reviewed publications as well as the Malaysian National Surveillance on Antibiotic Resistance (NSAR). NSAR data indicated that for most antimicrobial compounds, including carbapenems, the peak resistance rates were reached around 2008-2009 and thereafter, rates have remained fairly constant (e.g., 50-60% for carbapenems). Individual reports from various hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia do not always reflect the nationwide resistance rates and often showed higher rates of resistance. We also reviewed the epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance that have been investigated in Malaysian Acinetobacter spp. isolates, particularly carbapenem resistance and found that bla OXA-23 is the most prevalent acquired carbapenemase-encoding gene. From the very few published reports and whole genome sequences that are available, most of the Acinetobacter spp. isolates from Malaysia belonged to the Global Clone 2 (GC2) CC92 group with ST195 being the predominant sequence type. The quality of data and analysis in the national surveillance reports could be improved and more molecular epidemiology and genomics studies need to be carried out for further in-depth understanding of Malaysian Acinetobacter spp. isolates.

  18. Trends in Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Dutch Clinical Isolates, from 2008 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs van der Steen

    Full Text Available We investigated time trends in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different patient settings in The Netherlands from 2008-2012. E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from blood and urine samples of patients > = 18 years were selected from the Dutch Infectious Disease Surveillance System-Antimicrobial Resistance (ISIS-AR database. We used multivariable Poisson regression to study the rate per year of blood stream infections by susceptible and resistant isolates, and generalized estimating equation (GEE log-binomial regression for trends in the proportion of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Susceptibility data of 197,513 E. coli and 38,244 K. pneumoniae isolates were included. The proportion of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from urine and blood samples increased in all patient settings, except for K. pneumoniae isolates from patients admitted to intensive care units. For K. pneumoniae, there was a different time trend between various patient groups (p<0.01, with a significantly higher increase in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant isolates from patients attending a general practitioner than in isolates from hospitalized patients. For E. coli, the increasing time trends did not differ among different patient groups. This nationwide study shows a general increase in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. However, differences in trends between E. coli en K. pneumoniae underline the importance of E. coli as a community-pathogen and its subsequent influence on hospital resistance level, while for K. pneumoniae the level of resistance within the hospital seems less influenced by the resistance trends in the community.

  19. Smart biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Narain, Ravin; Idota, Naokazu; Kim, Young-Jin; Hoffman, John M; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2014-01-01

    This book surveys smart biomaterials, exploring the properties, mechanics and characterization of hydrogels, particles, assemblies, surfaces, fibers and conjugates. Reviews applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, bioseparation and more.

  20. Global Trend Analysis of Multi-decade Soil Temperature Records Show Soils Resistant to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S. D.; Jennings, K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil temperature is an important determinant of many subterranean ecological processes including plant growth, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Soils are expected to warm in response to increasing global surface temperatures; however, despite the importance of soil temperature to ecosystem processes, less attention has been given to examining changes in soil temperature over time. We collected long-term (> 20 years) soil temperature records from approximately 50 sites globally, many with multiple depths (5 - 100 cm), and examined temperature trends over the last few decades. For each site and depth we calculated annual summer means and conducted non-parametric Mann Kendall trend and Sen slope analysis to assess changes in summer soil temperature over the length of each time series. The mean summer soil temperature trend across all sites and depths was not significantly different than zero (mean = 0.004 °C year-1 ± 0.033 SD), suggesting that soils have not warmed over the observation period. Of the subset of sites that exhibit significant increases in temperature over time, site location, depth of measurement, time series length, and neither start nor end date seem to be related to trend strength. These results provide evidence that the thermal regime of soils may have a stronger buffering capacity than expected, having important implications for the global carbon cycle and feedbacks to climate change.

  1. Use of the D-R model to define trends in the emergence of Ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of the D-R model for defining trends in the appearance of Ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli. Methods: Actual data related to the manifestation of Ceftazidime-resistant E.coli spanning years 1996-2009 were collected from the China National Knowledge Internet (CN...

  2. Cryptanalysis of Three Password-Based Remote User Authentication Schemes with Non-Tamper-Resistant Smart Card

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chenyu; Xu, Guoai

    2017-01-01

    Remote user authentication is the first step to guarantee the security of online services. Online services grow rapidly and numerous remote user authentication schemes were proposed with high capability and efficiency. Recently, there are three new improved remote user authentication schemes which claim to be resistant to various attacks. Unfortunately, according to our analysis, these schemes all fail to achieve some critical security goals. This paper demonstrates that they all suffer from ...

  3. Microbiological Trends and Antimicrobial Resistance in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis, 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenitsky, Sheryl A; Howarth, Jacy; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Sathianathan, Christie; Ariano, Robert; Davis, Christine; Verrelli, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Information related to the microbiology of peritonitis is critical to the optimal management of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). The goal was to characterize the microbiological etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of PD-related peritonitis (PDRP) from 2005 to 2014, inclusive. ♦ METHODS: The distribution of organisms in culture-positive PDRP was described for new episodes and relapse infections, and further detailed for monomicrobial and polymicrobial peritonitis. Annual and overall rates of PDRP were also characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility rates were calculated for the most common and significant organisms. ♦ RESULTS: We identified 539 episodes of PDRP including 501 new and 38 relapse infections. New episodes of peritonitis were associated with a single organism in 85% of cases, and 44% of those involved staphylococci. Polymicrobial PDRP was more likely to involve gram-negative organisms, observed in 58% versus 24% of monomicrobial infections. Antimicrobial resistance was relatively stable from 2005 to 2014. Methicillin resistance was present in 57% of Staphylococcus epidermidis and 20% of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for only 11% of S. aureus peritonitis compared with 2% in our previous study of PDRP from 1991 to 1998. Ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli increased from 3% in our previous study to 24% in 2005 - 2014. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes important differences in the distribution of organisms in new episodes of PDRP and relapse infections, as well as monomicrobial versus polymicrobial peritonitis. It also shows relatively stable rates of antimicrobial resistance from 2005 to 2014, but some increases compared with our previous study. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  4. Current Trends of Drug Resistance Patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Blood Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almani, Suhail Ahmed; Naseer, Ali; Maheshwari, Sanjay Kumar; Maroof, Pir; Naseer, Raza; Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples. Blood samples were processed for the isolation, identification, and drugs sensitivity as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A. baumannii strains were identified by microbiological methods and Gram's staining. API 20 E kit (Biomeriuex, USA) was also used for identification. Data were analyzed on Statisti × 8.1 (USA). Mean ± standard deviation age was 11.5 ± 2.8 years. Nearly 70% were male and 30% were female ( P = 0.0001). Of 921 blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients, 100 (10.8%) patients showed growth of A. baumannii . Drug resistance was observed against the ceftazidime, cefixime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, minocycline, tigecycline, and tazocin except for the colistin. The present study reports drug-resistant A. baumannii in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. National multicenter studies are recommended to estimate the size of the problem.

  5. Smart practice: smart card design considerations in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R A; Pacheco, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent innovations in microelectronics and advances in cryptography are driving the appearance of a new generation of smart cards with wider applications; this has important repercussions for our society in the coming years. Essentially, these breakthroughs include built-in microprocessors capable of generating cryptographic transactions (e.g.,Jelectronic blinded signatures, digital pseudonyms, and digital credentials), developments toward a single electronic card offering multi-access to services such as transport, telecommunications, health, financial, and entertainment (Universal Access Services), and incorporation of personal identification technologies such as voice, eye, or skin pattern recognition. For example, by using electronic representatives or cryptographic blinded signatures, a smart card can be used for multi transactions across different organizations and under different generated pseudonyms. These pseudonyms are capable of recognizing an individual unambiguously, while none of her records can be linked [1]. Moreover, tamper-proof electronic observers would make smart cards a very attractive technology for high-security based applications, such as those in the health care field. New trends in smart card technology offer excellent privacy and confidentiality safeguards. Therefore, smart cards constitute a promising technology for the health sector in Australia and other countries around the world in their pursuit of technology to support the delivery of quality care services. This paper addresses the main issues and the key design criteria which may be of strategic importance to the success of future smart card technology in the health care sector.

  6. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  7. Smart city planning and development shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Angelidou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores smart city planning and development shortcomings. In particular, it investigates eleven cases of smart city strategies and the shortcomings that were observed during their planning and implementation stages. The cases include: Barcelona Smart City, PlanlT Valley, Stockholm Smart City, Cyberjaya, King Abdullah Economic City, Masdar City, Skolkovo, Songdo International Business District, Chicago Smart City, Rio de Janeiro Smart City, and Konza Technology City. The paper proceeds with the synthesis of the findings and their critical appraisal. Shortcomings are classified into economic and budget shortages, bureaucratic and organizational challenges, challenges in the development and layout of digital services, poor physical planning, struggle to attract investment and support the development of new businesses, low performance in attracting and engaging users, and stakeholder resistance. In turn, the shortcomings are clustered in two distinct groups and analyzed in terms of causes and effects. The paper closes with mitigation propositions, accounting for past experience and novel approaches to this end.

  8. Smart Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforms in electronic business have presented new opportunities to use smart card technology as an enabling tool. The network-centric applications, where resources are located throughout the Internet and access to them is possible from any location, require authenticated access and secured transactions. Smart cards represent an ideal solution: they offers an additional layer of electronic security and information assurance for user authentication, confidentiality, non-repudiation, information integrity, physical access control to facilities, and logical access control to an computer systems.

  9. Technical Developments and Trends of Earthquake Resisting High-Strength Reinforcing Steel Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Joonho; Jung, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Sung; Won, Sung-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Since reconstruction of old town in Korea requires high-rise and seismic design construction, many attentions have been paid to high strength seismic reinforced steel bar. In the present paper, technical developments and trends are summarized for developing next-generation seismic reinforced steel bar of grade 700 MPa. Steelmaking process requires high energy efficiency and refining ability. Effects of alloying elements are explained, and alloy design based on computational thermodynamics is introduced. On the other hand, it is considered that grain size refinement by the controlled rolling and low temperature transformation structures formed by the accelerated cooling are effective to obtain acceptable mechanical properties with high strength. Finite element simulation analysis is also useful to understand plastic deformation by rolling, internal and external heat transfer, and corresponding phase transformation of austenite phase to various low-temperature transformation structures.

  10. Technical Developments and Trends of Earthquake Resisting High-Strength Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Byoungchul [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae-Hyeok [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Joonho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jun-Ho [Hyundai Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Sung [Daehan Steel, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung-Bin [Dongkuk Steel, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Since reconstruction of old town in Korea requires high-rise and seismic design construction, many attentions have been paid to high strength seismic reinforced steel bar. In the present paper, technical developments and trends are summarized for developing next-generation seismic reinforced steel bar of grade 700 MPa. Steelmaking process requires high energy efficiency and refining ability. Effects of alloying elements are explained, and alloy design based on computational thermodynamics is introduced. On the other hand, it is considered that grain size refinement by the controlled rolling and low temperature transformation structures formed by the accelerated cooling are effective to obtain acceptable mechanical properties with high strength. Finite element simulation analysis is also useful to understand plastic deformation by rolling, internal and external heat transfer, and corresponding phase transformation of austenite phase to various low-temperature transformation structures.

  11. Trend and seasonality of community-acquired Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance and its dynamic relationship with antimicrobial use assessed by ARIMA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio Egea, María Ángeles; Huertas Vaquero, María; Carranza González, Rafael; Herráez Carrera, Óscar; Redondo González, Olga; Arias Arias, Ángel

    2017-12-04

    We studied the trend and seasonality of community-acquired Escherichia coli resistance and quantified its correlation with the previous use of certain antibiotics. A time series study of resistant community-acquired E. coli isolates and their association with antibiotic use was conducted in a Primary Health Care Area from 2008 to 2012. A Poisson regression model was constructed to estimate the trend and seasonality of E. coli resistance. A significant increasing trend in mean E. coli resistance to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and nitrofurantoin was observed. Seasonal resistance to ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was significantly higher in autumn-winter. There was a delay of 7, 10 and 12 months between the use of cotrimoxazole (P<0.038), fosfomycin (P<0.024) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (P<0.015), respectively, and the occurrence of E. coli resistance. An average delay of 10 months between the previous use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin and the appearance of resistant community-acquired E. coli strains was detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yang; Liu, Hongbo; Chai, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The smart city strategy is an inevitable trend in the future development of Chinese cities. The smart tourism city is an important part and a practical attempt of the smart city strategy. The China National Tourism Administration has officially announced "Beautiful China: 2014 Year of Smart Travel" as tourism theme. Thus, huge development opportunities are in store for the future of smart tourism. This strategy attempts to combine the Internet of Things (IoT) technology with the dev...

  13. The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Guo; Hongbo Liu; Yi Chai

    2014-01-01

    The smart city strategy is an inevitable trend in the future development of Chinese cities. The smart tourism city is an important part and a practical attempt of the smart city strategy. The China National Tourism Administration has officially announced "Beautiful China: 2014 Year of Smart Travel" as tourism theme. Thus, huge development opportunities are in store for the future of smart tourism. This strategy attempts to combine the Internet of Things (IoT) technology with the develop...

  14. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    that smart beta investing probably will do better than passive market capitalization investing over time, we believe many are coming to a conclusion too quickly regarding active managers. Institutional investors are able to guide managers through benchmarks and risk frameworks toward the same well......Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  15. Smart roadside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Smart Roadside is a system envisioned to be deployed at strategic points along commercial vehicle routes to : improve the safety, mobility, and efficiency of truck movement and operations on the roadway. It is a concept : where private- and public-se...

  16. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  17. Use of the D-R model to define trends in the emergence of Ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ding

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the D-R model for defining trends in the appearance of Ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli. METHODS: Actual data related to the manifestation of Ceftazidime-resistant E. coli spanning years 1996-2009 were collected from the China National Knowledge Internet. These data originated from 430 publications encompassing 1004 citations of resistance. The GM(1,1 and the novel D-R models were used to fit current data and from this, predict trends in the appearance of the drug-resistant phenotype. The results were evaluated by Relative Standard Error (RSE, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD and Mean Absolute Error (MAE. RESULTS: Results from the D-R model showed a rapid increase in the appearance of Ceftazidime-resistant E. coli in this region of the world. These results were considered accurate based upon the minor values calculated for RSE, MAD and MAE, and were equivalent to or better than those generated by the GM(1,1 model. CONCLUSION: The D-R model which was originally created to define trends in the transmission of swine viral diseases can be adapted to evaluating trends in the appearance of Ceftazidime-resistant E. coli. Using only a limited amount of data to initiate the study, our predictions closely mirrored the changes in drug resistance rates which showed a steady increase through 2005, a decrease between 2005 and 2008, and a dramatic inflection point and abrupt increase beginning in 2008. This is consistent with a resistance profile where changes in drug intervention temporarily delayed the upward trend in the appearance of the resistant phenotype; however, resistance quickly resumed its upward momentum in 2008 and this change was better predicted using the D-R model. Additional work is needed to determine if this pattern of "increase-control-increase" is indicative of Ceftazidime-resistant E. coli or can be generally ascribed to bacteria acquiring resistance to drugs in the absence of alternative

  18. Ten-year surveillance of nosocomial bloodstream infections: trends of aetiology and antimicrobial resistance in a comprehensive cancer centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, R; Ghezzi, Tl; Sandri, Mt; Radice, D; Biffi, R

    2011-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are one of the major life-threatening infectious conditions in cancer patients and are responsible for prolonged hospital stays, high healthcare costs and significant mortality. Several clinical trials have reported an improved survival in patients treated with appropriate empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Early detection of pathogens and determination of their susceptibility are essential for the optimization of treatment. Variability between hospitals is substantial and requires the individual analysis of local trends. The aim of this study is to assess the local epidemiology of BSI in a single cancer centre over a 10-year period. Retrospective microbiological surveillance of all febrile/infective episodes occurring in oncological and surgical patients in a high-volume cancer centre between January 1999 and December 2008 were considered. Patients' data were collected, processed and analyzed using the epidemiological resource of the Virtuoso Plus software (Metafora Informatica Srl, Milano, Italy). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, including the two-tailed test of significance, was used to investigate trends of incidence and rate of antibiotic resistance over the 10-year period. A total of 13,058 blood cultures (BCs) were performed in 2,976 patients. BCs were positive in 2,447 tests, representing 740 infective/febrile episodes: 358 (48%) in medical oncology and 382 (52%) in surgical wards. Gram-positives were responsible for the majority of episodes in oncological and surgical divisions (about 63% and 55%, respectively). Gram-positives were also the most common organism in non-catheter-related BSIs (CRBSIs) both in medical oncology (75%) and in surgical divisions (50%). Enterococci showed an increased resistance to levofloxacin, from 5.6% to 25.7% (p = 0.02) and to erythromycin, from 41.7% to 61.4%, (p = 0.05). Similarly, coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) developed resistance to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin

  19. Time trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, 1988-2010, in a tertiary center with high methicillin resistance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Dafna; Shaked, Hila; Goldberg, Elad; Yassin, Sharief; Eliakim-Raz, Noa; Paul, Mical; Bishara, Jihad; Leibovici, Leonard

    2017-02-01

    Changes in the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) have been described in recent decades. Decreased mortality has been reported over time, mostly from countries with low methicillin resistance rates. We aimed to describe time trends in SAB in a tertiary center with high methicillin resistance rates. We retrospectively analyzed 1692 patients with SAB, and compared between three time periods: 1988-1994 (342 patients), 1998-2004 (597 patients) and 2005-2010 (753 patients). In our cohort, 30 days mortality increased significantly with time, reaching 42.9 % during 2005-2010. The latter period was characterized by higher rates of older patients (35.1 % aged 80 years and older), with lower functional capacity (46.5 % bedridden) and higher rates of comorbidities (33.6 % renal disease, 24.8 % heart failure, 19.0 % dementia). These patients were more likely to be ventilated (18.7 %) and carry a urinary catheter at presentation (46.6 %); present with septic shock (15.9 %) and have pneumonia (20.5 %) or endocarditis (7.2 %) as source. Similar characteristics were found among patients younger than 50 years and with independent functional status. No significant increase in methicillin resistant Staph aureus (MRSA) rates or inappropriate empirical therapy was demonstrated during 2005-2010. In our cohort, increased mortality in recent years in patients with SAB can be explained by baseline condition of patients. MRSA or inappropriate empiric therapy did not explain the increase in mortality. The patients afflicted with SAB changed over time. Epidemiology and outcomes of SAB vary with time and according to geographical location. External validity of studies should be taken into consideration.

  20. Predicted summary of panel discussion on smart instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The following is a hypothetical account of a panel discussion on Smart Instruments. It enumerates topics that are likely to covered in the actual discussion. A smart instrument may be defined as one that performs smart functions or as one that contains a computer of some sort. Neither definition is perfect. Smart functions might include, but are not limited to: automated data logging (reading, location, time); transfer (downloading) logged data to outside computer; computer assisted, remote calibration; linearity and dead time correction; performance trending; self diagnosis of faults; detector probe recognition; automated beta factor application; and automatic range selection. These smart functions are discussed

  1. A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Lobaccaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investigates technologies for smart homes. The technical descriptions of the systems are presented and point out advantages and disadvantages of each technology and product today available on the market. Barriers, challenges, benefits and future trends regarding the technologies and the role of users have also been discussed.

  2. Trend of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and the remaining therapeutic options: a multicenter study in Tehran, Iran over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemi, S; Douraghi, M; Adibhesami, H; Zeraati, H; Rahbar, M; Boroumand, M A; Aliramezani, A; Ghourchian, S; Mohammadzadeh, M

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive data on drug-resistant patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in developing countries is limited. We conducted a multihospital study to assess the rate and trend of drug-resistant phenotypes in Ac. baumannii using standardized definitions and to determine the remaining therapeutic options against resistant phenotypes. The 401 nonduplicate isolates were collected from six hospitals which are geographically distributed across Tehran, Iran over a 3-year period. Following PCR of bla OXA -51-like gene, susceptibility testing was performed against nine antimicrobial agent categories. Three hundred and ninety (97%) isolates were resistant to least two carbapenems; carbapenem-resistant Ac. baumannii. The majority of isolates (366, 91·3%) were extensively drug resistant (XDR) and the rest of the isolates were classified as multidrug resistant (26, 6·8%) and susceptible (9, 2·2%). The rate of XDR-AB slightly decreased from 93·8% in 2011 to 89·8% in 2013. A considerable decrease in resistance to doxycycline, minocycline and tigecycline was demonstrated. The XDR-AB isolates showed susceptibility to gentamicin (10·4%), tobramycin (23%), ampicilin-sulbactam (30·1%), minocycline (32·8%), tigecycline (10·7%), doxycycline (21·6%), colistin (100%) and polymixin B (100%). We demonstrated the rising trend of resistance to all antibiotic categories except tetracyclines and folate pathway inhibitors. We found that the treatment options against XDR-AB are extremely limited and each treatment alternative including even old, but safe, antibiotics might be considered. The high frequency of drug-resistant phenotypes including carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, multidrug-resistant, and extensively resistant has been demonstrated in Ac. baumannii isolates tested here. As the antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates varies in different geographical regions, this study can provide comprehensive information about the antibiotic resistance profile of Ac

  3. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  4. GET SMART: EPA'S SMARTE INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development with the assistance of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools (SMART) that will help stakeholders over...

  5. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs...

  6. Smart technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The success of smart technology in the pursuit of the Gulf War has accentuated the awareness of how the Safeguards and Security disciplines are changing in response to new weaponry. Throughout the Department of Energy Integrated Complex (IC) Safeguards and Security efforts such as: Protection Programs Operations; Materials, Controls and Accountability; Information Security; Computer Security; Operational Security; Personnel Security, Safeguards and/or Security (S and S) surveys, and Inspections and Evaluations are undergoing a reassessment and refocusing. Some of this is in response to such things as the DOE initiated Freeze Report and the Drell Report. An important aspect is also technological, adjusting the way business is done in light of the weapons, tools and processes/procedures becoming available. This paper addresses the S and S issues with the promise of using smart technology to develop new approaches and equipment across the IC

  7. Trends in Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among Dutch Clinical Isolates, from 2008 to 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, Matthijs; Leenstra, Tjalling; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; van der Bij, Akke K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated time trends in extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different patient settings in The Netherlands from 2008-2012. E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates from blood and urine samples of patients > = 18 years were selected from

  8. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  9. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  10. Smart City Through a Flexible Approach to Smart Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutule, A.; Teremranova, J.; Antoskovs, N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper provides an overview of the development trends of the smart city. Over the past decades, the trend of the new urban model called smart city has been gaining momentum, which is an aggregate of the latest technologies, intelligent administration and conscious citizens, which allows the city to actively develop, and effectively and efficiently solve the problems it is facing. Profound changes are also taking place in the energy sector. Researchers and other specialists offer a wide variety of innovative solutions and approaches for the concepts of intelligent cities. The paper reviews and analyses the existing methodological solutions in the field of power industry, as well as provides recommendations how to introduce the common platform on the basis of disparate sources of information on energy resources existing in the city as an optimal solution for developing the city's intelligence, flexibility and sustainability based on its starting conditions.

  11. Smart Pricing for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Flat-rate electricity tariffs in Great Britain, which have no price variation throughout a day or a year, have been ongoing for decades to recover the cost of energy production and delivery. However, this type of electricity tariff has little incentives to encourage customers to modify their demands to suit the condition of the power supply system. Hence, it is challenged in the new smart grid environment, where demand side responses have important roles to play to encourage conventional ener...

  12. Data Security in Smart Cities: Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCUL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive overview of security-related problems in the context of smart cities, seen as huge data consumers and producers. Trends as hyper connectivity, messy complexity, loss of boundary and industrialized hacking transform smart cities in complex environments in which the already-existing security analysis are not useful anymore. Specific data-security requirements and solutions are approached in a four-layer framework, with elements considered to be critical to the operation of a smart city: smart things, smart spaces, smart systems and smart citizens. As urban management should pay close attention to security and privacy protection, network protocols, identity management, standardization, trusted architecture etc., the paper will serve them as a start point for better decisions in security design and management.

  13. Smart Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Hedman, Jonas; Albinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Legal tender in the form of coins and banknotes is expected to be replaced at one point in the future by digital legal tender. This transformation is an opportunity for central banks to rethink the idea of money and overhaul the prevailing payment systems. Digital legal tender is expected to reduce...... exchange instrument that relies on computer protocols to facilitate, verify, and enforce certain conditions for its appropriation as payment, e.g. who may use the money, where, and for what. If we believe that digital legal tender will become ubiquitous, then the emergence and diffusion of smart money...

  14. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  15. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  16. Smart Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)

  17. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  18. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  19. Smart Grid: Smart Customer Policy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In September 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) held a workshop on the regulatory, market and consumer policies necessary to ensure that smart grids are deployed with adequate consideration of their risks and benefits to all stakeholders. This was one of several workshops that brought together energy providers, network operators, technology developers, regulators, customers and government policy makers to discuss smart grid technology and policy. The Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policies workshop allowed stakeholders to: gain a perspective on key issues and barriers facing early deployment of smart grids; hear expert opinion on regulatory, consumer and market challenges to smart grids; discuss smart grid-smart customer policy priorities; and build consensus on the technology and policy ingredients needed for customer-friendly smart grid deployments. Drawing on workshop discussions, the following paper lays out a logical framework to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks that smart grids pose for customers. The paper also describes key policy research questions that will guide future IEA research on this topic.

  20. Internet of Things Technology and its Applications in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hua; Zhang Junguo; Lin Fantao

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid is the latest trend of development and reform in today’s world, and it is also a major technological innovation and development trend in the 21st century. Internet of Things technology is a new information processing and acquisition method, and it has been widely used in intelligent transportation, environmental monitoring and other fields. Internet of Things is an important technical mean to promote the development of smart grid. Using Internet of Things technology can effectively...

  1. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  2. From Smart Rooms to Smart Hotels

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...

  3. Logistics Road map for Smart SeaPorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gaber EL Sakty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the digital world, a smart concept became an essential feature for port organizations to serve as intelligent hubs in the world transport networks.  Smart ports are the trend for the future long-term strategies. Henceforth, ports aims at contributing to sustainable growth by establishing the appropriate conditions for the adoption of new management energy models based on low environmental impact and triggering innovation of both technologies and processes. The scope of this paper is to examine three main issues of smart ports; smart port arctic logistics roadmap, smart port challenges and obstacles in arctic port areas, and the criteria and Key Performance Indicators guiding the assessment of ports against this concept. The main purpose is to develop a smart arctic logistics road map for the future.

  4. Smart garments in chronic disease management: progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the progress made developments in the area of Smart Garments for chronic disease management over last 10 years. A large number of health monitoring smart garments and wearable sensors have been manufactured to monitor patient's physiological parameters such as electrocardiogram, blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation, while patient is not in hospital. In last few years with the advancement in smartphones and cloud computing it is now possible to send the measure physiological data to any desired location. However there are many challenges in the development of smart garment systems. The two major challenges are development of new lightweight power sources and there is a need for global standardization and a road map for development of smart garments. In this paper we will discuss current state-of-theart smart garments and wearable sensor systems. Also discussed will be the new emerging trends in smart garment research and development.

  5. Energy impacts of the smart home - conflicting visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of households in the smart grid? What visions are articulated for the functionalities of the smart home? Secondly, we critically investigate these visions to explore if they support the development of sustainable energy consumption. We claim that the smart home in the smart grid is the latest addition...... to a family of ideas emerging in relation to the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home. The smart home is thus a melting pot of such different trends as automation of household chores, entertainment and energy management. These different ingredients of the melting pot co......To support the transition towards an energy system that is based 100 percent on renewable energy sources, the smart grid is presently undergoing rapid development in Denmark – a hype that can also be seen in the rest of the world. Many actors are playing in the field, and the present situation...

  6. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  7. 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This work was compiled with expanded and reviewed contributions from the 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, that was held from 3 to 6 June 2015 at Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal. The Conference provided a comprehensive forum for discussing the current state of the art in the field as well as generating inspiration for future ideas specifically on a multidisciplinary level. The scope of the Conference included topics related to the following areas: Fundamentals of smart materials and structures; Modeling/formulation and characterization of smart actuators, sensors and smart material systems; Trends and developments in diverse areas such as material science including composite materials, intelligent hydrogels, interfacial phenomena, phase boundaries and boundary layers of phase boundaries, control, micro- and nano-systems, electronics, etc. to be considered for smart systems; Comparative evaluation of different smart actuators and sensors; Analysis of structural concepts and des...

  8. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  9. From 'big data' to 'smart data'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantoci, Darko; Džanić, Emir; Bogers, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    illumining trends and patterns previously invisible within such datasets. This approach to data analysis meaningfully complements classical statistical approaches. We argue that the value of the ACE algorithm lies in turning 'big data' into 'smart data' by predicting gaps in large datasets. We illustrate...

  10. Microbiologic evaluation of skin wounds: alarming trend toward antibiotic resistance in an inpatient dermatology service during a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Isabel C; Kirsner, Robert S; Kerdel, Francisco A

    2004-06-01

    Increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics has been seen for patients with superficial skin wounds and leg ulcers. We sought to evaluate bacterial isolates from leg ulcers and superficial wounds for resistance to commonly used antibiotics and to compare current data with previous data. We performed a chart review for patients admitted to a tertiary care dermatology inpatient unit from January to December 2001. Comparison was made with 2 previous surveys of the same inpatient service from 1992 and 1996. Bacterial isolates were cultured from 148 patients, 84% (72 of 86) with leg ulcers and 38% (76 of 202) with superficial wounds. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common bacterial isolates in both groups. For patients with leg ulcers, S aureus grew in 67% of isolates (48/72) of which 75% (36/48) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Of leg ulcers, 35% (25/72) grew P aeruginosa, which was resistant to quinolones in 56% of cultures (14/25). For patients with superficial wounds, S aureus was isolated in 75% (57/76) and 44% were MRSA (25/57). P aeruginosa grew in 17% of isolates (13/76) and was resistant to quinolones in 18%. We found a marked increase in antibiotic resistance for both leg ulcers and superficial wounds. Over time, MRSA increased in leg ulcers from 26% in 1992 to 75% in 2001. For superficial wounds, MRSA increased from 7% in 1992 to 44% in 2001. P aeruginosa resistance to quinolones in leg ulcers increased from 19% in 1992 to 56% in 2001, whereas for superficial wounds there was no resistance in 1992 and 18% resistance in 2001. Rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues and is a problem of increasing significance in dermatology. Common pathogenic bacteria, S aureus and P aeruginosa, showed increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Selection of antibiotics should be on the basis of local surveillance programs.

  11. Evaluating the Trends of Bloodstream Infections among Pediatric and Adult Patients at a Teaching Hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal: Role of Drug Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections (BSIs are among the significant causes of morbidity and mortality for patients of all age groups. However, very little is known about the trends of bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibilities among pediatric and adult population from Nepal. In this study, we have investigated the different etiological agents responsible for bloodstream infections among pediatric and adult patients and the role of drug resistant organisms in these infections at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. A total of 3,088 blood culture specimens obtained from pediatric and adult patients suspected to have bloodstream infections were processed by standard microbiological methods. Significant bacterial pathogens were identified by morphological, biochemical, and serological methods as suggested by American Society for Microbiology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Overall, incidence of bloodstream infections among the suspected patients was 7.48%. Pediatric patients (n=90, 9.37% were the significant subgroup of patients affected with bloodstream infections compared to adults (p<0.05, CI-95%. Gram positive (n=49, 54.4% bacteria in pediatric and gram negative bacteria (n=141, 78.7% in adult patients were the most common isolates for BSI. Staphylococcus aureus (n=41, 45.6% in pediatric patients and Salmonella enterica (n=40, 28.3% in adult patients were the leading pathogens. Trends of antimicrobial resistance among isolated bacterial strains were significantly high in adults compared to pediatric patients. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (31.4%, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL (12.5%, and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL (3.9% producing gram negatives were major resistant strains. Our study shows higher rates of bloodstream infections in

  12. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  13. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  14. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001....... Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001...

  15. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  16. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  17. Trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in referral hospitals in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis is one of major current challenges to global public health. The transmission of resistant strains is increasing as a burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB cases in India. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of EPTB in referral hospitals in northern India. Study Design and Setting: A prospectively observational study and referral medical institutions in northern India. Materials and Methods: All EPTB specimens were processed for Ziehl Neelsen staining, BACTEC culture and BACTEC NAP test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. All M. tuberculosis complex isolates were performed for radiometric-based drug susceptibility pattern against streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol using the 1% proportion method. Results: We found that 165/756 (20.5% isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis complex by the NAP test. We observed that 39.9% were resistant to first-line antitubercular drugs. The resistance rate was higher in previously treated patients: H (30.3%, R (16.3%, E (15.7% and S (16.3%. MDR-TB was observed in 13.4%, but, in new cases, this was 11.4% and 19.1% of the previously treated patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: MDR-TB is gradually increased in EPTB cases and predominant resistance to previous treated cases of EPTB. The molecular drug sensitivity test (DST method can be an early decision for chemotherapy in MDR-TB patients. The International Standards of TB Care need to be used by the RNTCP and professional medical associations as a tool to improve TB care in the country.

  18. Challenging 'smart' in smart city strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Knudsen, Jacob

    and development. Focusing on processes of citizen participation and co-creation as the main driving force, we introduce a concept of 'smart city at eye level'. The introduction of new media technology and new media uses need to emerge from a profound understanding of the wants, needs and abilities of the citizens......Smart city strategies concern the improvement of economic and political efficiency and the enabling of social, cultural and urban development (Hollands 2008) and covers a variety of fields from improving infrastructures, social and cultural development, resilience strategies (e.g. green energy......), improving schools, social welfare institutions, public and private institutions etc. The 'smart' in smart city strategies implies that these efforts are accomplished by the introduction and embedding of smart media technology into the very fabric of society. This is often done in a top-down and technology...

  19. Increasing trend of community-acquired methicillin-resistant: Staphylococcal carriers: An alarming bell for urgent measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poongodi Lakshmi Santhana Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increase in the incidence of infections caused by community-associated-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been reported. Hence, the knowledge of resistance pattern of these isolates is a precondition for alleviating emerging antibiotic resistance and devising better treatment strategies Aim: To find out the prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains from nasal carriers. Materials and Methods: A total of 352 nasal swabs collected during routine health checkup were analyzed. Results: Of the 58 (16% staphylococci isolated, 32 (55% were S. aureus and 26 (45% were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Methicillin resistance was observed in 7 (22% of staphylococci aureus and 11 (42% of CoNS. "D test" was positive in 1 (14% MRSA, 2 (8% methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and 2 (8% methicillin resistant-CoNS. Conclusion: Effective implementation of the antibiotic policy along with measures like hand wash, isolation of patients will reduce the incidence of resistance.

  20. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  1. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Alvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates...

  2. The embedding convergence of smart cities and tourism internet of things in China: An advance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The smart city strategy is an inevitable trend in the future development of Chinese cities. The smart tourism city is an important part and a practical attempt of the smart city strategy. The China National Tourism Administration has officially announced "Beautiful China: 2014 Year of Smart Travel" as tourism theme. Thus, huge development opportunities are in store for the future of smart tourism. This strategy attempts to combine the Internet of Things (IoT technology with the development of the smart tourism industry and smart tourism cities. Many Chinese scholars stated their ideas on the technological structure of IoT and the extension of smart tourism industries. At the same time, many Chinese cities have attempted to combine IoT and smart tourism. There is a trend of embedding Application of Tourism IoT in China’s Scenic Spots. Smart tourism should build an IoT information technology public platform, covering service management to marketing management. The emerging smart tourism industry fits China’s economic growth and industrial transformation. Based on these developments, this research determines the current status and development potential of smart tourism in China, and offers recommendations for their applications in China.

  3. Ten years of antibiotic consumption in ambulatory care: Trends in prescribing practice and antibiotic resistance in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apfalter Petra

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were (i to determine the quantity and pattern of antibiotic use in Austria between 1998 and 2007 and (ii to analyze antibiotic resistance rates in relation to antibiotic consumption in important clinical situations in order to provide data for empirical therapeutic regimens for key indications. Methods Consumption data and resistance data were obtained via the Austrian surveillance networks European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS and European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC. The EARSS collects data on isolates from blood and cerebrospinal fluid obtained predominantly in the hospital setting. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the Defined Daily Dose (DDD measurement units were assigned to the data. The number of DDDs and packages per 1,000 inhabitants (PID were used to calculate the level of antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic resistance was expressed in resistance rates, i.e., the percentage of resistant isolates compared to all isolates of one bacterial species. Results The overall antibiotic consumption measured in DIDs increased by 10% between 1998 and 2007, whereas PIDs decreased by 3%. The consumption of substances within the drug utilization 90% segment (measured in PID increased for ciprofloxacin (+118.9, clindamycin (+76.3, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (+61.9%, cefpodoxime (+31.6, azithromycin (+24.7; and decreased for erythromycin (-79.5%, trimethoprim (-56,1%, norfloxacin (-48.8%, doxycycline (-44.6, cefaclor (-35.1%, penicillin (-34.0%, amoxicillin (-22.5, minocycline (-21.9% and clarithromycin (-9.9%. Starting in 2001, an increase in the percentage of invasive E. coli isolates resistant to aminopenicillins (from 35% to 53%, fluoroquinolones (from 7% to 25.5% and third-generation cephalosporins (from 0% to 8.8% was observed. The percentage of nonsusceptible or intermediate penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates remained

  4. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Lyu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2017-03-20

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by a 2-fold agar dilution method, and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2014 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved breakpoints. Isolates not susceptible to all the tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug resistant. The rates of nonsusceptibility to common antimicrobial agents remained high (>65%) over the years with some fluctuations to certain agents. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) increased from 13.3% in 2004 to 70.5% in 2014 and that of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) increased from 11.1% in 2004 to 60.4% in 2014. The activity of tigecycline was stable with MIC90 ≤4 mg/L against A. baumannii from 2009 to 2014. Susceptibility to colistin remained high (97.0%) from 2009 to 2014. The prevalence of XDRAB increased in all the three surveillance regions over the years and was significantly higher in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) wards than non-ICU wards. This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control

  5. Trends of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 isolates from North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohd; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Rai, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    A major cause of failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the presence of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the polymerase gene of HIV-1. The paucity of data regarding potential drug resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) prompted us to carry out this study. This information will shed light on the extent of drug resistance already present in HIV strains and will give future directions in patient treatment and in drug design. Drug resistance genotyping of a partial reverse transcriptase gene was done in 103 HIV-1-infected patients, including the ART-naive and ART-experienced population. The drug resistance pattern was analyzed using the Stanford HIV-DR database, the IAS-USA mutation list and the REGA algorithm-v8.0. Subtyping was done using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool-v2.01. The majority of our sequences (96 %) were found to be subtype C, and four (3.8 %) were subtype A1. Significant prevalence of DR mutations (28 %) was observed in the RT gene. Major amino acid substitutions were seen at positions 41, 90, 98, 103, 106, 108, 138, 181, 184, 190, 215, and 219, which confer high/intermediate levels of resistance to most RTIs, independently or together. Our results show that there is an urgent need to tailor ART drug regimens to the individual to achieve optimum therapeutic outcome in North India.

  6. Smart Cities - Smart Homes and Smart Home Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Faanes, Erlend Kydland

    2014-01-01

    This master’s thesis consists of two articles where the first article is theoretical and the second is the empirical study. Article I The purpose with this paper is to explore and illuminate how smart home and smart home technology can contribute to enhance health and Quality of Life in elderly citizens and allow them to live longer in their home. The paper provides a brief introduction to health promotion and highlights the thesis theoretical framework and foundation of Aaron Antonov...

  7. SmartCampusAAU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Thomsen, Bent; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all ma...... major mobile platforms (Android, iPhone and Windows Phone) and supports both device- and infrastructure-based positioning. SmartCampusAAU also offers a publicly available OData backend that allows researchers to share radio map and location tracking data.......This paper describes SmartCampusAAU - an open, extendable platform that supports the easy creation of indoor location based systems. SmartCampusAAU offers an app and backend that can be used to enable indoor positioning and navigation in any building. The SmartCampusAAU app is available on all...

  8. Trends and molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in clinical staphylococci isolated from companion animals over a 16 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Natacha; Monchique, Cláudia; Belas, Adriana; Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís T; Pomba, Constança

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of resistance to antimicrobials, corresponding mechanisms and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus spp., between 1999 and 2014. Susceptibility to 38 antimicrobials was determined for 632 clinical staphylococcal isolates obtained from companion animals (dogs, cats, horses and other animals). Twenty antimicrobial resistance genes, including mecA and mecC, were screened by PCR. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were characterized by spa (Staphylococcus aureus), SCCmec, MLST and PFGE typing. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v9.3 and differences were considered relevant if P ≤ 0.05. The mecA gene was identified in 74 staphylococcal isolates (11.6%): 11 MRSA (40.7%), 40 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP; 8.7%) and 23 methicillin-resistant CoNS (26.7%). Resistance to the majority of antimicrobials and the number of mecA-positive isolates increased significantly over time. Eighteen spa types were identified, including two new ones. MRSA isolates were divided into three PFGE clusters that included ST22-IV, ST105-II, ST398-V and ST5-VI. Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were of clonal complex (CC) 5, including a new ST, and clustered in eight PFGE clusters. MRSP were grouped into five PFGE clusters and included ST45-NT, ST71-II-III, ST195-III, ST196-V, ST339-NT, ST342-IV and the new ST400-III. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus clustered in two PFGE clusters. The significant increase in antimicrobial-resistant and mecA-positive isolates in recent years is worrying. Furthermore, several isolates are MDR, which complicates antimicrobial treatment and increases the risk of transfer to humans or human isolates. Several clonal lineages of MRSA and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis circulating in human hospitals and the community were found, suggesting that companion animals can become infected with and contribute to the

  9. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  10. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  11. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  12. Towards smart environments using smart objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayr, Martin; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Münch, Ulli

    2011-01-01

    Barcodes, RFID, WLAN, Bluetooth and many more technologies are used in hospitals. They are the technological bases for different applications such as patient monitoring, asset management and facility management. However, most of these applications exist side by side with hardly any integration and even interoperability is not guaranteed. Introducing the concept of smart objects inspired by the Internet of Things can improve the situation by separating the capabilities and functions of an object from the implementing technology such as RFID or WLAN. By aligning technological and business developments smart objects have the power to transform a hospital from an agglomeration of technologies into a smart environment.

  13. The Role of Informational Environment in Building Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Rashad Shahin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research addresses smart city concept as it is the latest urban design trends, by the investment of the capabilities of human, and artificial intelligence for the sake of the advancement of the city. The concept of a smart city is described as one of the most important manifestations of the information revolution, with the end of the twentieth, and the beginning of twenty – first century, The research attributes the emergence of the concept to: deficiencies of means, and traditional methods in building and development of cities, as well as The significant increase in the number of city and global metropolises dwellers. So, smart city approach has been adopted, along with innovative principles and methods which consolidate the performance and efficiency of the city at services, health, economic, social, and environmental levels. Global studies indicate, to the urban contributions scarcity, in the area of smart city, so the need of vocabularies, elements, and innovative solutions studies have emerged and then the role of information’s in achieving the aim of smart city initiatives. The research problem is: The acknowledge gap about the impact of the informational environment, to establish smart city initiative. The research adopts the hypothesis: A multi-disciplinary informational thought plays an essential role in achieving smart city initiative. To address the research problem, the research starts with the definition of the concept of smart city, to provide the knowledge platform, then addresses the smart city approaches, as well as, smart urban environment, smart city structure, key elements and smart networks, to concludes key vocabulary, indicators and constituents of smart city establishment, Then applied to the case studies with analytical descriptive approach, to conclude the key constituents to establish smart city in Iraq. The research concluded to confirm the role of the informational thought, represented by global research

  14. Trends in chloroquine resistance marker, Pfcrt-K76T mutation ten years after chloroquine withdrawal in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Asia; Ndaro, Arnold; Kalinga, Akili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to the control of malaria. In 2001 Tanzania replaced chloroquine (CQ) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line drug, which in turn was replaced by artemisinin combination therapy in 2006. SP has however......, continued to be used in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) despite reports of high levels of resistance to SP due to the lack of alternatives to SP for IPTp. Recent reports have indicated recovery of CQ-susceptibility in Malawi, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania based...

  15. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control measures, while also helping to focus surveillance efforts.

  16. Innovation for creating a smart future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang M. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, we live in a dynamic and turbulent global community. The wave of mega-trends, including rapid change in globalization and technological advances, is creating new market forces. For any organization to survive and prosper in such an environment, innovation is imperative. However, innovation is no longer just for creating value to benefit individuals, organizations, or societies. The ultimate purpose of innovation should be much more far reaching, helping create a smart future where people can enjoy the best quality of life possible. Thus, innovation must search for intelligent solutions to tackle major social ills, seek more proactive approaches to predict the uncertain future, and pursue strategies to remove barriers to the smart future. This study explores the detailed requirements of a smart future, including both hardware types and soft social/cultural components.

  17. Analysis of instrumentation technology for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Suh, Y. S.; Seong, S. H.; Jang, G. S.

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary that development requirements, techniques to be developed, and development tasks and approach are established to develop the SMART instrumentation system. It is important to establish the development strategies for input for developing SMART instrumentation system. To meet above needs, the industry general and nuclear instrumentation techniques were analyzed and reviewed, respectively, based on the classification of instrumentation to analyze the industrial instrumentation techniques, and analysis results which described the inherent merits and demerits of each technique can be used for inputs to select the instruments for SMART. For the instrumentation techniques for nuclear environments, the major instrumentation techniques were reviewed, and the instrumentation system were established. The following development approaches were established based on the development requirements and the analysis results of research and development trends of industrial and nuclear instrumentation techniques. (author). 90 refs., 38 tabs., 33 figs

  18. Smart infrastructure design for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; KUMRAI, Teerawat; DONG, Mianxiong; KISHIGAMI, Jay (Junichi); GUO, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is one of the keywords to describe smart cities, aiming at efficient public transport, smart parking, enhanced road safety, intelligent traffic management, onvehicle entertainment, and so on. In ITS, Roadside Unit (RSU) deployment should be well-designed due to it serves as a service provider and a gateway to the Internet for vehicular users. In this article, we propose an RSU deployment strategy which maximizes the communication coverage and reduces t...

  19. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  20. Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Nenad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.

  1. Corrosion Characteristics of the SMART Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Y. H.; Choi, B. K.; Soh, J. R.; Lee, D. J.; Choi, B. S

    2000-05-01

    This report summarized the corrosion characteristics of the candidate steam generator tubes (PT-7M, ASTM Gr.2, Inconel-600), which are considering as the core materials in SMART. Also, this evaluated the waterchemstry conditions of commercial power plant including the PWR, BWR, WWER, PHWR, RBMK plants in comparison with that of SMART. And this report described that the microstructures of as-received PT-7M, ASTM Gr.2, and Inconel-600 as the candidate materials of fuel cladding and steam generator tubes and characterized the corrosion properties of the materials, which were tested systematically in the conditions of standard, ammonia solution and ammonia nodular to evaluate the corrosion resistance.

  2. Corrosion Characteristics of the SMART Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Y. H.; Choi, B. K.; Soh, J. R.; Lee, D. J.; Choi, B. S.

    2000-05-01

    This report summarized the corrosion characteristics of the candidate steam generator tubes (PT-7M, ASTM Gr.2, Inconel-600), which are considering as the core materials in SMART. Also, this evaluated the waterchemstry conditions of commercial power plant including the PWR, BWR, WWER, PHWR, RBMK plants in comparison with that of SMART. And this report described that the microstructures of as-received PT-7M, ASTM Gr.2, and Inconel-600 as the candidate materials of fuel cladding and steam generator tubes and characterized the corrosion properties of the materials, which were tested systematically in the conditions of standard, ammonia solution and ammonia nodular to evaluate the corrosion resistance

  3. Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Blanco, Jose Luis; Jordan, Michael R; Taylor, Jonathan; Lemey, Philippe; Varghese, Vici; Hamers, Raph L; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Albert, Jan; Avi, Radko; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Bessong, Pascal O; Brooks, James I; Boucher, Charles A B; Brumme, Zabrina L; Busch, Michael P; Bussmann, Hermann; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Chin, Bum Sik; D'Aquin, Toni T; De Gascun, Cillian F; Derache, Anne; Descamps, Diane; Deshpande, Alaka K; Djoko, Cyrille F; Eshleman, Susan H; Fleury, Herve; Frange, Pierre; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Harrigan, P Richard; Hattori, Junko; Holguin, Africa; Hunt, Gillian M; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Katzenstein, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Kim, Jerome H; Kim, Sung Soon; Li, Yanpeng; Lutsar, Irja; Morris, Lynn; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ng, Kee Peng; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Peeters, Martine; Poljak, Mario; Price, Matt A; Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon L; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Rolland, Morgane; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Smith, Davey M; Soares, Marcelo A; Soriano, Vincent V; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Stanojevic, Maja; Stefani, Mariane A; Sugiura, Wataru; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Tanuri, Amilcar; Tee, Kok Keng; Truong, Hong-Ha M; van de Vijver, David A M C; Vidal, Nicole; Yang, Chunfu; Yang, Rongge; Yebra, Gonzalo; Ioannidis, John P A; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Shafer, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and to identify the HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations responsible for TDR in different regions and virus subtypes. We reviewed all GenBank submissions of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences with or without protease and identified 287 studies published between March 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, with more than 25 recently or chronically infected ARV-naïve individuals. These studies comprised 50,870 individuals from 111 countries. Each set of study sequences was analyzed for phylogenetic clustering and the presence of 93 surveillance drug-resistance mutations (SDRMs). The median overall TDR prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), south/southeast Asia (SSEA), upper-income Asian countries, Latin America/Caribbean, Europe, and North America was 2.8%, 2.9%, 5.6%, 7.6%, 9.4%, and 11.5%, respectively. In SSA, there was a yearly 1.09-fold (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) increase in odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up attributable to an increase in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance. The odds of NNRTI-associated TDR also increased in Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25), North America (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26), Europe (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and upper-income Asian countries (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12-1.55). In SSEA, there was no significant change in the odds of TDR since national ARV scale-up (OR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02). An analysis limited to sequences with mixtures at less than 0.5% of their nucleotide positions—a proxy for recent infection—yielded trends comparable to those obtained using the complete dataset. Four NNRTI SDRMs—K101E, K103N, Y181C, and G190A

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial infection trends in Hospital universiti sains Malasia during 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Talib, Hasnain I.; Yean, Chan Y

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen that causes severe morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide.The aim of the present study was to assess the burden of MRSA nosocomial infection,its association with factors of interest, and its antimicrobial susceptibility.This was a retrospective analysis of a database of all s aureus that were cultured from patients admitted to the defferent wards of hospital universiti sains malasia(HUSM) over a aperiod of 6 years.The MRSA infections rate was 10.0 Per 1000 hospital admissions.The incidence density rate of MRSA infections during the study period was 1.8 per 1000 patient-days,with annual rates ranging from 0.95 to 3.47 per 1000 patients-days.Duration of hospitalization,previous antibiotic use,and bedside invasive proceures of MRSa infections were found in orthopedic wards (25.3%) followed by surgical wards (18.2%) amd omtensive care units(ICU) (16.4%).All MRSA isolates were resistant to erythromycin (98.0%),co-trimoxazole (94.0%)and gentamicin (92.0%)clindamycin was the best antibiotic with only 6% resistance.All MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin.The rate of the noscomial MRSA infection per 1000 admissions was higher than that in other studies.The three factors associated most signaficantly with acquired MRSA infections included duration of hospitalization,antibiotic use,and bedside invasive procedures.This study confirmed that vancomycin-resistant s aureus has not yet been established in HUSM (Author).

  5. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  6. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  7. Smart space technology innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mu-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ

  8. Conceptualizing smart service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beverungen, Daniel; Müller, Oliver; Matzner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service” that is b......Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service......” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart...... service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers’ and service providers’ resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual...

  9. The People's Smart Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Koplin, Martin; Nedelkovski, Igor; Salo, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The People’s Smart Sculpture (PS2) panel discusses future oriented approaches in smart media-art, developed, designed and exploited for artistic and public participation in the change and re-design of our living environment. The actual debate about a smart future is not taking into account any idea of media art as an instrument for to realize the social sculpture, mentioned by Beuys [1] or as social sculpture itself. The People’s Smart Sculpture is the only large scale Creative Europe media-a...

  10. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  11. Trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from urban and agro-industrial settings in southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerah-Hinzoumbé Clément

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for insect pest control in Cameroon. In certain insect species, particularly the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, resistance to this class of insecticides is a source of great concern and needs to be monitored in order to sustain the efficacy of vector control operations in the fields. This study highlights trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in wild An. gambiae populations from South Cameroon. Methods Mosquitoes were collected between 2001 and 2007 in four sites in South Cameroon, where insecticides are used for agricultural or personal protection purposes. Insecticide use was documented in each site by interviewing residents. Batches of 2-4 days old adult female mosquitoes reared from larval collections were tested for susceptibility to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin using standard WHO procedures. Control, dead and survivors mosquitoes from bioassays were identified by PCR-RFLP and characterized for the kdr mutations using either the AS-PCR or the HOLA method. Results Four chemical insecticide groups were cited in the study sites: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. These chemicals were used for personal, crop or wood protection. In the four An. gambiae populations tested, significant variation in resistance levels, molecular forms composition and kdr frequencies were recorded in the time span of the study. Increases in DDT and pyrethroid resistance, as observed in most areas, were generally associated with an increase in the relative frequency of the S molecular form carrying the kdr mutations at higher frequencies. In Mangoum, however, where only the S form was present, a significant increase in the frequency of kdr alleles between 2003 to 2007 diverged with a decrease of the level of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Analyses of the kdr frequencies in dead and surviving mosquitoes showed partial correlation between the kdr genotypes and resistance

  12. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  13. Smart grids or smart users? Involving users in developing a low carbon electricity economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbong, Geert P.J.; Beemsterboer, Sjouke; Sengers, Frans

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses practices and perceptions of stakeholders on including users in smart grids experiments in the Netherlands. In-depth interviews have been conducted and smart grid projects have been analysed, using a Strategic Niche Management framework. The analysis shows that there is a clear trend to pay more attention to users in new smart grid projects. However, too much focus on technology and economic incentives can become a barrier. Some institutional barriers have been identified. New innovative business models should be developed to explore different options to involve users. The many pilot and demonstration projects that are taking shape or are being planned offer an excellent opportunity for such an exploration. Learning on the social dimensions of smart grids, and the international exchange of experiences can prevent a premature lock-in in a particular pathway. - Highlights: ► State of the art of smart grids experiments in the Netherlands. ► Focus on role and position of users. ► Trend is to active involvement of users. ► Several barriers have been identified.

  14. Investigational research on eco-smart engines; Eco-smart engine no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper investigated the trend of research on eco-smart engines into which optimization function of engine performance, high environmental-adaptability, etc. are integrated. The investigation was made in Japan and abroad on technologies of combustion, structure/material, control, design/analysis, systematization, etc. In case of Japan, specifications were established for three types of engines, subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, and the research subjects to fulfil the specifications were extracted. In case of the U.S. and Europe, the survey was made of combustion, materials, noise, design concept, control, etc. Important subjects are selected in priority order. Namely, for the enhancement of efficiency, the following were taken up: three-dimensional fiber-reinforced large-size light-weight structure application technology, heat-resistant advanced-material structure damage-tolerant design technology, pseudo-vesicular structure transpiration cooling technology, etc. For the reduction of NOx emission, the paper took up technologies of environmentally optimization combustion, AI combustion control, and non-cooling combustor liner application. For the noise reduction, technologies of new inclination hole orientation noise absorbing structure material application, super noise control, and innovative CFD utilization low noise aerodynamics. Moreover, the results of fiscal 1997 were outlined to indicate the research in the next fiscal year. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Changing trends in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Padma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chloramphenicol was considered the anti-microbial gold standard for typhoid treatment but, following the increasing worldwide frequency of antibiotic resistance, ciprofloxacin has been the mainstay of therapy since 1980. Recent studies have shown a shifting of susceptibility to conventional drugs like chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of chloramphenicol and other first-line drugs in comparison with cephalosporins and quinolones. Materials and Methods: Fifty isolates of Salmonella obtained from blood culture were subjected to serotyping at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Phage typing and biotyping was performed at the National Phage Typing Centre, New Delhi. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out for 10 drugs by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution for nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefixime and ofloxacin. Multi-drug-resistant (MDR strains were checked for plasmid. Results: In the present study, 70 and 30% of the isolates were Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A, respectively. They were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (86%, ampicillin (84% and cotrimoxazole (88%. Highest sensitivity was seen for cephalosporins, followed by quinolones. Seventeen/21 (81% and 100% of the Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strains belonged to E1 phage type and biotype 1, respectively. Antibiogram showed 2% of the strains to be sensitive to all the drugs tested and 12% were MDR and showed the presence of plasmids. Conclusion: The study indicates reemergence of chloramphenicol-susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar typhi and paratyphi A isolates, a significant decline in MDR strains and high resistance to nalidixic acid. E1 phage type and biotype 1 are found to be most prevalent in Chennai, India.

  16. Trends towards lower antimicrobial susceptibility and characterization of acquired resistance among clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Álvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte; Pringle, Märit; Naharro, Germán; Rubio, Pedro

    2011-07-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates recovered from 2008 to 2009 by broth dilution. Domain V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L3 gene were sequenced in 20 isolates for which the tiamulin MIC was ≥ 4 μg/ml, presenting decreased susceptibility, and in 18 tiamulin-susceptible isolates (MIC ≤ 0.125 μg/ml), and all isolates were typed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected for lincomycin, and the MIC of tylosin remained high (MIC(50) > 128 μg/ml). The decreased susceptibility to tylosin and lincomycin can be explained by mutations at position A2058 of the 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering). A2058T was the predominant mutation, but A2058G also was found together with a change of the neighboring base pair at positions 2057 to 2611. The role of additional point mutations in the vicinity of the peptidyl transferase center and mutations in the L3 at amino acids 148 and 149 and their possible involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility are considered. An association between G2032A and high levels of tiamulin and lincomycin MICs was found, suggesting an increasing importance of this mutation in antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of B. hyodysenteriae.

  17. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Álvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte; Pringle, Märit; Naharro, Germán; Rubio, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates recovered from 2008 to 2009 by broth dilution. Domain V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L3 gene were sequenced in 20 isolates for which the tiamulin MIC was ≥4 μg/ml, presenting decreased susceptibility, and in 18 tiamulin-susceptible isolates (MIC ≤ 0.125 μg/ml), and all isolates were typed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected for lincomycin, and the MIC of tylosin remained high (MIC50 > 128 μg/ml). The decreased susceptibility to tylosin and lincomycin can be explained by mutations at position A2058 of the 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering). A2058T was the predominant mutation, but A2058G also was found together with a change of the neighboring base pair at positions 2057 to 2611. The role of additional point mutations in the vicinity of the peptidyl transferase center and mutations in the L3 at amino acids 148 and 149 and their possible involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility are considered. An association between G2032A and high levels of tiamulin and lincomycin MICs was found, suggesting an increasing importance of this mutation in antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:21555771

  18. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  19. Reduction of bonding resistance of two-terminal III-V/Si tandem solar cells fabricated using smart-stack technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Masaaki; Makita, Kikuo; Mizuno, Hidenori; Takato, Hidetaka; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Yamada, Noboru

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a method that remarkably reduces the bonding resistance of mechanically stacked two-terminal GaAs/Si and InGaP/Si tandem solar cells, where the top and bottom cells are bonded using a Pd nanoparticle array. A transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer, which partially covers the surface of the Si bottom cell below the electrodes of the III-V top cell, significantly enhances the fill factor (FF) and cell conversion efficiency. The partial TCO layer reduces the bonding resistance and thus, increases the FF and efficiency of InGaP/Si by factors of 1.20 and 1.11, respectively. Eventually, the efficiency exceeds 15%. Minimizing the optical losses at the bonding interfaces of the TCO layer is important in the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells. To help facilitate this, the optical losses in the tandem solar cells are thoroughly characterized through optical simulations and experimental verifications.

  20. Smart SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top an...

  1. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  2. Playing the Smart Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  3. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  4. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  5. Smart Icon Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  6. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  7. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  8. Task-role-based Access Control Model in Smart Health-care System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Peng; Jiang Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for...

  9. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  10. Smart Sustainable Islands VS Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Moussas, V. C.; Murgante, B.; Daverona, A. C.; Stratakis, P.; Vlissidis, N.; Kavadias, A.; Economou, D.; Santimpantakis, K.; Karathanasis, B.; Kyriakopoulou, V.; Gadolou, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper has several aims: a) the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms "smart sustainable cities" and "smart sustainable islands" b) the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors) which concern the insular municipalities c) the creation of an island's smartification and sustainability index d) the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e) the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  11. Smart houses for a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, J.K.; Warmer, C.J. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands); Karnouskos, S.; Weidlich, A. [SAP Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, (Germany); Nestle, D.; Strauss, P. [The Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik ISET, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany); Dimeas, A.; Hatziargyriou, N. [Institute Computers Communications Systems ICCS, National Technical University of Athens NTUA, Athens (Greece); Buchholz, B.; Drenkard, S. [MVV Energie, Berlin (Germany); Lioliou, V. [Public Power Corporation PPC, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Innovative technologies and concepts will emerge as we move towards a more dynamic, service-based, market-driven infrastructure, where energy efficiency and savings can be facilitated by interactive distribution networks. A new generation of fully interactive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure has to be developed to support the optimal exploitation of the changing, complex business processes and to enable the efficient functioning of the deregulated energy market for the benefit of citizens and businesses. The architecture of such distributed system landscapes must be designed and validated, standards need to be created and widely supported, and comprehensive, reliable IT applications will need to be implemented. The collaboration between a smart house and a smart grid is a promising approach which, with the help of ICT can fully unleash the capabilities of the smart electricity network.

  12. Trends in Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins and Carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. Isolates in a District in Western India during 2004–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Odsbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance data on the level of resistant bacteria is needed to inform strategies to reduce the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the non-susceptibility trends to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period 2004–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters. The change in proportions of non-susceptible bacteria over calendar time was investigated with spline transformations in a logistic regression model. For the extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the proportions of non-susceptible E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates were above 78.4% and 84.9% throughout the study period, respectively. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates exhibited carbapenem non-susceptibility levels as high as 76.9% and 84.1% respectively. The proportions of extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL-producing isolates ranged from 38.3–85.9% in E. coli and from 45.1–93.1% in Klebsiella spp. Significantly higher proportions of non-susceptible and ESBL-producing isolates were found among isolates from inpatients compared to isolates from outpatients for both E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (p < 0.050. The high proportions of non-susceptible isolates observed show that there is great need to focus on optimal use of antibiotics to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance.

  13. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Smith, David H

    2013-02-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18-64 compared to females of the same age. We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of second-line broad-spectrum antibiotic agents

  14. Renal Resistance Trend During Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Is More Predictive of Postoperative Outcome Than Biopsy Score: Preliminary Experience in 35 Consecutive Kidney Transplantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissolati, Massimiliano; Gazzetta, Paolo Giovanni; Caldara, Rossana; Guarneri, Giovanni; Adamenko, Olga; Giannone, Fabio; Mazza, Michele; Maggi, Giulia; Tomanin, Deborah; Rosati, Riccardo; Secchi, Antonio; Socci, Carlo

    2018-03-30

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HPM) grants a better postoperative outcome in transplantation of organs procured from extended criteria donors (ECDs) and donors after cardiac death (DCD). So far, the only available parameter for outcome prediction concerning those organs is pretransplant biopsy score. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether renal resistance (RR) trend during HPM may be used as a predictive marker for post-transplantation outcome. From December 2015 to present, HMP has been systematically applied to all organs from ECDs and DCD. All grafts underwent pretransplantation biopsy evaluation using Karpinski's histological score. Only organs that reached RR value ≤1.0 within 3 hours of perfusion were transplanted. Single kidney transplantation (SKT) or double kidney transplantation (DKT) were performed according to biopsy score results. Sixty-five HMPs were performed (58 from ECDs and 7 from DCD/ECMO donors). Fifteen kidneys were insufficiently reconditioned (RR > 1) and were therefore discarded. Forty-nine kidneys were transplanted, divided between 21 SKT and 14 DKT. Overall primary nonfunction (PNF) and delayed graft function (DGF) rate were 2.9 and 17.1%, respectively. DGF were more common in kidneys from DCD (67 vs. 7%; P = 0.004). Biopsy score did not correlate with PNF/DGF rate (P = 0.870) and postoperative creatinine trend (P = 0.796). Recipients of kidneys that reached RR ≤ 1.0 within 1 hour of HMP had a lower PNF/DGF rate (11 vs. 44%; P = 0.033) and faster serum creatinine decrease (POD10 creatinine: 1.79 mg/dL vs. 4.33 mg/dL; P = 0.019). RR trend is more predictive of post-transplantation outcome than biopsy score. Hence, RR trend should be taken into account in the pretransplantation evaluation of the organs. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Resistance trends and risk factors of extended spectrum β-lactamases in Escherichia coli infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been a notable surge in urinary tract infections (UTIs) by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, which considerably limits treatment options. This study aimed to determine prevalence, phenotypic patterns, and ESBL-production status of E coli in isolates from UTI patients along with uncovering locally relevant risk factors for contracting ESBL-producing E coli infections. One hundred four nonrepetitive urine samples were collected from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo, Syria. Antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL production were studied by disc diffusion and double disk synergy tests according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Epidemiologic analysis was done using χ(2) and multivariate logistic regression tests. This study revealed high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E coli reaching 63%, whereas ESBL-producing E coli exceeded 52%. The latter exhibited alarmingly elevated levels of coresistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics leading to vast increase in MDR rates in comparison with non-ESBL-producing E coli (83.6% vs 12.2%, respectively). We found previous exposure to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones to be a significant risk factor for ESBL-producing E coli infections, in addition to other known factors such as hospitalization and catheterization. Tigecycline and carbapenems demonstrated near perfect efficacy against tested E coli, so they rank high among treatment options. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards a smart home framework

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Muddasser; Alan, Alper; Rogers, Alex; Ramchurn, Sarvapali D.

    2013-01-01

    We present our Smart Home Framework (SHF) which simplifies the modelling, prototyping and simulation of smart infrastructure (i.e., smart home and smart communities). It provides the buildings blocks (e.g., home appliances) that can be extended and assembled together to build a smart infrastructure model to which appropriate AI techniques can be applied. This approach enables rapid modelling where new research initiatives can build on existing work.

  17. Smart grids for smart cities: Smart energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieny, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids are currently a hot topic. Growing numbers of municipalities are experimenting with smart grids as the foundation for tomorrow's smart cities. And yet, end users are struggling to understand the innovative new energy distribution models just over the horizon. Our energy system is at a crossroads. And the coming years will tell us whether smart grids - whether they integrate renewable energy sources or not - will develop as a hybrid industry combining energy and IT or emerge as a full-fledged sector in and of itself. First and foremost, smart grids must be considered from a local, micro-economic standpoint, but one that also takes into account issues and interactions at the regional, national, EU, and global levels. Today, fighting climate change is a major challenge at both the national and global levels. The Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Summit established a framework for crucial initiatives to combat climate change. The EU and France followed suit with their Climate and Energy Package and Grenelle de l'environnement environmental agenda. These policies set forth measures to fight climate change and to adapt to its impacts on people and the economy. France, for instance, set two basic targets to be achieved by 2020: - Make renewable energy a priority by promoting the development of energy from renewable sources to achieve the target of 23% renewables in the final energy mix. - Promote energy savings and increase energy efficiency by 20% and limit global warming to less than 2 deg. C over pre-industrial temperatures in industrialized nations by 2050 (around 1.2 deg. C above current temperatures). Tomorrow's grids will have to be smarter, which means incorporating information and communication technologies to provide the responsiveness and enhanced communication capabilities needed to meet the following challenges: - Integrating electricity from renewable sources; - Controlling demand; - Managing peak consumption; - Promoting widespread adoption of

  18. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  19. Becoming a smart student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Ulla

    English abstract When teachers and students interact in everyday academic activities, some students are ascribed social roles as “smart”, which lead other students to contest these roles. Such struggles around what it means to be smart and which students come to be viewed as smart are a pertinent...... as smart and favoured by the teacher are at risk of being ostracized by peers, of encountering greater pressure for classroom performance and of suffering reduced learning opportunities. The study inspires teachers to create wiggle room for their students by becoming aware of the conventional definitions...

  20. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed...... that negatively affected their private spheres, yet many of them paradoxically requested more efficient smart phone connectivity. The article focuses on the justifications, the different narrative strategies, employed by professionals for their conscious engagement in escalating work connectivity. It is suggested...

  1. Smart security proven practices

    CERN Document Server

    Quilter, J David

    2014-01-01

    Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business is a video presentation. Length: 68 minutes. In Smart Security: Understanding and Contributing to the Business, presenter J. David Quilter demonstrates the benefits of how a fully integrated security program increases business profits and delivers smart security practices at the same time. The presentation does away with the misconception that security is only an expense. In fact, a well-integrated security program can protect business interests, thereby enhancing productivity and net income. Quilter covers cost analysis and secu

  2. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  3. Autonomous Multicamera Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Horst

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a strong trend towards the deployment of advanced computer vision methods on embedded systems. This deployment is very challenging since embedded platforms often provide limited resources such as computing performance, memory, and power. In this paper we present a multicamera tracking method on distributed, embedded smart cameras. Smart cameras combine video sensing, processing, and communication on a single embedded device which is equipped with a multiprocessor computation and communication infrastructure. Our multicamera tracking approach focuses on a fully decentralized handover procedure between adjacent cameras. The basic idea is to initiate a single tracking instance in the multicamera system for each object of interest. The tracker follows the supervised object over the camera network, migrating to the camera which observes the object. Thus, no central coordination is required resulting in an autonomous and scalable tracking approach. We have fully implemented this novel multicamera tracking approach on our embedded smart cameras. Tracking is achieved by the well-known CamShift algorithm; the handover procedure is realized using a mobile agent system available on the smart camera network. Our approach has been successfully evaluated on tracking persons at our campus.

  4. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  5. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  6. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  7. Guest Editorial - Smart materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barber, Z. H.; Clyne, T. W.; Šittner, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, 13a (2014), s. 1515-1516 ISSN 0267-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : smart materials * shape memory effect (SME) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.995, year: 2014

  8. Smart Book Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Smart book charts for TPSM: Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET), Conformal Ablative TPS (CA-TPS), 3D Woven Multifunctional Ablative TPS (3D MAT), and Adaptable, Deployable, Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT).

  9. Becoming a Smart Student

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Ulla

    identification” and “participation framework”. Methodologically, the study is based on three years of linguistic ethnographic fieldwork in a public primary school in Copenhagen and with students and their families. This study documents -in broad ethnographic scope and interactional detail -how smart student...... through future explorations of children’s academic trajectories in and out of school, and on how those trajectories often become linked to the trajectories of siblings, vis-à-vis institutional conceptions of smartness.......When teachers and students interact in everyday academic activities, some students are ascribed social roles as “smart”, which lead other students to contest these roles. Such struggles around what it means to be smart and which students come to be viewed as smart are a pertinent problem...

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  11. SMART : de ontwerplogica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Jelsma, J.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    Het vakgebied van de regeltechniek is zeer geschikt om ontwikkelingen vanuit de computertechnologie toe te passen. Zo zijn er systemen met regelalgoritmes gebaseerd op technieken zoals neurale netwerken, fuzzy logic, genetische algoritmes en kennissystemen gebouwd. Binnen het onderzoeksproject SMART

  12. Ammonia chemistry at SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. W.; Seong, G. W.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, W. C.; Choi, B. S.; Kim, J. P.; Lee, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is used as the pH control agent of primary water at SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor). Some of this ammonia is decomposed to hydrogen and nitrogen by radiation in the reactor core. The produced hydrogen gas is used for the removal of dissolved oxygen in the coolant. Some of nitrogen gas in pressurizer is dissolved into the primary water. Because ammonia, hydrogen and nitrogen which is produced by ammonia radiolysis are exist in the coolant at SMART, ammonia chemistry at SMART is different with lithium-boron chemistry at commercial PWR. In this study, the pH characteristics of ammonia and the solubility characteristics of hydrogen and nytrogen were analyzed for the management of primary water chemistry at SMART

  13. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  14. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  15. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  16. An Energy Management Service for the Smart Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rottondi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the electricity grid towards the smart grid paradigm is fostering the integration of distributed renewable energy sources in smart buildings: a combination of local power generation, battery storage and controllable loads can greatly increase the energetic self-sufficiency of a smart building, enabling it to maximize the self-consumption of photovoltaic electricity and to participate in the energy market, thus taking advantage of time-variable tariffs to achieve economic savings. This paper proposes an energy management infrastructure specifically tailored for a smart office building, which relies on measured data and on forecasting algorithms to predict the future patterns of both local energy generation and power loads. The performance is compared to the optimal energy usage scheduling, which would be obtained assuming the exact knowledge of the future energy production and consumption trends, showing gaps below 10% with respect to the optimum.

  17. Smart Home Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Kodra, Suela

    2016-01-01

    Smart Home is an intelligent home equipped with devices and communications systems that enables the residents to connect and control their home appliances and systems. This technology has changed the way a consumer interacts with his home, enabling more control and convenience. Another advantage of this technology is the positive impact it has on savings on energy and other resources. However, despite the consumer's excitement about smart home, security and privacy have shown to be the strong...

  18. SMART performance analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-04-01

    To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis

  19. Smart acquisition EELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sader, Kasim; Schaffer, Bernhard; Vaughan, Gareth; Brydson, Rik; Brown, Andy; Bleloch, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  20. Smart acquisition EELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sader, Kasim, E-mail: k.sader@leeds.ac.uk [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Schaffer, Bernhard [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Vaughan, Gareth [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brydson, Rik [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, Andy [Institute for Materials Research, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Bleloch, Andrew [SuperSTEM, J block, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We have developed a novel acquisition methodology for the recording of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM): 'Smart Acquisition'. Smart Acquisition allows the independent control of probe scanning procedures and the simultaneous acquisition of analytical signals such as EELS. The original motivation for this work arose from the need to control the electron dose experienced by beam-sensitive specimens whilst maintaining a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio in the EEL signal for the extraction of useful analytical information (such as energy loss near edge spectral features) from relatively undamaged areas. We have developed a flexible acquisition framework which separates beam position data input, beam positioning, and EELS acquisition. In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on beam-sensitive thin films of amorphous aluminium trifluoride. Smart Acquisition has been used to expose lines to the electron beam, followed by analysis of the structures created by line-integrating EELS acquisitions, and the results are compared to those derived from a standard EELS linescan. High angle annular dark-field images show clear reductions in damage for the Smart Acquisition areas compared to the conventional linescan, and the Smart Acquisition low loss EEL spectra are more representative of the undamaged material than those derived using a conventional linescan. Atomically resolved EELS of all four elements of CaNdTiO show the high resolution capabilities of Smart Acquisition.

  1. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...

  2. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  3. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  4. Towards the Smart World. Smart Platform: Infrastructure and Analytics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Velthausz, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author outlines the 'smart world' concept and how technology (smart infrastructure, analytics) can foster smarter cities, smarter regions and a smarter world....

  5. SMART SUSTAINABLE ISLANDS VS SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Pantazis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several aims: a the presentation of a critical analysis of the terms “smart sustainable cities” and “smart sustainable islands” b the presentation of a number of principles towards to the development methodological framework of concepts and actions, in a form of a manual and actions guide, for the smartification and sustainability of islands. This kind of master plan is divided in thematic sectors (key factors which concern the insular municipalities c the creation of an island’s smartification and sustainability index d the first steps towards the creation of a portal for the presentation of our smartification actions manual, together with relative resources, smart applications examples, and, in the near future the first results of our index application in a number of Greek islands and e the presentation of some proposals of possible actions towards their sustainable development and smartification for the municipalities - islands of Paros and Antiparos in Greece, as case studies.

  6. Smart Demand Response Based on Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart homes (SHs are crucial parts for demand response management (DRM of smart grid (SG. The aim of SHs based demand response (DR is to provide a flexible two-way energy feedback whilst (or shortly after the consumption occurs. It can potentially persuade end-users to achieve energy saving and cooperate with the electricity producer or supplier to maintain balance between the electricity supply and demand through the method of peak shaving and valley filling. However, existing solutions are challenged by the lack of consideration between the wide application of fiber power cable to the home (FPCTTH and related users’ behaviors. Based on the new network infrastructure, the design and development of smart DR systems based on SHs are related with not only functionalities as security, convenience, and comfort, but also energy savings. A new multirouting protocol based on Kruskal’s algorithm is designed for the reliability and safety of the SHs distribution network. The benefits of FPCTTH-based SHs are summarized at the end of the paper.

  7. SMART POWER TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirm V. Nirmalan

    2003-11-01

    Gas turbines are the choice technology for high-performance power generation and are employed in both simple and combined cycle configurations around the world. The Smart Power Turbine (SPT) program has developed new technologies that are needed to further extend the performance and economic attractiveness of gas turbines for power generation. Today's power generation gas turbines control firing temperatures indirectly, by measuring the exhaust gas temperature and then mathematically calculating the peak combustor temperatures. But temperatures in the turbine hot gas path vary a great deal, making it difficult to control firing temperatures precisely enough to achieve optimal performance. Similarly, there is no current way to assess deterioration of turbine hot-gas-path components without shutting down the turbine. Consequently, maintenance and component replacements are often scheduled according to conservative design practices based on historical fleet-averaged data. Since fuel heating values vary with the prevalent natural gas fuel, the inability to measure heating value directly, with sufficient accuracy and timeliness, can lead to maintenance and operational decisions that are less than optimal. GE Global Research Center, under this Smart Power Turbine program, has developed a suite of novel sensors that would measure combustor flame temperature, online fuel lower heating value (LHV), and hot-gas-path component life directly. The feasibility of using the ratio of the integrated intensities of portions of the OH emission band to determine the specific average temperature of a premixed methane or natural-gas-fueled combustion flame was demonstrated. The temperature determined is the temperature of the plasma included in the field of view of the sensor. Two sensor types were investigated: the first used a low-resolution fiber optic spectrometer; the second was a SiC dual photodiode chip. Both methods worked. Sensitivity to flame temperature changes was

  8. Less Smart More City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart is an expression used in recent years in science, and it refers to someone or something that shows a lively intelligence, with a quick learning curve and a fast response to external stimuli. The present scenario is dominated by the accelerated technological development that involves every aspect of life, enhancing the everyday tools through the use of information and digital processing: everything is smart, even cities. But when you pair the term smart to a complex organism such as the city the significance of the two together is open to a variety of interpretations, as shown by the vast and varied landscape of definitions that have occurred in recent years. Our contribution presents the results of research aimed at analyzing and interpreting this fragmented scene mainly, but not exclusively, through lexical analysis, applied to a textual corpus of 156 definitions of smart city. In particular, the study identified the main groups of stakeholders that have taken part in the debate, and investigated the differences and convergences that can be detected: Academic, Institutional, and Business worlds. It is undeniable that the term smart has been a veritable media vehicle that, on the one hand brought to the center of the discussion the issue of the city, of increasing strategic importance for the major challenges that humanity is going to face,  and on the other has been a fertile ground on which to pour the interests of different groups and individuals. In a nutshell we can say that from the analysis the different approaches that each group has used and supported emerge clearly and another, alarming, consideration occurs: of the smart part of “Smart City” we clearly grasp the tools useful to the each group of stakeholders, and of the city part, as a collective aspiration, there is often little or nothing.

  9. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  10. The Future of Smart Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  11. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  12. Wireless Smart Systems Beyond RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu

    2008-01-01

    It is expected that in the coming 20 years the IoT will be pervasive, and ubiquitous: smart devices, embedded in smart materials, will work in synergy to improve the quality of our lives. In this context wireless smart systems will play an essential role that is far beyond the ID information that is part of RFID devices today. Wireless Smart Systems Beyond RFID

  13. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  15. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  16. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  17. The Science of Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  18. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  19. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  20. Smart TV and data protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, B.; van Eijk, N.; Irion, K.; McGonagle, T.; van Voorst, S.

    2016-01-01

    What is smart TV? How does smart TV compare with other forms of audiovisual media? What regulatory frameworks govern smart TV? What guidance can be found in selected country-specific case studies? What are the dangers associated with the collection, storage and processing of private user information

  1. Tendencias de los fenotipos de resistencia bacteriana en hospitales públicos y privados de alta complejidad de Colombia Trends of bacterial resistance phenotypes in high-complexity public and private hospitals in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Patricia Villalobos Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    analyzed with the WHONET® 5.5 (WHO software, following the 2009 recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and summarized on an Excel® spreadsheet. A descriptive analysis with the calculation of proportions was performed. The trends were analyzed with Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The 2007-2009 trends for bacterial resistance phenotypes show increased percentages of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin-resistant K. pneumoniae, ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli and cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacter cloacae (r = 1, P < 0.01, and reduced percentages of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, ceftazidime-resistant K. pneumoniae, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ciprofloxacin-resistant P. aeruginosa (r = -1, P < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The trend analysis presented in this study is the baseline for establishing a national epidemiological surveillance subsystem. The trends observed reveal that bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs in hospitals in Colombia is a dynamic phenomenon, with evidence of the emergence of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae phenotypes in the hospitals.

  2. Realisering af Smart City/Smart House i Nordjylland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2008-01-01

    beskriver tankerne, visionerne og perspektiverne i forhold til at realisere Smart House-konceptet i Region Nordjylland. Smart House-tankerne er baseret på at bygge smarte huse og smarte byggekomponenter til fremtidens brugere, hvor den nyeste teknologi indenfor byggematerialer kombineres med nye værdier....... Formålet med Smart House Nordjylland er at flytte byggeindustriens og forskernes fokus fra en indbyrdes konkurrence lokalt til et udviklende innovationssamarbejde, som sigter mod det globale marked. På denne måde kan regionen skabe et udstillingsvindue indenfor fremtidens byggeri gennem en interaktion...

  3. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... technology is Fog Computing, which extends the traditional Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network to enable localized and real-time support for operating-enhanced smart city services. However, proper integration and efficient utilization of CoT and Fog Computing is not an easy task. This paper...

  4. Emerging Trends of HIV Drug Resistance in Chinese HIV-Infected Patients Receiving First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huixin; Ma, Ye; Su, Yingying; Smith, M. Kumi; Liu, Ying; Jin, Yantao; Gu, Hongqiu; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a dramatic decrease in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality through sustained suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and reconstitution of the immune response. Settings like China that experienced rapid HAART rollout and relatively limited drug selection face considerable challenges in controlling HIV drug resistance (DR). Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe trends in emergent HIV DR to first-line HAART among Chinese HIV-infected patients, as reflected in the point prevalence of HIV DR at key points and fixed intervals after treatment initiation, using data from cohort studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. Results. Pooled prevalence of HIV DR from longitudinal cohorts studies was 10.79% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.85%–19.07%) after 12 months of HAART and 80.58% (95% CI, 76.6%–84.02%) after 72 months of HAART. The HIV DR prevalence from cross-sectional studies was measured in treatment intervals; during the 0–12-month HAART treatment interval, the pooled prevalence of HIV DR was 11.1% (95% CI, 7.49%–16.14%), which increased to 22.92% at 61–72 months (95% CI, 9.45%–45.86%). Stratified analyses showed that patients receiving a didanosine-based regimen had higher HIV DR prevalence than those not taking didanosine (15.82% vs 4.97%). Patients infected through former plasma donation and those receiving AIDS treatment at village clinics had higher HIV DR prevalence than those infected through sexual transmission or treated at a county-level hospital. Conclusions. Our findings indicate higher prevalence of HIV DR for patients with longer cumulative HAART exposure, highlighting important subgroups for future HIV DR surveillance and control. PMID:25053721

  5. SMART product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    Among the inspirations for the SMART process is “design to customer value,” where products are modified based on a thorough understanding of customers that allows product developers to eliminate features that do not affect customer satisfaction while including only the elements and functionality...... that customers really appreciate. The SMART process includes methods to understand product value for the customer and the user; analyse the cost of components and processes; combine customer value and cost reduction potentials into feasible, high-value concepts; and generate prototypes that can be tested...... with users and customers....

  6. Smart business for smart users? : A social science agenda for developing smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbong, G.P.J.; Verkade, N.; Verhees, B.; Huijben, J.C.C.M.; Höffken, J.I.; Beaulieu, A.; de Wilde, J.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of smart grids is very attractive. However, it is not yet clear what the future smart grid will look like. Although most researchers acknowledge that users will play a more prominent role in smart grids, there is a lot of uncertainty on this issue. To counter the strong techno-logical

  7. An experimental study on passive safety systems for the SMART design with the SMART-ITL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun-Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Jeon, Byong-Guk; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Yi, Sung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Passive Safety Systems (PSSs) are added to the SMART design to increase the safety margin during accidents especially under a prolonged station blackout. A set of validation tests were performed for the PSSs of the SMART design with an integral effect test loop of SMART-ITL. Both single and dual trains of the Passive Safety Injection System (PSIS) were simulated to validate the SMART design together with two stages of Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) and four trains of Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS), and their results were compared. In this paper, the effect of the train number of PSIS on a Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) scenario is investigated for a break size of 0.4 inch. The single and dual train tests show a similar trend in general but the injected water migrates slightly differently in the RV and is discharged through the break nozzle. The parameters of the Reactor Vessel (RV) pressure, RV water level, accumulated break mass, and injection flowrates from the Core Makeup Tank (CMT) and Safety Injection Tank (SIT) were compared. The acquired data will be used to validate the safety analysis code and its related models to evaluate the performance of SMART PSS, and to provide the base data during the application phase of construction licensing of the SMART design. (author)

  8. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  9. Emerging trends in ICT security

    CERN Document Server

    Akhgar, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Emerging Trends in ICT Security, an edited volume, discusses the foundations and theoretical aspects of ICT security; covers trends, analytics, assessments and frameworks necessary for performance analysis and evaluation; and gives you the state-of-the-art knowledge needed for successful deployment of security solutions in many environments. Application scenarios provide you with an insider's look at security solutions deployed in real-life scenarios, including but limited to smart devices, biometrics, social media, big data security, and crowd sourcing. Provides a multidisciplinary approach

  10. A Review on Development Practice of Smart Grid Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liu; Chen, Wei; Zhuang, Bo; Shen, Hongming

    2017-05-01

    Smart grid has become an inexorable trend of energy and economy development worldwide. Since the development of smart grid was put forward in China in 2009, we have obtained abundant research results and practical experiences as well as extensive attention from international community in this field. This paper reviews the key technologies and demonstration projects on new energy connection forecasts; energy storage; smart substations; disaster prevention and reduction for power transmission lines; flexible DC transmission; distribution automation; distributed generation access and micro grid; smart power consumption; the comprehensive demonstration of power distribution and utilization; smart power dispatching and control systems; and the communication networks and information platforms of China, systematically, on the basis of 5 fields, i.e., renewable energy integration, smart power transmission and transformation, smart power distribution and consumption, smart power dispatching and control systems and information and communication platforms. Meanwhile, it also analyzes and compares with the developmental level of similar technologies abroad, providing an outlook on the future development trends of various technologies.

  11. Smart Tourism: a practice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Nielsen, Tanja Knoblauch

    2018-01-01

    by technology and data, but must be understood as a socio-technical and collaborative accomplishment. This entails seeing seemingly mundane issues as central to developing Smart Tourism and to link the development of Smart Tourism to transformations in the practices of everyday organizational life.......In this chapter, we explore how a Smart Destination is imagined and grappled with at an organizational level in its first and tentative stages of development. Drawing on practice theory and research in the North Denmark Region, we show how the idea of Smart Tourism is embraced by almost all...... of the stakeholders in the area, while the full potentials of this new phenomenon are experienced as difficult to realize. Abstaining from seeing Smart Tourism as a unilinear technological or digital evolution, we present four situated configurations of Smart Tourism. We argue that Smart Tourism is not made up solely...

  12. Smart Circuit Breaker Communication Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Mihai MACHIDON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the Internet of Things has fostered the development of smart technologies in fields such as power transmission and distribution systems (as is the Smart Grid and also in regard to home automation (the Smart Home concept. This paper addresses the network communication infrastructure for a Smart Circuit Breaker system, a novel application at the edge of the two afore-mentioned systems (Smart Grid and Smart Home. Such a communication interface has high requirements from functionality, performance and security point of views, given the large amount of distributed connected elements and the real-time information transmission and system management. The paper describes the design and implementation of the data server, Web interface and the embedded networking capabilities of the smart circuit breakers, underlining the protocols and communication technologies used.

  13. Smart households and home energy management systems with innovative sizing of distributed generation and storage for customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdinc, O.; Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Bui, T.X.; Sprague, Jr. R.H.

    2015-01-01

    As a recently increasing trend among different applications of smart grid vision, smart households as a new implementation area of demand response (DR) strategies have drawn more attention both in research and in engineering practice. On the other hand, optimum sizing of renewable energy based small

  14. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  15. Smart homes as a base for smart grids; Smart Home als Basis fuer Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segbusch, Klaus von [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Team Business Development Smart Grids; Struwe, Christian [Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH, Luedenscheid (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Integration of renewable energy sources requires more intelligent distribution systems, i.e. so-called smart grids. For this, it is necessary to integrate the end customers in grid operation, giving them financial incentives, information in near real time from the utility, and means for automatic control of their consumption. (orig.)

  16. Smart(er) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This is an answer and an elaboration to Carsten Sørensens’ “The Curse of the Smart Machine?”. My answer disagrees with the postulate of a mainframe focus within the IS field. Instead I suggest that it is a struggle between old and new science. The answer then agrees with the notion that we need n...

  17. Smart, stretchable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Lin, Huijuan; Chen, Peining; Guan, Guozhen; Deng, Jue; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-07-09

    Smart supercapacitors are developed by depositing conducting polymers onto aligned carbon-nanotube sheets. These supercapacitors rapidly and reversibly demonstrate color changes in response to a variation in the level of stored energy and the chromatic transitions can be directly observed by the naked eye. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  19. Towards Smart City Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Stan, Catalin; Wøldike, Niels Peter

    2015-01-01

    , the concept of smart city learning is exploited to situate learning about geometric shapes in concrete buildings and thus make them more accessible for younger children. In close collaboration with a local school a game for 3rd graders was developed and tested on a field trip and in class. A mixed measures...

  20. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  1. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  2. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  3. Smart Start Evaluation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…

  4. Smart Structures and Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    function. It is reasonable to expect that all engineering design should be smart, and not dumb. But one can still make a distinction .... among the sensors, the actuators and the decision-making centre(s). ..... basic emotions like fear or pleasure.

  5. Modelling the smart farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. O'Grady

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart farming envisages the harnessing of Information and Communication Technologies as an enabler of more efficient, productive, and profitable farming enterprises. Such technologies do not suffice on their own; rather they must be judiciously combined to deliver meaningful information in near real-time. Decision-support tools incorporating models of disparate farming activities, either on their own or in combination with other models, offer one popular approach; exemplars include GPFARM, APSIM, GRAZPLAN amongst many others. Such models tend to be generic in nature and their adoption by individual farmers is minimal. Smart technologies offer an opportunity to remedy this situation; farm-specific models that can reflect near real-time events become tractable using such technologies. Research on the development, and application of farm-specific models is at a very early stage. This paper thus presents an overview of models within the farming enterprise; it then reviews the state-of the art in smart technologies that promise to enable a new generation of enterprise-specific models that will underpin future smart farming enterprises.

  6. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  7. Advanced smart tungsten alloys for a future fusion power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnovsky, A.; Wegener, T.; Klein, F.; Linsmeier, Ch; Rasinski, M.; Kreter, A.; Tan, X.; Schmitz, J.; Mao, Y.; Coenen, J. W.; Bram, M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.

    2017-06-01

    The severe particle, radiation and neutron environment in a future fusion power plant requires the development of advanced plasma-facing materials. At the same time, the highest level of safety needs to be ensured. The so-called loss-of-coolant accident combined with air ingress in the vacuum vessel represents a severe safety challenge. In the absence of a coolant the temperature of the tungsten first wall may reach 1200 °C. At such a temperature, the neutron-activated radioactive tungsten forms volatile oxide which can be mobilized into atmosphere. Smart tungsten alloys are being developed to address this safety issue. Smart alloys should combine an acceptable plasma performance with the suppressed oxidation during an accident. New thin film tungsten-chromium-yttrium smart alloys feature an impressive 105 fold suppression of oxidation compared to that of pure tungsten at temperatures of up to 1000 °C. Oxidation behavior at temperatures up to 1200 °C, and reactivity of alloys in humid atmosphere along with a manufacturing of reactor-relevant bulk samples, impose an additional challenge in smart alloy development. First exposures of smart alloys in steady-state deuterium plasma were made. Smart tungsten-chroimium-titanium alloys demonstrated a sputtering resistance which is similar to that of pure tungsten. Expected preferential sputtering of alloying elements by plasma ions was confirmed experimentally. The subsequent isothermal oxidation of exposed samples did not reveal any influence of plasma exposure on the passivation of alloys.

  8. A business case for Smart Grid technologies: A systemic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Fulli, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization of the electricity grid opens the way to bundle value added services to the electricity commodity, and possibly shift business value to electricity services in line with the notions of efficiency, conservation and sustainability. In this context, market forces should be mobilized within the boundaries of energy policy goals to contribute to the massive investments that are required to fulfill the Smart Grid vision. In this paper, we present a systemic perspective aimed at establishing technical and economic synergies that may improve the business cases of individual different Smart Grid technologies and contribute to reverse the consumption-driven paradigm of the electricity sector. Our analysis is supported by evidence from applications in the electric vehicle and smart meter ecosystems. Throughout the paper, an EU (European Union) perspective is primarily considered. - Highlights: ► We show how the analysis of systemic effects can play a fundamental role in offering a business case to Smart Grid technology and in providing some guidance to new policy interventions and initiatives. ► We base our discussion on two case studies: the set-up of business platforms for (1) Electric Vehicles and E-mobility services and (2) Smart Meters and Smart Home Services. ► We highlight how new business arrangements might leverage technological/business synergies, foster investments and shift business value to electricity services. ► We discuss possible downsides and challenges such as privacy concerns, dominant positions in new business platforms, and consumers' resistance.

  9. An integral effect test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Moon, Sang Ki; Kim, Yeon Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Yong; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyoung Ho; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Park, Rae Joon; Lee, Won Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Yi, Sung Jae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is a 330 MWth integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) developed by KAERI and had obtained standard design approval (SDA) from Korean regulatory authority on July 2012. In this SMART design main components including a pressurizer, reactor coolant pumps and steam generators are installed in a reactor pressure vessel without any large connecting pipes. As the LBLOCA scenario is inherently excluded, its safety systems could be simplified only to ensure the safety during the SBLOCA scenarios and the other system transients. An integral effect test loop for the SMART (SMART ITL), or called as FESTA, had been designed to simulate the integral thermal hydraulic behavior of the SMART. The objectives of the SMART ITL are to investigate and understand the integral performance of reactor systems and components and the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurred in the system during normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, and to verify the system safety during various design basis events of the SMART. The integral effect test data will also be used to validate the related thermal hydraulic models of the safety analysis code such as TASS/SMR S, which is used for performance and accident analysis of the SMART design. This paper introduces the scaling analysis and scientific design of the integral test facility of the SMART, SMART ITL and its scaling analysis results.

  10. Types of architectural structures and the use of smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavşan, Cengiz; Sipahi, Serkan

    2017-07-01

    The developments in technology following the industrial revolution had their share of impact on both construction techniques, and material technologies. The change in the materials used by the construction industry brought along numerous innovations, which, in turn, took on an autonomous trend of development given the rise of nano-tech materials. Today, nano-tech materials are used extensively in numerous construction categories. Nano-tech materials, in general, are characterized by their reactionary nature, with the intent of repeating the reactions again and again under certain conditions. That is why nano-tech materials are often called smart materials. In construction industry, smart materials are categorized under 4 major perspectives: Shape-shifting smart materials, power generating smart materials, self-maintenance smart materials, and smart materials providing a high level of insulation. In architecture, various categories of construction often tend to exhibit their own approaches to design, materials, and construction techniques. This is a direct consequence of the need for different solutions for different functions. In this context, the use of technological materials should lead to the use of a set of smart materials for a given category of structures, while another category utilizes yet another set. In the present study, the smart materials used in specific categories of structures were reviewed with reference to nano-tech practices implemented in Europe, with a view to try and reveal the changes in the use of smart materials with reference to categories of structures. The study entails a discussion to test the hypothesis that nano-tech materials vary with reference to structure categories, on the basis of 18 examples from various structure categories, built by the construction firms with the highest level of potential in terms of doing business in Europe. The study comprises 3 major sections: The first section reiterates what the literature has to say

  11. Making Current Trends in School Design Feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Support.

    This report describes new and innovative approaches to school facilities as they relate to their communities by exploring the trends towards smaller schools, presenting the pros and cons of smaller schools, and examining the solutions and strategies in smart growth planning. The report addresses the following questions: if school leaders,…

  12. Siracusa, EuroMediterranean Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Minozzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available About three years ago, the City of Siracusa has started a serious reflection about the crisis, about its model of development and its problems related to its territorial marginality. In this context, it lodged a service "Complex Programs and EU Policies" internal the Department of Public Works as the first embryo of the future Urban Center in Siracusa. The Smarter Cities Challenge program, sponsored by IBM, provides, for the years 2011-2012-2013 a selection through a call, a hundred cities around the world that offer a program of counseling on territorial issues, urban, social, exposed by the city in challenge. The program for 2012, selected Siracusa, the only Italian city in a hundred choices, with a theme that emphasizes the need to find methods (smart to integrate the two systems, the industrial and the historical, cultural, into the overall Siracusa system territorial. The advent of smart policies also confirms the trend that characterized the most evolved from the most marginal realities in Europe. For the realities of the Euro-Mediterranean area, such as Siracusa, the winners model’s urban policies originate from the most evolved and developed, where the economy is more structured and able to assume the active role of actors development and urban transformations. So, a universal language of transformations really exist? The same model development produces the same results everywhere, regardless the places and the people tribe? To promote smart Siracusa means, not only, economic innovation promotion, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, but also: Siracusa intends to strengthen its image as innovation land and to evolve into a center of excellence for smart policies.

  13. SmartInspect: Smart Contract Inspection Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bragagnolo , Santiago; Rocha , Henrique ,; Denker , Marcus; Ducasse , Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts are embedded procedures stored with the data they act upon. Debugging deployed Smart Contracts is a difficult task since once deployed, the code cannot be reexecuted and inspecting a simple attribute is not easily possible because data is encoded. In this technical report, we present SmartInspect to address the lack of inspectability of a deployed contract. Our solution analyses the contract state by using decompilation techniques and a mirror-based architecture to represent t...

  14. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sajid Khan; Mina Woo; Kichan Nam; Prakash K. Chathoth

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged o...

  15. Towards a smart learning environment for smart city governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, R.; Ludlow, D.; Computer Science and Creative Technology; Centre for Sustainable Planning

    2016-01-01

    Educational services provided to various stakeholders need to be actively developed to accommodate the diversity of learning models and to get the advantages of available resources (e.g. data) in smart cities governance. Despite the substantial literature on smart cities, for Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) and its related domains such as learning analytics and big data, little effort has been given to the creation of connectivity to smart cities governance to meet stakeholders’ demands, e...

  16. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  17. Smart learning services based on smart cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Svetlana; Song, Su-Mi; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user's behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S)--smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push--concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users' needs by collecting and analyzing users' behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users' behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  18. Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ik Yoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware technologies can make e-learning services smarter and more efficient since context-aware services are based on the user’s behavior. To add those technologies into existing e-learning services, a service architecture model is needed to transform the existing e-learning environment, which is situation-aware, into the environment that understands context as well. The context-awareness in e-learning may include the awareness of user profile and terminal context. In this paper, we propose a new notion of service that provides context-awareness to smart learning content in a cloud computing environment. We suggest the elastic four smarts (E4S—smart pull, smart prospect, smart content, and smart push—concept to the cloud services so smart learning services are possible. The E4S focuses on meeting the users’ needs by collecting and analyzing users’ behavior, prospecting future services, building corresponding contents, and delivering the contents through cloud computing environment. Users’ behavior can be collected through mobile devices such as smart phones that have built-in sensors. As results, the proposed smart e-learning model in cloud computing environment provides personalized and customized learning services to its users.

  19. Smart City and Smart Tourism: A Case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the advent of new technology has brought about the emergence of smart cities aiming to provide their stakeholders with technology-based solutions that are effective and efficient. Insofar as the objective of smart cities is to improve outcomes that are connected to people, systems and processes of businesses, government and other public- and private-sector entities, its main goal is to improve the quality of life of all residents. Accordingly, smart tourism has emerged over the past few years as a subset of the smart city concept, aiming to provide tourists with solutions that address specific travel related needs. Dubai is an emerging tourism destination that has implemented smart city and smart tourism platforms to engage various stakeholders. The objective of this study is to identify best practices related to Dubai’s smart city and smart tourism. In so doing, Dubai’s mission and vision along with key dimensions and pillars are identified in relation to the advancements in the literature while highlighting key resources and challenges. A Smart Tourism Dynamic Responsive System (STDRS framework is proposed while suggesting how Dubai may able to enhance users’ involvement and their overall experience.

  20. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  1. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...

  2. Smart lighting using a liquid crystal modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Alexandre; Thibault, Simon; Galstian, Tigran

    2017-08-01

    Now that LEDs have massively invaded the illumination market, a clear trend has emerged for more efficient and targeted lighting. The project described here is at the leading edge of the trend and aims at developing an evaluation board to test smart lighting applications. This is made possible thanks to a new liquid crystal light modulator recently developed for broadening LED light beams. The modulator is controlled by electrical signals and is characterized by a linear working zone. This feature allows the implementation of a closed loop control with a sensor feedback. This project shows that the use of computer vision is a promising opportunity for cheap closed loop control. The developed evaluation board integrates the liquid crystal modulator, a webcam, a LED light source and all the required electronics to implement a closed loop control with a computer vision algorithm.

  3. Trends in antibiotic resistance among major bacterial pathogens isolated from blood cultures tested at a large private laboratory network in India, 2008–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Gandra

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Increasing resistance to antibiotics of last-resort, particularly among Gram-negatives, suggests an urgent need for new antibiotics and improved antimicrobial stewardship programs in India.

  4. Smart Energi i Hjemmet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael

    Med denne rapport foreligger en evaluering af det såkaldte SEIH-projekt: Smart Energi i Hjemmet. Projektet er gennemført i samarbejde med 191 husejere i Middelfart Kommune med formål at afsøge mulighederne for at opnå energibesparelser i enfamiliehuse ved at bruge automatik til at sænke temperatu......Med denne rapport foreligger en evaluering af det såkaldte SEIH-projekt: Smart Energi i Hjemmet. Projektet er gennemført i samarbejde med 191 husejere i Middelfart Kommune med formål at afsøge mulighederne for at opnå energibesparelser i enfamiliehuse ved at bruge automatik til at sænke...

  5. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  6. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  7. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  8. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  9. Air Force Smart Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    initiates notification to all personnel on the base, the giant voice announces a lock down, everyone’s smart device shows an alarm requesting...location of the detected sound, they easily find a hunter and send his picture back to the IOC, where the hunter’s identity is verified through facial...computer goes into sleep mode, the thermostat goes back to unoccupied mode and his door locks as he walks through. Meanwhile over in the IOC

  10. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  11. [Resistance to first-line drugs and major genotypic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the 3 French Department of the Americas: Profiles, evolution, and trends (1995-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, J; Berchel, M; Prudenté, F; Streit, E; Bomer, A-G; Schuster, F; Vanhomwegen, J; Paasch, D; Galbert, I; Valery, E; Aga, R; Rastogi, N

    2014-05-01

    This is the first overview on resistant and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the French Department of the Americas (Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana) over 17 years (January 1995-December 2011). A total of 1,239 cases were studied: 1,199 new cases (primary and multidrug resistance of 11.8 and 1.6% respectively), and 40 persistent (defined as cases with a previous history of positive culture over 6 months interval and whose spoligotypes remain unchanged), in which significantly higher proportions of resistance to at least isoniazid (22.5%, P = 0.002), rifampicin (20.0%, P < 0.001), and multidrug resistance (17.5%, P < 0.001) were observed as compared to new cases. The 281 spoligotypes obtained showed the presence of five major lineages, T (29.9%), LAM (23.9%), Haarlem (22.1%), EAI (7.1%), and X (6.7%). Two of these lineages, X and LAM, predominate among resistant and multidrug resistant isolates respectively (X: 10.5% of resistant isolates, P = 0.04; LAM: 42.3% of multidrug resistant isolates, P = 0.02). Four of the 19 major spoligo-profiles, corresponding to SIT 20, 64, 45, and 46, were significantly associated with drug resistance. Among them, genotype SIT 20, associated with monoresistance to isoniazid and multidrug resistance, would be actively and persistently in circulation, since 1999, in French Guiana, department in which one may also observe the presence of strains of M. tuberculosis phylogeographically associated to Guiana and Suriname (SIT 131 and SIT 1340).

  12. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  13. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  14. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  15. Integrated smart structures wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Solomon H.

    1993-09-01

    One objective of smart structures development is to demonstrate the ability of a mechanical component to monitor its own structural integrity and health. Achievement of this objective requires the integration of different technologies, i.e.: (1) structures, (2) sensors, and (3) artificial intelligence. We coordinated a team of experts from these three fields. These experts used reliable knowledge towards the forefront of their technologies and combined the appropriate features into an integrated hardware/software smart structures wingbox (SSW) test article. A 1/4 in. hole was drilled into the SSW test article. Although the smart structure had never seen damage of this type, it correctly recognized and located the damage. Based on a knowledge-based simulation, quantification and assessment were also carried out. We have demonstrated that the SSW integrated hardware & software test article can perform six related functions: (1) identification of a defect; (2) location of the defect; (3) quantification of the amount of damage; (4) assessment of performance degradation; (5) continued monitoring in spite of damage; and (6) continuous recording of integrity data. We present the successful results of the integrated test article in this paper, along with plans for future development and deployment of the technology.

  16. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  17. Geographic and temporal trends in the molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance: an individual-patient- and sequence-level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Blanco, Jose Luis; Jordan, Michael R.; Taylor, Jonathan; Lemey, Philippe; Varghese, Vici; Hamers, Raph L.; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; Albert, Jan; Avi, Radko; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Bessong, Pascal O.; Brooks, James I.; Boucher, Charles A. B.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Busch, Michael P.; Bussmann, Hermann; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Chin, Bum Sik; D'Aquin, Toni T.; de Gascun, Cillian F.; Derache, Anne; Descamps, Diane; Deshpande, Alaka K.; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Fleury, Herve; Frange, Pierre; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hattori, Junko; Holguin, Africa; Hunt, Gillian M.; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Katzenstein, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Kim, Jerome H.; Kim, Sung Soon; Li, Yanpeng; Lutsar, Irja; Morris, Lynn; Ndembi, Nicaise; Ng, Kee Peng; Paranjape, Ramesh S.; Peeters, Martine; Poljak, Mario; Price, Matt A.; Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon L.; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Rolland, Morgane; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Smith, Davey M.; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soriano, Vincent V.; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Stanojevic, Maja; Stefani, Mariane A.; Sugiura, Wataru; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Tanuri, Amilcar; tee, Kok Keng; Truong, Hong-Ha M.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Vidal, Nicole; Yang, Chunfu; Yang, Rongge; Yebra, Gonzalo; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to

  18. Geographic and Temporal Trends in the Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Mechanisms of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance: An Individual-Patient- and Sequence-Level Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.Y. Rhee (Soo Yoon); J.L. Blanco (Jose Luis); M.R. Jordan (Michael); J. Taylor (Jonathan); P. Lemey (Philippe); V. Varghese (Vici); R.L. Hamers (Raph); S. Bertagnolio (Silvia); M. De Wit (Meike); A.F. Aghokeng (Avelin); J. Albert (Jan); R. Avi (Radko); S. Avila-Rios (Santiago); P.O. Bessong (Pascal O.); J.I. Brooks (James I.); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); Z.L. Brumme (Zabrina L.); M.P. Busch (Michael P.); H. Bussmann (Hermann); M.L. Chaix (Marie Laure); B.S. Chin (Bum Sik); T.T. D’Aquin (Toni T.); C. de Gascun (Cillian); A. Derache (Anne); D. Descamps (Diane); A.K. Deshpande (Alaka K.); C.F. Djoko (Cyrille F.); S.H. Eshleman (Susan H.); H. Fleury (Hervé); P. Frange (Pierre); S. Fujisaki (Seiichiro); P. Harrigan (Pr); J. Hattori (Junko); A. Holguin (Africa); G.M. Hunt (Gillian M.); H. Ichimura (Hiroshi); P. Kaleebu (Pontiano); D. Katzenstein (David); S. Kiertiburanakul (Sasisopin); J.H. Kim (Jerome H.); S.S. Kim (Sung Soon); Y. Li (Yanpeng); I. Lutsar (Irja); L. Morris (L.); N. Ndembi (Nicaise); K.P. NG (Kee Peng); R.S. Paranjape (Ramesh S.); M.C. Peeters (Marian); M. Poljak (Mario); M.A. Price (Matt A.); M.L. Ragonnet-Cronin (Manon L.); G. Reyes-Terán (Gustavo); M. Rolland (Morgane); S. Sirivichayakul (Sunee); D.M. Smith (Davey M.); M.A. Soares (Marcelo A.); V. Soriano (Virtudes); D. Ssemwanga (Deogratius); M. Stanojevic (Maja); M.A. Stefani (Mariane A.); W. Sugiura (Wataru); S. Sungkanuparph (Somnuek); A. Tanuri (Amilcar); K.K. Tee (Kok Keng); H.-H.M. Truong (Hong-Ha M.); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); N. Vidal (Nicole); C. Yang (Chunfu); R. Yang (Rongge); G. Yebra (Gonzalo); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); R.W. Shafer (Robert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRegional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We

  19. Integration of nature and technology for smart cities

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Anil

    2016-01-01

    This book is a resumption of the work “Integrated M/E Design: Building Systems Engineering” published by Anil Ahuja in 1997. Together with an international group of authors from the engineering, urban planning, and architecture fields, Mr. Ahuja discussed new trends and paradigms in the smart buildings and smart city sectors and extended the topic of the previous publication from the building to the entire city. A smart, sustainable building is not just about the building itself. There are things happening in the inside of the building and on the outside. A smart building connects the inside with the outside, provides efficiencies on both sides, synchronizes the outside infrastructure with its inside systems, and integrates nature and its occupants in its design. A smart building doesn’t just provide technology solutions. It is about constant exchange between the inside and the outside of the building, the contribution of the building to the quality of the entire neighborhood and the rest of the city, h...

  20. The Application of Smart Textiles in the Brand Fashion Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the economic and social development, material life in the era of abundance is not only in meeting the basic needs of life, but also modern consumers become forced to pursue the spiritual and cultural needs. On the other side, clothing will not just fulfill the basic functions of beauty and suitability, thus, more consumers begin to pay closer attentions to apparel textile’s individuation expression and technological elements, or to some other deeper emotional requirements etc. Smart textiles originally belongs to the cutting-edge scientific field of fashion industry, however, with the booming development of internet industry and smart phone devices, acute apparel manufacturers must have to take a ride on advanced tech-trends and launch a wide expansion of smart textile fibres’s applications into the clothing industry. This thesis would present a basic introduction on the concept and classifications of the smart textile fibres, and then like to deploy a profound analysis of smart textiles applied in the brand fashion design.

  1. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  2. The Trend of Antibiotic Resistance in Shigellosis and the Diagnostic Value of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate for Its Differentiation from Viral Gastroenteritides in Aliasghar Children Hospital, Tehran (1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Nateghian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives As a common infectious disease in childhood, shigellosis has a variety of seasonal and microbiologic patterns and there is a concerning trend of resistance in various parts of the world and even a single country. Inappropriate empiric therapy for any acute episode of gastroenteritis, which might be based on lab studies, could potentially lead to even further resistance. In this report, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was studied in patients with acute gastroenteritis. Methods Medical records of 117 patients were reviewed in this study. The mean and standard deviation of some of the acute phase inflammatory indicators were compared in two groups of shigellosis and viral gastroenteritides using independent samples t test. Results The mean age of the patients was 49 months, and almost half of them were male. Shigella sonnei was the commonest species isolated from these patients. Shigellosis was found to be more frequent during August to October. After 2001, resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was observed in 75% and 90% of isolates respectively. A few cases were resistant to third generation of cephalosporins (< 3%. In shigellosis, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher than viral gastroenteritis. Conclusion Empiric use of cotrimoxazole is no longer recommended in children suspicious of contracting shigellosis in Tehran. To avoid unnecessary prescription of antibiotics for acute gastroenteritis, a normal result of erythrocyte sedimentation rate might be helpful.Keywords: Gastroenteritis, Shigella, Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance, Antibiotics, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate

  3. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    (vat, vga, vga(B), vat(B), vat(D) and vat(E)), streptomycin (aadE) and tetracycline resistance (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M) and tet(O)) were determined in selected isolates. The occurrence of erythromycin resistance increased from 33% in 1996 to a maximum of 62% in 1997 and decreased to 26% in 2001....... Resistance to sulphametazole increased from 17% in 1996 to 30% in 1998 but has since decreased to 4% in 2001. Resistance to trimethoprim increased to 51% in 1997 and decreased to 21% in 2001. Resistance to tetracycline (21-31%) remained relatively constant during 1996-2000, but increased to 47% in 2001...

  4. Formal verification of smart contracts based on users and blockchain behaviors models

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif , Tesnim; Brousmiche , Kei-Léo

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Blockchain technology has attracted increasing attention in recent years. One reason for this new trend is the introduction of on-chain smart contracts enabling the implementation of decentralized applications in trust-less environments. Along with its adoption, attacks exploiting smart contract vul-nerabilities are inevitably growing. To counter these attacks and avoid breaches, several approaches have been explored such as documenting vulnerabilities or model checkin...

  5. Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Resistance to Nucleoside/Nucleotide Analogs in North China from 2009 to 2016: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xianghua; Wu, Jushan; Wei, Feili; Ouyang, Yabo; Li, Qing; Liu, Kai; Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Dexi

    2018-04-11

    Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are widely used in anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy for effective inhibition of HBV replication. However, HBV resistance to NAs has emerged, resulting in virus reactivation and disease recurrence. Big data on the current dynamic of HBV resistance profiles are still rare in China. Herein, we analyzed 4,491 plasma samples with HBV primary genotypic resistance mutations representative of the general HBV resistance situation in northern China from 2009 to 2016. We found that entecavir (ETV), representing 52.8% of 12,713 NAs users in the North of China in 2016, has become the major NA for treating Chinese patients infected with HBV. Despite more than 50% of M204I/V±L180M among all HBV resistance cases annually and extensive exposure of the patients to lamivudine (LAM), telbivudine (LdT), and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV), ETV resistance also showed dramatically increased incidence, which climbed to 17.1% in 2016. Moreover, A181T/V, ETV-resistant mutations, and multidrug-resistant mutations were found more frequently in HBV genotype C than in HBV genotype B, 21.2% vs. 8.5%, 12.5% vs. 7.9%, and 5.9% vs. 3%, respectively, whereas M204I and N236T were more predominant in genotype B than in genotype C, 40.3% vs. 20.8%, and 11.3% vs. 1.8%, respectively. In conclusion, we have reported dynamic changes of HBV NA-resistance mutation patterns and the current NA usage profile for anti-HBV treatment in North China in the past 8 years. Our data provides valuable information on HBV NA resistance that is an important reference for clinics to devise more effective treatment regimens for individual patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  7. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Asensio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  8. Managing Emergency Situations in the Smart City: The Smart Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Ángel; Blanco, Teresa; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto

    2015-06-18

    In a city there are numerous items, many of them unnoticed but essential; this is the case of the signals. Signals are considered objects with reduced technological interest, but in this paper we prove that making them smart and integrating in the IoT (Internet of Things) could be a relevant contribution to the Smart City. This paper presents the concept of Smart Signal, as a device conscious of its context, with communication skills, able to offer the best message to the user, and as a ubiquitous element that contributes with information to the city. We present the design considerations and a real implementation and validation of the system in one of the most challenging environments that may exist in a city: a tunnel. The main advantages of the Smart Signal are the improvement of the actual functionality of the signal providing new interaction capabilities with users and a new sensory mechanism of the Smart City.

  9. Worrisome trends in rising minimum inhibitory concentration values of antibiotics against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus – Insights from a tertiary care center, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagasundaram Niveditha

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: MIC creep was notably observed with vancomycin, and to some extent with tigecycline and linezolid. Selection pressure may result in creeping MICs, which may herald the emergence of resistant organisms.

  10. Who will buy smart glasses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauschnabel, Philipp; Brem, Alexander; Ivens, Bjørn S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent market studies reveal that augmented reality (AR) devices, such as smart glasses, will substantially influence the media landscape. Yet, little is known about the intended adoption of smart glasses, particularly: Who are the early adopters of such wearables? We contribute to the growing bo...

  11. Design considerations for smart microgrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattjes, F.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable transition towards a smarter electricity system with an emphasis on decentralized systems and additional functionalities will be facilitated in the near future by smart (micro) grids. Smart (micro) Grids are very complex systems which must be developed in an efficient, effective and

  12. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  13. What is smart for retailing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantano, Eleonora; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    While the last decade has seen increasing interest in the smart city phenomenon from both scholars and practitioners, little attention has been paid to what extent retailing might be considered as part of smart cities, with benefits for all the actors involved in the process. In fact, retailing is

  14. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  15. Smart antennas in aerospace applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, Jaco; Schippers, Harmen; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Marpaung, D.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    The interest in Smart Antennas for aerospace applications is growing. This paper describes smart antennas which can be used on aircraft. Two aerospace applications are discussed in more detail: a phased array antenna with optical beam forming and a large vibrating phased array antenna with

  16. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  17. SMART Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    . The ambition of The Danish Industry Foundation and The Kata Foundation was to develop a method; a robust and specific approach to ensure that product innovation in Danish enterprises in practice would result in products of the highest quality, producible at lower costs and profitable at competitive prices...... products to our neighboring countries continues to suffer. The customers’ financial capacity has been reduced and cheaper products from Asia and other regions have found their way into our local markets. Competition is fierce – especially pricewise. This was the starting point for the SMART project...

  18. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  19. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  20. Mischief Humor in Smart and Playable Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Nijholt, Anton

    2017-01-01

    In smart cities we can expect to witness human behavior that is not be different from human behavior in present-day cities. There will be demonstrations, flash mobs, and organized events to provoke the smart city establishment. Smart cities will have bugs that can be exploited by hackers. Smart

  1. Smart Inverters for Utility and Industry Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yaosuo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Smart inverters are emerging with increasing renewable energy and smart grid development. While the recent work reviewed mostly focuses on defining standardized control functionalities and smart grid communication protocols, we take a holistic approach in this paper and propose a holon-type smart...

  2. Interactive application of a virtual smart home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allameh, E.; Heidari Jozam, M.; Vries, de B.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Homes confront many challenges trying to move from vision to reality. Poor understanding of the concept of Smart Homes by both designers and end users causes many challenges in accepting smart homes by public. To overcome this problem, user participation in Smart Home design is advocated. On

  3. Electricity usage scheduling in smart building environments using smart devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%.

  4. Top-Level Simulation of a Smart-Bolometer Using VHDL Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu DENOUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An event-driven modeling technique in standard VHDL is presented in this paper for the high level simulation of a resistive bolometer operating in closed-loop mode and implementing smart functions. The closed-loop mode operation is achieved by the capacitively coupled electrical substitution technique. The event-driven VHDL modeling technique is successfully applied to behavioral modeling and simulation of such a multi-physics system involving optical, thermal and electronics mechanisms. The modeling technique allows the high level simulations for the development and validation of the smart functions algorithms of the future integrated smart-device.

  5. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  6. Smart destinations for smart Generation? – The requirements of Generation Y in the area of innovative communication

    OpenAIRE

    Sziva, Ivett

    2017-01-01

    Social media and mobile-marketing all among the most challenging trends the tourism destinations facing with, particularly in the area of reaching the so called smart or Internet Generation, the tourists from the Generation Y. However the most innovative destinations’ objective is to implement SoCoMo (Social-context-based – mobile marketing), the main question is whether the members of the Generation Y need these kind of approaches. Generation Y is considered as the most technology savvy Gene...

  7. Conversion of SMART I. Zur Konvertierung von SMART I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyris, J H; Szimmat, J; William, K J [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the conversion of the programming system SMART I on CDC, UNIVAC and IBM computers under the BMFT grant RK 21 I/SBB 31. There were four tasks for the development of a machine-independent SMART-version: a) Updating of the CDC source library (ca. 180.000 Fortran statements); b) Conversion into double precision; c) Primary installation on UNIVAC; d) Primary installation on IBM. The conversion of the SMART I program was carried out in cooperation with the consulting firms RIB, Stuttgart, and IKOSS Stuttgart, under the leadership of ISD.

  8. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  9. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  10. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  11. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  12. Molecular and Conventional Analysis of Acute Diarrheal Isolates Identifies Epidemiological Trends, Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Profiles of Common Enteropathogens in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate prevalence of acute diarrhea in Shanghai and analyze virulence associated-genes and antibiotic resistance of major enteropathogens using combination of conventional and molecular epidemiology methods.Method: The 412 stool specimens were obtained by systematic sampling from diarrhea patients throughout entire year 2016. Bacterial and viral pathogens were identified and bacterial isolates were cultured and screened for antibiotic resistance profiles. Two most prevalent bacteria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were further typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST and analyzed for presence of virulence-associated genes. The association between virulence genes, resistance phenotypes and genetic diversities was analyzed.Results: Among stool specimens testing positive for pathogens (23.1%, 59 bacterial and 36 viral pathogens were identified. V. parahaemolyticus (27/412, 6.6%, Salmonella (23/412, 5.6% and norovirus GII (21/412, 5.1% were three most-commonly found. Most bacterial isolates exhibited high levels of antibiotic resistance with high percentage of MDR. The drug resistance rates of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella isolates to cephalosporins were high, such as 100.0 and 34.8% to CFX, 55.6 and 43.4% to CTX, 92.6 and 95.7% to CXM, respectively. The most common resistance combination of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella was cephalosporins and quinolone. The dominant sequence types (STs of V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella were ST3 (70.4% and ST11 (43.5%, respectively. The detection rates of virulence genes in V. parahaemolyticus were tlh (100% and tdh (92.6%, without trh and ureR. Most of the Salmonella isolates were positive for the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs genes (87–100%, and some for Salmonella plasmid virulence (SPV genes (34.8% for spvA and spvB, 43.5% for spvC. In addition, just like the drug resistance, virulence genes exhibited wide-spread distribution among the different STs albeit

  13. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI SMART CARD INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Agus Swastika; Siti Saibah Pua Luka; Yanno Dwi Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity to development smart card -based application is quite large as the need for smart card technology in various fields of both business and government agencies and BUMN. One brand that is widely used smart card is a smart card type from a vendor production NFC ACR122U ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) because prices are relatively affordable, but fairly tough. At the Thesis is done, the ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) as a manufacturer of smart card vendor type ...

  14. The Internet of things and Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.

  15. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on t...

  16. Green Technology for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, M.

    2017-08-01

    In view of the enormous social and environmental changes at the global level, more and more cities worldwide have directed their development strategies towards smart policies aimed at sustainable mobility, energy upgrading of the building stock, increase of energy production from renewable sources, improvement of waste management and implementation of ICT infrastructures. The goal is to turn into Smart Cities, able to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants by offering a lasting opportunity for cultural, economic and social growth within a healthy, safe, stimulating and dynamic environment. After an overview of the role of cities in climate changes and environmental pollution worldwide, the article provides an up to date definition of Smart City and of its main expected features, focussing on technology innovation, smart governance and main financing and support programs. An analysis of the most interesting initiatives at the international level pursued by cities investigating the three main areas of Green Buildings, Smart grid-Smart lighting, and Smart mobility is given, with the objective to offer a broad reference for the identification of development sustainable plans and programs at the urban level within the current legislative framework.

  17. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  18. Development of a mini-mobile digital radiography system by using wireless smart devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Won; Joo, Su-Chong; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jinseok; Kim, Kyong-Woo; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2014-08-01

    The current technologies that trend in digital radiology (DR) are toward systems using portable smart mobile as patient-centered care. We aimed to develop a mini-mobile DR system by using smart devices for wireless connection into medical information systems. We developed a mini-mobile DR system consisting of an X-ray source and a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensor based on a flat panel detector for small-field diagnostics in patients. It is used instead of the systems that are difficult to perform with a fixed traditional device. We also designed a method for embedded systems in the development of portable DR systems. The external interface used the fast and stable IEEE 802.11n wireless protocol, and we adapted the device for connections with Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and smart devices. The smart device could display images on an external monitor other than the monitor in the DR system. The communication modules, main control board, and external interface supporting smart devices were implemented. Further, a smart viewer based on the external interface was developed to display image files on various smart devices. In addition, the advantage of operators is to reduce radiation dose when using remote smart devices. It is integrated with smart devices that can provide X-ray imaging services anywhere. With this technology, it can permit image observation on a smart device from a remote location by connecting to the external interface. We evaluated the response time of the mini-mobile DR system to compare to mobile PACS. The experimental results show that our system outperforms conventional mobile PACS in this regard.

  19. Trends in occcurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases ind Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food...

  20. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  1. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [de

  2. Smart earphone: Controlling tasks by earphone in smart phone by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. ... Using this technique Authors have implemented that a smart earphone system can be used to make ..... aware home: A living laboratory for ubiquitous computing research, ...

  3. Gerontechnology for demented patients: smart homes for smart aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisardi, Vincenza; Imbimbo, Bruno P

    2011-01-01

    In an aging world, maintaining good health and independence for as long as possible is essential. Instead of hospitalization or institutionalization, the elderly with chronic conditions, especially those with cognitive impairment, can be assisted in their own environment with numerous 'smart' devices that support them in their activity of daily living. A "smart home" is a residence equipped with technology that facilitates monitoring of residents to improve quality of life and promote physical independence, as well as to reduce caregiver burden. Several projects worldwide have been conducted, but some ethical and legal issues are still unresolved and, at present, there is no evidence of the effects of smart homes on health outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to understand the plus and minuses of these projects, but this will only be possible with a widespread proliferation and penetration of smart homes in the social network.

  4. Survey report on smart-tribo-mechanics; Smart tribo mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Survey results of smart-tribo-mechanics are described. For the smart-tribo-mechanics differing from the conventional tribology, an intelligent system is constructed by making full use of various science and technology ranging from basic to application, to solve problems. Self-diagnosis and self-remediation, active control, passive control, and smart-biotribo-mechanics are typical methods. Electronics, telecommunication, healthcare, and new biotechnology are new and advanced application areas. In these areas, tribology to control and act to the material surface in the atomic and molecular scale should be the key technology. In addition, the smart-tribo-mechanics is expected to be used for sustaining basic industry, such as material, transportation, and life industries. 101 refs., 67 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  6. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  7. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  8. Trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Jones, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning

  9. Educating the smart city: Schooling smart citizens through computational urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Williamson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with the ‘smart city’, the idea of the ‘smart school’ is emerging in imaginings of the future of education. Various commercial, governmental and civil society organizations now envisage education as a highly coded, software-mediated and data-driven social institution. Such spaces are to be governed through computational processes written in computer code and tracked through big data. In an original analysis of developments from commercial, governmental and civil society sectors, the article examines two interrelated dimensions of an emerging smart schools imaginary: (1 the constant flows of digital data that smart schools depend on and the mobilization of analytics that enable student data to be used to anticipate and shape their behaviours; and (2 the ways that young people are educated to become ‘computational operatives’ who must ‘learn to code’ in order to become ‘smart citizens’ in the governance of the smart city. These developments constitute an emerging educational space fabricated from intersecting standards, technologies, discourses and social actors, all infused with the aspirations of technical experts to govern the city at a distance through both monitoring young people as ‘data objects’ and schooling them as active ‘computational citizens’ with the responsibility to compute the future of the city.

  10. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  11. Alteration in Business Models of Electricity Distribution Companies - A Case of Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trygg, P.

    2013-09-01

    Smart metering is currently implemented in many countries. The change from traditional metering is significant and impacts many of the Distribution system operator's (DSO's) activities. This dissertation aims to provide a structured model for analysing the impacts of Smart metering on a DSO's business. Research was conducted by gathering a theoretical framework for understanding how the business operates. The concept of business model has been presented. It is used as a framework of metering business. Detailed studies on specific parts of the business model have been carried out. These concentrate on finding a theoretical background of what Smart metering can provide. Cost analyses were conducted to better understand resources required by Smart metering. Problems related to ICT resources have also been studied based on the DSO's experiences. Partner network was studied based on DSO's experiences related to service purchasing and finally experiences in working with IT services provided to the DSOs has been presented. This dissertation presents a development trend that has taken place regarding Smart metering in implementation and operation. Results are presented in a business model framework to provide a more structured view on issues related to Smart metering. Also non-technical issues should be analysed to fully understand the extent of the changes taking place when implementing Smart metering. The information presented can be utilized when significant change factors to the DSO's business models can be recognized. (orig.)

  12. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  13. Smart grid and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    conventional, fossil based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discus trends of the future grid infrastructure as well as the most emerging renewable energy...... as efficient as possible. Further, the recent challenges with nuclear power plants are arguing to find more sustainable energy generation solutions. Of many options, two major technologies will play important roles to solve parts of those future challenges. One is to change the electrical power production from...... sources, wind energy and photovoltaics. Then main focus is on the power electronics and control technology for wind turbines as they are the largest renewable power contributor, allowing their penetration into a SmartGrid to be even higher in the future....

  14. Smart manufacturing of complex shaped pipe components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salchak, Y. A.; Kotelnikov, A. A.; Sednev, D. A.; Borikov, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing industry is constantly improving. Nowadays the most relevant trend is widespread automation and optimization of the production process. This paper represents a novel approach for smart manufacturing of steel pipe valves. The system includes two main parts: mechanical treatment and quality assurance units. Mechanical treatment is performed by application of the milling machine with implementation of computerized numerical control, whilst the quality assurance unit contains three testing modules for different tasks, such as X-ray testing, optical scanning and ultrasound testing modules. The advances of each of them provide reliable results that contain information about any failures of the technological process, any deviations of geometrical parameters of the valves. The system also allows detecting defects on the surface or in the inner structure of the component.

  15. Data Mining Smart Energy Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of smart metering technology the amount of energy data will increase significantly and utilities industry will have to face another big challenge - to find relationships within time-series data and even more - to analyze such huge numbers of time series to find useful patterns and trends with fast or even real-time response. This study makes a small review of the literature in the field, trying to demonstrate how essential is the application of data mining techniques in the time series to make the best use of this large quantity of data, despite all the difficulties. Also, the most important Time Series Data Mining techniques are presented, highlighting their applicability in the energy domain.

  16. Smart electromechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This carefully edited book introduces the latest achievements of the scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the field of theory and practice of Smart Electromechanical Systems (SEMS). The book also focuses on methods of designing and modeling of SEMS based on the principles of adaptability, intelligence, biomorphism of parallel kinematics and parallelism in information processing and control computation. The book chapters are dedicated to the following points of interest: - methods of design of SEMS modules and intelligent robots based on them; - synthesis of neural systems of automatic control over SEMS modules; - mathematical and computer modeling of SEMS modules and Cyber Physical Systems based on them; - vitality control and reliability analysis based on logic-and-probabilistic and logic-and-linguistic forecasting; - methods of optimization of SEMS control systems based on mathematical programming methods in ordinal scale and generalized mathematical programming; - information-measuring software...

  17. Smart network. The information nework in the smart grid; Smart Network. Das Informationsnetz im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horrmeyer, Bernd [Phoenix Contact GmbH und Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany). Industrielle Netzwerkverkabelung; Wissig, Claus [Phoenix Contact GmbH und Co. KG, Blomberg (Germany). Geraeteverbindungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    So far, the distribution of electricity was constructed unidirectional - from the generating power plant over the power distribution systems to the consumer. In the last decade, the utilization of renewable energies became popular. Thus the energy flows bi-directionally in the lines. Since the current has to be consumed at the moment of generation, the control becomes more difficult when bi-directional feeding. The techniques are demanding, and the number of devices for controlling and monitoring the of the distribution networks increases. The need for digital communication between the devices increases - the existing information networks in the energy sector are not dimensioned for this. With its bi-directional supply of energy, the smart grid requires a more frequent and faster communication between the devices. New cabling concepts according to IEC 61850 provide reliable and easy to maintain electrical and optical ethernet connections.

  18. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    is presented in terms of energy (primary energy supply), environment (carbon dioxide emissions), and economy (total annual socio-economic cost). The steps are ordered in terms of their scientific and political certainty as follows: Decommissioning nuclear power, implementing a large amount of heat savings......This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact......, converting the private car fleet to electricity, providing heat in rural areas with heat pumps, providing heat in urban areas with district heating, converting fuel in heavy-duty vehicles to a renewable electrofuel, and replacing natural gas with methane. The results indicate that by using the Smart Energy...

  19. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  1. Consumer engagement: An insight from smart grid projects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangale, Flavia; Mengolini, Anna; Onyeji, Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into consumer engagement in smart grid projects in Europe. Projects analysed are those included in the catalogue annexed in the JRC Report “Smart Grid projects in Europe: lessons learned and current developments”. The analysis suggests an increase in the interest in consumer engagement projects at European level and a strong focus on the residential sector, and emphasises the key importance of public funding to support these projects. The study also reveals that projects involving consumers are characterised by the pursuit of two main objectives: gaining deeper knowledge of consumer behaviour (observing and understanding the consumer) and motivating and empowering consumers to become active energy customers (engaging the consumer). The paper reviews the main activities undertaken to obtain these objectives and highlights trends and developments in the field. Finally, the paper discusses obstacles to consumer engagement and the strategies adopted by the projects surveyed to tackle them, highlighting the need to build consumer trust and to design targeted campaigns taking into consideration different consumer segments. The conclusions are in line with findings and analyses presented in the literature and underscore the need for further research and action at European level. - Highlights: • Consumers' key role in the success of the future electricity system (smart grids). • Survey on consumer engagement experiences in European smart grid projects. • Focus is on observing and understanding the consumers and on engaging them. • Trust and confidence as central elements. • Need to take into consideration different consumer segments/motivational factors

  2. The Market for Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on several studies of market demand, the authors determined that consumer demand for smart growth would translate into more than 600,000 houses out of the approximately 2 million new housing units built in 2007.

  3. Imaging standards for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-02-01

    "Smart cards" are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper will review imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper will conclude with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  4. Smart roadside initiative : user manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document provides the user instructions for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) applications including mobile and web-based SRI applications. These applications include smartphone-enabled information exchange and notification, and software compo...

  5. Smart roadside initiative : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This is the Final Report for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) prototype system deployment project. The SRI prototype was implemented at weigh stations in Grass Lake, Michigan and West Friendship, Maryland. The prototype was developed to integrate ...

  6. SMART SKINS - A Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochocki, Joseph M.

    1990-02-01

    The Air Force Project Forecast II identified a number of key technology initiatives for development. This paper addresses one such initiative, PT-16, Smart Skins. The concept of the Smart Skin is introduced by briefly highlighting its attributes and potential advantages over standard avionics packaging and maintenance, and then goes on to describe some of the key ingredients necessary for its development. Problem areas are brought out along with some of the required trades that must be made. Finally, a time phased development roadmap is introduced which shows Calspan's proposed sequence of technology development programs that can, in combination, lead to first functional Smart Skins implementations in narrowband form in the late 1990's and in wideband form in first decade of the twenty - first century. A Smart Skins implementation in integral aircraft skin structure form will take at least until 2010.

  7. Image of Applied university English teaching curriculum design under the influence of internet plus smart phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; Wang

    2015-01-01

    With the high speed development of modern information technology and the popularity of smart phones among college students, internet plus smart phones have become the main means of communication between youngsters.Those simple and handy features make them easily rank top one of today’s college students’ standard necessities.Internet plus smart phones have occupied most of college students’ time confetti; In light of the popularity, we can’t deny the fact that this trend also provides a new option for the college English curriculum design reformation.This article will discuss how to reform the college English course in the current internet and smart phones environment, and strength the application of language curriculum design as the preliminary program.

  8. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologa, Ana-Ramona; Bologa, Razvan

    2018-01-01

    A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities. PMID:29649172

  9. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  10. Wireless smart shipboard sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Nozik, Andrew B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the feasibility of developing a smart shipboard sensor network. The objective of the thesis is to prove that sensors can be made smart by keeping calibration constants and other relevant data such as network information stored on the sensor and a server computer. Study will focus on the design and implementation of an Ipsil IP(micro)8930 microcontroller, which is then connected, by the standard TCP/IP implementation, to a network where the sensor information can be see...

  11. Smart BIT/TSMD Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...that assessment. These windows are color-keyed to tie together multiple windows for the same Smart BIT techniques. The display of the neural net- work... Multiple accelerometer icons of any type may therefore be placed (non-overlapping) in the accelerometer Time Line region. The BIT Time Line Editor allows

  12. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Diaconita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities.

  13. Nuclear design characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Zee, Sung Quun; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    Nuclear design bases for System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor(SMART) core are presented. Based on the proposed design bases, a SMART core loading pattern is constructed and its nuclear characteristics are studied. The proposed core loading pattern satisfies 3-year cycle length and soluble boron-free operation requirements at any time during the cycle. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. Smart grid applications and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi

  15. The energy aware smart home

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, M.; Jentsch, M.; Prause, C.R.; Pramudianto, F.; Al-Akkad, A.; Reiners, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel smart home system integrating energy efficiency features. The smart home application is built on top of Hydra, a middleware framework that facilitates the intelligent communication of heterogeneous embedded devices through an overlay P2P network. We interconnect common devices available in private households and integrate wireless power metering plugs to gain access to energy consumption data. These data are used for monitoring and analyzing consumed energy o...

  16. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  17. Hadoop Oriented Smart Cities Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconita, Vlad; Bologa, Ana-Ramona; Bologa, Razvan

    2018-04-12

    A smart city implies a consistent use of technology for the benefit of the community. As the city develops over time, components and subsystems such as smart grids, smart water management, smart traffic and transportation systems, smart waste management systems, smart security systems, or e-governance are added. These components ingest and generate a multitude of structured, semi-structured or unstructured data that may be processed using a variety of algorithms in batches, micro batches or in real-time. The ICT architecture must be able to handle the increased storage and processing needs. When vertical scaling is no longer a viable solution, Hadoop can offer efficient linear horizontal scaling, solving storage, processing, and data analyses problems in many ways. This enables architects and developers to choose a stack according to their needs and skill-levels. In this paper, we propose a Hadoop-based architectural stack that can provide the ICT backbone for efficiently managing a smart city. On the one hand, Hadoop, together with Spark and the plethora of NoSQL databases and accompanying Apache projects, is a mature ecosystem. This is one of the reasons why it is an attractive option for a Smart City architecture. On the other hand, it is also very dynamic; things can change very quickly, and many new frameworks, products and options continue to emerge as others decline. To construct an optimized, modern architecture, we discuss and compare various products and engines based on a process that takes into consideration how the products perform and scale, as well as the reusability of the code, innovations, features, and support and interest in online communities.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of gram-negative bacteria causing infections collected across India during 2014–2016: Study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trend report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents. This study aims to monitor the distribution of bacterial pathogen and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: This study includes Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during 2014–2016. Isolates were collected from seven hospitals across India. All the study isolates were characterised up to species level, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for a wide range of antimicrobials included in the study panel. The test results were interpreted as per standard Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 2731 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were tested during study period. The most frequently isolated pathogens were 44% of Escherichia coli (n = 1205 followed by 25% of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 676 and 11% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 308. Among the antimicrobials tested, carbapenems were the most active, followed by amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive isolates were ranged from 66%–77% in E. coli to 61%–72% in K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall, colistin retains its activity in > 90% of the isolates tested and appear promising. Conclusion: Increasing rates of ESBL producers have been noted, which is alarming. Further, carbapenem resistance was also gradually increasing, which needs much attention. Overall, this study data show that

  19. SMART METERS ADOPTION: RECENT ADVANCES AND FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATALIA CASTAÑO JARAMILLO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El alto crecimiento en la demanda de electricidad y los picos en la curva de carga, causados principalmente por hogares, hacen necesarias grandes inversiones en infraestructura que solo es usada para periodos cortos. Esto ocasiona la búsqueda de desarrollos que permitan suplir las necesidades de los usuarios y usar los recursos del sistema eficientemente. Esto es posible por medio de las Redes Eléctricas Inteligentes, las cuales adicionalmente brindan a los usuarios autonomía en la cadena de suministro eléctrico. El foco de esta investigación son los hogares, ya que estos pueden monitorear su consumo y ayudar a reducir los picos en la curva de carga, Para esto los usuarios deben usar Medidores Inteligentes, los cuales le permiten obtener información necesaria para controlar su demanda. Este artículo presenta un análisis sistemático de la literatura publicada relacionada con el estudio de las redes eléctricas inteligentes desde el lado de la demanda, analiza la situación actual sobre este tema y el impacto de los medidores inteligentes en los hogares.

  20. Service Orientation and the Smart Grid state and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The energy market is undergoing major changes, the most notable of which is the transition from a hierarchical closed system toward a more open one highly based on a “smart” information-rich infrastructure. This transition calls for new information and communication technologies infrastructures and

  1. Smart Markets for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John

    2017-04-01

    Commercial water users often want to trade water, but their trades can hurt other users and the environment. So government has to check every transaction. This checking process is slow and expensive. That's why "free market" water trading doesn't work, especially with trading between a single buyer and a single seller. This talk will describe a water trading mechanism designed to solve these problems. The trading mechanism is called a "smart market". A smart market allows simultaneous many-to-many trades. It can reduce the transaction costs of water trading, while improving environmental outcomes. The smart market depends on a combination of recent technologies: hydrology simulation, computer power, and the Internet. Our smart market design uses standard hydrological models, user bids from a web page, and computer optimization to maximize the economic value of water while meeting all environmental constraints. Before the smart market can be implemented, however, users and the water agency must meet six critical prerequisites. These prerequisites may be viewed as simply good water management that should be done anyway. I will describe these prerequisites, and I will briefly discuss common arguments against water markets. This talk will be an abstract of a forthcoming book, "Smart Markets for Water Resources: A Manual for Implementation," by John F. Raffensperger and Mark W. Milke, from Springer Publishing.

  2. Research Advance in Smart Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Xiang-long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made materials, enable us to design our own "atoms", and thereby to create materials with unprecedented effective properties that have not yet been found in nature. Smart metamaterial is one of those that is an intelligent perceptive to the changes from external environments and simultaneously having the capability to respond to thermal and mechanical stimuli. This paper can provide a review on these smart metamaterials in perspective of science, engineering and industrial products. We divide smart metamaterials according to what they are tuning into: optical, mechanical, thermal and coupled smart metamaterials. The rest of two techniques we addressed are modelling/simulation and fabrication/gene engineering. All of these types smart materials presented here are associated with at least five fundamental research: coupled mechanism of multi-physics fields, man-made design for atom/molecular, metamaterials coupled with natural materials, tunability of metamaterials, and mechanism of sensing metamaterials. Therefore, we give a systematic overview of various potential smart metamaterials together with the upcoming challenges in the intriguing and promising research field.

  3. Smart Nacre-inspired Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jingsong; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2018-03-15

    Nacre-inspired nanocomposites with excellent mechanical properties have achieved remarkable attention in the past decades. The high performance of nacre-inspired nanocomposites is a good basis for the further application of smart devices. Recently, some smart nanocomposites inspired by nacre have demonstrated good mechanical properties as well as effective and stable stimuli-responsive functions. In this Concept, we summarize the recent development of smart nacre-inspired nanocomposites, including 1D fibers, 2D films and 3D bulk nanocomposites, in response to temperature, moisture, light, strain, and so on. We show that diverse smart nanocomposites could be designed by combining various conventional fabrication methods of nacre-inspired nanocomposites with responsive building blocks and interface interactions. The nacre-inspired strategy is versatile for different kinds of smart nanocomposites in extensive applications, such as strain sensors, displays, artificial muscles, robotics, and so on, and may act as an effective roadmap for designing smart nanocomposites in the future. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  5. Enhancing integrated indoor/outdoor mobility in a smart campus

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sospedra, Joaquín; Avariento, Joan; Rambla Risueño, David; Montoliu Colás, Raúl; Casteleyn, Sven; Benedito Bordonau, Mauri; Gould Carlson, Michael; Huerta Guijarro, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    A Smart City relies on six key factors: Smart Governance, Smart People, Smart Economy, Smart Environment, Smart Living and Smart Mobility. This paper focuses on Smart Mobility by improving one of its key components: positioning. We developed and deployed a novel indoor positioning system (IPS) that is combined with an outdoor positioning system to support seamless indoor and outdoor navigation and wayfinding. The positioning system is implemented as a service in our broader cartography-based ...

  6. The Trend of Antibiotic Resistance in Shigellosis and the Diagnostic Value of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate for Its Differentiation from Viral Gastroenteritides in Aliasghar Children Hospital, Tehran (1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Nateghian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

     As a common infectious disease in childhood, shigellosis has a variety of seasonal and microbiologic patterns and there is a concerning trend of resistance in various parts of the world and even a single country. Inappropriate empiric therapy for any acute episode of gastroenteritis, which might be based on lab studies, could potentially lead to even further resistance. In this report, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was studied in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

     

    Methods

     Medical records of 117 patients were reviewed in this study. The mean and standard deviation of some of the acute phase inflammatory indicators were compared in two groups of shigellosis and viral gastroenteritides using independent samples t test.

     

    Results

     The mean age of the patients was 49 months, and almost half of them were male. Shigella sonnei was the commonest species isolated from these patients. Shigellosis was found to be more frequent during August to October. After 2001, resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was observed in 75% and 90% of isolates respectively. A few cases were resistant to third generation of cephalosporins (< 3%. In shigellosis, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher than viral gastroenteritis.

     

    Conclusion

     Empiric use of cotrimoxazole is no longer recommended in children suspicious of contracting shigellosis in Tehran. To avoid unnecessary prescription of antibiotics for acute gastroenteritis, a normal result of erythrocyte sedimentation rate might be helpful.

  7. Smart grids are advancing, light and supple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    While indicating some innovations produced by the Greenlys laboratory (SmartScan to localize losses by means of smart counters, a system for grid self-healing, Sequoia to manage a low voltage network, a tool for the prediction of photovoltaic production in real time), and also the main smart grid projects in France (Nice Grid, Solenn, SoGrid, Smart Electric Lyon, Poste intelligent, Greenlys, Smart Grids Vendee, BienVEnu), this article comments the emergence of several experiments on smart grids in France, the first drawn conclusions and recommendations. Some issues for this new architecture are discussed: the active demand management, cut-offs and flexibility, and the search for profitability

  8. Trends of Bloodstream Infections in a University Greek Hospital during a Three-Year Period: Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Seasonality in Gram-negative Predominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Stamouli, Vasiliki; Papakostas, Vasileios; Apostolopoulou, Eleni; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Marangos, Markos; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Christofidou, Myrto; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2017-07-06

    The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and bloodstream infections' (BSIs) seasonality in a university hospital. This retrospective study was carried out in the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, during 2011-13 y. Blood cultures from patients with clinical presentation suggestive of bloodstream infection were performed by the BacT/ALERT System. Isolates were identified by Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Resistance genes (mecA in staphylococci; vanA/vanB/vanC in enterococci; bla KPC /bla VIM /bla NDM in Klebsiella spp.) were detected by PCR. In total, 4607 (9.7%) blood cultures were positive from 47451 sets sent to Department of Microbiology, representing 1732 BSIs. Gram-negative bacteria (52.3%) were the most commonly isolated, followed by Gram-positive (39.5%), fungi (6.6%) and anaerobes bacteria (1.8%). The highest contamination rate was observed among Gram-positive bacteria (42.3%). Among 330 CNS and 150 Staphylococcus aureus, 281 (85.2%) and 60 (40.0%) were mecA-positive, respectively. From 113 enterococci, eight were vanA, two vanB and two vanC-positives. Of the total 207 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (73.4%), 202 carried bla KPC , four bla KPC and bla VIM and one bla VIM . A significant increase in monthly BSIs' incidence was shown (R2: 0.449), which may be attributed to a rise of Gram-positive BSIs (R2: 0.337). Gram-positive BSIs were less frequent in spring (P period. The increasing incidence of BSIs can be attributed to an increase of Gram-positive BSI incidence, even though Gram-negative bacteria remained the predominant ones. Seasonality may play a role in the predominance of Gram-negative's BSI.

  9. Smart Home, Smart Grid, Smart Meter - digitale Konzepte und das Recht an Daten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiecker genannt Döhmann, Indra

    Modernes Energiemanagement setzt auf ein intelligent gesteuertes Energieinformationsnetz, das Smart Grid. In diesem ist der Smart Meter, die intelligente Messstelle beim Nutzer, ein zentrales Instrument für den wechselseitigen Austausch von Informationen. Allerdings werfen die über diverse Gesetze forcierten Informationsströme erhebliche datenschutzrechtliche Fragen auf. Der Beitrag stellt zentrale datenschutzrechtliche Leitlinien und Probleme vor und behandelt auch offene Fragestellungen.

  10. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    Full Text Available In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  11. Elliptic Curve Cryptography-Based Authentication with Identity Protection for Smart Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Luo, He

    2016-01-01

    In a smart grid, the power service provider enables the expected power generation amount to be measured according to current power consumption, thus stabilizing the power system. However, the data transmitted over smart grids are not protected, and then suffer from several types of security threats and attacks. Thus, a robust and efficient authentication protocol should be provided to strength the security of smart grid networks. As the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system provides the security protection between the control center and substations in most smart grid environments, we focus on how to secure the communications between the substations and smart appliances. Existing security approaches fail to address the performance-security balance. In this study, we suggest a mitigation authentication protocol based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography with privacy protection by using a tamper-resistant device at the smart appliance side to achieve a delicate balance between performance and security of smart grids. The proposed protocol provides some attractive features such as identity protection, mutual authentication and key agreement. Finally, we demonstrate the completeness of the proposed protocol using the Gong-Needham-Yahalom logic.

  12. Telling young children they have a reputation for being smart promotes cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D; Chen, Lulu; Lee, Kang

    2018-05-01

    The present research examined the consequences of telling young children they have a reputation for being smart. Of interest was how this would affect their willingness to resist the temptation to cheat for personal gain as assessed by a temptation resistance task, in which children promised not to cheat in the game. Two studies with 3- and 5-year-old children (total N = 323) assessed this possibility. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of three conditions: a smart reputation condition in which they were told they have a reputation for being smart, an irrelevant reputation control condition, or a no reputation control condition. Children in the smart reputation condition were significantly more likely to cheat than their counterparts in either control condition. Study 2 confirmed that reputational concerns are indeed a fundamental part of our smart reputation effect. These results suggest that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use reputational cues to guide their behavior, and that telling young children they have a positive reputation for being smart can have negative consequences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  14. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  15. [Advances in the application of smart phones in modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hu, Jie; Li, Fei; Wei, Huilin; Li, Ying; Lu, Tianjian; Wang, Shuqi; Xu, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Since smart phones have been developed, significant advances in the function of mobile phone due to the development of software, hardware and accessories have been reached. Till now, smart phones have been engaged in daily life with an increasing impact. As a new medical model, mobile phone medicine is emerging and has found wide spread applications in medicine, especially in diagnosing, monitoring and screening various diseases. In addition, mo bile phone medical application shows great potential trend to improve healthcare in resource-limited regions due to its advantageous features of portability and information communication capability. Nowadays, the scientific and technological issues related to mobile phone medicine have attracted worldwide attention. In this review, we summarize state-of-the-art advances of mobile phone medicine with focus on its diagnostics applications in order to expand the fields of their applications and promote healthcare informatization.

  16. Conjugated Molecules for the Smart Filtering of Intense Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The practical realization of smart optical filters, i.e. devices which change their optical transmission in a suitable way to keep a working state for a general light sensitive element , can involve the use of conjugated molecules whose light absorption properties are light- intensity dependent (nonlinear optical effect. The verification of optical limiting displayed by some particular conjugated molecules, e.g. phthalocyanines, is quite noteworthy and can be successfully exploited for the realization of such smart optical devices. In the present contribution the analysis of the relevant molecular feature of a phthalocyanine are analyzed with the aim of determining useful correlations between optical limiting performance and phthalocyanine chemical structure. In particular , the electronic nature of the substituent is considered as a key factor for the explanation of some observed optical limiting trends.

  17. A Trusted Smart Phone and Its Applications in Electronic Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the growing intelligence and popularity of mobile phones, and the trend of cellular network's convergence to IP based network, more and more mobile applications emerge on the market. For mission critical applications, like the electronic payment which will be discussed in this paper, the lack of trust in the underlying mobile infrastructure and secure interface to legacy systems (for this case, the banking systems) poses obstacles to their widespread presence in mobile services. Recently, the exposure of hacking of iPhone and other smart phones further emphasizes the criticality of establishing a trust platform for mobile applications. This paper analyzes the building blocks of the trusted smart phone, and proposes a framework to provide a trusted platform for mobile electronic payment. Such a proposed system may allow direct interface to the banking systems due to the banking industry recognized strong security, and hence, may enable its widespread use.

  18. Electrification as a Development Driver for “Smart Cities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing electrification of the transport infrastructure, residential and commercial sectors of a “smart city” induces structural changes in energy sector. This investigation will enhance our understanding of mechanisms to develop a regional power industry, which would serve intellectual technologies of future urban environment considering national features. The authors define electrification as the process of bringing the most advanced energy carrier — electricity — to the national economy. This process integrates the spheres of electric power consumption and electric power generation. The article identifies the features and key trends in a new electrification stage in «smart cities». The paper shows that the energy sector of such cities combines centralized and decentralized technological solutions. This requires a certain readjustment of the distribution and sales divisions of the regional electric power industry. In particular, modernization of low-voltage distribution networks, improvement of tariff policy, implementation of programs of energy demand management are needed. The authors reveal priority areas for electrification in smart cities. Firstly, these cities need to develop electric transport, electric cars and associated infrastructure. Secondly, the introduction of various control systems for residential appliances will make households smarter. We show the impact of electric cars on the electricity market and loads in a regional energy system. In particular, we analyse the foreign experience of electric cars integration into power network. As regards the electrification of smart homes, the authors outline the basic «energy» conditions for their design, and requirements to be met by regional contractors, producers of energy equipment, utilities and grid companies. We develop a system of technological and economic solutions for moving relevant projects to an active phase. These projects include controllable

  19. Performance Tests of Three Flow Distributors Using SMART-ITL with 1-Train CMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Yung-Joo; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Ryu, Hyo Bong; Park, Jong-Kuk; Bang, Yun-Gon; Chae, Young-Jong; Yi, Sung-Jae; Park, Hyun-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Passive safety systems (PSSs) are key tools to remove the heat from the core or containment. Safety improvements for SMART have been studied since the Standard Design Approval (SDA) for SMART was certificated in 2012. Active safety systems such as safety injection pumps are replaced by a passive system, which is a kind of the gravity injection system with core makeup tanks (CMT) and safety injection tanks (SIT). All tanks for the passive safety systems are located higher than a pressurized reactor vessel, whose injection nozzles are located around the reactor coolant pumps (RCP). An Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL) has been constructed and its commissioning tests finished in 2012. SMART-ITL is scaled down by the volume scaling methodology. Its height is conserved and its volume scale ratio is 1/49. The SMART-ITL has all fluid systems of SMART together with a break system and instruments. Recently, a test program to validate the performance of SMART Passive Safety System (PSS) was launched. A scaled-down test facility for SMART PSS was additionally installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility and a set of validation tests were performed. In this paper, the performance tests of the flow distributors using SMART-ITL with 1-train CMT will be discussed. A 1-train passive safety system including a CMT and SIT, which is operated only by gravity force, was additionally installed in the SMART-ITL to replace the active safety system for the SMART design. Several performance tests for the flow distributors were carried out to estimate a designed flow rate. 1. The peak flow rate in a hot test does not reach the value in a cold test, and the approaching time to peak is also delayed during the early stage of gravity injection. 2.. It is verified that the flow rate from a gravity injection depends on the differential pressure in the injection pipe line including a friction and form drag, which can be adjusted by controlling the resistance coefficient.

  20. Best practices for rural smart growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Smart growth is a development strategy that encompasses economic, environmental and social objectives to manage : the growth of a community. The basic principles of smart growth are to: : Mix land uses. : Take advantage of compact building de...

  1. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support...... the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on the smart grid with the theory of business ecosystem may open opportunities to understand market catalysts. This study...... contributes an understanding of business ecosystem applicable for smart grid. Smart grid infrastructure is an intricate business ecosystem, which have several intentions to deliver the value proposition and what it should be. The findings help to identify and capture value from markets....

  2. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  3. Review of urban energy transition in the Netherlands and the role of smart energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the most important backgrounds and trends of the present energy supply system in the Netherlands. Options are discussed for the integration of renewable energy and the present policies are reviewed that stimulate the energy transition. Last, the role of smart energy

  4. Smart dental practice: capitalising on smart mobile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangger, K; Bredican, J; Mills, A J; Armstrong, J

    2015-08-14

    To keep pace with consumer adoption of smart mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, and the applications ('apps') developed for these devices, dental professionals should consider how this technology could be used to simultaneously improve both patient service experiences and dental practice management. Using U-Commerce as a theoretical lens, this article discusses the potential value of smart mobile technology to the dental practice context, with a particular focus on the unique and customisable capabilities of apps. To take full advantage of this technology, a process is outlined for identifying and designing bespoke dental apps that takes into account the unique advantages of these devices. Dental practices, with increasing financial and competitive pressures, may improve the efficiency and profitability of operations and better manage patients, employees and stakeholders by integrating smart mobile technology.

  5. Smart cities of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  6. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  7. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  8. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  9. Basic design report of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M. H.; Yeo, J. W.; Zee, Q. S.; Lee, D. J.; Park, K. B.; Koo, I. S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. I.

    2002-03-01

    KAERI has been developing a 330MWt integral reactor, SMART and its application system since 1997. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. The SMART system can produce portable water of 40.000m 3 /day using the MED-TVC desalination process and about 90MW of electricity. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as inherent safety and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment-friendly. The objective of this design report is to provide the overall information on the basic design of SMART NSSS, and the applied technologies. The information covers mainly NSSS design with some information on the desalination system. For the secondary system, only the information directly related to the coupling with NSSS are covered

  10. A Review of Systems and Technologies for Smart Homes and Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Lobaccaro, Gabriele; Carlucci, Salvatore; Löfström, Erica

    2016-01-01

    In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investiga...

  11. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital: a 4-year study Evolução da resistência aos antimicrobianos entre isolados clínicos de enterococos em um hospital terciário brasileiro: um estudo de 4 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Conceição

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past two decades members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study prospectively analyzed the distribution of species and trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from 2006-2009. METHODS: Enterococcal species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed by disk diffusion in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. A screening test for vancomycin was also performed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin was determined using the broth dilution method. Molecular assays were used to confirm speciation and genotype of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. RESULTS: A total of 324 non-repetitive enterococcal isolates were recovered, of which 87% were E. faecalis and 10.8% E. faecium. The incidence of E. faecium per 1,000 admissions increased significantly (p 256µg/ mL and harbored vanA genes. The majority (89.5% of VRE belonged to E. faecium species, which were characteristically resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Overall, ampicillin resistance rate increased significantly from 2.5% to 21.4% from 2006-2009. Resistance rates for gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin significantly decreased over time, although they remained high. Quinolones resistance rates were high and did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained show a significant increasing trend in the incidence of E. faecium resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin.INTRODUÇÃO: Nas últimas duas décadas, os enterococos emergiram como importantes patógenos nosocomiais no mundo inteiro. Neste estudo, foi analisada a distribuição das espécies e a evolução da resistência aos antimicrobianos entre isolados clínicos de enterococos obtidos em um hospital terciário, no período de 2006 a 2009. M

  12. Smart Grid Security A Smart Meter-Centric Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Yuksel, Ender; Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    2012-01-01

    , leading to what is known as the Smart Grid. The development of this Cyber-Physical System introduces new security issues, thus calling for efforts in studying possible attacks and devising suitable countermeasures. In this paper, we review a generic model for the Smart Grid, and present possible attacks......The electricity grid is a key infrastructure for our society, therefore its security is a critical public concern. This physical system is becoming more and more complex as it is coupled with a cyber layer carrying information about power usage and control instructions for intelligent appliances...

  13. Smart City Governance: A Local Emergent Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a local emergent perspective on smart city governance. Smart city governance is about using new technologies to develop innovative governance arrangements. Cities all around the world are struggling to find smart solutions to wicked problems and they hope to learn from

  14. Scalable Open Source Smart Grid Simulator (SGSim)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Stefanni, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . This paper presents an open source smart grid simulator (SGSim). The simulator is based on open source SystemC Network Simulation Library (SCNSL) and aims to model scalable smart grid applications. SGSim has been tested under different smart grid scenarios that contain hundreds of thousands of households...

  15. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  16. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  17. Rancangbangun Smart Green House untuk Tanaman Hidroponik

    OpenAIRE

    Syam, Rafiuddin

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan merancang sistem kendali dan membuat manipulator smart green house. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah eksperimen pada model smart green house. Dalam sistem ini mengggunakan mikrokontroller sebagai antar muka untuk melakukan peregerakan manipulator dalam sistem secara integritas. Smart greenhouse menggunakan sensor suhu, cahaya dan mikrokontroller yang digunakan adalah ATMEGA 8535. Torsi motor digunakan untuk mengangkat dan mendorong jendela dengan lengan manipul...

  18. Smart Mobility Stakeholders - Curating Urban Data & Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the curation of urban data and models through engaging SMART mobility stakeholders. SMART Mobility Urban Science Efforts are helping to expose key data sets, models, and roles for the U.S. Department of Energy in engaging across stakeholders to ensure useful insights. This will help to support other Urban Science and broader SMART initiatives.

  19. Epidemiological trends and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from stool cultures in two different populations in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Itai; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Leibovitz, Eugene; Broides, Arnon

    2014-03-01

    Southern Israel is inhabited by Bedouins, living in conditions similar to developing countries and Jews, living in conditions similar to developed countries. We determined the epidemiology of Shigella spp. in these populations. We retrospectively reviewed Shigella spp. stool isolations between 2005-2009. Overall, 3295 isolates were analyzed. S. sonnei was isolated in 2057/3295 (62.4%) and S. flexneri in 1058 (32.1%). S. sonnei was isolated in 1567/1707 (91.8%) from Jewish patients and S. flexneri in 931/1542 (60.4%) from Bedouin patients. Ampicillin resistance increased linearly from 217/373 (58.2%) in 2005 to 186/256 (72.7%) in 2009, (P Shigella spp. to ampicilin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found in Jewish patients: 1527/1706 (89.5%) versus 977/1542 (63.4%) (P Shigella spp. infections can differ in populations residing in the same geographical area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  1. Co-designing smart tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liburd, Janne J.; Nielsen, Tanja K.; Heape, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Emerging theories of smart tourism are chiefly concerned with how Internet Communication Technology and Big Data can influence marketing, product and destination development. The risk being that an overt focus on formal outcomes, namely technology, products and services, diverts attention from how...... things and operations are actually achieved. This paper challenges the notions of smart and value co-creation by introducing tourism co-design as a learning and experiment driven development process. Tourism co-design leverages the communicative interaction between people and enables tourism operators...... to change their practices. Based on fieldwork in the northern part of Denmark we explore how smart tourism can become smarter through tourism co-design processes. We argue that a shift is needed from: How can we efficiently achieve a more or less known goal? To: How can we effectively explore and give sense...

  2. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  3. Aging well with smart technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Penny; Nikpour, Linda; Nowlin, Heather D

    2005-01-01

    As baby-boomers age, the need for long-term nursing care services increases. In the future, there will simply not be enough long-term care facilities to accommodate all of these patients. In addition, many people prefer to grow old at home, a concept known as aging-in-place. Smart home technology facilities aging-in-place by assisting patients with emergency assistance, fall prevention/detection, reminder systems, medication administration and assistance for those with hearing, visual or cognitive impairments. Benefits include making aging-in-place a reality, continuous monitoring, and improved psychosocial effects. Concerns of this technology include cost, availability of technology, retrofitting complications, and potential inappropriate use of the technology. Overall, the concept of smart homes is gaining in popularity and will expand the role of the nurse in the future. It is important for all nurses to understand how their practices will be transformed as smart homes become a reality for the aging population.

  4. Smart systems integration and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Poncino, Massimo; Pravadelli, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    This book-presents new methods and tools for the integration and simulation of smart devices. The design approach described in this book explicitly accounts for integration of Smart Systems components and subsystems as a specific constraint. It includes methodologies and EDA tools to enable multi-disciplinary and multi-scale modeling and design, simulation of multi-domain systems, subsystems and components at all levels of abstraction, system integration and exploration for optimization of functional and non-functional metrics. By covering theoretical and practical aspects of smart device design, this book targets people who are working and studying on hardware/software modelling, component integration and simulation under different positions (system integrators, designers, developers, researchers, teachers, students etc.). In particular, it is a good introduction to people who have interest in managing heterogeneous components in an efficient and effective way on different domains and different abstraction l...

  5. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  6. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  7. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  8. Sensor technology for smart homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A; Pasquina, Paul F; Fici-Pasquina, Lavinia

    2011-06-01

    A smart home is a residence equipped with technology that observes the residents and provides proactive services. Most recently, it has been introduced as a potential solution to support independent living of people with disabilities and older adults, as well as to relieve the workload from family caregivers and health providers. One of the key supporting features of a smart home is its ability to monitor the activities of daily living and safety of residents, and in detecting changes in their daily routines. With the availability of inexpensive low-power sensors, radios, and embedded processors, current smart homes are typically equipped with a large amount of networked sensors which collaboratively process and make deductions from the acquired data on the state of the home as well as the activities and behaviors of its residents. This article reviews sensor technology used in smart homes with a focus on direct environment sensing and infrastructure mediated sensing. The article also points out the strengths and limitations of different sensor technologies, as well as discusses challenges and opportunities from clinical, technical, and ethical perspectives. It is recommended that sensor technologies for smart homes address actual needs of all stake holders including end users, their family members and caregivers, and their doctors and therapists. More evidence on the appropriateness, usefulness, and cost benefits analysis of sensor technologies for smart homes is necessary before these sensors should be widely deployed into real-world residential settings and successfully integrated into everyday life and health care services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hiring for smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Justin

    2005-11-01

    Yes, it's nice when a leader is charismatic and confident. And a great resume can tell you a lot about a person's knowledge and experience. But such assets are no substitute for sheer business intelligence, and they reveal very little about a leader's ability to consistently reach the "right" answer. How can hiring managers flag individuals with such smarts? Historically, the only reliable measure of brainpower has been the standard IQ test, which is rarely used in business settings because of the specific subjects it tests for-math, reading, and spatial reasoning-and because of its multiple-choice format. Despite its shortcomings, the standard IQ test is still a better predictor of managerial success than any other assessment tool companies currently use, Justin Menkes argues. It's true that there isn't a version of IQ testing that applies to the corporate world, but in rejecting IQ tests altogether, hiring managers have thwarted their own attempts to identify true business stars. The author defines the specific subjects that make up "executive intelligence"-namely, accomplishing tasks, working with people, and judging oneself. He describes how to formulate questions to test job candidates for their mastery of these subjects, offering several examples based on real situations. Knowledge questions, such as those used in standard behavioral interviews, require people to recite what they have learned or experienced; intelligence questions call for individuals to demonstrate their abilities. Therefore, the questions in an executive intelligence test shouldn't require specific industry expertise or experience; any knowledge they call for must be rudimentary and common to all executives. And the questions should not be designed to ask whether the candidate has a particular skill; they should be configured so that the candidate will have to demonstrate that skill in the course of answering them.

  10. Comprehensive approach to smart urban development based on Big Data application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurcheeva, G. I.; Klochkov, G. A.

    2018-05-01

    Despite a certain technological backwardness of the Russian economy, the authors believe that the transition to the «smart city» is possible if one can solve such problems: providing large-scale investment, training and retraining specialists in the field of ICT, increasing innovation managers and consumers, increasing ICT participation in the work of governments, organizations and people, creating the appropriate conditions for the development of the information society. Accordingly, when developing models, it is planned to consider the relationship between quality of life and the existing system of indicators on trends of «smart cities». Monitoring of indicators of quality of life, mutually related indicators of technological development can help us develop the process model. When selecting directions for the main components of the «smart city», let us introduce the evaluation criteria that significantly affect the quality of the values of life. The development of «smart cities» should consider the international experience of the use of breakthrough innovative technology. Research scientists of various countries show a variety of approaches to identifying the main business processes in models of the «smart city». Having the international experience, it is necessary to improve business processes in the construction of a process model «smart city», adapting the model to the characteristics of the national environment.

  11. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  12. Smart wheelchairs: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that both children and adults benefit substantially from access to a means of independent mobility. While the needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs, a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs independently. To accommodate this population, researchers have used technologies originally developed for mobile robots to create "smart wheelchairs." Smart wheelchairs have been the subject of research since the early 1980s and have been developed on four continents. This article presents a summary of the current state of the art and directions for future research.

  13. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  14. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  15. Smart Grid Security. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.

  16. IBM SmartCloud essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schouten, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    A practical, user-friendly guide that provides an introduction to cloud computing using IBM SmartCloud, along with a thorough understanding of resource management in a cloud environment.This book is great for anyone who wants to get a grasp of what cloud computing is and what IBM SmartCloud has to offer. If you are an IT specialist, IT architect, system administrator, or a developer who wants to thoroughly understand the cloud computing resource model, this book is ideal for you. No prior knowledge of cloud computing is expected.

  17. Smart Grids and Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin BICĂ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of Smart Grids and distributed generation. Smart Grids can be defined as a modernization of the power system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements (power plants, transmission and distribution system, industrial and residential loads. Distributed generation (DG refers to the production of electricity near the consumption place using renewable energy sources. A load flow analysis is performed for the IEEE14 system in which a DG source (a 5MW wind turbine is added that is on-grid or off-grid. The power losses are determined for these two cases.

  18. Declining trends in early warning indicators for HIV drug resistance in Cameroon from 2008-2010: lessons and challenges for low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Serge C; Bissek, Anne C Z K; Kembou, Etienne; Milenge, Pascal; Abessouguie, Ibile; Nkwescheu, Armand S; Tsomo, Zephirin; Aghokeng, Avelin F; Ngute, Grace D; Ndumbe, Peter M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Elat, Jean B N

    2013-04-08

    Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and limited access to genotyping assays in low-resource settings (LRS) are inevitably accompanied by an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). The current study aims to evaluate early warning indicators (EWI) as an efficient strategy to limit the development and spread of preventable HIVDR in these settings, in order to sustain the performance of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout programmes. Surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 within 10 Cameroonian ART clinics, based on five HIVDR EWIs: (1) Good prescribing practices; (2) Patient lost to follow-up; (3) Patient retention on first line ART; (4) On-time drug pick-up; (5) Continuous drug supply. Analysis was performed as per the World Health Organisation (WHO) protocol. An overall decreasing performance of the national ART programme was observed from 2008 to 2010: EWI(1) (100% to 70%); EWI(2) (40% to 20%); EWI(3) (70% to 0%); EWI(4) (0% throughout); EWI(5) (90% to 40%). Thus, prescribing practices (EWI(1)) were in conformity with national guidelines, while patient adherence (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) and drug supply (EWI(5)) were lower overtime; with a heavy workload (median ratio ≈1/64 staff/patients) and community disengagement observed all over the study sites. In order to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in poor settings like Cameroon, continuous drug supply, community empowerment to support adherence, and probably a reduction in workload by task shifting, are the potential urgent measures to be undertaken. Such evidence-based interventions, rapidly generated and less costly, would be relevant in limiting the spread of preventable HIVDR and in sustaining the performance of ART programmes in LRS.

  19. Smart query answering for marine sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Md Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  20. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  1. Communication and Networking in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for researchers, practitioners, and students alike, Communication and Networking in Smart Grids presents state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for communication networks in smart grids. It explains how contemporary grid networks are developed and deployed and presents a collection of cutting-edge advances to help improve current practice. Prominent researchers working on smart grids and in related fields around the world explain the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grids. Describing the role that communication and networking will play in future smart grids

  2. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  3. Detection of Social Interaction in Smart Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron; Singla, Geetika; Thomas, Brian

    2010-02-01

    The pervasive sensing technologies found in smart environments offer unprecedented opportunities for monitoring and assisting the individuals who live and work in these spaces. An aspect of daily life that is important for one's emotional and physical health is social interaction. In this paper we investigate the use of smart environment technologies to detect and analyze interactions in smart spaces. We introduce techniques for collect and analyzing sensor information in smart environments to help in interpreting resident behavior patterns and determining when multiple residents are interacting. The effectiveness of our techniques is evaluated using two physical smart environment testbeds.

  4. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  5. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  6. Smart grid standards specifications, requirements, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuro; Duan, Bin; Macuha, Martin; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wu, Jun; Tariq, Muhammad; Asfaw, Solomon A

    2015-01-01

    With numerous existing Smart Grid standards, it is clear that governments and industrial organizations world-wide have understood and acknowledged the critical role they play. This timely book is a useful guide for Smart Grid professionals in easily classifying fundamental Smart Grid standards, and to quickly find the building blocks they need to analyse and implement a Smart Grid system. The standards are organized in a systematic manner that aids identification, according to grid requirements. It also covers broader Smart Grid areas including, but not limited to, the following: A fully c

  7. Smart cities, smart lights. Digital signane and the city experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the experience of light in the smart and digital city or, in other words, the existing and widening use of visual digital signane in the urban environment, open air and in public places. This research focuses on where in towns this digital "contamination" is more visible and accessible, i.e. in shopping districts.

  8. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  9. Ten questions concerning integrating smart buildings into the smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Thomas M.; Boudreau, Marie-Claude; Helsen, Lieve; Henze, Gregor; Mohammadpour, Javad; Noonan, Doug; Patteeuw, Dieter; Pless, Shanti; Watson, Richard T.

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have initiated development of a smart electrical grid and smart buildings. Buildings consume a large portion of the total electricity production worldwide, and to fully develop a smart grid they must be integrated with that grid. Buildings can now be 'prosumers' on the grid (both producers and consumers), and the continued growth of distributed renewable energy generation is raising new challenges in terms of grid stability over various time scales. Buildings can contribute to grid stability by managing their overall electrical demand in response to current conditions. Facility managers must balance demand response requests by grid operators with energy needed to maintain smooth building operations. For example, maintaining thermal comfort within an occupied building requires energy and, thus an optimized solution balancing energy use with indoor environmental quality (adequate thermal comfort, lighting, etc.) is needed. Successful integration of buildings and their systems with the grid also requires interoperable data exchange. However, the adoption and integration of newer control and communication technologies into buildings can be problematic with older legacy HVAC and building control systems. Public policy and economic structures have not kept up with the technical developments that have given rise to the budding smart grid, and further developments are needed in both technical and non-technical areas.

  10. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  11. Correlation between carbapenem consumption and resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from patients with intra-abdominal infections at five medical centers in Taiwan, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Ho, Mao-Wang; Liu, Yung-Ching; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the trend in resistance to carbapenems among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that had been collected from patients with intra-abdominal infections at five medical centers in Taiwan from 2006 to 2010 and evaluated the correlation between resistance to carbapenems and consumption of said agents as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). During the study period, the usage of ertapenem and that of total carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem) increased significantly from 6.13 to 13.38 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days for ertapenem and from 20.43 to 34.25 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days for total carbapenems. The most common species were Escherichia coli (n = 1095), Klebsiella spp. (n = 663), and Enterobacter spp. (n = 202). The susceptibility of all isolates to ertapenem and to imipenem varied during the study period. For ertapenem, the rates of nonsusceptibility ranged from 3.5% to 10.3% and those for imipenem ranged from 3.5% to 10.7%. Although the use of carbapenems increased during the study period, there was no marked increase in resistance to carbapenems. Continuous monitoring of resistance trends is necessary so that antimicrobial prescription policies can be adjusted and infection control intervention programs can be implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart alloys for a future fusion power plant: First studies under stationary plasma load and in accidental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Litnovsky

    2017-08-01

    Plasma exposure was followed by the oxidation of alloys at 1000°C accomplishing the first test of these new materials both in a plasma environment and under accidental conditions. Compared to pure tungsten, smart alloys featured the 3-fold suppression of oxidation. Plasma exposure did not affect the oxidation resistance of smart alloys. At the same time, the self-passivation of the protective layer did not occur, calling for further optimization of alloys.

  13. 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 3rd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, June 15-17, 2016. It contains a total of 56 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart University: Conceptual Modeling, Part 2 – Smart Education: Research and Case Studies, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Education: Software and Hardware Systems, and Part 5 – Smart Technology as a Resource to Improve Education and Professional Training. We believe that the book will serve as a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning. .

  14. 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented at the 2nd international KES conference on Smart Education and Smart e-Learning, which took place in Sorrento, Italy, June 17-19, 2015. It contains a total of 45 peer-reviewed book chapters that are grouped into several parts: Part 1 - Smart Education, Part 2 – Smart Educational Technology, Part 3 – Smart e-Learning, Part 4 – Smart Professional Training and Teachers’ Education, and Part 5 – Smart Teaching and Training related Topics.  This book can be a useful source of research data and valuable information for faculty, scholars, Ph.D. students, administrators, and practitioners  - those who are interested in innovative areas of smart education and smart e-learning.  .

  15. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world’s population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities...... the “smart” vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the “big challenges” and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits......% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants....

  16. Gamification in the context of smart cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zica, M. R.; Ionica, A. C.; Leba, M.

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of smart cities is highly supported by the development of IT and IoT technologies. Nevertheless, a smart city needs to be built to meet the needs and requirements of its citizens. In order to build a smart city it is necessary to understand the benefits of such a city. A smart city is, beyond technology, populated by people. A smart city can be raised by its citizens’ contribution, and gamification is the means to motivate them. In this paper we included gamification techniques in the stage of capturing the citizens’ requirements for building a smart city. The system proposed in the paper is to create an application that allows the building of a virtual smart city customized by each user. From this virtual city, the most relevant features are extracted.

  17. Metacognitive components in smart learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumadyo, M.; Santoso, H. B.; Sensuse, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Metacognitive ability in digital-based learning process helps students in achieving learning goals. So that digital-based learning environment should make the metacognitive component as a facility that must be equipped. Smart Learning Environment is the concept of a learning environment that certainly has more advanced components than just a digital learning environment. This study examines the metacognitive component of the smart learning environment to support the learning process. A review of the metacognitive literature was conducted to examine the components involved in metacognitive learning strategies. Review is also conducted on the results of study smart learning environment, ranging from design to context in building smart learning. Metacognitive learning strategies certainly require the support of adaptable, responsive and personalize learning environments in accordance with the principles of smart learning. The current study proposed the role of metacognitive component in smart learning environment, which is useful as the basis of research in building environment in smart learning.

  18. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  19. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  20. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  1. Smart ampholytic ABC block copolypeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaad, H.; Sun, J.; Černoch, Peter; Ruokolainen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 79 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolypeptide * smart ampholytic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  2. The smart grid research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2013-01-01

    Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...

  3. Smart Grid Control and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Pedersen, Rasmus; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre

    2015-01-01

    to the reliability due to the stochastic behavior found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments and its Real-Time Hardware-In-the Loop (HIL) verification. An overview on the required Information...

  4. Designing Smart Charter School Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Andrew J. Rotherham proposed a new approach to the contentious issue of charter school caps, the statutory limits on charter school growth in place in several states. Rotherham's proposal, termed "smart charter school caps," called for quality sensitive caps that allow the expansion of high-performing charter schools while also…

  5. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography.

  6. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  7. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  8. Privacy concerns in smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a framework is constructed to hypothesize if and how smart city technologies and urban big data produce privacy concerns among the people in these cities (as inhabitants, workers, visitors, and otherwise). The framework is built on the basis of two recurring dimensions in

  9. Business case for smart homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franck, E.; Nauta, J.; Haan, R. de

    2016-01-01

    The application of home automation in “smart homes” has been successful from a technological point of view. In practice, however, few projects seem able to survive after the initial financing period has ended, failing to establish a positive business case. This chapter addresses why the positive

  10. Smart lighting using LED luminaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhardwaj, S.; Ozcelebi, T.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The target of a smart lighting system is to control light sources in an environment (e.g. home, office) adaptively according to user contexts and preferences. Literature work in this area focuses on traditional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lights, whereas this paper takes a

  11. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  12. Design of Flow Big Data System Based on Smart Pipeline Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As telecom operators to build intelligent pipe more and more, analysis and processing of big data technology to deal the huge amounts of data intelligent pipeline generated has become an inevitable trend. Intelligent pipe describes operational data, sales data; operator’s pipe flow data make the value for e-commerce business form and business model in mobile e-business environment. Intelligent pipe is the third dimension of 3 D pipeline mobile electronic commerce system. Intelligent operation dimensions make the mobile e-business three-dimensional artifacts. This paper discusses the smart pipeline theory, smart pipeline flow big data system, their system framework and core technology.

  13. THE SMART HOMES – A PROMISING BUSINESS DOMAIN WHICH WORTH ATTENTION OF ROMANIAN TELECOM COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu PRODAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors present an overview of the main worldwide development directions in the Smart Home solutions, review the Smart Home services, and give recommendations to potential Romanian and foreign investors in the establishment of such services in Romania. The homes and how people live and behave in them have evolved dramatically in the last fifteen years. Today, the authors are able to present a few major trends that revive the Smart Homes: social trends, digital addiction and the fact that global players see the home like the kernel of the digital atmosphere that surrounds us. The purpose was to identify an opportunity today, as these trends have a satisfying maturity degree.Studying various projects, authors were able to estimate that Smart Homes revenues will increase with 8-10 % per year until 2020 in Romania. These estimates include both direct revenues like home automation products/services and indirect revenues like maintenance of the new devices/services.

  14. European and Italian experience of Smart Cities: A model for the smart planning of city built

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the city through smart measures is now a frontier reached from many cities in the world. The built environment requires smart planning able to relate urban realities that are relegated to a marginal change. But how does the smart cities can create a relationship between sustainable cities of the future and their heritage? The article highlights the way of smart urban transformation of reality European and Italian proposing critical comparisons from which to infer smart parameters most used and easy to apply for the sustainable construction of these smart cities focusing on the urban sources of intelligent retrieval for quality their historical and cultural heritage.

  15. A Smart Home Gateway Platform for Data Collection and Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pan; Ye, Feng; Chen, Xuejiao

    2018-01-01

    Smart homes have attracted much attention due to the expanding of Internet-of-Things (IoT) and smart devices. In this paper, we propose a smart gateway platform for data collection and awareness in smart home networks. A smart gateway will replace the traditional network gateway to connect the home network and the Internet. A smart home network supports different types of smart devices, such as in home IoT devices, smart phones, smart electric appliances, etc. A traditional network gateway is...

  16. Integrating Features of Islamic Traditional Home and Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona El Basyouni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Architecture is a mirror that reflects the various elements of its environment and surroundings, such as climate, geographical characteristics, standard architectural principles, and social, cultural and scientific developments. Muslims of different regions were able, through architecture, to portray their temperaments and environments, free of external influence and guarantee life goals for users. Every day, building owners and occupants experience the constant challenges of comfort, convenience, cost, productivity, performance and sustainability. Owners, designers, builders, and operators are continuously faced with new processes, technologies and offerings to help them achieve better building performance. Since an intelligent building is run by a “system of systems” that is integrated to deliver a higher level of operational efficiency and an improved set of user-interface tools than are usually found in traditional building automation; at the other hand Arab homes with Islamic Identity guarantee all life goals for use.. Hence, this research focus on the smart environmental treatments of Islamic features for traditional architecture in Arabs homes, features of smart home and life goals for resident users.Trying to achieve a methodology combining them for enriching Arab experience of traditional architecture and its architectural results, with the modern trends of smart architecture. This combination aims at creating a residential model combining the benefits and features of Arab Islamic identity and intelligent design.

  17. Formal and legal conditions of Smart Grid deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Magulski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the formal and legal issues arising from EU policies and national regulations affecting the capacity to implement Smart Grid solutions. EU legislation currently imposes on the Member States no obligation to apply any mechanisms to support implementation of Smart Grid solutions in the power sector. Directives call for the introduction of such national regulations that promote improved security and reliability of energy supply, development and integration of renewable and distributed energy resources with the power system, and development of the energy market to allow customers to respond to market incentives and to rationally change their behaviours as regards energy use. Not all of the obligations and recommendations have been fully transferred into the national legislation. However, directions of the Polish energy policy are in line with European trends and clearly indicate Smart Grids as one of the remedies to the challenges that the National Power System will have to cope with in the long term. Therefore, some significant legislative changes regarding the power sector should be expected in the near future.

  18. Smart Surfaces and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    the piezoelecric thin film sensor is placed between the top tribological coating system and bottom of ferritic nirocarburized H13 die substrate to...11 Electrical Resistivity (Ω.cm) 109 1011- 1016 108 1011 Note: CTE  (10-6 K-1): 13 for H13 steel, 6 for Al2O3, 6.5 for TiAlN, and 10.1 for Ti...In contrary, at lower working pressures, collision frequency of ions is much lower and ions with high energy will impact the substrate introducing

  19. Energy conservation through smart homes in a smart city: A lesson for Singapore households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Abhishek; Hansen, Michael; Chan, Ching Man

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is a hot topic due to the proliferation of climate changes and energy challenges globally. However, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the concept stage. This means that people talk about environmental awareness readily, yet in reality, they accept to pay the given energy bill. Due to the availability of electricity and its integral role, modulating consumers’ attitudes towards energy savings can be a challenge. Notably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart homes is the understanding of consumers’ behaviour and the integration of this understanding into the smart technology. As part of the Paris Climate change agreement (2015), it is paramount for Singapore to introduce smart technologies targeted to reduce energy consumption. This paper focused on the perception of Singapore households on smart technology and its usage to save energy. Areas of current research include: (1) energy consumption in Singapore households, (2) public programs and policies in energy savings, (3) use of technology in energy savings, and (4) household perception of energy savings in smart homes. Furthermore, three case studies are reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology, while discussing the maturity of existing solutions. - Highlights: • Analyse perception of Singapore households about the usage of smart technology to save energy. • Reviews energy consumption, public policies and household perception of energy savings. • Three case studies were developed and reviewed in relation to smart homes and smart technology. • Analyse research gap of household behaviours and perceptions as smart home design focus.

  20. Design of high-rise dwelling houses for Ho Chi Minh City within the framework of the "smart city" concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Nguyen Hong; Van Tin, Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    There are differences in the concepts of smart cities, which are reflected in many ideas and solutions. Globally one of the similarities of the goals for achieving smart cities is sustainable developmentwith the provision of best living conditions for people beingthe first priority. Ho Chi Minh City is not out of trend, taking the planning steps for the goal of becoming a smart city. It is necessary that design and construction of high-rise dwelling houses meet the criteria of "smart city" concept. This paper explores the design of high-rise dwelling houses forHo Chi Minh City with regards tothe framework of "smart city" concept. Methods used in the paper includedata collection, analytical - synthetical and modeling method.In order to proposedesign tasks and solutions of high-rise dwelling houses forHo Chi Minh Cityinthe concept "smart city"in the current period and near future, we present new approach, whichcan alsobe applied in practice for different cities in Vietnam.Moveover, it can also establishinformation resources, which areuseful in connecting and promotingfurther development for the success of a "smart city" program.