WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance transfer factor

  1. Transfer factor, lung volumes, resistance and ventilation distribution in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Van Muylem, Alain; Schuermans, Daniel; Bautmans, Ivan; Thompson, Bruce; Vincken, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of chronic lung disease requires reference values of lung function indices, including putative markers of small airway function, spanning a wide age range.We measured spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), static lung volume, resistance and ventilation distribution in a healthy population, studying at least 20 subjects per sex and per decade between the ages of 20 and 80 years.With respect to the Global Lung Function Initiative reference data, our subjects had average z-scores for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC of -0.12, 0.04 and -0.32, respectively. Reference equations were obtained which could account for a potential dependence of index variability on age and height. This was done for (but not limited to) indices that are pertinent to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studies: forced expired volume in 6 s, forced expiratory flow, TLCO, specific airway conductance, residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), and ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conductive lung zones.Deterioration in acinar ventilation heterogeneity and lung clearance index with age were more marked beyond 60 years, and conductive ventilation heterogeneity showed the greatest increase in variability with age. The most clinically relevant deviation from published reference values concerned RV/TLC values, which were considerably smaller than American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-endorsed reference values. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  2. Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob; Penadés, José R; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic...... of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus cells...... are effective in exchanging mobile genetic elements, including antibiotic-resistance genes.During colonization or infection of host organisms, the exchange appears to be particularly effective.Bacteriophage-mediated transfer involves both transduction and autotransduction, which may enable lysogenic S. aureus...

  3. Gut transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Expert Group has proposed values for the absorbed fractions (f 1 values) of radionuclides ingested in food and drinking water by members of the public. The f 1 values for adults, which are also taken to apply to children from 1 year of age, are increased from those given in ICRP Publication 30 for occupationally exposed adults for 7 elements out of the 31 considered. Since the publication of the NEA report, further information has become available that is relevant to the choice of f 1 values for polonium and thorium. These data suggest that for the present the f 1 value for polonium currently recommended by ICRP (0.1) should be retained, and that for thorium a reasonable f 1 value is 0.0005. With these exceptions, the NRPB endorses the revisions in f 1 values proposed by the NEA Expert Group for adults and children from 1 year of age. Higher f 1 values are proposed by the NEA expert Group for absorption in the first year of life. For adult values of between 0.01 and 0.5, an increase by a factor of two is assumed, and for adult values of 0.001 or less, absorption by infants is taken to be ten times greater. This approach is consistent with, and extends, that applied to the actinides in ICRP Publication 48 and represents a reasonable interpretation of current evidence. The NRPB therefore endorses the approach proposed by the NEA Expert Group for the calculation of doses to infants. (author)

  4. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  5. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  6. Transfer of the amino-terminal nuclear envelope targeting domain of human MX2 converts MX1 into an HIV-1 resistance factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Caroline; Moncorgé, Olivier; Bauby, Hélène; Doyle, Tomas; Barclay, Wendy S; Malim, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    The myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) protein of humans has been identified recently as an interferon (IFN)-inducible inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that acts at a late postentry step of infection to prevent the nuclear accumulation of viral cDNA (C. Goujon et al., Nature 502:559-562, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12542; M. Kane et al., Nature 502:563-566, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12653; Z. Liu et al., Cell Host Microbe 14:398-410, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2013.08.015). In contrast, the closely related human MX1 protein, which suppresses infection by a range of RNA and DNA viruses (such as influenza A virus [FluAV]), is ineffective against HIV-1. Using a panel of engineered chimeric MX1/2 proteins, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal 91-amino-acid domain of MX2 confers full anti-HIV-1 function when transferred to the amino terminus of MX1, and that this fusion protein retains full anti-FluAV activity. Confocal microscopy experiments further show that this MX1/2 fusion, similar to MX2 but not MX1, can localize to the nuclear envelope (NE), linking HIV-1 inhibition with MX accumulation at the NE. MX proteins are dynamin-like GTPases, and while MX1 antiviral function requires GTPase activity, neither MX2 nor MX1/2 chimeras require this attribute to inhibit HIV-1. This key discrepancy between the characteristics of MX1- and MX2-mediated viral resistance, together with previous observations showing that the L4 loop of the stalk domain of MX1 is a critical determinant of viral substrate specificity, presumably reflect fundamental differences in the mechanisms of antiviral suppression. Accordingly, we propose that further comparative studies of MX proteins will help illuminate the molecular basis and subcellular localization requirements for implementing the noted diversity of virus inhibition by MX proteins. Interferon (IFN) elicits an antiviral state in cells through the induction of hundreds of IFN

  7. Feed/meat transfer factor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The transfer of cesium from the feed to bovine meat is taken as an example to discuss natural environmental conditions and their effects on the determination of the transfer factor. Criteria for estimating the validity of experimentally determined transfer factors are given and used for a critical evaluation of significant literature data. The evaluation presented in this report is not a merely statistical evaluation of transfer data, indicating one single value as the correct one (sometimes within a certain margin), but rather scans the data available for incertainties and drawbacks of the experimental methods applied, finally stating a range of variation within which transfer factors can be considered to be correct. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Factors That Cause Trimethoprim Resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent. PMID:24492367

  9. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  10. Review of resistance factor for steel: resistance distributions and resistance factor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.J.; Bartlett, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the Canadian steel industry warrant a review of the steel resistance factor in CSA Standard S16 (formerly S16.1) 'Limit states design of steel structures', originally calibrated in the landmark study by Kennedy and Gad Aly in 1980. This paper presents statistical parameters for the bending, compression, and tension resistances of W, WWF, and HSS components produced since 1999 that have been derived from geometric and material properties presented in a companion paper. The resistance factor for steel was recalibrated for the live and dead load combination in the 1995 National Building Code of Canada. A resistance factor of 0.95 is suitable for laterally supported beams, stocky columns, and tension members failing by yield of the gross section, whereas the current value of 0.90 is appropriate for intermediate columns and tension members failing by fracture of the net section. (author)

  11. Mass transfer resistance in ASFF reactors for waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettouney, H M; Al-Haddad, A A; Abu-Irhayem, T M

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of mass transfer resistances was performed for an aerated submerged fixed-film reactor (ASFF) for the treatment of waste water containing a mixture of sucrose and ammonia. Both external and internal mass transfer resistances were considered in the analysis, and characterized as a function of feed flow-rate and concentration. Results show that, over a certain operating regime, external mass transfer resistance in the system was greater for sucrose removal than ammonia. This is because the reaction rates for carbon removal were much larger than those of nitrogen. As a result, existence of any form of mass transfer resistance caused by inadequate mixing or diffusion limitations, strongly affects the overall removal rates of carbon more than nitrogen. Effects of the internal måss transfer resistance were virtually non-existent for ammonia removal. This behaviour was found over two orders of magnitude range for the effective diffusivity for ammonia, and one order of magnitude for the film specific surface area. However, over the same parameters' range, it is found that sucrose removal was strongly affected upon lowering its effective diffusivity and increasing the film specific surface area.

  12. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. © FEMS 2017.

  13. Transfer factors for nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E.; Haenninen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland); Rosen, K.; Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aa. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science (Sweden); Nielsen, S.P.; Keith-Roach, M. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Salbu, B. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2002-12-01

    This report by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project subgroup describes transfer factors for radiocaesium and radiostrontium for the fallout year and the years after the fallout. The intention has been to collect information on tools to assess the order of magnitude of radioactive contamination of agricultural products in an emergency situation in Nordic environment. The report describes transfer paths from fallout to plant, from soil to plant and to animal products. The transfer factors of radionuclides (Sr, Cs, I) given in the report are intended to be used for making rough estimates of the contamination of agricultural products soon after the heaviness and composition of the deposition (Bq m{sup -2}) is known. (au)

  14. Transfer factors for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Haenninen, R.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aa.; Nielsen, S.P.; Keith-Roach, M.; Salbu, B.

    2002-12-01

    This report by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project subgroup describes transfer factors for radiocaesium and radiostrontium for the fallout year and the years after the fallout. The intention has been to collect information on tools to assess the order of magnitude of radioactive contamination of agricultural products in an emergency situation in Nordic environment. The report describes transfer paths from fallout to plant, from soil to plant and to animal products. The transfer factors of radionuclides (Sr, Cs, I) given in the report are intended to be used for making rough estimates of the contamination of agricultural products soon after the heaviness and composition of the deposition (Bq m -2 ) is known. (au)

  15. Soil Plant and plant mammal transfer factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Vermeire TG

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the lifetime hazard of ingestion exposure of man to new substances, the RIVM Assessment System for New Substances links environmental concentrations in water and soil to human exposure applying transfer factors. This report discusses indirect human exposure to new substances via

  16. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Intrinsic and Transferable Polymyxin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongchang; Wei, Wenhui; Lei, Sheng; Lin, Jingxia; Srinivas, Swaminath; Feng, Youjun

    2018-04-10

    Polymyxins, a family of cationic antimicrobial cyclic peptides, act as a last line of defense against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with carbapenem resistance. In addition to the intrinsic resistance to polymyxin E (colistin) conferred by Neisseria eptA , the plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been disseminated globally since the first discovery in Southern China, in late 2015. However, the molecular mechanisms for both intrinsic and transferable resistance to colistin remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to address this gap in the knowledge of these proteins. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 have defined a conserved 12-residue cavity that is required for the entry of the lipid substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The in vitro and in vivo data together have allowed us to visualize the similarities in catalytic activity shared by EptA and MCR-1 and -2. The expression of either EptA or MCR-1 or -2 is shown to remodel the surface of enteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli , Salmonella enterica , Klebsiella pneumoniae , etc.), rendering them resistant to colistin. The parallels in the PE substrate-binding cavities among EptA, MCR-1, and MCR-2 provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and transferable colistin resistance. Domain swapping between EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveals that the two domains (transmembrane [TM] region and p hospho e thanol a mine [PEA] transferase) are not functionally exchangeable. Taken together, the results represent a common mechanism for intrinsic and transferable PEA resistance to polymyxin, a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE EptA and MCR-1 and -2 remodel the outer membrane, rendering bacteria resistant to colistin, a final resort against carbapenem-resistant pathogens. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveal parallel PE lipid substrate-recognizing cavities, which explains intrinsic and

  17. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Casadellá; P.M. van Ham (Petra); M. Noguera-Julian; A. van Kessel; C. Pou; L.M. Hofstra (Marije); G.A. Metcalf (Ginger A.); F. Garcia; D. Struck (Daniel); I. Alexiev (Ivailo); A.M. Bakken Kran; A.I.M. Hoepelman; L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); S. Somogyi; K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Linka (Marek); C. Nielsen; D. Otelea (Dan); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios); M. Poljak (Mario); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); D. Stanekova (Danica); M. Stanojevic (Maja); K. Van Laethem (Kristel); S. Zidovec Lepej (Snjezana); B. Clotet; C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); R. Paredes (Roger); A.M.J. Wensing (Annemarie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European SPREAD

  19. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadella, M.; van Ham, P. M.; Noguera-Julian, M.; van Kessel, A.; Pou, C.; Hofstra, L. M.; Santos, J. R.; Garcia, F.; Struck, D.; Alexiev, I.; Kran, A. M. Bakken; Hoepelman, A. I.; Kostrikis, L. G.; Somogyi, S.; Liitsola, K.; Linka, M.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, D.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Stoeckl, E.; Stanekova, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Van Laethem, K.; Lepej, S. Zidovec; Clotet, B.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Paredes, R.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Schuurman, R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to define the natural genotypic variation of the HIV-1 integrase gene across Europe for epidemiological surveillance of integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (InSTI) resistance. Methods: This was a multicentre, cross-sectional study within the European

  20. An Evolutionarily Conserved Mechanism for Intrinsic and Transferable Polymyxin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchang Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins, a family of cationic antimicrobial cyclic peptides, act as a last line of defense against severe infections by Gram-negative pathogens with carbapenem resistance. In addition to the intrinsic resistance to polymyxin E (colistin conferred by Neisseria eptA, the plasmid-borne mobilized colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been disseminated globally since the first discovery in Southern China, in late 2015. However, the molecular mechanisms for both intrinsic and transferable resistance to colistin remain largely unknown. Here, we aim to address this gap in the knowledge of these proteins. Structural and functional analyses of EptA and MCR-1 and -2 have defined a conserved 12-residue cavity that is required for the entry of the lipid substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. The in vitro and in vivo data together have allowed us to visualize the similarities in catalytic activity shared by EptA and MCR-1 and -2. The expression of either EptA or MCR-1 or -2 is shown to remodel the surface of enteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, etc., rendering them resistant to colistin. The parallels in the PE substrate-binding cavities among EptA, MCR-1, and MCR-2 provide a comprehensive understanding of both intrinsic and transferable colistin resistance. Domain swapping between EptA and MCR-1 and -2 reveals that the two domains (transmembrane [TM] region and phosphoethanolamine [PEA] transferase are not functionally exchangeable. Taken together, the results represent a common mechanism for intrinsic and transferable PEA resistance to polymyxin, a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  1. Horizontal antimicrobial resistance transfer drives epidemics of multiple Shigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate S; Dallman, Timothy J; Field, Nigel; Childs, Tristan; Mitchell, Holly; Day, Martin; Weill, François-Xavier; Lefèvre, Sophie; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Hughes, Gwenda; Jenkins, Claire; Thomson, Nicholas

    2018-04-13

    Horizontal gene transfer has played a role in developing the global public health crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, the dynamics of AMR transfer through bacterial populations and its direct impact on human disease is poorly elucidated. Here, we study parallel epidemic emergences of multiple Shigella species, a priority AMR organism, in men who have sex with men to gain insight into AMR emergence and spread. Using genomic epidemiology, we show that repeated horizontal transfer of a single AMR plasmid among Shigella enhanced existing and facilitated new epidemics. These epidemic patterns contrasted with slighter, slower increases in disease caused by organisms with vertically inherited (chromosomally encoded) AMR. This demonstrates that horizontal transfer of AMR directly affects epidemiological outcomes of globally important AMR pathogens and highlights the need for integration of genomic analyses into all areas of AMR research, surveillance and management.

  2. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the factors determining placental oxygen transfer and the oxygen supply to the fetus. In the case of continuous variables, such as the rate of placental blood flow, it is not possible to trace evolutionary trends. Discontinuous variables, for which we can define character sta......, where fetal and adult haemoglobin are not different, developmental regulation of 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate ensures the high oxygen affinity of fetal blood. Oxygen diffusing capacity is dependent on diffusion distance, which may vary with the type of interhaemal barrier. It has been shown...

  3. Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria and Transfer of Resistance Genes in Lake Taihu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qian; Yue, Dongmei; Peng, Yuke; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance in the natural environment, especially fresh water, generating a potential risk for public health around the world. In this study, antibiotic resistance in Lake Taihu was investigated and this was the first thorough data obtained through culture-dependent methods. High percentages of resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin among bacterial isolates were detected, followed by tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Especially high levels of ampicillin resistance in the western and northern regions were illustrated. Bacterial identification of the isolates selected for further study indicated the prevalence of some opportunistic pathogens and 62.0% of the 78 isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The presence of ESBLs genes was in the following sequence: blaTEM > blaSHV > blaCTMX and 38.5% of the isolates had a class I integrase gene. Of all tested strains, 80.8% were able to transfer antibiotic resistance through conjugation. We also concluded that some new families of human-associated ESBLs and AmpC genes can be found in natural environmental isolates. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of transferable antibiotic resistance in bacterial isolates (especially in opportunistic pathogens) was alarming and clearly indicated the urgency of realizing the health risks of antibiotic resistance to human and animal populations who are dependent on Lake Taihu for water consumption. PMID:24240317

  4. Simplistic graphene transfer process and its impact on contact resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition based graphene grown on copper foil is attractive for electronic applications owing to its reliable growth process, large area coverage, and relatively defect free nature. However, transfer of the synthesized graphene to host substrate for subsequent device fabrication is extremely sensitive and can impact ultimate performance. Although ultra-high mobility is graphene's most prominent feature, problems with high contact resistance have severely limited its true potential. Therefore, we report a simple poly-(methyl methacrylate) based transfer process without post-annealing to achieve specific contact resistivity of 3.8 × 10−5 Ω cm2 which shows 80% reduction compared to previously reported values.

  5. Simplistic graphene transfer process and its impact on contact resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2013-05-09

    Chemical vapor deposition based graphene grown on copper foil is attractive for electronic applications owing to its reliable growth process, large area coverage, and relatively defect free nature. However, transfer of the synthesized graphene to host substrate for subsequent device fabrication is extremely sensitive and can impact ultimate performance. Although ultra-high mobility is graphene\\'s most prominent feature, problems with high contact resistance have severely limited its true potential. Therefore, we report a simple poly-(methyl methacrylate) based transfer process without post-annealing to achieve specific contact resistivity of 3.8 × 10−5 Ω cm2 which shows 80% reduction compared to previously reported values.

  6. Plant Translation Factors and Virus Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sanfaçon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. Emerging evidence that translation repression operates as an alternative antiviral RNA silencing mechanism is also discussed. Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable.

  7. TRANSFER PRICING AS A SYSTEM-FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Guisin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that transfer pricing plays a system-building role for multi-profile commercial banks of today. Bank transfer pricing system properties are outlined. Examples of practical implementation of the transfer pricing to bank activities are brought about. Impact of transferprices on key aspects of the bank management and control system is discussed.

  8. Transposon characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and dissemination of resistance associated with transferable plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: VanA glycopeptide resistance has persisted on broiler farms in the UK despite the absence of the antimicrobial selective pressure, avoparcin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of horizontal gene transfer of Tn 1546 versus clonal spread in the dissemination of the resist......Objectives: VanA glycopeptide resistance has persisted on broiler farms in the UK despite the absence of the antimicrobial selective pressure, avoparcin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of horizontal gene transfer of Tn 1546 versus clonal spread in the dissemination...... plasmid replicons, associated with antimicrobial resistance on several unrelated farms. Conclusions: Horizontal transfer of vancomycin resistance may play a more important role in the persistence of antimicrobial resistance than clonal spread. The presence of different plasmid replicons, associated...... with antimicrobial resistance on several unrelated farms, illustrates the ability of these enterococci to acquire and disseminate mobile genetic elements within integrated livestock systems....

  9. Transferable Antibiotic Resistances in Marketed Edible Grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Milanović, Vesna; Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Pasquini, Marina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-05-01

    Grasshoppers are the most commonly eaten insects by humans worldwide, as they are rich in proteins and micronutrients. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes in commercialized edible grasshoppers. To this end, the prevalence of 12 selected genes [aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia, blaZ, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), mecA, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), vanA, vanB] coding for resistance to antibiotics conventionally used in clinical practice was determined. The majority of samples were positive for tet(M) (70.0%), tet(K) (83.3%) and blaZ (83.3%). A low percentage of samples were positive for erm(B) (16.7%), erm(C) (26.7%), and aac(6')-Ie aph(2″)-Ia (13.3%), whereas no samples were positive for erm(A), vanA, vanB, tet(O), and mecA. Cluster analysis identified 4 main clusters, allowing a separation of samples on the basis of their country of origin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Influence of mass transfer resistance on overall nitrate removal rate in upflow sludge bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wen-Huei; Huang, Ju-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    A kinetic model with intrinsic reaction kinetics and a simplified model with apparent reaction kinetics for denitrification in upflow sludge bed (USB) reactors were proposed. USB-reactor performance data with and without sludge wasting were also obtained for model verification. An independent batch study showed that the apparent kinetic constants k' did not differ from the intrinsic k but the apparent Ks' was significantly larger than the intrinsic Ks suggesting that the intra-granule mass transfer resistance can be modeled by changes in Ks. Calculations of the overall effectiveness factor, Thiele modulus, and Biot number combined with parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the influence of internal mass transfer resistance on the overall nitrate removal rate in USB reactors is more significant than the external mass transfer resistance. The simulated residual nitrate concentrations using the simplified model were in good agreement with the experimental data; the simulated results using the simplified model were also close to those using the kinetic model. Accordingly, the simplified model adequately described the overall nitrate removal rate and can be used for process design.

  11. Transferable chloramphenicol resistance determinant in luminous Vibrio harveyi from penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant luminous Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from Penaeus monodon larvae were screened for the possession of transferable resistance determinants. All the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and the determinant coding for chloramphenicol resistance was transferred to Escherichia coli at frequencies of 9.50x10-4 to 4.20x10-4. The results probably suggest the excessive use of chloramphenicol in shrimp hatcheries to combat luminous vibriosis.

  12. Methodology of heat transfer and flow resistance measurement for matrices of rotating regenerative heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrymowicz Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical basis for the indirect measurement approach of mean heat transfer coefficient for the packed bed based on the modified single blow technique was presented and discussed in the paper. The methodology of this measurement approach dedicated to the matrix of the rotating regenerative gas heater was discussed in detail. The testing stand consisted of a dedicated experimental tunnel with auxiliary equipment and a measurement system are presented. Selected experimental results are presented and discussed for selected types of matrices of regenerative air preheaters for the wide range of Reynolds number of gas. The agreement between the theoretically predicted and measured temperature profiles was demonstrated. The exemplary dimensionless relationships between Colburn heat transfer factor, Darcy flow resistance factor and Reynolds number were presented for the investigated matrices of the regenerative gas heater.

  13. Variability of soil-to-crop transfer factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Kamada, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Setsuko; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1987-01-01

    Many European countries have nuclear facilities in inland areas, where extremely low level radioactive waste liquid is discharged to rivers. In those nations, therefore, many studies have been made oncerning the transfer of radioisotopes into plants. In Japan, greater attention has been attracted to such radioisotope transfer into plants and then into human bodies. Thus the present report reviews various studies on this issue. The key parameter for this process is the transfer factor (also called concentration factor, coefficient or ratio). The factor largely depends on various other factors including the characteristics of different nuclides, properties of soil (pH, oxidation-reduction potential, grain size distribution, contents of clay minerals, contents of organic matters, water content, etc.), characteristics of crops and cultivation conditions. It has been reported that I is absorbed by plants more rapidly than IO 3 . Of the various soil parameters, the pH of soil has the greatest effect on the transfer factor. Soil is mostly alkaline in Europe and America while acid soil account for a great part in Japan, suggesting that the transfer factor would be greater in Japan. The total potassium content in soil has the second largest effect on the factor. Radioactive iodine has shown to be transferred into soy beans and spinach 30 times more rapidly than into fruit vegetables. The oxidation-reduction potential also has a significant influence on the transfer factor. (Nogami, K.)

  14. EFFECT OF ADIPOSITY ON PLASMA-LIPID TRANSFER PROTEIN ACTIVITIES - A POSSIBLE LINK BETWEEN INSULIN-RESISTANCE AND HIGH-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; SLUITER, WJ; DIKKESCHEI, LD; HOOGENBERG, K; VANTOL, A

    The mechanisms responsible for the decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels associated with obesity and insulin resistance are not well understood. Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in the esterification of

  15. Transfer factors of Polonium from soil to parsley and mint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Eadan, Z.; Amin, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Transfer factors of 210 Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ( 208 Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. 208 Po and 210 Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of 208 Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the 210 Po activity concentrations than the 208 Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of 210 Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 x 10 -2 and 50 x 10 -2 and 22 x 10 -3 and 67 x 10 -3 in mint, while 208 Po transfer factors varied between 4 x 10 -2 and 12 x 10 -2 for parsley and 10 x 10 -2 and 22 x 10 -2 in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system.

  16. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site

  17. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance to plasma

  18. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  19. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  20. An ISM approach for analyzing the factors in technology transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology transfer, from research and technology organizations (RTOs toward local industries, is considered as one of important and significant strategies for countries' industrial development. In addition to recover the enormous costs of research and development for RTOs, successful technology transfer from RTOs toward local firms forms technological foundations and develops the ability to enhance the competitiveness of firms. Better understanding of factors influencing process of technology transfer helps RTOs and local firms prioritize and manage their resources in an effective and efficient way to maximize the success of technology transfer. This paper aims to identify important effective factors in technology transfer from Iranian RTOs and provides a comprehensive model, which indicate the interactions of these factors. In this regard, first, research background is reviewed and Cummings and Teng’s model (2003 [Cummings, J. L., & Teng, B.-S. (2003. Transferring R&D knowledge: The key factors affecting knowledge transfer success. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 20(1-2, 39-68.] was selected as the basic model in this study and it was modified through suggesting new factors identified from literature of inter-organizational knowledge and technology transfer and finally a Delphi method was applied for validation of modified model. Then, research conducted used Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM to evaluate the relationship between the factors of final proposed model. Results indicate that there were twelve factors influencing on technology transfer process from Iranian RTOs to local firms and also the intensity of absorption capability in transferee could influence on the intensity of desorption capability in transferor.

  1. In vitro transfer of multiple resistance observed in vivo during a Salmonella london epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, J; Marjai, E

    1980-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, waves of Salmonella london infections conveyed by raw meat and meat products were observed. The strains isolated during the epidemic were first susceptible then developed multiple antibiotic resistance. The identical antibiotic resistance patterns of the strain and their more frequent occurrence in hospital environments indicated plasmid-mediated resistance. R-plasmid transfer, minimum inhibition concentration and resistance elimination were studied in representative strains. The resistant S. london strain and transconjugants of Escherichia coli rendered resistant were compared. The results proved that multiple resistance was plasmid-mediated.

  2. Understanding Transfer as Personal Change: Concerns, Intentions, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeani C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult education is about change. Change in knowledge and understanding. Change in attitudes and beliefs. Change in skills and behaviors. The transfer that adult educators and learners often want to achieve is that change. In situations where transfer equals change, models of change can be useful to describe, support, and predict transfer. This…

  3. Transfer factors of polonium from soil to parsley and mint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Eadan, Z; Amin, Y

    2010-12-01

    Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ((208)Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. (208)Po and (210)Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of (208)Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the (210)Po activity concentrations than the (208)Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 × 10⁻² and 50 × 10⁻² and 22 × 10⁻³ and 67 × 10⁻³ in mint, while (208)Po transfer factors varied between 4 × 10⁻² and 12 × 10⁻² for parsley and 10 × 10⁻² and 22 × 10⁻² in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfer factors of Polonium from soil to parsley and mint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M.S., E-mail: prscientific@aec.org.s [Department of Protection and Safety, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hamwi, A. [Department of Protection and Safety, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Eadan, Z. [Physics Department, Damascus University (Syrian Arab Republic); Amin, Y. [Department of Protection and Safety, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2010-12-15

    Transfer factors of {sup 210}Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ({sup 208}Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. {sup 208}Po and {sup 210}Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of {sup 208}Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the {sup 210}Po activity concentrations than the {sup 208}Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of {sup 210}Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 x 10{sup -2} and 50 x 10{sup -2} and 22 x 10{sup -3} and 67 x 10{sup -3} in mint, while {sup 208}Po transfer factors varied between 4 x 10{sup -2} and 12 x 10{sup -2} for parsley and 10 x 10{sup -2} and 22 x 10{sup -2} in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system.

  5. Determination of charge transfer resistance and capacitance of microbial fuel cell through a transient response analysis of cell voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phuc Thi; Moon, Hyunsoo; Kim, Byung Hong; Ng, How Yong; Chang, In Seop

    2010-03-15

    An alternative method for determining the charge transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), easily implemented without a potentiostat, was developed. A dynamic model with two parameters, the charge transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of electrodes, was derived from a linear differential equation to depict the current generation with respect to activation overvoltage. This model was then used to fit the transient cell voltage response to the current step change during the continuous operation of a flat-plate type MFC fed with acetate. Variations of the charge transfer resistance and the capacitance value with respect to the MFC design conditions (biocatalyst existence and electrode area) and operating parameters (acetate concentration and buffer strength in the catholyte) were then determined to elucidate the validity of the proposed method. This model was able to describe the dynamic behavior of the MFC during current change in the activation loss region; having an R(2) value of over 0.99 in most tests. Variations of the charge transfer resistance value (thousands of Omega) according to the change of the design factors and operational factors were well-correlated with the corresponding MFC performances. However, though the capacitance values (approximately 0.02 F) reflected the expected trend according to the electrode area change and catalyst property, they did not show significant variation with changes in either the acetate concentration or buffer strength. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transfer and concentration factors in laboratory and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental transfer factors, as well as concentration and accumulation factors, have been increasingly used in environmental dosimetric models. These models are often the basis for decision-making processes concerning radiological protection. However, the uncertainties associated with measured and default values of transfer and concentration factors are usually not taken into account in the decision making processes. In addition, laboratory-based values for these factors do not necessarily agree with site-specific and species-specific transfer and concentration factors. Soil-to-plant transfer factors and water-to-aquatic-organisms concentration factors are not only time and concentration-dependent, but also species-and site-specific environment-dependent. These uncertainties and dependencies may make the decision-making process, based on models, quite a difficult exercise. The current work examines, as an example, the time-dependent variations in the accumulation of 226 Ra in zooplankton in a laboratory experiment as compared with the concentration factor measured in a natural environment. In addition, the work reviews differences in 228 Ra and 226 Ra concentration factors for several plant families measured in a highly radioactive environment. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Primary resistance to integrase strand-transfer inhibitors in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casadellà, M; van Ham, P M; Noguera-Julian, M

    2015-01-01

    the introduction of InSTIs. However, polymorphisms contributing to InSTI resistance were not rare. As InSTI use becomes more widespread, continuous surveillance of primary InSTI resistance is warranted. These data will be key to modelling the kinetics of InSTI resistance transmission in Europe in the coming years....

  8. Effects of Metals on Antibiotic Resistance and Conjugal Plasmid Transfer in Soil Bacterial Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Jianxiao

    Antibiotic resistance currently represents one of the biggest challenges for human health and in recent years the environmental dimension of antibiotic resistance has been increasingly recognized. The soil environment serves as an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. In addi...... adaptation to metal stress did not significantly increase the permissiveness of the soil bacterial community towards conjugal plasmid transfer........ In addition to direct selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotics, metals may co-select for antibiotic resistance via different mechanisms causing environmental selection of antibiotic resistance in metal contaminated soils. Horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) like plasmids...... is generally considered one of the most important co-selection mechanisms as multiple resistance genes can be located on the same MGE. This PhD thesis focused on the impact of metals (Cu and Zn) on the development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities in soils exposed to different degrees...

  9. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Martin Rumende

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.

  10. Factors affecting radiocaesium transfer to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Howard, B.J.; Vandecasteele, C.; Mayes, R.W.; Belli, M.; Sansone, U.; Stakelum, G.; Colgan, P.A.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Crout, N.M.J.; Jones, B.E.V., Hove, K.; ITE, Merlewood; CEN, Mol; MLURI, Aberdeen; ENEA-DISP, Rome; MPRC, Fermoy; RPII, Dublin; Ioannina Univ., Nuclear Physics; Nottingham Univ., Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala; Agricultural Univ., Aas

    1993-01-01

    The studies performed in the 2 year CEG/DG XII Radiation Protection Programme described here have tried to identify and quantify some of the most important factors influencing the radiocaesium levels in animal food products. The programme involved 9 laboratories in 6 countries: Belgium, Ireland, Greece, Italy, Sweden and the UK. Scientists from Norway and Germany also participated on an informal basis and are formally involved in a subsequent project. Experimental studies have largely been conducted using sheep, although some comparative studies have been performed with dairy cattle. In parallel to the experimental studies, a number of research models have been developed by participants in Greece and the UK to be interactively used with a number of different aspects in the programme. This presentation gives a short overview and discussion of the main findings of this project. (orig./DG)

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  12. Soil-plant transfer factors in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    1995-04-01

    Within scope of an extended study about 137 Cs behaviour in forest ecosystems several parameters were found to influence soil-plant transfer factors. TF-values of different plant species cover a range of two magnitudes. This is partly due to variations in rooting depth of plants and specific physiological adaptations of nutrient supply. Perrenial plants like trees (Picea abies) and dwarf shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus) showed a distinct age - dependency of 137 Cs - transfer factors. In young plant parts caesium concentration is higher than in old, more signified twigs. A correlation analysis of physico-chemical soil parameters and TF-values to forest vegetation showed, that soil organic matter, especially the degree of humification and the ratio between extractable fulvic to humic acids are important influencing factors of 137 Cs transfer from forest soils to plants. (author)

  13. Transfer of antibiotic resistant bacteria from animals to man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Gerner-Smidt, P.

    1999-01-01

    for animals either for therapy or for growth promotion. Antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacteria constitute a public health hazard, primarily through the increased risk of treatment failures. This paper describes the zoonotic bacteria, salmonella, campylobacter, yersinia and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC......Antibiotic resistance develops in zoonotic bacteria in response to antibiotics used in food animals. A close association exists between the amounts of antibiotics used and the levels of resistance observed. The classes of antibiotics routinely used for treatment of human infections are also used......). Infections with these agents do not generally require antibiotic therapy, but in some cases antibiotics are essential to obtain a successful cure. The levels and types of resistance observed in zoonotic bacteria in some countries, especially the increasing levels of fluoroquinolone resistance in salmonella...

  14. Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Liu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat and water transfer have a significant impact on the accuracy of models of land – atmosphere interactions and of estimated surface fluxes using spectro-radiometric data collected from aircrafts and satellites. We have used measurements from an eddy correlation system to derive the aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer over a bare soil surface as well as over a maize canopy. Diurnal variations of aerodynamic resistance have been analyzed. The results showed that the diurnal variation of aerodynamic resistance during daytime (07:00 h–18:00 h was significant for both the bare soil surface and the maize canopy although the range of variation was limited. Based on the measurements made by the eddy correlation system, a comprehensive evaluation of eight popularly used parameterization schemes of aerodynamic resistance was carried out. The roughness length for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in the estimation of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer and can neither be taken as a constant nor be neglected. Comparing with the measurements, the parameterizations by Choudhury et al. (1986, Viney (1991, Yang et al. (2001 and the modified forms of Verma et al. (1976 and Mahrt and Ek (1984 by inclusion of roughness length for heat transfer gave good agreements with the measurements, while the parameterizations by Hatfield et al. (1983 and Xie (1988 showed larger errors even though the roughness length for heat transfer has been taken into account.

  15. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  16. Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara National ... risk factors of MDR-TB patients in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. ... strict adherence to directly observed therapy, appropriate management of TB ...

  17. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...

  18. Occurrence of transferable antibiotic resistances in commercialized ready-to-eat mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, Andrea; Cardinali, Federica; Aquilanti, Lucia; Garofalo, Cristiana; Roncolini, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Pasquini, Marina; Tavoletti, Stefano; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-12-18

    The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of transferable determinants conferring resistance to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B, vancomycin, beta-lactams, and aminoglycosides in 40 samples of commercialized edible mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) purchased from European Union (EU) and non-EU producers. A high prevalence of tet(K) was observed in all of the samples assayed, with percentages of PCR-based positivity that ranged from 80% (samples from Thailand) to 100% (samples from the Netherlands, Belgium and France). For macrolides, erm(B) prevailed, being detected in 57.5% of the samples assayed, whereas erm(A) and erm(C) were detected with lower frequencies. Genes for resistance to vancomycin were only detected in samples produced in France and Belgium, with 90% and 10% of the samples being positive for vanA, respectively. Beta-lactamase genes were found with low occurrence, whereas the gene aac-aph, conferring high resistance to aminoglycosides, was found in 40% of the samples produced in the Netherlands and Belgium and 20% of the samples produced in Thailand. The results of Principal Coordinate Analysis and Principal Component Analysis depicted a clean separation of the samples collected from the four producers based on the distribution of the 12 AR determinants considered. Given the growing interest on the use of mealworms as a novel protein source, AR detection frequencies found in the present study suggest further investigation into the use of antibiotics during rearing of this insect species and more extensive studies focused on the factors that can affect the diffusion of transferable ARs in the production chain. Until such studies are completed, prudent use of antibiotics during rearing of edible insects is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    know which endemic strains of S. aureus in dairy cattle ... Antibiotic resistance; cattle; mastitis; MRSA; pathogenic genes ... recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ...... fnbA, eno, hla and nuc, did not show any relation to.

  20. Technetium and diazotrophic organisms: toxicity, localization, transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Delmotte, A.; Roucoux, P.; Hove, C. van

    1982-01-01

    Three diazotrophic organisms, together with one leguminous organism in symbiosis with one of them, were cultivated in the presence of various quantities of technetium, of which the localization, transfer factors and toxicity were studied in relation to the age of the organisms and their type of metabolism. The paper discusses the biochemical aspects of the results. (author)

  1. University Technology Transfer Factors as Predictors of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Dorothy M.

    2011-01-01

    University technology transfer is a collaborative effort between academia and industry involving knowledge sharing and learning. Working closely with their university partners affords biotechnology firms the opportunity to successfully develop licensed inventions and gain access to novel scientific and technological discoveries. These factors may…

  2. Governance factors enabling knowledge transfer in interorganisational development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, Petra M.; Postma, Theo J. B. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine governance factors affecting knowledge transfer in interorganisational development projects. There is a gap in the literature indicating a need for more insights into processes of knowledge sharing and governance of interorganisational development projects. By using cases

  3. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Suhardiman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and implementation in Indonesia. It links IMT with the issue of bureaucratic reform and argues that its potential to address current problems in government irrigation systems cannot be achieved if the irrigation agency is not convinced about the need for management transfer. IMT’s significance cannot be measured only through IMT outcomes and impacts, without linking these with how the irrigation agency perceives the idea of management transfer in the first place, how this perception (redefines the agency’s position in IMT, and how it shapes the agency’s action and strategy in the policy formulation and implementation. I illustrate how the irrigation agency contested the idea of management transfer by referring to IMT policy adoption in 1987 and its renewal in 1999. The article concludes that for management transfer to be meaningful it is pertinent that the issue of bureaucratic reform is incorporated into current policy discussions.

  4. Natural convection heat transfer between vertical channel with flow resistance at the lower end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, S.; Nishimura, S.; Ishihara, I.

    2003-01-01

    For natural convection in the geometrically complicated channel, the convection flow is suppressed by flow resistance due to such channel itself and the lopsided flow may take place. This could result in serious influences on the heat transfer in the channel. In order to investigate fundamentally the natural convection flow and heat transfer in such the channel, the vertical channel in which wall was heated with uniform heat flux and the flow resistance was given by small clearance between the lower end of channel and a wide horizontal floor. Flow pattern was observed by illuminating smoke filled in the channel and heat transfer rate was measured. (author)

  5. Transfer factor values of 137 Cs from latosoils to vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica Moreira; Belem, Lilia Maria Juacaba

    1996-01-01

    Transfer Factor values for black beams, radish and carrot were obtained for soils artificially and accidentally contaminated in Goiania during 1987. Differences of 137 Cs-soil-to-plant transfer were discussed in the light of pedology and crop type. These values were about one order of magnitude higher than mean values reported by IUR for temperature climate for the same crops. These results advertising for the peculiar dynamics of 137 Cs in tropical soils and for needs to obtain regional data to be used in assessment dose models. (author)

  6. Simulation Study for Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance via Mutator Subpopulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    Evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations is an increasing problem having fatal consequences for treatment of diseases. Therefore it is very important to understand this evolution. Traditionally evolution is considered to happen by single point mutations, where each mutant must...

  7. Transferable and non-transferable drug resistance in enteric bacteria from hospital and from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, JK; Bak, AL; Bülow, P

    1976-01-01

    Drug resistance to 8 different antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from different hospitals and two groups of general practitioners was studied. Escherichia coli dominated among the 632 strains investigated. Drug resistance was found in 62% of the 512 hospital strains and in 38% of the 120...

  8. Transferring aviation human factors technology to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemerlo, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the availability of aviation safety technology and research on problems which are sufficiently similar to those faced by the nuclear power industry that an agressive effort to adapt and transfer that technology and research is warranted. Because of time and space constraints, the scope of this paper is reduced from a discussion of all of aviation safety technology to the human factors of air carrier safety. This area was selected not only because of similarities in the human factors challenges shared by both industries (e.g. selection, training, evaluation, certification, etc.) but because experience in aviation has clearly demonstrated that human error contributes to a substantially greater proportion of accidents and incidents than does equipment failure. The Congress of the United States has placed a great deal of emphasis on investigating and solving human factors problems in aviation. A number of recent examples of this interest and of the resulting actions are described. The opinions of prominent aviation organizations as to the human factors problems most in need of research are presented, along with indications of where technology transfer to the nuclear power industry may be viable. The areas covered include: fatigue, crew size, information transfer, resource management, safety data-bases, the role of automation, voice and data recording systems, crew distractions, the management of safety regulatory agencies, equipment recertification, team training, crew work-load, behavioural factors, human factors of equipment design, medical problems, toxicological factors, the use of simulators for training and certification, determining the causes of human errors, the politics of systems improvement, and importance of both safety and public perception of safety if the industry is to be viable. (author)

  9. Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein disruption confers resistance to malarial infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Motohiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors impact the severity of malaria, including the nutritional status of the host. Vitamin E, an intra and extracellular anti-oxidant, is one such nutrient whose absence was shown previously to negatively affect Plasmodium development. However, mechanisms of this Plasmodium inhibition, in addition to means by which to exploit this finding as a therapeutic strategy, remain unclear. Methods α-TTP knockout mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 or Plasmodium yoelii XL-17, parasitaemia, survival rate were monitored. In one part of the experiments mice were fed with a supplemented diet of vitamin E and then infected. In addition, parasite DNA damage was monitored by means of comet assay and 8-OHdG test. Moreover, infected mice were treated with chloroquine and parasitaemia and survival rate were monitored. Results Inhibition of α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP, a determinant of vitamin E concentration in circulation, confers resistance to malarial infection as a result of oxidative damage to the parasites. Furthermore, in combination with the anti-malarial drug chloroquine results were even more dramatic. Conclusion Considering that these knockout mice lack observable negative impacts typical of vitamin E deficiency, these results suggest that inhibition of α-TTP activity in the liver may be a useful strategy in the prevention and treatment of malaria infection. Moreover, a combined strategy of α-TTP inhibition and chloroquine treatment might be effective against drug resistant parasites.

  10. Transfer factors of radionuclides from Andosols to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of some selected radionuclides from Andosols, a typical soil type in Japan, to several crops (leaf vegetables and root vegetables) have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Cabbages, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce were used as leaf vegetables and radish, carrot and turnip were used as root vegetables. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 65 Zn and 125 I for edible parts of leaf vegetables were 0.11, 0.24, 0.046, 0.60, 0.51 and 0.0054, respectively. Respective values for edible parts of root vegetables were 0.02, 0.14, 0.004. 0.09, 0.13 and 0.0022. The obtained TFs were, in most cases in the order Mn, Zn, Sr>Cs>Co>I. The TFs of 125 I were much lower than the other nuclides. The transfer factors obtained for the edible part of root vegetables were markedly lower than those for leaf vegetables. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn for leaf vegetables were generally higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In the root vegetables, TFs for leaf parts were typically higher than those for tubers. (author)

  11. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  12. Resistance against Schistosoma mansoni induced by highly irradiated infections: studies on species specificity of immunization and attempts to transfer resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Andrews, B.J.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Ford, M.J.; Taylor, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Significant levels of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni challenge were developed by mice exposed to highly irradiated (20 krad.) cercariae of the homologous species (53-67%), whereas vaccination with S. bovis, S. haematobium or S. japonicum failed to confer significant levels of resistance (-5-12%), thus confirming the specificity of the immunizing procedure. Attempts to transfer resistance to naive recipients by injection of serum and of spleen or lymph node cells from donor mice vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae were largely unsuccessful. However, significant levels of resistance could be transferred to mice by injection of serum from rabbits exposed to irradiated cercariae. Comparable levels of resistance were conferred by injection of serum at the time of challenge (34-69%) or 5-6 days later (31-56%). In contrast, sera from rabbits injected with soluble egg antigen or homogenized cercariae failed to confer protection upon recipient mice. Sera from vaccinated mice, vaccinated rabbits and antigen-injected rabbits all caused cell adherence to skin-transformed schistosomula but neither the level of adherence nor the serum titre correlated with the ability to confer protection to mice. (author)

  13. Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria and Transfer of Resistance Genes in Lake Taihu

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Qian; Yue, Dongmei; Peng, Yuke; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Lin

    2013-01-01

    The overuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance in the natural environment, especially fresh water, generating a potential risk for public health around the world. In this study, antibiotic resistance in Lake Taihu was investigated and this was the first thorough data obtained through culture-dependent methods. High percentages of resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin among bacterial isolates were detected, followed by tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Especially high lev...

  14. Site specific transfer factor studies for Kaiga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Radioecology Laboratory of University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University is engaged in frontline research studies on different aspects of environmental radioactivity and radiation protection for the last 20 years. Extensive studies have been carried out on radiation levels, radionuclides distribution, and transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric pathways in the environment of West Coast of India including the Kaiga nuclear power plant. The baseline studies on radioactivity levels around Kaiga region was carried out well before the nuclear power plant became operational and the data generated under these studies are considered to be highly valuable for future impact assessments. The nuclear power plant became operational in the year 1999 and since then this laboratory is involved in radiological impact assessment studies around the nuclear power plant. Detailed Kaiga specific studies are now ongoing to estimate the transfer factors and transfer coefficients for radionuclides for different pathways, such as, (i) soil to rice (ii) soil to different types of vegetables (iii) water/sediment to fish (iv) soil to grass (v) grass to cow milk and (vi) milk to child. For these studies, rice and vegetable fields were developed very close to the nuclear power plant in Kaiga to study the transfer of radionuclides. The water required for this field was drawn from coolant water discharge canal of the power plant. Rice and different types of vegetables were grown in the experimental fields in different seasons of the year and the uptake of radionuclides was studied. For a comparative study, rice and vegetables were also collected from the fields of farmers of nearby villages and analysed. The transfer of artificial radionuclides through pathway involving cow milk was also studied in detail. A grass field was developed and cows were adopted specifically for this study. The cows were allowed to graze freely in this grass field

  15. Selective pressure affects transfer and establishment of a Lactobacillus plantarum resistance plasmid in the gastrointestinal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Schjorring, S.; Hammer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Objectives and methods: A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different gastrointes......Objectives and methods: A Lactobacillus plantarum strain recently isolated from French raw-milk cheese was tested for its ability to transfer a small plasmid pLFE1 harbouring the erythromycin resistance gene erm(B) to Enterococcus faecalis. Mating was studied in vitro and in different...

  16. AAV5-Factor VIII Gene Transfer in Severe Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Savita; Walsh, Liron; Lester, Will; Perry, David; Madan, Bella; Laffan, Michael; Yu, Hua; Vettermann, Christian; Pierce, Glenn F; Wong, Wing Y; Pasi, K John

    2017-12-28

    Patients with hemophilia A rely on exogenous factor VIII to prevent bleeding in joints, soft tissue, and the central nervous system. Although successful gene transfer has been reported in patients with hemophilia B, the large size of the factor VIII coding region has precluded improved outcomes with gene therapy in patients with hemophilia A. We infused a single intravenous dose of a codon-optimized adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector encoding a B-domain-deleted human factor VIII (AAV5-hFVIII-SQ) in nine men with severe hemophilia A. Participants were enrolled sequentially into one of three dose cohorts (low dose [one participant], intermediate dose [one participant], and high dose [seven participants]) and were followed through 52 weeks. Factor VIII activity levels remained at 3 IU or less per deciliter in the recipients of the low or intermediate dose. In the high-dose cohort, the factor VIII activity level was more than 5 IU per deciliter between weeks 2 and 9 after gene transfer in all seven participants, and the level in six participants increased to a normal value (>50 IU per deciliter) that was maintained at 1 year after receipt of the dose. In the high-dose cohort, the median annualized bleeding rate among participants who had previously received prophylactic therapy decreased from 16 events before the study to 1 event after gene transfer, and factor VIII use for participant-reported bleeding ceased in all the participants in this cohort by week 22. The primary adverse event was an elevation in the serum alanine aminotransferase level to 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range or less. Progression of preexisting chronic arthropathy in one participant was the only serious adverse event. No neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII were detected. The infusion of AAV5-hFVIII-SQ was associated with the sustained normalization of factor VIII activity level over a period of 1 year in six of seven participants who received a high dose, with

  17. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  18. Identification of Heat Transfer Resistance of Scale Deposit on theEvaporator of Radioactive Waste Management Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus-Salimin

    2000-01-01

    Identification of heat transfer resistance of scale deposit from fixedhardness of liquid waste in the form of CaSO 4 and MgSO 4 ratio 2:1 has beendone on the evaporation system of Serpong Nuclear Facilities fordetermination of the quality of heat transfer obstruction from heating sourceto solution. Evaporation simulation of solution containing hardness withconcentration 0.5; 1; 2; and 2.5% mass were done on the stainless steelcontainer of 1 / volume with electrical heater in which a stainless-steeltube is put down on the base container. After 24, 168, 336, 504 and 672 hoursevaporation process it is obtained the thickness of scale deposit on thesurface of tube for determining the fouling factor. Heat transfer resistanceof scale deposit from 672 hours evaporation of solution 2.5% concentrationhampered heat transfer, the value of fouling factor be superior to limitsvalue of 0.000515 hours.m 2 . o C/kcal.The fouling factor from the evaporationof solution of 0.5; 1; and 2% concentration during 672 hours be inferior tolimits value. (author)

  19. Antibiotics and common antibacterial biocides stimulate horizontal transfer of resistance at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkina, J; Marathe, N P; Flach, C-F; Larsson, D G J

    2018-03-01

    There is a rising concern that antibiotics, and possibly other antimicrobial agents, can promote horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. For most types of antimicrobials their ability to induce conjugation below minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is still unknown. Our aim was therefore to explore the potential of commonly used antibiotics and antibacterial biocides to induce horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Effects of a wide range of sub-MIC concentrations of the antibiotics cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and the antibacterial biocides chlorhexidine digluconate, hexadecyltrimethylammoniumchloride and triclosan were investigated using a previously optimized culture-based assay with a complex bacterial community as a donor of mobile resistance elements and a traceable Escherichia coli strain as a recipient. Chlorhexidine (24.4μg/L), triclosan (0.1mg/L), gentamicin (0.1mg/L) and sulfamethoxazole (1mg/L) significantly increased the frequencies of transfer of antibiotic resistance whereas similar effects were not observed for any other tested antimicrobial compounds. This corresponds to 200 times below the MIC of the recipient for chlorhexidine, 1/20 of the MIC for triclosan, 1/16 of the MIC for sulfamethoxazole and right below the MIC for gentamicin. To our best knowledge, this is the first study showing that triclosan and chlorhexidine could stimulate the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance. Together with recent research showing that tetracycline is a potent inducer of conjugation, our results indicate that several antimicrobials including both common antibiotics and antibacterial biocides at low concentrations could contribute to antibiotic resistance development by facilitating the spread of antibiotic resistance between bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat transfer entropy resistance for the analyses of two-stream heat exchangers and two-stream heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, XueTao; Liang, XinGang

    2013-01-01

    The entropy generation minimization method is often used to analyze heat transfer processes from the thermodynamic viewpoint. In this paper, we analyze common heat transfer processes with the concept of entropy generation, and propose the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance. It is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance leads to smaller equivalent thermodynamic force difference with prescribed heat transfer rate and larger heat transfer rate with prescribed equivalent thermodynamic force difference. With the concept of heat transfer entropy resistance, the performance of two-stream heat exchangers (THEs) and two-stream heat exchanger networks (THENs) is analyzed. For the cases discussed in this paper, it is found that smaller heat transfer entropy resistance always leads to better heat transfer performance for THEs and THENs, while smaller values of the entropy generation, entropy generation numbers and revised entropy generation number do not always. -- Highlights: • The concept of entropy resistance is defined. • The minimum entropy resistance principle is developed. • Smaller entropy resistance leads to better heat transfer

  1. Recessive Resistance to Plant Viruses: Potential Resistance Genes Beyond Translation Initiation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Hashimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plant viruses to propagate their genomes in host cells depends on many host factors. In the absence of an agrochemical that specifically targets plant viral infection cycles, one of the most effective methods for controlling viral diseases in plants is taking advantage of the host plant’s resistance machinery. Recessive resistance is conferred by a recessive gene mutation that encodes a host factor critical for viral infection. It is a branch of the resistance machinery and, as an inherited characteristic, is very durable. Moreover, recessive resistance may be acquired by a deficiency in a negative regulator of plant defense responses, possibly due to the autoactivation of defense signaling. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF 4E and eIF4G and their isoforms are the most widely exploited recessive resistance genes in several crop species, and they are effective against a subset of viral species. However, the establishment of efficient, recessive resistance-type antiviral control strategies against a wider range of plant viral diseases requires genetic resources other than eIF4Es. In this review, we focus on recent advances related to antiviral recessive resistance genes evaluated in model plants and several crop species. We also address the roles of next-generation sequencing and genome editing technologies in improving plant genetic resources for recessive resistance-based antiviral breeding in various crop species.

  2. Caesium contamination in human milk and transfer factor from diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Campos Venuti, G.; Rogani, A.; Baronciani, D.; Petrone, M.

    1992-01-01

    A study on caesium contamination in human milk, as a consequence of the Chernobyl fallout, was conducted in 1989 on a group of women from one of the areas of northern Italy most heavily affected by the radioactive fallout. Their diet was studied, and the caesium intake was calculated by using the mean food activity concentration in that area. The caesium transfer factor was evaluated both as the ratio of caesium concentration in mother's milk to the daily intake, and by using a simplified milk compartment model. (author)

  3. Transfer of Downy Mildew Resistance from Wild Basil (Ocimum americanum) to Sweet Basil (O. basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2018-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is susceptible to downy mildew caused by the oomycete foliar pathogen Peronospora belbahrii. No resistant varieties of sweet basil are commercially available. Here, we report on the transfer of resistance gene Pb1 from the highly resistant tetraploid wild basil O. americanum var. americanum (PI 500945, 2n = 4x = 48) to the tetraploid susceptible O. basilicum 'Sweet basil' (2n = 4x = 48). F1 progeny plants derived from the interspecific hybridization PI 500945 × Sweet basil were resistant, indicating that the gene controlling resistance (Pb1) is dominant, but sterile due to the genetic distance between the parents. Despite their sterility, F1 plants were pollinated with the susceptible parent and 115 first backcross generation to the susceptible parent (BCs1) embryos were rescued in vitro. The emerging BCs1 plants segregated, upon inoculation, 5:1 resistant/susceptible, suggesting that resistance in F1 was controlled by a pair of dominant genes (Pb1A and Pb1A'). Thirty-one partially fertile BCs1 plants were self-pollinated to obtain BCs1-F2 or were backcrossed to Sweet basil to obtain the second backcross generation to the susceptible parent (BCs2). In total, 1 BCs1-F2 and 22 BCs2 progenies were obtained. The BCs1-F2 progeny segregated 35:1 resistant/susceptible, as expected from a tetraploid parent with two dominant resistant genes. The 22 BCs2 progenies segregated 1:1 resistant/susceptible (for a BCs1 parent that carried one dominant gene for resistance) or 5:1 (for a BCs1 parent that carried two dominant genes for resistance) at a ratio of 4:1. The data suggest that a pair of dominant genes (Pb1A and Pb1A') residing on a two homeologous chromosomes is responsible for resistance of PI 500945 against P. belbahrii.

  4. Transfer of innate resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection in mouse radiation bone marrow chimaeras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, P.R.; Blackwell, J.M.; Bradley, D.J. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK))

    1984-07-01

    Reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimaeras were made between H-2-compatible strains of mice innately resistant or susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis. In initial experiments, susceptibility but not resistance to Leishmania donovani could be transferred with donor bone marrow into irradiated recipients. In subsequent experiments it was possible to transfer both resistance and susceptibility. This was achieved either by selecting more radiosensitive mouse strains as susceptible recipients, or alternatively by increasing the irradiation dose for the susceptible recipients used in the initial experiments. Using the higher irradiation dose, successful transfer of resistance and susceptibility between congenic mice carrying the Lshsup(r) and Lshsup(s) alleles on the more radioresistant B10 genetic background provided firm evidence that the results obtained in this study were specifically related to expression of the Lsh gene. It is concluded that Lsh gene-controlled resistance and susceptibility to L. donovani is determined by bone marrow-derived cells. The cell type(s) involved is likely to be of the macrophage lineage.

  5. Transfer of innate resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection in mouse radiation bone marrow chimaeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, P.R.; Blackwell, J.M.; Bradley, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimaeras mere made between H-2-compatible strains of mice innately resistant or susceptible to visceral leishmaniasis. In initial experiments, susceptibility but not resistance to Leishmania donovani could be transferred with donor bone marrow into irradiated recipients. In subsequent experiments it was possible to transfer both resistance and susceptibility. This was achieved either by selecting more radiosensitive mouse strains as susceptible recipients, or alternatively by increasing the irradiation dose for the susceptible recipients used in the initial experiments. Using the higher irradiation dose, successful transfer of resistance and susceptibility between congenic mice carrying the Lshsup(r) and Lshsup(s) alleles on the more radioresistant B10 genetic background provided firm evidence that the results obtained in this study were specifically related to expression of the Lsh gene. It is concluded that Lsh gene-controlled resistance and susceptibility to L. donovani is determined by bone marrow-derived cells. The cell type(s) involved is likely to be of the macrophage lineage. (author)

  6. Simulation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a VAR Furnace Using an Electrical Resistance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    The use of electrical resistance networks to simulate heat transfer is a well known analytical technique that greatly simplifies the solution of radiation heat transfer problems. In a VAR furnace, radiative heat transfer occurs between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall; and the arc when the latter is present during melting. To explore the relative heat exchange between these elements, a resistive network model was developed to simulate the heat exchange between the electrode, ingot, and crucible with and without the presence of an arc. This model was then combined with an ingot model to simulate the VAR process and permit a comparison between calculated and observed results during steady state melting. Results from simulations of a variety of alloys of different sizes have demonstrated the validity of the model. Subsequent simulations demonstrate the application of the model to the optimization of both steady state and hot top melt practices, and raises questions concerning heat flux assumptions at the ingot top surface.

  7. Strand transfer and elongation of HIV-1 reverse transcription is facilitated by cell factors in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Warrilow

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The factor did not affect lysis of HIV-1 by Triton X-100 in the endogenous reverse transcription (ERT system, and ERT reactions with HIV-1 containing capsid mutations, which varied the biochemical stability of viral core structures and impeded reverse transcription in cells, showed no difference in the ability to be stimulated by the cell factor(s suggesting a lack of involvement of the capsid in the in vitro assay. In addition, reverse transcription products were found to be resistant to exogenous DNase I activity when the active fraction was present in the ERT assay. These results indicate that the cell factor(s may improve reverse transcription by facilitating DNA strand transfer and DNA synthesis. It also had a protective function for the reverse transcription products, but it is unclear if this is related to improved DNA synthesis.

  8. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in production. In principle the welding process is rather simple, the materials to be joined are clamped between two electrodes and pressed together. Because there is an interface present with a higher resist...

  9. Report on a workshop on the measurement of soils to plant transfer factors for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report includes the proceedings of the workshop on soil-plant transfer factors of radionuclides. Part 1 deals with a general introduction of soil-plant transfer factors, recommendations for the determination of these transfer factors and computer listing of transfer factors specified according to nuclide; type of crop; type of soil; and type of experiment. The second part offers the 12 contributions presented, of which several are included in INIS separately. (G.J.P.)

  10. [Risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, resistant to carbapenem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibu, Laura; Miftode, Egidia; Teodor, Andra; Bejan, Codrina; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice,carbapenems have been among the most powerful antibiotics for treating serious infections cased by Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The emergence of betalactamases with carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity is of major clinical concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. Risk factors for colonization with carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas in hospital are: history of P. aeruginosa infection or colonization within the previous year, (length of hospital stay, being bedridden or in the ICU, mechanical ventilation, malignant disease, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have all been identified as independent risk factors for MDR P. aeruginosa infection. Long-term-care facilities are also reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Risk factors for colonization of LTCF residents with resistant bacteria included age > 86 years, antibiotic treatment in the previous 3 months, indwelling devices, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical disability, and the particular LTCF unit.

  11. Evaluation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in underground drinking water and transfer of their resistant character to normal flora of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Naqab; Rehman, Khurram; Khan, Samiullah; Niazi, Zahid Rasul; Shah, Kifayatullah; Baloch, Natasha; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-03-01

    The untreated surface water for drinking and domestic use is an alarming situation to public health especially in prevalence of antibiotics resistant bacteria. This investigation aimed to isolate and identify the antibiotic resistance bacteria in underground water samples in district Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The underground water samples were collected from four different places using hand pumps (Khyber town, riverside, Gomal University and united town). Cultured on nutrient agar media, identified by Gam staining and biochemical tests. There after antibiotic resistance assay were performed by measuring zone of inhibition of different antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Six different bacterial colonies were isolated and identified as Enterobacteriaceae, Serriata specie, Proteues, Pseudomonas, all these bacterial colonies were 33% resistant to chloramphenicol with and 100% resistant to amoxicillin. Some colonies were also considered as resistant, according to the criteria of National Committee for Clinical Records (NCCL) that less than 10mm zone of inhibition are considered as resistant. Subsequently, the chloramphenicol resistance bacteria were analyzed for their ability to transfer resistant gene to sensitive bacteria. In in-vitro method, an isolate M1b (resistant) was found capable to transfer resistance gene to M1a isolate (sensitive) in nutrient rich environment. It was concluded that antibiotics resistance bacteria found in underground water, moreover capable of transferring the antibiotic resistant character to suitable recipient i.e. normal flora of the body or to other pathogens by conjugation.

  12. Resistance to awareness of the supervisor's transferences with special reference to the parallel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmel, B

    1995-06-01

    Supervision is an essential part of psychoanalytic education. Although not taken for granted, it is not studied with the same critical eye as is the analytic process. This paper examines the supervision specifically with a focus on the supervisor's transference towards the supervisee. The point is made, in the context of clinical examples, that one of the ways these transference reactions may be rationalised is within the setting of the parallel process so often encountered in supervision. Parallel process, a very familiar term, is used frequently and easily when discussing supervision. It may be used also as a resistance to awareness of transference phenomena within the supervisor in relation to the supervisee, particularly because of its clinical presentation. It is an enactment between supervisor and supervisee, thus ripe with possibilities for disguise, displacement and gratification. While transference reactions of the supervisee are often discussed, those of the supervisor are notably missing in our literature.

  13. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sallé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR, the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR. Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02. Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p < 0.01. This is the first empirical risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Keywords: Horse, Nematode, Anthelmintic resistance, Strongyle, Cyathostomin

  14. Risk factors for ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meirion R; Northey, Gemma; Sarvotham, Tinnu S; Hopkins, A Lynne; Rigby, Christine J; Thomas, Daniel Rh

    2009-08-01

    To identify risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in both travel-related and domestically acquired Campylobacter infection. Case-comparison study of patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible Campylobacter infection conducted in Wales during 2003 and 2004. Foreign travel was the major risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant infection [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 24.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12.6-45.9]. Among travellers, case patients were five times more likely to drink still bottled water (adjOR 4.7, 95% CI 1.0-21.7), whilst among non-travellers, case patients were three times more likely to drink sparkling bottled water (adjOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.4). There was no increased risk associated with eating poultry or prior quinolone use. Foreign travel remains the most important risk factor for ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection. The possible association of both domestic- and travel-related ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter infection with bottled water needs to be further explored.

  15. Transfer factor - hypotheses for its structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrine, M; Scibienski, R

    1975-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) is a dialyzable extract from primed lymphocytes that is able to transfer specific delayed hypersensitivity from one animal to another. On the basis of available data we suggest that TF is a polypeptide with a molecular weight below 15,000 daltons. We hypothesize that TF is the variable light or heavy chain domain of immunoglobulin: such a molecule conforms with the accepted properties of TF and also has the necessary specificity requirements. We also hypothesize that TF is part of a receptor site. beta-2-microglobulin, a molecule that is an integral part of cell surfaces, could be the anchor for TF. beta-2-microglobulin has homologies with the constant portion of immunoglobulin light or heavy chain and thus would combine with the variable domain (TF) to form a complete receptor site for a specific antigen. The properties of TF suggest its mode of action, which is discussed in detail in the text. The biologic advantages of TF is its ability to confer immediate (immunologie specific) protection while the 'normal' immune response develops.

  16. Transfer of genes for stem rust resistance from Agropyron elongatum and imperial rye to durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Rao, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Agropyron elongatum gene for stem rust resistance on chromosome 6A of Knott's Thatcher translocation line was transferred to a susceptible local durum wheat variety, Jaya, through a series of back-crosses. Plants heterozygous for the Agropyron translocation always show at least one open bivalent. Homozygotes have not been obtained, probably because of the absence of male transmission in durum background. Monotelosomic addition of the short arm of Imperial rye chromosome 3R (formerly ''G'' of Sears), which carries a gene(s) for resistance to wheat stem rust, was obtained in the local durum variety. Rust-resistant plants from parents having the added rye telocentric were irradiated with gamma rays just before meiosis, and the pollen obtained from the irradiated spikes was used to pollinate euploid plants. In addition, seeds harvested from 2n+1 resistant plants were irradiated with thermal neutrons and the resistant M 1 plants were selfed to raise M 2 families. Two durum-rye translocation lines were obtained following irradiation. DRT-1 was transmitted normally through the female gametes but showed no male transmission. As a result of this, homozygotes have not been obtained. Gametic transmission rates of DRT-2 are being tested. Alien translocations, which show normal gametic and zygotic transmissions in the hexaploid wheat, may behave differently in a tetraploid background. The results indicate that alien genetic transfers may be more difficult to obtain in durum wheat, probably owing to the reduced buffering effect of the tetraploid genome. (author)

  17. Pion form factor in QCD at intermediate momentum transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V. M.; Khodjamirian, A.; Maul, M.

    2000-04-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows us to estimate the deviation: [∫du/uφπ(u)]/[∫du/uφasπ(u)]=1.1+/-0.1 at the scale of 1 GeV. Special attention is paid to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to the matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end-point) contribution and power-suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual PQCD result turns out to be of the order of 30% for Q2~1 GeV2.

  18. Transfer factors of radionuclides from Andsols to some selected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain the applicable transfer factor for Japanese environment, we performed radiotracer experiments on the uptake of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 54 Mn, 60 Co and 65 Zn by leaf vegetables (two cabbages, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce), root vegetables (radish and carrot) and other crops (wheat, soy bean sweet potato and tomato) using the Andosol (Kuroboku soil), the most common of Japanese arable soils. The ranges of TFs (on a dry weight basis) of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn for edible parts of crops (leaf vegetables, root vegetables, wheat and soy bean) were 0.09 - 1.42, 0.24 - 3.7, 0.019 - 1.5, 0.31 - 12 and 0.68 - 14, respectively. TFs were, in most cases in the order Mn, Zn, Sr > Cs > Co. (author)

  19. Soil to plant transfer factor of radiocesium by pot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, A.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, A.; Chand, M.M.; Zaman, M.A.; Ahmad, G.U.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the soil to plant transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium (Cs 137 ) considered to be an important parameter while calculating radiological doses due to the potential release of radionuclides into the environment. In the present work, TF values were measured for the main foodstuffs in Bangladesh such as leafy vegetables (Lalshak, Palangshak), Ladyfinger, Radish, Potato, Potato Plant, Paddy, Paddy plant, Grass, Ginger, Ginger plant, Turmeric, and Turmeric plant by pot experiments grown in the AERE soil. Soil characteristics have also been investigated to assist the measured values of the corresponding radionuclide. TF values of the leafy parts and products of the corresponding plants were found in the range of 2.02x10 -1 to 1.8x10 -2 , which are reasonably comparable with the value found in the literature. It has been observed that the TF values in the leafy part of the plants are higher than the products. (author)

  20. Analysis of transfer reactions: determination of spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); The Andrzej So an Institute for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Nuclear Reactions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    An overview of the most popular models used for the analysis of direct reaction data is given, concentrating on practical aspects. The 4 following models (in order of increasing sophistication): the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA), the adiabatic model, the coupled channels born approximation, and the coupled reaction channels are briefly described. As a concrete example, the C{sup 12}(d,p)C{sup 13} reaction at an incident deuteron energy of 30 MeV is analysed with progressively more physically sophisticated models. The effect of the choice of the reaction model on the spectroscopic information extracted from the data is investigated and other sources of uncertainty in the derived spectroscopic factors are discussed. We have showed that the choice of the reaction model can significantly influence the nuclear structure information, particularly the spectroscopic factors or amplitudes but occasionally also the spin-parity, that we wish to extract from direct reaction data. We have also demonstrated that the DWBA can fail to give a satisfactory description of transfer data but when the tenets of the theory are fulfilled DWBA can work very well and will yield the same results as most sophisticated models. The use of global rather than fitted optical potentials can also lead to important differences in the extracted spectroscopic factors.

  1. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  2. Risk factors associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains is an important public health problem in developing world. We conducted this study to determine risk factors associated with MDR-TB and drug susceptibility pattern to second line drug among MDR TB patients in Tanzania. Methods: Unmatched case control ...

  3. DNA from radiation resistant human tumor cells transfers resistance to NIH/3T3 cells with varying degrees of penetrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Dritschilo, A.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that clinical radiation resistance may correlate with in vitro radiation survival parameters. Specifically, they isolated several cell lines from radioresistant head and neck carcinomas with D/sub 0/ values greater than 2 Gy. The authors co-transfected DNA from cell line SQ2OB (D/sub 0/ = 2.4 Gy) with the rhoSVNeO plasmid into NIH/3T3 cells (D/sub 0/ = 1.7 Gy). Antibiotic G418 resistant, transformed clones were isolated and confirmed by Southern blotting to contain human alu, as well as rhoSVNeO sequences. Screening for radiation resistance with 8Gy (Cs-137) revealed that 3 of 4 tested hybrid clones show a radiation survival intermediate between NIH/3T3 and SQ2OB. This suggests that radiation resistance is a dominant, transfectable phenotype of mammalian cells and can be expressed in more sensitive cells. Karyotyping of resistant hybrid clones shows the presence of double minute chromosomes. Secondary transfection results and experiments to clone the genetic factors responsible for radiation resistance are in progress and results will be reported

  4. Passive transfer with serum and IgG antibodies of irradiated cercaria-induced resistance against Schistosoma mansoni in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The role of humoral immunity to Schistosoma mansoni infection in C57BL/6J mice was examined by employing a passive transfer system. Sera from highly resistant mice that had been exposed to two or three immunizations with 50-kilorad-gamma-irradiated cercariae were tested for their ability to transfer protection against S. mansoni challenge. All five batches of serum tested were observed to have protective activity. Immune serum recipients exhibited statistically significant reductions in challenge worm burdens of 20 to 50% compared with recipients of normal serum or no serum. The most consistent level of resistance was obtained when immune serum was administered several days post-challenge, i.e., at a time coincident with schistosomulum residence in the lungs. Furthermore, it was shown that the protective activity in immune serum was associated with factors that bind to staphylococcal protein A and that are precipitated by 50% ammonium sulfate; thus it appears that the protective factors in immune serum are IgG antibodies

  5. Censoring Data for Resistance Factor Calculations in Load and Resistance Factor Design: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Evans; David W. Green

    2007-01-01

    Reliability estimates for the resistance distribution of wood product properties may be made from test data where all specimens are broken (full data sets) or by using data sets where information is obtained only from the weaker pieces in the distribution (censored data). Whereas considerable information exists on property estimation from full data sets, much less...

  6. UCH-L1-containing exosomes mediate chemotherapeutic resistance transfer in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Kuan; Wang, Teng; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Yun; Jin, Jian; Hua, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Chemotherapy resistance has become a serious challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Previous studies showed cells can transfer proteins, including those responsible for drug resistance to adjacent cells via exosomes. The switches of drug resistance via exosomes transfer were assessed by CellTiter-Blue Viability assay, flow cytometry, and immunostaining analysis. Relative protein levels of Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) were measured by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 93 breast cancer samples to assess the associations of UCH-L1 levels with immunofluorescence value of UCH-L1 in circulating exosomes. The Adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells (MCF7/ADM) secreted exosomes carrying UCH-L1 and P-gp proteins into the extracellular microenvironment then integrated into Adriamycin-sensitive human breast cancer cells (MCF7/WT) in a time-dependent manner, transferring the chemoresistance phenotype. Notably, in blood samples from patients with breast cancer, the level of exosomes carrying UCH-L1 before chemotherapy was significantly negatively correlated with prognosis. Our study demonstrated that UCH-L1-containing exosomes can transfer chemoresistance to recipient cells and these exosomes may be useful as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for detection of chemoresitance in breast cancer patients, achieving more effective and individualized chemotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Estimating the Transfer Range of Plasmids Encoding Antimicrobial Resistance in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Liguan; Dechesne, Arnaud; He, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    sludge microbial community was challenged in standardized filter matings with one of three multidrug resistance plasmids (pKJK5, pB10, and RP4) harbored by Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas putida. Different donor–plasmid combinations had distinct transfer frequencies, ranging from 3 to 50 conjugation...... events per 100000 cells of the WWTP microbial community. In addition, transfer was observed to a broad phylogenetic range of 13 bacterial phyla with several taxa containing potentially pathogenic species. Preferential transfer to taxa belonging to the predicted evolutionary host range of the plasmids...... ARG transmission. However, the contribution of microbial communities in WWTPs to ARG dissemination remains poorly understood. Here, we examined for the first time plasmid permissiveness of an activated sludge microbial community by utilizing an established fluorescent bioreporter system. The activated...

  8. Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for Environmental Development and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas; Borriello, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Collignon, Peter; Coors, Anja; Finley, Rita; Gaze, William H.; Heberer, Thomas; Lawrence, John R.; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; McEwen, Scott A.; Ryan, James J.; Schönfeld, Jens; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Van den Eede, Christel; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4–8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development “hot spots,” exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b) identifying and describing rates of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the relevant environmental “hot spot” compartments; and c) modifying traditional dose–response approaches to address doses of ARB for various health outcomes and pathways. Conclusions: We propose that environmental aspects of antibiotic-resistance development be included in the processes of any HHRA addressing ARB. Because of limited available data, a multicriteria decision analysis approach would be a useful way to undertake an HHRA of environmental antibiotic resistance that informs risk managers. Citation: Ashbolt NJ, Amézquita A, Backhaus T, Borriello P, Brandt KK, Collignon P, Coors A, Finley R, Gaze WH, Heberer T, Lawrence JR, Larsson DG, McEwen SA, Ryan JJ, Schönfeld J, Silley P, Snape JR

  9. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137 Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137 Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K + , the higher the amount of 137 Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137 Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40 K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137 Cs differ widely. (orig.)

  10. Resistance of a 1D random chain: Hamiltonian version of the transfer matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossetti-Romero, V.; Izrailev, F. M.; Krokhin, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    We study some mesoscopic properties of electron transport by employing one-dimensional chains and Anderson tight-binding model. Principal attention is paid to the resistance of finite-length chains with disordered white-noise potential. We develop a new version of the transfer matrix approach based on the equivalency of a discrete Schrödinger equation and a two-dimensional Hamiltonian map describing a parametric kicked oscillator. In the two limiting cases of ballistic and localized regime we demonstrate how analytical results for the mean resistance and its second moment can be derived directly from the averaging over classical trajectories of the Hamiltonian map. We also discuss the implication of the single parameter scaling hypothesis to the resistance.

  11. Resistance of a 1D random chain: Hamiltonian version of the transfer matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossetti-Romero, V.; Izrailev, F.M.; Krokhin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We study some mesoscopic properties of electron transport by employing one-dimensional chains and Anderson tight-binding model. Principal attention is paid to the resistance of finite-length chains with disordered white-noise potential. We develop a new version of the transfer matrix approach based on the equivalency of a discrete Schroedinger equation and a two-dimensional Hamiltonian map describing a parametric kicked oscillator. In the two limiting cases of ballistic and localized regime we demonstrate how analytical results for the mean resistance and its second moment can be derived directly from the averaging over classical trajectories of the Hamiltonian map. We also discuss the implication of the single parameter scaling hypothesis to the resistance

  12. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Xie, Lianyan; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Yong; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    ICE Sag37 , a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae . Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae , Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. Sma I-PFGE revealed a new Sma I fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICE Sag37 , which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICE Sag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae . Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA , which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICE Sag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [ erm(B) ], tetracycline [ tet(O) ], and aminoglycosides [ aadE, aphA , and ant(6) ]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system ( nisK/nisR ), were also observed in ICE Sag37 . S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICE Sag37 is the first ICE Sa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae .

  13. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer factors in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.; Crout, N. M. J.; Bersford, N. A.; Peterson, S. R.; Hess, M. van

    2001-01-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant arising from the nuclear industry. Because tritium is an isotope of hydrogen, its behaviour in the environment is controlled by the behaviour of hydrogen. Chronic releases of tritium to the atmosphere, in particular, will result in tritium-to-hydrogen (T/H) ratios in plants and animals that are more or less in equilibrium with T/H ratios in the air moisture. Tritium is thus a potentially important contaminant of plant and animal food products. The transfer of tritium from air moisture to plants is quite well understood. In contrast, although a number of regulatory agencies have published transfer coefficient values for diet tritium transfer for a limited number of animal products, a fresh evaluation of these transfers needs to be made In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals in conjunction with experimental data on tritium transfer. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available data independent of model development. Agreement is good, with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants, which may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, digestibility of diet, etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is not appropriate for tritium. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to the corresponding concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to

  14. Transferability of antimicrobial resistance from multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from cattle in the USA to E. coli and Salmonella Newport recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate conjugative transfer of cephalosporin resistance among (n=100) strains of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli (MDRE) to Salmonella Newport and E. coli DH5-alpha recipients. To accomplish this, phenotypic and genotypic profiles were determined for MDRE, ...

  15. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  16. Embryonic transcription factor SOX9 drives breast cancer endocrine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeselsohn, Rinath; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Pun, Matthew; Buchwalter, Gilles; Nguyen, Mai; Bango, Clyde; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Yanan; Paweletz, Cloud; Fu, Xiaoyong; Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Detre, Simone; Dodson, Andrew; Mohammed, Hisham; Carroll, Jason S; Bowden, Michaela; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry W; Li, Fugen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Schiff, Rachel; Brown, Myles

    2017-05-30

    The estrogen receptor (ER) drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease. Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases. Through the analysis of the ER cistrome in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, we have uncovered a role for an RUNX2-ER complex that stimulates the transcription of a set of genes, including most notably the stem cell factor SOX9, that promote proliferation and a metastatic phenotype. We show that up-regulation of SOX9 is sufficient to cause relative endocrine resistance. The gain of SOX9 as an ER-regulated gene associated with tamoxifen resistance was validated in a unique set of clinical samples supporting the need for the development of improved ER antagonists.

  17. Characterization of Cefotaxime- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Commensal Escherichia coli Originating from Belgian Farm Animals Indicates High Antibiotic Resistance Transfer Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Van Meervenne, Eva; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom; Wattiau, Pierre; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van Coillie, Els

    2017-11-17

    Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined. Forty-five of these strains were resistant to 5 or more antibiotics, and 6 strains were resistant to 10 or more antibiotics. Resistance was most common to ampicillin (100%), sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin (82%), trimethoprim, tetracycline (74%), cefotaxime, (70%) and ceftazidime (62%). Phylogenetic groups A (62%) and B1 (26%) were most common, followed by C (8%) and E (4%). In 43 strains, more than 1 replicon type was detected, with FII (88%), FIB (70%), and I1 (48%) being the most encountered types. Forty strains, positive for integrons, all harbored a class I integron and seven of them contained an additional class II integron. No class III integrons were detected. The antibiotic resistance transfer was assessed by liquid mating experiments. The transfer ratio, expressed as the number of transconjugants per recipient, was between 10 -5 and 10 0 for cefotaxime resistance and between 10 -7 and 10 -1 for ciprofloxacin resistance. The results of the current study prove that commensal E. coli in food-production animals can be a source of multiple resistance genes and that these bacteria can easily spread their ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime resistance.

  18. Transfer factor for 137Cs in fresh water aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Ramkumar, S.; John, Jaison T.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the most abundant radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and due to its long radiological half-life and chemical similarity to potassium it has greater biological significance. Radioactive waste materials generated at nuclear facilities are generally disposed within the plant premises under its administrative control for effective radiation protection practices. However trace quantities of radionuclides are released into the environment through liquid and gaseous releases under the guidelines of regulatory agencies. The concentration of these radioactive elements in the environment is not detectable under normal circumstances due to the large dispersion and dilutions available in the environment. But these radionuclides can get accumulated in environmental matrices like silt, weed etc. and indicate the presence of radioactivity in the environment. This paper presents the results of a face-controlled studies conducted at Environmental Survey Laboratories at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to estimate distribution of low-level radioactivity in the fresh water system. An attempt has been made to derive the Transfer Factor for 137 Cs in fish, weed, and silt and to evaluate the concentration of 137 Cs in water samples, which is otherwise not detectable under normal procedure of measurement. (author)

  19. Soil-to-potato transfer factors of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Watabe, Teruhisa.

    1996-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of stable elements from soil to potato were determined for 26 pairs of samples which were collected at different sites in Aomori prefecture, Japan. The concentrations of 31 elements in both soil and potato samples were determined by neutron activation analysis. Several of these elements were divided into two groups, each having different TF characteristics. In the first group of elements, such as Cl, K, Ca, etc., an inverse correlation was seen between the TFs for each element and their concentrations in the soil. The relatively constant concentrations of these elements in potato were independent of the concentrations of the same elements in soil. However, in the second group, the TFs for other elements, such as Sc, Co and so on, in potato were independent of their concentrations in the soil. The fluctuation of TF observed in this study was smaller than that previously reported. It may be attributed to the fact that the experiment was done in a relatively narrow geographic area. In addition, the TFs for stable elements in this study were generally one to three orders of magnitude lower than those compiled for radioactive isotopes in IAEA publications. These differences should be precisely examined hereafter. (author)

  20. Energy-efficiency and proliferation-resistance assessment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    Assessment factors suggested with regard to energy efficiency are: preservation of natural non-renewable resources: the degree of security of supply which can be achieved; the availability of necessary raw materials and technology; economic feasibility; and acceptability of a fuel cycle from environmental and safety views. In the area of proliferation resistance, it is suggested that the basic element is the political commitment by a Government not to use imported nuclear materials and equipment to manufacture nuclear explosives. 100% proliferation resistance is considered unattainable in practice. The role of international safeguards in detering possible diversion through the risk of early detection is described, and it is argued that efficient safeguards will force a Government willing to go nuclear to withdraw from its safeguards agreements. The second assessment factor, accordingly, is to consider different fuel cycles with regard to the efficient and rapid building up of a nuclear weapons capacity once the country has withdrawn from its safeguards commitments

  1. Dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in microbial ecosystems through horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Johannes Hendrik Von Wintersdorff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria has been a rising problem for public health in recent decades. It is becoming increasingly recognized that not only antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs encountered in clinical pathogens are of relevance, but rather, all pathogenic, commensal as well as environmental bacteria – and also mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages – form a reservoir of ARGs (the resistome from which pathogenic bacteria can acquire resistance via horizontal gene transfer (HGT. HGT has caused antibiotic resistance to spread from commensal and environmental species to pathogenic ones, as has been shown for some clinically important ARGs. Of the three canonical mechanisms of HGT, conjugation is thought to have the greatest influence on the dissemination of ARGs. While transformation and transduction are deemed less important, recent discoveries suggest their role may be larger than previously thought. Understanding the extent of the resistome and how its mobilization to pathogenic bacteria takes place is essential for efforts to control the dissemination of these genes. Here, we will discuss the concept of the resistome, provide examples of HGT of clinically relevant ARGs and present an overview of the current knowledge of the contributions the various HGT mechanisms make to the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  2. Survival of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Horizontal Gene Transfer Control Antibiotic Resistance Gene Content in Anaerobic Digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer H; Novak, John T; Knocke, William R; Pruden, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) vs. their antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater sludge treatment is critical in order to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance through process optimization. Here, we spiked high concentrations of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, isolated from mesophilic (Iso M1-1-a Pseudomonas sp.) and thermophilic (Iso T10-a Bacillus sp.) anaerobic digested sludge, into batch digesters and monitored their fate by plate counts and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of their corresponding tetracycline ARGs. In batch studies, spiked ARB plate counts returned to baseline (thermophilic) or 1-log above baseline (mesophilic) while levels of the ARG present in the spiked isolate [tet(G)] remained high in mesophilic batch reactors. To compare results under semi-continuous flow conditions with natural influent variation, tet(O), tet(W), and sul1 ARGs, along with the intI1 integrase gene, were monitored over a 9-month period in the raw feed sludge and effluent sludge of lab-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters. sul1 and intI1 in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters correlated positively (Spearman rho = 0.457-0.829, P < 0.05) with the raw feed sludge. There was no correlation in tet(O) or tet(W) ratios in raw sludge and mesophilic digested sludge or thermophilic digested sludge (Spearman rho = 0.130-0.486, P = 0.075-0.612). However, in the thermophilic digester, the tet(O) and tet(W) ratios remained consistently low over the entire monitoring period. We conclude that the influent sludge microbial composition can influence the ARG content of a digester, apparently as a result of differential survival or death of ARBs or horizontal gene transfer of genes between raw sludge ARBs and the digester microbial community. Notably, mesophilic digestion was more susceptible to ARG intrusion than thermophilic digestion, which may be attributed to a higher rate of ARB survival and/or horizontal gene

  3. The transfer factors of I, Ba, Sr, Y and Zr from soil to leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Daling; Li Mianfeng; Weng Senhan; Wen Guanghao; Liu Xiaowei; Zhang Cunxiang; Zhang Zeng; Yu Junyue

    1996-01-01

    The transfer factors of I, Ba, Sr, Y and Zr from soil to leafy vegetables have been determined using method of radioisotope tracers and element content analysis. The effects of growth period, size of the vegetables, contents of the isotopes in the soil and other climatic factors on the transfer factors have also been studied

  4. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  5. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zubair Alam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of β-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%, penicillin (63.8%, co-trimoxazole (55.1%, norfloxacin (53.6%, methicillin (52.7%, cefuroxime (39.1%, cefotaxime (23.2% and cefixime (20.3%. Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed a high level of resistance (800-1600 µg/mL to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91% isolates produced β-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ESβL and non-ESβL producers. The β-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates, ampicillin (62.3%, cefodroxil (52.2%, cefotoxime (21.7% and cefuroxime (18.8%. Fifteen isolates producing ESβLs were found multidrug resistant. Four ESβL producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 x 10-3 to 8.8 x 10-4. The findings indicated that ESβL producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention.

  6. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmad, Shamim

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of β-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL) in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%), penicillin (63.8%), co-trimoxazole (55.1%), norfloxacin (53.6%), methicillin (52.7%), cefuroxime (39.1%), cefotaxime (23.2%) and cefixime (20.3%). Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed a high level of resistance (800–1600 μg/mL) to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91%) isolates produced β-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ESβL and non-ESβL producers. The β-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates), ampicillin (62.3%), cefodroxil (52.2%), cefotoxime (21.7%) and cefuroxime (18.8%). Fifteen isolates producing ESβLs were found multidrug resistant. Four ESβL producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 × 10−3 to 8.8 × 10−4. The findings indicated that ESβL producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention. PMID:24516448

  7. Factors affecting conception rates in cattle following embryo transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) plays an important role in improving productivity of dairy cattle (Bos indicus). Embryo Transfer Technology allows top quality female livestock to improve a herd or flock in much the same way that artificial insemination has allowed greater use of superior sires. The technology hastens ...

  8. Concentration factors and aggregated transfer factors in selected bio-indicators from Sweden[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E.; Samuelsson, C.; Holstensson, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Previously most common has been to use lichens and mosses in the terrestrial environment and mussels and algae in the marine environment. Several plants are promising and less commonly used such as ferns (e.g. Bracken, Pteridium aquilinum) and the fresh water plant, Water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile). These show high uptake of radiocaesium but also accumulate plutonium and americium. Even if the uptake of transuranic elements is low, this behaviour is rather unique for plants. On bases of available data we have calculated concentration factors Cf and aggregated transfer factors, ATF according to their definitions i.e. Bq kg{sup -1} (biota)/Bq kg{sup -1}(water) and Bq kg{sup -1} (biota)/Bq m{sup -2} respectively. For earlier samples the water concentrations can only roughly be estimated while deposition data are rather well known. For fresh water samples it is a little awkward to use concentration factors since the uptake generally is not from water. Therefore a kind of Aggregated Transfer Factor has also been calculated on basis of using the same areal deposition in sediments as on land. We have used dry weight concentrations for biota. Data are presented for samples of various bio-medicator organisms. (LN)

  9. Standard protocol for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rao, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The studies on transfer factors are being carried out at various NPP sites under DAE-BRNS projects for evaluation of site specific transfer factors for radionuclides released from power plants. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  10. Charge Transfer Resistance and Differential Capacity of the Plasticized PVC Membrane/Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Stejskalová, Květoslava; Samec, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 521, 1/2 (2002), s. 81-86 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : impedance * PVC plasticized membrane * ion transfer kinetics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2002

  11. Transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M; Holley, R A

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause infection in children, pregnant women, the immunocompromised and the elderly. Antibiotic resistance in this species would represent a significant public health problem since the organism has a high fatality/case ratio and resistance may contribute to failure of therapeutic treatment. This study was designed to explore whether the in vitro transferability of antibiotic resistance from enterococci to Listeria spp. could occur. It was found that 2/8 Listeria strains were able to acquire tetracycline resistance from Enterococcus faecium. Listeria monocytogenes GLM-2 acquired the resistance determinant tet(M) and additional streptomycin resistance through in vitro mating with Ent. faecium S27 isolated from commercial fermented dry sausage. Similarly, Listeria innocua became more resistant to tetracycline, but the genetic basis for this change was not confirmed. It has been suggested that enterococci may transfer antibiotic resistance genes via transposons to Listeria spp., and this may explain, in part, the origin of their antibiotic resistance. Thus, the presence of enterococci in food should not be ignored since they may actively contribute to enhanced antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes and other pathogens. Acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria in the absence of antibiotic pressure represents an unquantified threat to human health. In the present work resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin were transferred by nonplasmid-based conjugation from Enterococcus faecium isolated from fermented sausage to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. Thus, natural transfer of antibiotic resistance to Listeria strains may occur in the future which reinforces the concern about the safety of enterococcal strains present in foods. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Factors associated with acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Silva Lavagnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify possible risk factors for acquisition of Enterobacterial strains with a marker for resistance to carbapenems. Methods: exploratory case-control study performed in hospital settings. The study sample consisted of patients with biological specimens that tested positive for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (cases, with the disk diffusion test and Etest, and controls with biological samples testing negative for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In all, 65 patients were included: 13 (20% cases and 52 (80% controls. Results: the microorganisms isolated were Serratia marcescens (6, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4, and Enterobacter cloacae (3. Univariate analysis revealed that length of hospitalization prior to sample collection (p=0.002 and having a surgical procedure (p=0.006 were statistically significant. In the multivariable logistic regression model, both were still significant, with odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.009; 95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98 for length of hospitalization prior to sample collection, and 9.28 (p = 0.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 85.14 for having a surgical procedure. Conclusion: shorter hospitalization times and increased surveillance of patients undergoing surgery could play a decisive role in reducing the spread of carbapenem-resistant microorganisms in hospital settings.

  13. Optimum interior area thermal resistance model to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of an insulated pipe with arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.-M.

    2003-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics for an insulated regular polygonal (or circular) pipe are investigated by using a wedge thermal resistance model as well as the interior area thermal resistance model R th =t/K s /[(1-α)A 2 +αA 3 ] with a surface area weighting factor α. The errors of the results generated by an interior area model can be obtained by comparing with the exact results generated by a wedge model. Accurate heat transfer rates can be obtained without error at the optimum α opt with the related t/R 2 . The relation between α opt and t/R 2 is α opt =1/ln(1+t/R 2 )-1/(t/R 2 ). The value of α opt is greater than zero and less than 0.5 and is independent of pipe size R 2 /R cr but strongly dependent on the insulation thickness t/R 2 . The interior area model using the optimum value α opt with the related t/R 2 should also be applied to an insulated pipe with arbitrary shape within a very small amount of error for the results of heat transfer rates. The parameter R 2 conservatively corresponds to the outside radius of the maximum inside tangent circular pipe within the arbitrary shaped pipes. The approximate dimensionless critical thickness t cr /R 2 and neutral thickness t e /R 2 of an insulated pipe with arbitrary shape are also obtained. The accuracies of the value of t cr /R 2 as well as t e /R 2 are strongly dependent on the shape of the insulated small pipe. The closer the shape of an insulated pipe is to a regular polygonal or circular pipe, the more reliable will the values of t cr /R 2 as well as t e /R 2 be

  14. An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Personality Traits and Transfer Climate Factors on Transfer of Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Imran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality has been considered an important factor influencing trainee efficiency & organizational productivity. Similarly, work climate factors have been recognized as primary influencers in post training context influencing productivity. But research concerning the impact of personality and work climate on trainees’ learning motivation has been very scant and mostly conducted in the western context. The present study was an attempt therefore, to extend this line of research in the Indian context involving educational sector of the State of Jammu & Kashmir. A sample of 517 teacher trainees was drawn for the present study using convenience sampling method. Results indicate that personality traits (i.e., conscientiousness, openness to experience, and internal locus of control do not influence training transfer directly or indirectly, while, transfer climate factors do affect training transfer both directly as well as indirectly via learning motivation. The implications of the results are discussed and the limitations of the study are noted, along with suggested avenues for future research.

  15. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Enjoji, Hideo

    1988-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor (RCF) is presented. Resistivity and sheet resistance measurements by the four-probe method are made on three samples: isotropic graphite, ITO film and Au film. It is indicated that the RCF can correct the apparent variations of experimental data to yield reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances.

  16. An In Vitro Chicken Gut Model Demonstrates Transfer of a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid from Salmonella to Commensal Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Roderick M; Cawthraw, Shaun A; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Ellis, Richard J; Kay, Gemma; Pallen, Mark J; Woodward, Martin J; Anjum, Muna F

    2017-07-18

    The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity. Bacterial community profiles obtained by culture-independent methods showed that Salmonella inoculation resulted in no significant changes to bacterial community alpha diversity and beta diversity, whereas administration of cefotaxime caused significant alterations to both measures of diversity, which largely recovered. MDR plasmid transfer from Salmonella to commensal Escherichia coli was demonstrated by PCR and whole-genome sequencing of isolates purified from agar plates containing cefotaxime. Transfer occurred to seven E. coli sequence types at high rates, even in the absence of cefotaxime, with resistant strains isolated within 3 days. Our chemostat system provides a good representation of bacterial interactions, including antibiotic resistance transfer in vivo It can be used as an ethical and relatively inexpensive approach to model dissemination of antibiotic resistance within the gut of any animal or human and refine interventions that mitigate its spread before employing in vivo studies. IMPORTANCE The spread of antimicrobial resistance presents a grave threat to public health and animal health and is affecting our ability to respond to bacterial infections

  17. Solubility is the most important mass transfer factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodov, A.A.; Zarembo, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of the quantitative correlation between mass transfer and equilibrium solubility of corrosion products of construction materials in water circuits of power plants is shown. Thermodynamic and mathematical methods of modeling and calculating for these processes are developed. The results for iron based materials - aqueous solution systems in a wide range of temperature, pH, oxygen-hydrogen concentrations are presented. The optimization conditions for mass transfer, sedimentation of corrosion products for BWR, PWR reactors, etc. have been obtained

  18. [Factors associated with insulin resistence in rural populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Larissa Loures; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2009-04-01

    This study explores the relations of anthropometric, body composition assessments, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters with insulin resistance in two rural communities. Sample was composed by adults aged 18 or older, both sexes. Participants were excluded if pregnant and diabetic. Data collection included demographic lifestyle, hemodynamic, anthropometric and biochemical variables. From the 567 subjects, 50.4% were men and 49.6%, women. Most of the sample was non-white (75.7%), lived with partner (69.3%) and had low educational level. Overweight and obesity prevalences were 17.4% and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis found risk factors associated to insulin resistance for non-diabetic adults with low income and educational level: overweight, obesity, elevated waist-to-hip ratio, C-reactive protein and skin color.

  19. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic treatment of waste sludge: The role of pH in regulating tetracycline resistant bacteria and horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haining; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Wan, Rui; Yang, Shouye

    2016-10-01

    Although pH value has been widely regarded as an important factor that affects resource recovery of waste sludge, the potential influence of diverse pHs on the distribution of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) during sludge anaerobic treatment is largely unknown. Here we reported that in the range of pH 4-10, 0.58-1.18 log unit increase of target TRGs was observed at pH 4, compared with that at pH 7, while 0.70-1.31 log unit further removal were obtained at pH 10. Mechanism study revealed that varied pHs not only altered the community structures of tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB), but also changed their relative abundances, benefitting the propagation (acidic pHs) or attenuation (alkaline pHs) of TRB. Further investigation indicated that the amount and gene-possessing abilities of key genetic vectors for horizontal TRGs transfer were greatly promoted at acidic pHs but restricted under alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calibration of Resistance Factors Needed in the LRFD Design of Driven Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This research project presents the calibration of resistance factors for the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method of driven : piles driven into Louisiana soils based on reliability theory. Fifty-three square Precast-Prestressed-Concrete (P...

  1. Effect of air confinement on thermal contact resistance in nanoscale heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Dheeraj; Islam, Rakibul; Al-Alam, Patricia; Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Trannoy, Nathalie

    2018-03-01

    Here, we report a detailed analysis of thermal contact resistance (R c) of nano-size contact formed between a Wollaston wire thermal probe and the used samples (fused silica and titanium) as a function of air pressure (from 1 Pa to 105 Pa). Moreover, we suggest an analytical model using experimental data to extract R c. We found that for both samples, the thermal contact resistance decreases with increasing air pressure. We also showed that R c strongly depends on the thermal conductivity of materials keeping other parameters the same, such as roughness of the probe and samples, as well as the contact force. We provide a physical explanation of the R c trend with pressure and thermal conductivity of the materials: R c is ascribed to the heat transfer through solid-solid (probe-sample) contact and confined air at nanoscale cavities, due to the rough nature of the materials in contact. The contribution of confined air on heat transfer through the probe sample contact is significant at atmospheric pressure but decreases as the pressure decreases. In vacuum, only the solid-solid contact contributes to R c. In addition, theoretical calculations using the well-known acoustic and diffuse mismatch models showed a high thermal conductivity material that exhibits high heat transmission and consequently low R c, supporting our findings.

  2. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  3. Transfer of Patients in a Telestroke Network: What Are the Relevant Factors for Making This Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Funck, Laura; Klingner, Caroline C; Berrouschot, Jörg; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht

    2018-02-01

    Background/Introduction: Current telestroke network consultations are focused on decision-making in the hyperacute stage of stroke management. The two main questions in telestroke consultations are whether thrombolysis should be initiated and whether the patient should be transferred to a hub hospital. Although guidelines exist for initiating intravenous thrombolytic therapy, the question of whether patients should be transferred is far more elusive. In this study, we investigated the factors involved in the decision to transfer stroke patients to a hub hospital. We were particularly interested in identifying factors that promote or impede the transfer of patients. We enrolled 1,615 cases of telestroke consultation of the University Hospital Jena. The two main factors that independently influenced the probability of transferring a patient were the patient's age and the identification of a proximal vessel occlusion. Interestingly, factors such as the severity of symptoms and the time elapsed from symptom onset were not found to have an independent influence on the decision to transfer a patient. The transfer of most patients was justified by the possibility of performing interventional reperfusion therapy. We discuss the effectiveness of the current decision-making process and possible ways to improve decision-making for a more effective selection of patients who would benefit from transfer. The decision-making process to a transfer patient is not standardized and constitutes a trade-off between the intention to treat all possible patients while avoiding the transfer of patients without treatment options.

  4. Factors predisposing nursing home resident to inappropriate transfer to emergency department. The FINE study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Perrin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Each year, around one out of two nursing home (NH residents are hospitalized in France, and about half to the emergency department (ED. These transfers are frequently inappropriate. This paper describes the protocol of the FINE study. The first aim of this study is to identify the factors associated with inappropriate transfers to ED. Methods/design: FINE is a case-control observational study. Sixteen hospitals participate. Inclusion period lasts 7 days per season in each center for a total period of inclusion of one year. All the NH residents admitted in ED during these periods are included. Data are collected in 4 times: before transfer in the NH, at the ED, in hospital wards in case of patient's hospitalization and at the patient's return to NH. The appropriateness of ED transfers (i.e. case versus control NH residents is determined by a multidisciplinary team of experts. Results: Our primary objective is to determine the factors predisposing NH residents to inappropriate transfer to ED. Our secondary objectives are to assess the cost of the transfers to ED; study the evolution of NH residents' functional status and the psychotropic and inappropriate drugs prescription between before and after the transfer; calculate the prevalence of potentially avoidable transfers to ED; and identify the factors predisposing NH residents to potentially avoidable transfer to ED. Discussion: A better understanding of the determinant factors of inappropriate transfers to ED of NH residents may lead to proposals of recommendations of better practice in NH and would allow implementing quality improvement programs in the health organization. Keywords: Inappropriate transfer, Nursing home resident, Emergency department transfer, Potentially avoidable transfer, Appropriateness of transfer, Inappropriate hospitalization

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  7. Coagulation factor VII variants resistant to inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchini, Alessio; Baroni, Marcello; Pfeiffer, Caroline; Batorova, Angelika; Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel; Schved, Jean F; Mariani, Guglielmo; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko

    2014-11-01

    Replacement therapy is currently used to prevent and treat bleeding episodes in coagulation factor deficiencies. However, structural differences between the endogenous and therapeutic proteins might increase the risk for immune complications. This study was aimed at identifying factor (F)VII variants resistant to inhibitory antibodies developed after treatment with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in a FVII-deficient patient homozygous for the p.A354V-p.P464Hfs mutation, which predicts trace levels of an elongated FVII variant in plasma. We performed fluorescent bead-based binding, ELISA-based competition as well as fluorogenic functional (activated FX and thrombin generation) assays in plasma and with recombinant proteins. We found that antibodies displayed higher affinity for the active than for the zymogen FVII (half-maximal binding at 0.54 ± 0.04 and 0.78 ± 0.07 BU/ml, respectively), and inhibited the coagulation initiation phase with a second-order kinetics. Isotypic analysis showed a polyclonal response with a large predominance of IgG1. We hypothesised that structural differences in the carboxyl-terminus between the inherited FVII and the therapeutic molecules contributed to the immune response. Intriguingly, a naturally-occurring, poorly secreted and 5-residue truncated FVII (FVII-462X) escaped inhibition. Among a series of truncated rFVII molecules, we identified a well-secreted and catalytically competent variant (rFVII-464X) with reduced binding to antibodies (half-maximal binding at 0.198 ± 0.003 BU/ml) as compared to the rFVII-wt (0.032 ± 0.002 BU/ml), which led to a 40-time reduced inhibition in activated FX generation assays. Taken together our results provide a paradigmatic example of mutation-related inhibitory antibodies, strongly support the FVII carboxyl-terminus as their main target and identify inhibitor-resistant FVII variants.

  8. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Nishii, Toshifumi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Enjoji, Hideo

    1989-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor F is presented. Factor F can be applied to a system consisting of a disk sample and a four-probe array. Measurements are made on isotropic graphite disks and crystalline ITO films. Factor F can correct the apparent variations of the data and lead to reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances. Here factor F is compared to other correction factors; i.e. FASTM and FJIS.

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Muenchen from Pigs and Humans and Potential Interserovar Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans...

  10. Food and human gut as reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eRolain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase and spread of antibiotic resistance (AR over the past decade in human pathogens has become a worldwide health concern. Recent genomic and metagenomic studies in humans, animals, in food and in the environment have led to the discovery of a huge reservoir of AR genes called the resistome that could be mobilized and transferred from these sources to human pathogens. AR is a natural phenomenon developed by bacteria to protect antibiotic-producing bacteria from their own products and also to increase their survival in highly competitive microbial environments. Although antibiotics are used extensively in humans and animals, there is also considerable usage of antibiotics in agriculture, especially in animal feeds and aquaculture. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the sources of AR and the use of antibiotics in these reservoirs as selectors for emergence of AR bacteria in humans via the food chain.

  11. Soil-plant-transfer factors for I-129 and pasture vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisch, A.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1993-07-01

    The transfer factors for soil/plant, I-129 and I-127 and pasture vegetation have been measured with soils developed by wethering of granite, jura and cretaceous formations. Greenhouse (Karlsruhe) and field experiments (Munich) have been performed using lysimeters. Three ground water levels and the influence of a six weeks flooding was measured. About 90% of the transfer factors ranged from 0.000 to 0.020. The highest values have been determined with soils from granite wethering. The flooding of the lysimeters caused an important increase of the transfer factors after the end of flooding. (orig.) [de

  12. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is related to insulin resistance : impaired acute lowering by insulin in obese Type II diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) have important functions in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. We determined the association of plasma CETP and PLTP activities (measured with exogenous' substrate assays) with insulin resistance, plasma

  13. Efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer – a retrospective study of factors related to embryo recipient and embryos transferred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongye Huang

    2013-10-01

    The successful generation of pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer depends on reducing risk factors in several aspects. To provide an overview of some influencing factors related to embryo transfer, the follow-up data related to cloned pig production collected in our laboratory was examined. (i Spring showed a higher full-term pregnancy rate compared with winter (33.6% vs 18.6%, P = 0.006. Furthermore, a regression equation can be drawn between full-term pregnancy numbers and pregnancy numbers in different months (y = 0.692x−3.326. (ii There were no significant differences detected in the number of transferred embryos between surrogate sows exhibiting full-term development compared to those that did not. (iii Non-ovulating surrogate sows presented a higher percentage of full-term pregnancies compared with ovulating sows (32.0% vs 17.5%, P = 0.004; respectively. (iv Abortion was most likely to take place between Day 27 to Day 34. (v Based on Life Table Survival Analysis, delivery in normally fertilized and surrogate sows is expected to be completed before Day 117 or Day 125, respectively. Additionally, the length of pregnancy in surrogate sows was negatively correlated with the average litter size, which was not found for normally fertilized sows. In conclusion, performing embryo transfer in appropriate seasons, improving the quality of embryos transferred, optimizing the timing of embryo transfer, limiting the occurrence of abortion, combined with ameliorating the management of delivery, is expected to result in the harvest of a great number of surviving cloned piglets.

  14. In vitro transfer of methicillin resistance determinants mecA from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitrus, Asinamai Athliamai; Zunita, Zakaria; Bejo, Siti Khairani; Othman, Sarah; Nadzir, Nur Adilah Ahmad

    2017-04-04

    Staphylococcus aureus more than any other human pathogen is a better model for the study of the adaptive evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, as it has demonstrated a remarkable ability in its response to new antibiotics. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro transfer of mecA gene from methicillin resistant S. aureus to methicillin susceptible S. aureus. The recipient transconjugants were resistant to erythromycin, cefpodoxime and were mecA positive. PCR amplification of mecA after mix culture plating on Luria Bertani agar containing 100 μg/mL showed that 75% of the donor and 58.3% of the recipient transconjugants were mecA positive. Additionally, 61.5% of both the donor cells and recipient transconjugants were mecA positive, while 46.2% and 41.75% of both donor and recipient transconjugants were mecA positive on LB agar containing 50 μg/mL and 30 μg/mL respectively. In this study, the direction of transfer of phenotypic resistance as well as mecA was observed to have occurred from the donor to the recipient strains. This study affirmed the importance of horizontal transfer events in the dissemination of antibiotics resistance among different strains of MRSA.

  15. Resist-based measurement of contrast transfer function in a 0.3-NA microfield optic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Jason P.; Naulleau, Patrick; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-01-01

    Although extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography offers the possibility of very high-resolution patterning, the projection optics must be of extremely high quality in order to meet this potential. One key metric of the projection optic quality is the contrast transfer function (CTF), which is a measure of the aerial image contrast as a function of pitch. A static microfield exposure tool based on the 0.3-NA MET optic and operating at a wavelength of 13.5 nm has been installed at the Advanced Light Source, a synchrotron facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This tool provides a platform for a wide variety of research into EUV lithography. In this work we present resist-based measurements of the contrast transfer function for the MET optic. These measurements are based upon line/space patterns printed in several different EUV photoresists. The experimental results are compared with the CTF in aerial-image simulations using the aberrations measured in the projection optic using interferometry. In addition, the CTF measurements are conducted for both bright-field and dark-field mask patterns. Finally, the orientation dependence of the CTF is measured in order to evaluate the effect of non-rotationally symmetric lens aberrations. These measurements provide valuable information in interpreting the results of other experiments performed using the MET and similar systems

  16. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  17. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  18. Country-to-country transfer of patients and the risk of multi-resistant bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin A; Aminzadeh, Zohreh; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Paterson, David L

    2011-07-01

    Management of patients with a history of healthcare contact in multiple countries is now a reality for many clinicians. Leisure tourism, the burgeoning industry of medical tourism, military conflict, natural disasters, and changing patterns of human migration may all contribute to this emerging epidemiological trend. Such individuals may be both vectors and victims of healthcare-associated infection with multiresistant bacteria. Current literature describes intercountry transfer of multiresistant Acinetobacter spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae (including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase- and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-producing strains), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and hypervirulent Clostridium difficile. Introduction of such organisms to new locations has led to their dissemination within hospitals. Healthcare institutions should have sound infection prevention strategies to mitigate the risk of dissemination of multiresistant organisms from patients who have been admitted to hospitals in other countries. Clinicians may also need to individualize empiric prescribing patterns to reflect the risk of multiresistant organisms in these patients. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Transfer of the Fusarium resistant gene from Solanum integrifolium into S. melongena by asymmetric fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, T.; Yoshida, M.; Shiga, T.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: In order to transfer the Fusarium resistant gene from the wild species into eggplants, asymmetric fusions were done between Solanum integrifolium and S. melongena. Protoplasts of S. melongena were isolated from hypocotyIes, and protoplasts of S. integrifolium were isolated from young leaves. Protoplasts of S. integrifolium were irradiated by soft x-rays (40-60kR), and fused with protoplasts of S. melongena by electric pulses. Fused protoplasts were cultured using TM-2 basal medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l), NAA (0.35mg/l), and BA (2mg/l). After 30 days, calli of 1-2 mm in diameter were subcultured on agar medium supplemented with IAA (0.2mg/l) and Zeatin (4mg/l). After 15-30 days, shoots were regenerated from green calli. Regenerated plants were transplanted to the greenhouse and 382 plants were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum. Thirty-two plants were resistant or tolerant, their chromosome numbers varied in the range of 35-42 (S. integrifolium, S. melongena 2n=2x=24). (author)

  20. Horizontal Transfer of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Ward, M.; Hilpert, M.

    2008-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. At a poultry farm, we, together with Mr.~James Doolittle from USDA, measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) using a EM38 meter. The resulting ECaR) associated with the poultry farm due to the fact that tetracycline (Tc) is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore is probably used at this farm. Soil and aquifer samples were taken from the farm. TcR bacteria were detected, with higher concentrations in the top layer of soil than in the aquifer. TcR bacteria were then enriched from a soil sample, and two classes of TcR genes were detected: tet(M) genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins and tet(L) genes encoding tet efflux pumps. Sequences of the PCR products were compared to known tet(M) and tet(L) genes in GenBank using BLASTN. Phylogenetic trees were also built based on the sequence information. The tet(M) genes found in our soil sample were highly similar to those located on transposons. In a soil microcosm experiment, we used the aforementioned soil sample as incubation medium as well as genetic donor (TcR soil bacteria), and a green fluorescent strain of E. coli as a model genetic recipient to study horizontal transfer of TcR genes from soil bacteria to naïve bacteria. Concentrations of inoculated E. coli were continuously monitored for 15 days, TcR E. coli isolated, and colony PCR performed. The tet(M) genes were found to be transferred to naïve E. coli. The highest horizontal transfer ratio, 0.62 transconjugant per recipient, was observed when Tc was supplemented to a soil microcosm at a concentration of 140 μg/kg soil. Modeling is also ongoing to obtain a better understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  1. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  2. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop penalty factors in four microfin tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D [Korea University, Seoul (Korea). Institute of Advanced Machinery Design; Lee, Kyu-Jung [Korea University, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-08-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of four microfin tubes were experimentally investigated for condensation of refrigerants R134a, R22, and R410A in four different test sections. The microfin tubes examined during this study consisted of 8.92, 6.46, 5.1, and 4 mm maximum inside diameter. The effect of mass flux, vapor quality, and refrigerants on condensation was investigated in terms of the heat transfer enhancement factor and the pressure drop penalty factor. The pressure drop penalty factor and the heat transfer enhancement factor showed a similar tendency for each tube at given vapor quality and mass flux. Based on the experimental data and the heat-momentum analogy, correlations for the condensation heat transfer coefficients in an annular flow regime and the frictional pressure drops are proposed. (author)

  3. 137Cs Transfer Factor from Latosol Soil to Swamp Gabbages (Ipomea Reptans Poir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Yurfida; Buchori

    2001-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs transfer factor from Latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant has been conducted using pot treatment system with complete random design. The aim of the research is to determine transfer factor of 137 Cs from latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant. Cs-137 concentration administered was 7.5287 kBq/pot. The number of swamp cabbages planted in 137 Cs treated soil and in cannot soil respectively was 12 pots filled with 1 kg soil/pot. After harvest, the weight of dried plant was measured. Transfer factor was determined according to the accumulation of 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages and soil and counted using Spectrometer Gamma. It was found that is a significant difference between 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages planted inthe treated soil and that of control soil. Transfer factor ranges between 0.02 and 0.13 with the averageof 0.08. (author)

  4. Baryon form factors at high momentum transfer and generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon form factors at high momentum transfer t are treated in the framework of generalized parton distributions (GPD's). The possibility of obtaining information about parton high transverse momentum components by application of GPD's to form factors is discussed. This is illustrated by applying an ad hoc 2-body parton wave function to elastic nucleon form factors F 1 and F 2 , the N→Δ transition magnetic form factor G M * , and the wide angle Compton scattering form factor R 1

  5. Substrate analog interaction with MCR-1 offers insight into the rising threat of the plasmid-mediated transferable colistin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengcheng; Song, Guangji; Shi, Mengyang; Zhou, Yafei; Liu, Yang; Lei, Jun; Chen, Peng; Yin, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Colistin is considered a last-resort antibiotic against most gram-negative bacteria. Recent discoveries of a plasmid-mediated, transferable mobilized colistin-resistance gene ( mcr-1) on all continents have heralded the imminent emergence of pan-drug-resistant superbacteria. The inner-membrane protein MCR-1 can catalyze the transfer of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to lipid A, resulting in colistin resistance. However, little is known about the mechanism, and few drugs exist to address this issue. We present crystal structures revealing the MCR-1 catalytic domain (cMCR-1) as a monozinc metalloprotein with ethanolamine (ETA) and d-glucose, respectively, thus highlighting 2 possible substrate-binding pockets in the MCR-1-catalyzed PEA transfer reaction. Mutation of the residues involved in ETA and d-glucose binding impairs colistin resistance in recombinant Escherichia coli containing full-length MCR-1. Partial analogs of the substrate are used for cocrystallization with cMCR-1, providing valuable information about the family of PEA transferases. One of the analogs, ETA, causes clear inhibition of polymyxin B resistance, highlighting its potential for drug development. These data demonstrate the crucial role of the PEA- and lipid A-binding pockets and provide novel insights into the structure-based mechanisms, important drug-target hot spots, and a drug template for further drug development to combat the urgent, rising threat of MCR-1-mediated antibiotic resistance.-Wei, P., Song, G., Shi, M., Zhou, Y., Liu, Y., Lei, J., Chen, P., Yin, L. Substrate analog interaction with MCR-1 offers insight into the rising threat of the plasmid-mediated transferable colistin resistance.

  6. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  7. Transfer factors for assessing the dose from radionuclides in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.C.; Colsher, C.S.; Thompson, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer factors to predict the environmental transport of radionuclides through terrestrial foodchains to man were derived from the literature for radionuclides associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. We present updated transfer coefficients to predict the concentration of a radionuclide in cow's milk and other animal products and concentration factors (CF) to predict the concentration in a food or feed crop from that in soil. Where possible we note the variation of the transfer factor with physical and chemical form of the radionuclide and environmental factors, and characterize the distribution and uncertainty in the estimate. The updated transfer factors are compared with those listed in regulatory guides. The new estimates lead to recommended changes (both increases and decreases) in the listed transfer coefficients for milk and meat and to the suggested practice of adopting multiple soil-to-plant CF's that vary with the type of crop and soil in the place of a single generic CF to predict the concentration of a radionuclide in a crop from that in soil. The updated transfer factors will be useful to assess the dose from radionuclides released from nuclear facilities and evaluating compliance with regulations governing the release of radionuclides

  8. Modeling the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Haiyan; LIANG Zhanping

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a model on the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and validates it via questionnaire surveys.Using 125 valid collected questionnaires,multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis showed that five out of the ten factors had a positive effect on knowledge transfer effect.The ranking of factor importance,from high to low,was knowledge explicitness,relationship quality,learning intent,advanced transfer activities,and learning capability,which is fairly consistent with positive factors observed in other interorganizational knowledge transfer researches.Our results also showed that one of the control variables (size of acquired firm) had neither a direct or indirect effect on knowledge transfer in M&A.Additionally,our research found that knowledge distance and degree of M&A integration had a positive influence on knowledge transfer effect at the early stage after M&A,but had a negative influence at the late stage.Based on this research,several suggestions for knowledge transfer in M&A are proposed.

  9. Modeling the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Haiyan; LIANG; Zhanping

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a model on the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions(M&A)and validates it via questionnaire surveys.Using 125valid collected questionnaires,multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis showed that five out of the ten factors had a positive effect on knowledge transfer effect.The ranking of factor importance,from high to low,was knowledge explicitness,relationship quality,learning intent,advanced transfer activities,and learning capability,which is fairly consistent with positive factors observed in other interorganizational knowledge transfer researches.Our results also showed that one of the control variables(size of acquired firm)had neither a direct or indirect effect on knowledge transfer in M&A.Additionally,our research found that knowledge distance and degree of M&A integration had a positive influence on knowledge transfer effect at the early stage after M&A,but had a negative influence at the late stage.Based on this research,several suggestions for knowledge transfer in M&A are proposed.

  10. Describing the nucleon electromagnetic form factors at high momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.; Desplanques, B.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1999-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon are calculated within the framework of a non-relativistic constituent-quark model. The emphasis is put on the reliability and accuracy of present day numerical methods used to solve the three-body problem. The high-q 2 behaviour of the form factors is determined by the form of the wave function at short distances and, due to the small absolute values that one deals with, an accurate solution is essential. Refs. 5, figs. 2 (author)

  11. Simulation of the rate of transfer of antibiotic resistance between Escherichia coli strains cultured under well controlled environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, J.P.; Hoefsloot, H.C.; de Koster, C.G.; Schuurmans, J.M.; ter Kuile, B.H.; Brul, S.

    2015-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the tetracycline resistance plasmid in Escherichia coli resembling K-12 23:06 containing the E. coli plasmid DM0133 could be transferred to tetracycline sensitive E. coli K-12 MG1655 YFP. The sensitive recipient strain has a slight metabolic advantage in continuous

  12. Primary resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in patients infected with diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inzaule, Seth C.; Hamers, Raph L.; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Casadellà, Maria; Parera, Mariona; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Paredes, Roger

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and patterns of major and accessory resistance mutations associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), across diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa. pol gene sequences were obtained using Illumina next-generation sequencing from 425 INSTI-naive

  13. Fecal Microbiota Transfer for Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negatives: A Clinical Success Combined With Microbiological Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenhoef, Janneke E; Terveer, Elisabeth M; Knetsch, Cornelis W; Van't Hof, Peter J; Vlasveld, Imro N; Keller, Josbert J; Visser, Leo G; Kuijper, Eduard J

    2017-01-01

    Combined fecal microbiota transfer and antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences of urinary tract infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa , but it failed to eradicate intestinal colonization with MDR Escherichia coli . Based on microbiota analysis, failure was not associated with distinct diminished microbiota diversity.

  14. Calculation of transfer factors for the transfer of caesium-137 from feedingstuffs to the meat of farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirna, A.

    1979-01-01

    To calculate the radiation exposure of the population in the surroundings of nuclear technical plants, the knowledge of the transfer of emitted radionuclides to plants, animals, and food is an essential precondition. Recent data from the literature about transfer factors (food/meat) of cesium-137 (Cs-137) for calves, cattle, and pigs have revealed considerable differences between the species mentioned and the value in the 'general calculation fundaments for the determination of radiation exposure by emission of radioactive substances with waste air' (12). In the FR of Germany mainly pork is eaten, therefore, it is interesting to know if the transfer of Cs-137 in the individual animal species is so far the same that it is justified to only use the exposure path grass-cattle for calculation. The values presented here have suggested for the transfer of fall-out Cs-137 from the food into the meat a value, on an average, six times as high as had been assumed up to day. In pork meat, there was even an increase by 2 tenth powers. (orig.) [de

  15. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antibiotics, especially in veterinary treatments.

  16. Published sequences do not support transfer of oseltamivir resistance mutations from avian to human influenza A virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Lindh, Magnus; Olofsson, Sigvard

    2015-03-28

    Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate ester, OE) is a widely used antiviral active against influenza A virus. Its active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is chemically stable and secreted into wastewater treatment plants. OC contamination of natural habitats of waterfowl might induce OC resistance in influenza viruses persistently infecting waterfowl, and lead to transfer of OC-resistance from avian to human influenza. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such has occurred. A genomics approach including phylogenetic analysis and probability calculations for homologous recombination was applied on altogether 19,755 neuraminidase (N1 and N2) genes from virus sampled in humans and birds, with and without resistance mutations. No evidence for transfer of OE resistance mutations from avian to human N genes was obtained, and events suggesting recombination between human and avian influenza virus variants could not be traced in the sequence material studied. The results indicate that resistance in influenza viruses infecting humans is due to the selection pressure posed by the global OE administration in humans rather than transfer from avian influenza A virus strains carrying mutations induced by environmental exposure to OC.

  17. Immune expulsion of Trichuris muris from resistant mice: suppression by irradiation and restoration by transfer of lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Selby, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Lethal irradiation (850 rads of x rays) of mice made resistant to Trichuris muris markedly depressed their ability to expel a challenge infection. Expulsion was restored within 7 to 10 days when MLNC from uninfected mice were transferred on the day of infection, but no significant restoration was evident after transfer of immune serum. Transfer of Bm alone had no restorative effect within 10 days and no synergism was seen when both BM and MLNC were transferred. MLNC from uninfected donors did not restore challenge expulsion when transfer was delayed until day 7 and the mice were killed 3 days later, although MLNC from resistant donors were effective within this time. When irradiated mice were given BM and the challenge infection allowed to continue for 15 days expulsion was restored, as it was when challenge was delayed for 7 days after BM transfer in thymectomized mice. The results confirm that expulsion of T. muris involves both antibody-mediated and lymphoid cell-mediated phases and offer no evidence for the involvement of other cell types. (author)

  18. Related Factors of Insulin Resistance in Korean Children: Adiposity and Maternal Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Sook Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children’s adiposity indices (r = 0.309–0.318, all P-value = 0.001 and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002 were positively correlated with children’s HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children’s HOMA-IR level according to children’s lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001 and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002. This study shows that children’s adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children’s IR.

  19. Protein adsorption resistance of PVP-modified polyurethane film prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Huihui; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry and Research Center of Analysis and Test, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lan, Minbo, E-mail: minbolan@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry and Research Center of Analysis and Test, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Antifouling PVP brushes were successfully grafted on PU films by SI-ATRP. • The effect of polymerization time on surface property and topography was studied. • Hydrophilicity and protein fouling resistance of PVP–PU films were greatly promoted. • Competitive adsorption of three proteins on PVP–PU films was evaluated. - Abstract: An anti-fouling surface of polyurethane (PU) film grafted with Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was prepared through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). And the polymerization time was investigated to obtain PU films with PVP brushes of different lengths. The surface properties and protein adsorption of modified PU films were evaluated. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of PU–PVP films were improved with the increase of polymerization time, which was not positive correlation with the surface roughness due to the brush structure. Additionally, the protein resistance performance was promoted when prolonging the polymerization time. The best antifouling PU–PVP (6.0 h) film reduced the adsoption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and brovin serum fibrinogen (BFG) by 93.4%, 68.3%, 85.6%, respectively, compared to the unmodified PU film. The competitive adsorption of three proteins indicated that LYS preferentially adsorbed on the modified PU film, while BFG had the lowest adsorption selectivity. And the amount of BFG on PU–PVP (6.0 h) film reduced greatly to 0.08 μg/cm{sup 2}, which was almost one-tenth of its adsorption from the single-protein system. Presented results suggested that both hydrophilicity and surface roughness might be the important factors in all cases of protein adsorption, and the competitive or selective adsorption might be related to the size of the proteins, especially on the non-charged films.

  20. Protein adsorption resistance of PVP-modified polyurethane film prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Huihui; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Minbo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Antifouling PVP brushes were successfully grafted on PU films by SI-ATRP. • The effect of polymerization time on surface property and topography was studied. • Hydrophilicity and protein fouling resistance of PVP–PU films were greatly promoted. • Competitive adsorption of three proteins on PVP–PU films was evaluated. - Abstract: An anti-fouling surface of polyurethane (PU) film grafted with Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was prepared through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). And the polymerization time was investigated to obtain PU films with PVP brushes of different lengths. The surface properties and protein adsorption of modified PU films were evaluated. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of PU–PVP films were improved with the increase of polymerization time, which was not positive correlation with the surface roughness due to the brush structure. Additionally, the protein resistance performance was promoted when prolonging the polymerization time. The best antifouling PU–PVP (6.0 h) film reduced the adsoption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and brovin serum fibrinogen (BFG) by 93.4%, 68.3%, 85.6%, respectively, compared to the unmodified PU film. The competitive adsorption of three proteins indicated that LYS preferentially adsorbed on the modified PU film, while BFG had the lowest adsorption selectivity. And the amount of BFG on PU–PVP (6.0 h) film reduced greatly to 0.08 μg/cm"2, which was almost one-tenth of its adsorption from the single-protein system. Presented results suggested that both hydrophilicity and surface roughness might be the important factors in all cases of protein adsorption, and the competitive or selective adsorption might be related to the size of the proteins, especially on the non-charged films.

  1. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  2. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts: general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R. W. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Solbrig, C. W. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Genetic Markers and Integrons in White Soft Cheese: Aspects of Clinical Resistome and Potentiality of Horizontal Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Ana Caroline L; Medeiros, Julliane D; de Azevedo, Analice C; de Assis Chagas, Jéssica M; da Silva, Vânia L; Diniz, Cláudio G

    2018-02-19

    Antibiotic resistance poses an important threat to global public health and has become a challenge to modern medicine. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a broad range of foods has led to a growing concern about the impact that food may have as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Considering Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC)-a typical Brazilian white soft cheese-and its economic and cultural values, in this study, medically relevant antimicrobial-resistance genetic markers (AR genes) were screened, and the occurrence of integrons were evaluated in manufactured MFC using culture-independent approaches. Through a fingerprinting analysis, the tested MFCs were brand-clustered, indicating reproducibility along the production chain. A common core of resistance markers in all brands evaluated and related antimicrobials such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamide was detected. Several other markers, including efflux pumps and aminoglycosides-resistance were distributed among brands. Class 1 and 2 integrons were observed, respectively, in 77% and 97% of the samples. The presence of AR genes is of special interest due to their clinical relevance. Taken together, the data may suggest that the production chain of MFC might contribute to the spread of putative drug-resistant bacteria, which could greatly impact human health. Furthermore, detection of class 1 and class 2 integrons in MFC has led to discussions about resistance gene spread in this traditional cheese, providing evidence of potential horizontal transfer of AR genes to human gut microbiota.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Genetic Markers and Integrons in White Soft Cheese: Aspects of Clinical Resistome and Potentiality of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline L. de Paula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance poses an important threat to global public health and has become a challenge to modern medicine. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a broad range of foods has led to a growing concern about the impact that food may have as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Considering Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC—a typical Brazilian white soft cheese—and its economic and cultural values, in this study, medically relevant antimicrobial-resistance genetic markers (AR genes were screened, and the occurrence of integrons were evaluated in manufactured MFC using culture-independent approaches. Through a fingerprinting analysis, the tested MFCs were brand-clustered, indicating reproducibility along the production chain. A common core of resistance markers in all brands evaluated and related antimicrobials such as β-lactams, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamide was detected. Several other markers, including efflux pumps and aminoglycosides-resistance were distributed among brands. Class 1 and 2 integrons were observed, respectively, in 77% and 97% of the samples. The presence of AR genes is of special interest due to their clinical relevance. Taken together, the data may suggest that the production chain of MFC might contribute to the spread of putative drug-resistant bacteria, which could greatly impact human health. Furthermore, detection of class 1 and class 2 integrons in MFC has led to discussions about resistance gene spread in this traditional cheese, providing evidence of potential horizontal transfer of AR genes to human gut microbiota.

  5. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Julia; Vlasova, Natalia; Nikishova, Elena; Tarasova, Irina; Eliseev, Platon; Maryandyshev, Andrey O.; Shemyakin, Igor G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Cegielski, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005–2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received 3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs. PMID:25988954

  6. Measurements of the nucleon form factors at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andivahis, L.; Bosted, P.; Lung, A.; Arnold, R.; Keppel, C.; Rock, S.; Spengos, M.; Szalata, Z.; Tao, L.; Stuart, L.; Dietrich, F.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Chang, C.; Dodge, W.; Gearhart, R.; Kuhn, S.; Gomez, J.; Griffioen, K.; Hicks, R.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.; Rokni, S.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Swartz, K.; Petratos, G.; Sakumoto, W.

    1992-12-01

    New measurements of the electric G E (Q 2 ) and magnetic G M (Q 2 ) form factors of the nucleons are reported. The proton data cover the Q 2 range from 1.75 to 8.83 (GeV/c) 2 and the neutron data from 1.75 to 4.00 (GeV/c) 2 , more than doubling the range of previous data. Scaled by the dipole fit, G D (Q 2 ), the results for G Mp (Q 2 )/μ p G D (Q 2 ) decrease smoothly from 1.05 to 0.92, while G Ep (Q 2 )/G D (Q 2 ) is consistent with unity. The preliminary results for Gm.(Q2)1 GD(Q2) consistent with unity, while F En 2 is consistent with zero at all values of Q 2 . Comparisons are made to QCD Sum Rule, diquark, constituent quark, and VMD models, none of which agree with all of the new data

  7. Presence and potential for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance in oxidase-positive bacteria populating raw salad vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezanson, G S; MacInnis, R; Potter, G; Hughes, T

    2008-09-30

    To assess whether domestically grown fresh salad vegetables constitute a possible reservoir of antibiotic resistance for Canadian consumers, aerobic bacteria capable of forming colonies at 30 degrees C on nutrient-limited media were recovered from a single sampling of Romaine lettuce, Savoy spinach and alfalfa sprouts, then examined for their susceptibility to ten antibiotics and the carriage of potentially mobile R-plasmids and integrons. Of the 140 isolates resistant to one or more antibiotic, 93.5 and 90.0% were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin; 35.7% to chloramphenicol, 10.0% to streptomycin, 4.2% to nalidixic acid, 4.2% to kanamycin, and 2.8% to gentamicin. Gram-positive isolates accounted for less than 4% of the antibiotic resistant strains. A small portion (23.1%) of the predominant oxidase-positive, gram-negative isolates was resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Members of the Pseudomonas fluorescens/putida complex were most prevalent among the 34 resistant strains identified. Sphingobacterium spp. and Acinetobacter baumanni also were detected. Ten of 52 resistant strains carried plasmids, 3 of which were self-transmissible and bore resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin. Eighteen of 48 gave PCR evidence for integron DNA. Class 2 type integrons were the most prevalent, followed by class 1. We conclude that the foods examined here carry antibiotic resistant bacteria at the retail level. Further, our determination that resistant strains contain integron-specific DNA sequences and self-transmissible R-plasmids indicates their potential to influence the pool of antibiotic resistance in humans via lateral gene transfer subsequent to ingestion.

  8. Analytical expressions for two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors in sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical expressions for two-nucleon (l = 0,2 and 4) transfer spectroscopic factors are derived in the SU sdg (3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model. In addition, large N (boson number) limit expressions for the ratio of summed l = 0 transfer strength to excited 0 + states to that of ground state are derived in all the symmetry limits of the sdg model. Some comparisons with data are made. (author)

  9. Analytical expressions for two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors in sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B. (Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India))

    1991-11-01

    Analytical expressions for two-nucleon (l = 0,2 and 4) transfer spectroscopic factors are derived in the SU{sub sdg}(3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model. In addition, large N (boson number) limit expressions for the ratio of summed l = 0 transfer strength to excited 0{sup +} states to that of ground state are derived in all the symmetry limits of the sdg model. Some comparisons with data are made. (author).

  10. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  11. Risk Factors for Emergence of Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Keith S.; Cosgrove, Sara; Harris, Anthony; Eliopoulos, George M.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2001-01-01

    Among 477 patients with susceptible Enterobacter spp., 49 subsequently harbored third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter spp. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins were independent risk factors for resistance (relative risk [OR] = 2.3, P = 0.01); quinolone therapy was protective (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03). There were trends toward decreased risk for resistance among patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins and either aminoglycosides or imipenem. Of the patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins, 19% developed resistance. PMID:11502540

  12. Fuel-element temperature nonstationary distribution caused by local pulsations of the factor of heat transfer to a coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupko, V.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    The equation of nonstationary heat transfer caused by the appearance of a local pulse jump in the factor of heat transfer to a coolant is solved analytically for a cylindrical fuel element. The problem solution is generalized to a case of the periodically pulsating factor of heat transfer according to its value in an arbitrary point of the fuel element surface

  13. Active surveillance for asymptomatic colonisation by multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients transferred to a tertiary care hospital in the occupied Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Adham Abu; Daoud, Ayman; Zaid, Sawsan; Sammour, Sajida; Belleh, Maram; Daifi, Refqa

    2018-02-21

    Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs. Swabs were cultured and assessed for the presence of multi-drug resistant organisms (extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, Pseudomonas aeroginosae, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, and carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. Of the 822 screened patients, 265 (32%) had infections with multi-drug resistant organisms. 394 isolates of multi-drug resistant organisms were obtained: 131 (33%) isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase producers, 119 (30%) isolates were P aeroginosae, 26 (9%) isolates were A baumannii, 94 (24%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S aureus, 13 (3%) isolates were vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and one (<1%) isolate was carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. We identified a high prevalence of asymptomatic colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria in transferred patients. These findings emphasise the need for a national strategy to combat the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms in the occupied Palestinian territory. An-Najah National University. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and biofilm formation ability in Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken meat and wildlife in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Silvie; Klancnik, Anja; Dolezalova, Magda; Mozina, Sonja Smole; Holko, Ivan

    2017-08-03

    Attachment of pathogenic bacteria to food contact surfaces and the subsequent biofilm formation represent a serious threat for the food industry, since these bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobials or possess more virulence factors. The main aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between antibiotic resistance against 13 antibiotics, distribution of 10 virulence factors and biofilm formation in 105 Escherichia coli strains according to their origin. The high prevalence of antibiotic resistance that we have found in wildlife isolates could be acquired by horizontal transfer of resistance genes from human or domestic or farm animals. Consequently, these commensal bacteria might serve as indicator of antimicrobial usage for human and veterinary purposes in the Czech Republic. Further, 46 out of 66 resistant isolates (70%) were able to form biofilm and we found out statistically significant correlation between prevalence of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation ability. The highest prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed in weak biofilm producers. Biofilm formation was not statistically associated with any virulence determinant. However, we confirmed the correlation between prevalence of virulence factors and host origin. Chicken isolates possessed more virulence factors (66%), than isolates from wildlife (37%). We can conclude that the potential spread of antibiotic resistance pattern via the food chain is of high concern for public health. Even more, alarming is that E. coli isolates remain pathogenic potential with ability to form biofilm and these bacteria may persist during food processing and consequently lead to greater risks of food contamination.

  15. Environmental factors influencing gene transfer agent (GTA mediated transduction in the subtropical ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren D McDaniel

    Full Text Available Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT. However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs of marine α-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10-30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA

  16. Soil-plant transfer factors of Co-60 for alfalfa lettuce and spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Radu Octavian

    1997-01-01

    The transfer of Co-60 from soil into plants is a less studied problem. Soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60 known from literature vary by about four orders of magnitude for each kind of plants. We have calculated the average values and have determined the field of variability of the known transfer factors. These indicated us that alfalfa, lettuce and spinach have in this order the greatest absorption capacity of Co-60 from soil. We have determined the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the utilized soil. This is a brown reddish forest type soil. The plants have been cultivated in pots by plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. The results of our measurements of soil-to-plant transfer factors of 60-Co are the followings: 0.0612 ± 0.0047 for alfalfa, 0.0960 ± 0.0072 for lettuce and 0.1446 ± 0.0107 for spinach. These values prove the strong dependence of the type of soil and plant of the soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60. (author)

  17. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  18. Requirement for Vibrio cholerae Integration Host Factor in Conjugative DNA Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Sarah M.; Burrus, Vincent; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2006-01-01

    The requirement for host factors in the transmission of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) has not been extensively explored. Here we tested whether integration host factor (IHF) or Fis, two host-encoded nucleoid proteins, are required for transfer of SXT, a Vibrio cholerae-derived ICE that can be transmitted to many gram-negative species. Fis did not influence the transfer of SXT to or from V. cholerae. In contrast, IHF proved to be required for V. cholerae to act as an SXT donor. I...

  19. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-02-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  20. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation

  1. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor

  2. Transfer characteristics and contact resistance in Ni- and Ti-contacted graphene-based field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A; Giubileo, F; Iemmo, L; Romeo, F; Santandrea, S; Gambardella, U

    2013-01-01

    We produced graphene-based field-effect transistors by contacting mono- and bi-layer graphene by sputtering Ni or Ti as metal electrodes. We performed electrical characterization of the devices by measuring their transfer and output characteristics. We clearly observed the presence of a double-dip feature in the conductance curve for Ni-contacted transistors, and we explain it in terms of charge transfer and graphene doping under the metal contacts. We also studied the contact resistance between the graphene and the metal electrodes with larger values of ∼30 kΩμm 2 recorded for Ti contacts. Importantly, we prove that the contact resistance is modulated by the back-gate voltage. (paper)

  3. Colonization With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Upon Intensive Care Unit Admission: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since earlier identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-colonized patients could be helpful for reducing the overall frequency of S. aureus infections, the investigation of persons colonized with MRSA is considered to be a key component of MRSA infection prevention programs, particularly among ICU patients. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of nasal and extra-nasal carriers of MRSA and risk factors associated with MRSA colonization among adult patients admitted to the ICU. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 164 adult patients who were admitted to the ICU of a teaching hospital were screened for nasal and extra-nasal carriage of MRSA. In addition, the ICU-hospitalized patients were evaluated for MRSA acquisition during their ICU stay. Results Out of the 164 patients admitted to the ICU, 12 (7.3% patients were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA carriers, and 12 (7.3% patients carried MRSA. Four (16.6% patients were colonized at single or multiple extra-nasal sites based on negative nares screening. Of the 15 remaining patients hospitalized at the ICU, one (6.7% patient acquired MRSA. The patients colonized with MRSA had more advanced ages (P = 0.008, longer hospital stays before being transferred to the ICU (P > 0.001, more underlying diseases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P = 0.028, and had undergone surgery (P = 0.003. Patients transferred from the surgical wards to the ICU were found to have significantly higher carriage rates of MRSA (P = 0.041. Conclusions The prevalence of MRSA colonization upon ICU admission at our hospital was relatively high, and routine MRSA screening is suggested, especially for patients who have certain risk factors. In addition, extra-nasal MRSA screenings upon ICU admission will help in the early detection of MRSA.

  4. Major controlling factors and predictions for cadmium transfer from the soil into spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenfei; Ding, Qiong; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Jumei; Chen, Shibao; Ma, Yibing

    2013-07-01

    Predicting the mobility, bioavailability and transfer of cadmium (Cd) in the soil-plant system is of great importance with regards to food safety and environmental management. In this study, the transfer characteristics of Cd (exogenous salts) from a wide range of Chinese soils to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were investigated. The major controlling factors and prediction equations for Cd transfer in the soil-plant system were also investigated. The results showed that plant Cd concentration was positively correlated with soil Cd concentration. The maximum transfer factor (ratio of the Cd concentration in the plant to that in the soil) was found in acid soils. The extended Freundlich-type function was able to describe the Cd transfer from soil to spinach plants. Combining soil total Cd, pH and organic carbon (OC) content in the prediction equation greatly improved the correlation performance compared with predictions based on total Cd only. A slight protection effect of OC on Cd uptake was observed at low soil Cd concentrations. The results are a useful tool that can be used to predict Cd transfer from soil to plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic Evasion of Highly-Resistant Microorganisms: A Critical Factor in Nosocomial Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Friedrich, Alexander W; Bathoorn, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years. Remarkably, many outbreaks including major nation-wide outbreaks were caused by microorganisms able to evade resistance detection by diagnostic screening tests. We describe various examples of diagnostic evasion by several HRMOs and discuss this in a broad and international perspective. The epidemiology of hospital-associated bacteria may strongly be affected by diagnostic screening strategies. This may result in an increasing reservoir of resistance genes in hospital populations that is unnoticed. The resistance elements may horizontally transfer to hosts with systems for high-level expression, resulting in a clinically significant resistance problem. We advise to communicate the identification of HRMOs that evade diagnostics within national and regional networks. Such signaling networks may prevent inter-hospital outbreaks, and allow collaborative development of adapted diagnostic tests.

  6. Transferability of a tetracycline resistance gene from probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egervärn, Maria; Lindmark, Hans; Olsson, Johan; Roos, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    The potential of Lactobacillus reuteri as a donor of antibiotic resistance genes in the human gut was investigated by studying the transferability of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) to faecal enterococci, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. In a double-blind clinical study, seven subjects consumed L. reuteri ATCC 55730 harbouring a plasmid-encoded tet(W) gene (tet(W)-reuteri) and an equal number of subjects consumed L. reuteri DSM 17938 derived from the ATCC 55730 strain by the removal of two plasmids, one of which contained the tet(W) gene. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after ingestion of 5 x 10(8) CFU of L. reuteri per day for 14 days. Both L. reuteri strains were detectable at similar levels in faeces after 14 days of intake but neither was detected after a two-week wash-out period. After enrichment and isolation of tetracycline resistant enterococci, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from each faecal sample, DNA was extracted and analysed for presence of tet(W)-reuteri using a real-time PCR allelic discrimination method developed in this study. No tet(W)-reuteri signal was produced from any of the DNA samples and thus gene transfer to enterococci, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli during intestinal passage of the probiotic strain was non-detectable under the conditions tested, although transfer at low frequencies or to the remaining faecal bacterial population cannot be excluded.

  7. A study on the role that quorum sensing play in antibiotic-resistant plasmid conjugative transfer in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueheng; Ma, Qingping; Su, Bingmei; Chen, Rui; Lin, Juan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Yu, Yang

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal genes transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, the mechanisms of HGT of ARGs under the influence of antibiotics in sub-MIC remain rarely explored. Moreover, given its collective nature, HGT was considered to be relative to quorum sensing (QS) system. To investigate whether QS has any impact on horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, experiments were conducted to determine the conjugative efficiency of plasmid RP4 on Escherichia coli (E.coli) under the influences of tetracyclines (TCs), quorum sensing autoinducers (AIs) and quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs). The results indicated that the sub-MIC TCs could facilitate the conjugative transfer of RP4, a process which could be enhanced by AIs but inhibited by QSIs. This study demonstrated the roles that QS played in the dissemination of ARGs, and provided theoretical insights into the mechanism of HGT of ARGs in the environment.

  8. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR OF AL2O3 NANOFLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L. Syam Sundar1 and K.V. Sharma2This paper reports experimental investigations of fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in a plain tube, fitted with different twist ratios of twisted tape inserts. Experiments are conducted with water and nanofluid in the range of 700transfer coefficient of the nanofluid is high compared with water, and further enhancement of heat transfer is observed with the twisted tape inserts. Pressure drop is slightly increased with the inserts, but is comparatively negligible. A generalized regression equation is developed based on the experimental data for the estimation of the Nusselt number and friction factor for water and nanofluid in a plain tube with twisted tape inserts.

  9. Factors affecting the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golmakani, S.; Moghaddam, V.M.; Hosseini, T.

    2008-01-01

    Much of our food directly or indirectly originates from plant material; thus, detailed studies on plant contamination processes are an essential part of international environmental research. This overview attempts to identify and describe the most important parameters and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclide transfer to plants. Many parameters influence these processes. These parameters are related to: (1) plant, (2) soil, (3) radionuclide, (4) climate and (5) time. Often there is no boundary between the factors and they are linked to each other. Knowledge of important factors in radionuclide transfer to plants can help to assess and prevent radiological exposure of humans. This knowledge can also help to guide researches and modelling related to transfer of radionuclides to food chain. (authors)

  10. 60Co Transfer Factor From Lutosol Soil To Leafy Vegetable (Ipomea reptans poir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Jumaher; Wahyudi

    2003-01-01

    It has been conducted 60 Co transfer study from Lutosol soil to leafy vegetable plant by using pot treatment system. The aim of the research is to obtain data of the transfer factor of 60 Co from lutosol soil to leafy vegetable plant. Pot experiment was carried out by using the complete random design to evaluate two treatment, namely soil with 60 Co and without 60 Co (as a control). 60 Co concentration was with 6.1371 kBq/pot. Tested plant and control plant amount to 12 pots. Each pot contains 1 kg of soil. After harvesting, the weight of dry plant was determined and was conducted with Spectrometer Gamma to 60 Co concentration in dry plant and dry soil. Transfer factor was found to between 0.02 and 0.68 and the average is 0.2068. (author)

  11. Transfer factors of 134Cs for olive and orange trees grown on different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Nobeli, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Papanicolaou, E.

    1999-01-01

    Transfer factors (TF) of 134 Cs to olive and citrus trees grown on two different soils, were determined for a 3-year greenhouse experiment. Two-year-old trees were transplanted with their entire rootball into large pots containing the contaminated soil (110 kg pot -1 ). The soil was transferred to each pot in layers on the top of which 134 Cs as CsCl was dripped (18.5 MBq pot -1 ). For both evergreen trees, soil type significantly influenced radiocaesium transfer. 134 Cs concentration was lower for the calcareous-heavy soil than for the acid-light soil. Transfer factors of orange trees were higher than those of olive trees in the acid-light soil. Although a significant amount of 134 Cs was measured in olives grown on the acid-light soil, no 134 Cs was detected in the unprocessed olive oil when an oil fraction (5% f.w.) was extracted. On the contrary the edible part of the oranges showed the highest 134 Cs concentration of all plant parts. The relationship between 134 Cs uptake and potassium content in the different plant compartments was also studied when selected trees were cut down. The potassium concentration in the plants was not significantly different between the trees growing in the two types of soil in spite of the big differences in the 134 Cs uptake in the two soils. TF values and potassium content in the different plant compartments of each tree were highly correlated. For both crops transfer factors as well as potassium content were the highest in the developing plant parts (new leaves and branches, flowers). The transfer factors of 134 Cs for the studied trees are in the same order of magnitude as the values of annual crops grown under similar conditions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Increased Abundance and Transferability of Resistance Genes after Field Application of Manure from Sulfadiazine-Treated Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Kopmann, Christoph; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Groeneweg, Joost; Weichelt, Viola; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Brandes, Nikola; Nordwig, Mathias; Ding, Guo-Chun; Siemens, Jan; Heuer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Spreading manure containing antibiotics in agriculture is assumed to stimulate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in soil bacterial populations. Plant roots influencing the soil environment and its microflora by exudation of growth substrates might considerably increase this effect. In this study, the effects of manure from pigs treated with sulfadiazine (SDZ), here called SDZ manure, on the abundance and transferability of sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 in the rhizosphere of maize and grass were compared to the effects in bulk soil in a field experiment. In plots that repeatedly received SDZ manure, a significantly higher abundance of both sul genes was detected compared to that in plots where manure from untreated pigs was applied. Significantly lower abundances of sul genes relative to bacterial ribosomal genes were encountered in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil. However, in contrast to results for bulk soil, the sul gene abundance in the SDZ manure-treated rhizosphere constantly deviated from control treatments over a period of 6 weeks after manuring, suggesting ongoing antibiotic selection over this period. Transferability of sulfonamide resistance was analyzed by capturing resistance plasmids from soil communities into Escherichia coli. Increased rates of plasmid capture were observed in samples from SDZ manure-treated bulk soil and the rhizosphere of maize and grass. More than 97% of the captured plasmids belonged to the LowGC type (having low G+C content), giving further evidence for their important contribution to the environmental spread of antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, differences between bulk soil and rhizosphere need to be considered when assessing the risks associated with the spreading of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23315733

  13. Meson widths and form factor at intermediate momentum transfer in nonperturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Smilga, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A general method is proposed for the QCD based calculations of form factors at intermediate momentum transfer Q 2 and of the partial widths of the low-lying meson resonances. The basic idea is to use the QCD sum rules for the vertex functions. With this method the pion electromagnetic form factor along with electromagnetic form factors of rho- and A 1 mesons and transition form factors γπ → A 1 at 0.5 2 2 are calculated. The widths rho+2π and A 1 → rhoπ are also determined. +.he results are in a good agreement with experiment

  14. What's Working: Program Factors Influencing California Community College Basic Skills Mathematics Students' Advancement to Transfer Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiero, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which basic skills program factors were exhibited by successful basic skills programs that helped students advance to transfer-level mathematics. This study specifically examined California community college basic skills programs that assist students who place in mathematics courses 2 levels…

  15. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  16. Transfer factors of 137Cs and 9Sr from soil to trees in arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Asfary, A.F.; Mukhalallti, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transfer factors of 137 Cs and 9 Sr from contaminated soil (Aridisol) to olive, apricot trees and grape vines were determined under irrigated field conditions for four successive years. The transfer factors (calculated as Bq kg -1 dry plant material per Bq kg -1 dry soil) of both radionuclides varied among tree parts and were highest in olive and apricot fruits. However, the values for 9 Sr were much higher than those for 137 Cs in all plant parts. The geometric mean of the transfer factors in olives, apricots and grapes were 0.007, 0.095 and 0.0023 for 137 Cs and 0.093, 0.13 and 0.08 for 9 Sr, respectively, and were negligible in olive oil for both radionuclides. The transfer factors of both radionuclides were similar to, or in the lower limits of, those obtained in other areas of the world. This could be attributed to differences in soil characteristics: higher pH, lower organic matter, high clay content, and higher exchangeable potassium and calcium

  17. 3rd Report of the workgroup on soil-to-plant transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents about 2000 soil-to-plant transfer factors obtained in different countries. They are included in a data bank compiled by the different IUR working groups. Some remarks on organisation and present status of the data bank, are followed up with 11 contributions presented at the conference, of which 5 are included in Atomindex separately. (Auth.)

  18. Carbapenem-Resistant E. cloacae in Southwest China: Molecular Analysis of Resistance and Risk Factors for Infections Caused by NDM-1-Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiong Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE has been considered a serious global threat, but carbapenem resistance remains relatively uncommon in E. cloacae, especially in China. The aim of this study was to characterize carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae (CR-ECL isolates from 2012 to 2016 in Southwest China. Our study revealed that 20 (15.2% of the 132 CR-ECL isolates obtained from patients were identified as NDM-1, with most isolates carrying the IncFIIA plasmids. Notably, we initially observed that the E. cloacae strain co-harbored NDM-1 and IMP-8 carbapenemases simultaneously. Analysis of the genetic environment of these two genes has revealed that the highly conserved regions (blaNDM-1-bleMBL-trpF-tat are associated with the dissemination of NDM-1, while IS26, intI1, and tniC could be involved in the spread of IMP-8. Molecular epidemiology studies showed the nosocomial outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing E. cloacae ST88. Transferring from another hospital and previous carbapenem exposure were identified as independent risk factors for the acquisition of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae. These findings emphasize the need for intensive surveillance and precautions to monitor the further spread of NDM-1 in China.

  19. Transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil to some trees in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Asfary, A. F.; Mukalati, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2004-12-01

    The transfer factor of Cs 137 and 90 Sr from contaminated soil (Aridisol = Yermosol according to FAO - UNESCO) to some common trees (olive, apricot, grape, pine, apple and lemon) were investigated under field condition for 3 to 6 years. There were large variation in transfer factors values among tree species, and between different parts of tree. The values in fruits for 137 Cs were: 0.011 (highest) in Apricot, 0.0071 in olive, and 0.0025 in vine, and about 0.0012 in olive oil (lowest). The mean transfer factor of 137 Cs in the one year old leaves and stems, ranged between 0.011 and 0.0093 in lemon (highest) and 0.0016 and 0.0015 in pine (lowest). The transfer factor values of 90 Sr were much higher than that of 137 Cs, they were in fruits: 0.13 in apricot, 0.093 in olive, and 0.075 in vine and 0.0053 in olive oil. The transfer factors values of 90 Sr ranged in one year old leaves between 2.89 (apple) and 0.1 (pine), while they ranged in one year old stems between 1.91 (apricot) and 0.16 (pine). The transfer factor of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr decrease in most trees parts with time especially in the one year old leaves, due to aging effects. The transfer factor values of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were lower than that reported for other areas. This might be due to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, where the soil used had a loamy clay structure with high ph (7.8) and high CEC (25.9 meq/100g), exchangeable potassium (1.6 meq/100g) and calcium (14.9 meq/100g), further more, climatic condition in the area, like high light intensity, high temperature and low air humidity, can lead to decrease the uptake of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr. (Authors)

  20. Transfer of Hessian fly resistance from rye to wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, B.; Hatchett, J.H.; Gill, B.S.; Mukai, Y.; Sebesta, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) resistance gene derived from 'Balbo' rye and its transfer to hexaploid wheat via radiation-induced terminal and intercalary chromosomal translocations are described. Crosses between resistant 'Balbo' rye and susceptible 'Suwon 92' wheat and between the F1 amphidiploids and susceptible 'TAM 106' and 'Amigo' wheats produced resistant BC2F3 lines that were identified by C-banding analysis as being 6RL telocentric addition lines. Comparative chromosomal analyses and resistance tests revealed that the resistance gene is located on the 6RL telocentric chromosome. X-irradiated pollen of 6RL addition plants was used to fertilize plants of susceptible wheats 'TAM 106,' 'TAM 101,' and 'Vona.' After several generations of selection for resistance, new sublines were obtained that were homogeneous for resistance. Thirteen of these lines were analyzed by C-banding, and three different wheat-6RL chromosomal translocations (T) were identified. Wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations were 6B, 4B, and 4A. Almost the complete 6RL arm is present in T6BS · 6BL-6RL. Only the distal half of 6RL is present in T4BS · 4BL-6RL, which locates the resistance gene in the distal half of 6RL. Only a very small segment (ca 1.0 μm) of the distal region of 6RL is present in an intercalary translocation (Ti) Ti4AS · 4AL-6RL-4AL. The 6RL segment is inserted in the intercalary region between the centromere of chromosome 4A and the large proximal C-band of 4AL. The break-points of the translocations are outside the region of the centromere, indicating that they were induced by the X-ray treatment. All three translocations are cytologically stable and can be used directly in wheat breeding programs

  1. The Widespread Multidrug-Resistant Serotype O12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clone Emerged through Concomitant Horizontal Transfer of Serotype Antigen and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Taylor, Véronique L.; Freschi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    . aeruginosa O12 OSA gene cluster, an antibiotic resistance determinant (gyrAC248T), and other genes that have been transferred between P. aeruginosa strains with distinct core genome architectures. We showed that these genes were likely acquired from an O12 serotype strain that is closely related to P...... in clinical settings and outbreaks. These serotype O12 isolates exhibit high levels of resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Here, we explore how the P. aeruginosa OSA biosynthesis gene clusters evolve in the population by investigating the association between the phylogenetic relationships among 83 P....... aeruginosa strains and their serotypes. While most serotypes were closely linked to the core genome phylogeny, we observed horizontal exchange of OSA biosynthesis genes among phylogenetically distinct P. aeruginosa strains. Specifically, we identified a "serotype island" ranging from 62 kb to 185 kb containing the P...

  2. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country.

  3. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2006-01-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country

  4. Transfer factors for the „soil-cereals” system in the region of Pcinja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to estimate the values of transfer factors for natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U, and 238U and 137Cs from soil to plants (cereals: wheat, corn and barley as important parameters for the agricultures in the selection of the location and the sort of cereals to be planted on. The results presented in this paper refer to the „soil-cereals” system in the region of Pcinja, Serbia. Total of 9 samples of soil and 7 samples of cereals were measured in the Department of Radiation and Environmental Protection, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, using three high-purity germanium detectors for gamma spectrometry measurements. In all the samples, transfer factors for 226Ra are significantly lower than for 40K, but they are all in good agreement with the literature data. On the three investigated locations, the calculated values of transfer factors for 40K were in the range of 0.144 to 0.392, while in the case of 226Ra, the transfer factors ranged from 0.008 to 0.074. Only one value (0.051 was obtained for transfer factor of 232Th. Specific activities of 137Cs, as well as uranium isotopes, in all the investigated cereal samples, were below minimal detectable activity concentrations. Also, the absorbed dose rate and the annual absorbed dose from the natural radionuclides in the soil, were calculated. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 49-86 nSv/h, while the annual absorbed dose ranged from 0.061-0.105 mSv. The measurements presented in this manuscript are the first to be conducted in the region of Pcinja, thus providing the results that can be used as a baseline for future measurements and monitoring.

  5. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4-8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives...... of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development "hot spots," exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various...... novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b...

  6. Impact of co-carriage of IncA/C plasmids with additional plasmids on the transfer of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pendleton, Sean J; Deck, Joanna; Singh, Ruby; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Johnson, Timothy J; Sanad, Yasser M; Nayak, Rajesh; Foley, Steven L

    2018-04-20

    Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is often plasmid encoded. A key resistance plasmid group is the incompatibility group (Inc) A/C plasmids that often carry multiple resistance determinants. Previous studies showed that IncA/C plasmids were often co-located with other plasmids. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of plasmid co-carriage on antimicrobial resistance and plasmid transfer. A total of 1267 Salmonella isolates, representing multiple serotypes and sources were previously subjected to susceptibility testing and 251 isolates with resistance to at least 5 antimicrobial agents were identified for further study. Each isolate was subjected to PCR-based replicon typing, and those with IncA/C plasmids were selected for plasmid isolation, PCR-based mapping of IncA/C plasmid backbone genes, and conjugation assays to evaluate resistance plasmid transferability. Of the 87 identified IncA/C positive isolates, approximately 75% carried a plasmid with another identified replicon type, with the most common being I1 (39%), FIA, FIIA, FIB and HI2 (each 15%). PCR-based mapping indicated significant diversity in IncA/C backbone content, especially in regions encoding transfer-associated and hypothetical proteins. Conjugation experiments showed that nearly 68% of the isolates transferred resistance plasmids, with 90% containing additional identified plasmids or larger (>50 kb) non-typeable plasmids. The majority of IncA/C-positive strains were able to conjugally transfer antimicrobial resistance to the recipient, encoded by IncA/C and/or co-carried plasmids. These findings highlight the importance of co-located plasmids for resistance dissemination either by directly transferring resistance genes or by potentially providing the needed conjugation machinery for IncA/C plasmid transfer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  8. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  9. Transfer factors of radionuclides and elements in the terrestrial and fresh water environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Hemalatha, P.; Desai, M.V.M.

    2004-04-01

    This document presents the transfer factor values such as Bioaccumulation factors B p , Transfer coefficient K d , Soil to plant transfer coefficient B v etc. generated in the terrestrial and fresh water environmental matrices of India. This attempt is made with a view to provide site and species specific values in comparison with IAEA default values from Safety Series(SS) No.57 and IAEA Technical Report Series (TRS) No.364. Our recommended B p values for 137 Cs and 90 Sr are matching well with IAEA reported values. B p value for 228 Ra also match well with IAEA values. While the freshwater sediment K d values for 137 Cs is 5000 which is closer to TRS 364 value, 90 Sr K d value is lower than IAEA value. Natural radionuclides Ra, Th and U values are also found to be higher than IAEA values which indicates the site specificity. B p values for stable elements such as Cu, Pb, Mn and Cd are comparable with IAEA whereas the recommended K d value for Zn is higher than IAEA reported value. Transfer factors for cereals, pulses and vegetables are also tabulated in this report in comparison with IAEA reported values. (author)

  10. Water Splitting over Epitaxially Grown InGaN Nanowires on-Metallic Titanium/Silicon Template: Reduced Interfacial Transfer Resistance and Improved Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Ebaid, Mohamed; Min, Jungwook; Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Idriss, Hicham; Ooi, Boon S.

    2018-01-01

    grown on Si substrate. The interfacial transfer resistance was also reduced significantly after introducing the metallic Ti interlayer. An applied-bias-photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 2.2% and almost unity Faradic efficiency for hydrogen

  11. Characterization of transferable tetracycline resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from raw food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Licht, Tine Rask

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of tetracycline resistance, and of specific genetic determinants for this resistance was investigated in 1003 strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from various raw food products originating from five categories including chicken meat, other poultry meat, beef, pork, and 'other...

  12. Characterization and transfer studies of macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L; Hammerum, Anette M; Lambertsen, Lotte M

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, erythromycin resistance has been increasing in frequency in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Denmark. In the present study, 49 non-related erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates from invasive sites and 20 isolates from non-invasive sites were collected; antimicrobial...

  13. Importance of sigma factor mutations in increased triclosan resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2015-01-01

    towards the antibiotics enrofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. CONCLUSIONS: Medium level triclosan resistance could be obtained by fabI mutations in S. Typhimurium, however, high level resistance was found to require sigma factor mutations in addition to a fabI mutation. Reduced antibiotic...

  14. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  15. Factors associated with use of slip-resistant shoes in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.

  16. Influence of selected factors on bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of sire, extender, and addition of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL to extenders used on the percentage rate of spermatozoa survival after cold shock. Two groups of extenders were compared: without LDL addition (control variants and LDL enriched (experimental variants. Three extenders were used: AndroMed®, Bioxcell®, and Triladyl®. Experimental variants included 4–8% LDL addition into the AndroMed® and Bioxcell® extenders, and 6–10% LDL addition into the Triladyl® extender. In total, 12 samples of fresh semen were collected from 4 bulls during a period of 8 weeks. Bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance (1 ± 1 °C, 10 min was evaluated by the percentage rate of live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining immediately and after heat incubation (37 ± 1 °C, 120 min. The results showed the effect of sire as important and individual differences between selected sires in their sperm resistance against cold shock were confirmed. AndroMed® and Bioxcell® were found to be providing better protection of bull semen to cold shock compared to Triladyl® due to lower decline of live sperm proportion. Our results detected a positive effect of LDL addition on sperm resistance against cold shock, especially on lower decrease of live sperm percentage rate after 120 min of the heat test (P < 0.05. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal concentration of LDL in various kinds of extenders as well to state ideal time and temperature conditions for ensuring LDL reaction with sperm.

  17. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  18. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  19. Calibration of resistance factors for drilled shafts for the new FHWA design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (ONeill and Reese method) (...

  20. Soil-plant transfer factors of radionuclides in mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, J.D.S.; França, E.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are the main inputs of chemical substances, considering the Brazilian estuarine environments. Natural radionuclides such as 40 K and 228 Ra can be transferred to vegetation. The objective of this work is to determine the transfer factors (TF) and aggregate transfer (TF ag ) of radionuclides 40 K and 228 Ra in the soil-plant system of mangroves in the State of Pernambuco , Brazil. Concentrations of 40 K and 228 Ra activity in the soil of mangroves and in samples composed of leaves of individuals of the native plant species Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Aviccenia Schaueriana were determined from Gamma Spectrometry with hyper-pure germanium detector (HPGe). The transfer and aggregate transfer factors were calculated according to the methodology proposed in the literature. The respective TF and TF ag values for the 40 K radionuclide were 0.384 and 2.13 x 10 -3 for R. mangle; 0.394 and 2.05 x 10 -3 for L. racemosa and 1.348 and 3.44 x 10 -3 for Avicennia sp. For the radionuclide 228 Ra, the results were lower for R. mangle (TF = 0.089; TF ag = 1.95 x 10 -4 ) and L. race-mosa (TF = 0.142; TF ag = 3.46 x 10 -4 ). For Avicennia schaueriana, the concentrations of 228 Ra activity in the leaves were below the detection limit. The TF values found demonstrated a greater 40 K transfer in Avicennia and 228 Ra dominated mangroves for mangroves where the L. racemosa distribution predominates

  1. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg -1 in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg -1 for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were ∼4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  2. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C., E-mail: sheppards@ecomatters.co [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (Canada); Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B. [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba R0E 1L0 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29 L kg{sup -1} in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85 L kg{sup -1} for whole, small-bodied fish. The log CRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were {approx}4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  3. Magnetic field emission comparison at different quality factors with series-series compensation network for inductive power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Inductive power transfer is non-contact transfer of energy by means of magnetic fields. A higher secondary side quality factor at fixed input current ensures a linear increase in power transfer across the air gap. But also at the same time magnetic emissions to the surroundings increase. First...... of all in this paper an analytic expression for comparing the magnetic emissions at different quality factors is introduced. It is shown with help of simulations on Comsol that emissions have a lower increase as compared to linear increase in the power transferred with the quality factor as suggested...

  4. Transferability of MCR-1/2 Polymyxin Resistance: Complex Dissemination and Genetic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun

    2018-03-09

    Polymyxins, a group of cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, act as a last-resort defense against lethal infections by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Recent emergence and fast spread of mobilized colistin resistance determinant mcr-1 argue the renewed interest of colistin in clinical therapies, threatening global public health and agriculture production. This mini-review aims to present an updated overview of mcr-1, covering its global dissemination, the diversity of its hosts/plasmid reservoirs, the complexity in the genetic environment adjacent to mcr-1, the appearance of new mcr-like genes, and the molecular mechanisms for mobilized colistin resistance determinant 1/2 (MCR-1/2).

  5. Ginger Phytochemicals Inhibit Cell Growth and Modulate Drug Resistance Factors in Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Ming; Kao, Chiu-Li; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Lo, Yi-Ching; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2017-09-05

    Ginger has many bioactive compounds with pharmacological activities. However, few studies are known about these bioactive compounds activity in chemoresistant cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer properties of ginger phytochemicals in docetaxel-resistant human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we isolated 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 4-shogaol, 6-shogaol, 10-shogaol, and 6-dehydrogingerdione from ginger. Further, the antiproliferation activity of these compounds was examined in docetaxel-resistant (PC3R) and sensitive (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines. 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol at the concentration of 100 μM significantly inhibited the proliferation in PC3R but 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol displayed similar activity in PC3. The protein expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GSTπ) is higher in PC3R than in PC3. In summary, we isolated the bioactive compounds from ginger. Our results showed that 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol inhibit the proliferation of PC3R cells through the downregulation of MRP1 and GSTπ protein expression.

  6. Reasons of chlorella strain's resistance to physical and chemical factors of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apasheva, L M; Bujiashvilie, D M; Naydich, V I; Shevchenko, V A

    1979-07-01

    Under environmental pollution it is necessary to study the reasons of an organism's resistance as well as the specificity of it. Some chlorella strains were under the influence of uv- and x-irradiation, heat treatment, cadmium salts, insecticide, and detergent. It was shown that cells which were resistant to physical factors were resistant to chemical intoxication, as well. The positive correlation between resistance of strains and the described influences and the levels of endogenic thiols was found. The second reason for higher resistance is an increase of free radicals' concentration. It is linked with increasing P/sub 700/ quantity of electron-transport chains that make possible higher levels of photosynthetic reactions of resistant cells.

  7. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories [ heat transfer and nuclear disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R. W.; Solbrig, C. W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior.

  8. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Center for Cell and Virus Theory, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  9. CS-137 transfer factors soil-plant and density of hyphae in soil of spruce forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemt, E.; Deuss, H.; Drissner, J.; Krapf, M.; Miller, R.; Zibold, G.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of soil and plants were taken at spruce stand sites in southern Baden-Wuerttemberg. Fern always had the highest aggregated Cs-137 transfer factor (T ag ) varying between 0.01 and 0.27 m 2 kg -1 . There is a tendency for higher T ag s in soils with thicker raw humus layers, lower pH, lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the O h horizon, and lower clay content below the organic deposit. The density of hyphae is determined by the season and its weather conditions and it usually decreases continuously from O f to top B horizon. In analyzing our data no correlation between aggregated or horizon-specific transfer factors of different plants and density of hyphae could be found. Refs. 5 (author)

  10. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1 epsilon subgroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolters, B.; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, E.; Kreuzig, R.; Smalla, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, January (2015), Article 765 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : IncP-1 epsilon plasmid * class 1 integrons * biogas plant digestate * antibiotic resistance * exogenous plasmid isolation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  11. Resistance Analyses of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors within Phase 3 Clinical Trials of Treatment-Naive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L. White

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The integrase (IN strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs, raltegravir (RAL, elvitegravir (EVG and dolutegravir (DTG, comprise the newest drug class approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, which joins the existing classes of reverse transcriptase, protease and binding/entry inhibitors. The efficacy of first-line regimens has attained remarkably high levels, reaching undetectable viral loads in 90% of patients by Week 48; however, there remain patients who require a change in regimen due to adverse events, virologic failure with emergent resistance or other issues of patient management. Large, randomized clinical trials conducted in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals are required for drug approval in this population in the US, EU and other countries, with the primary endpoint for virologic success at Week 48. However, there are differences in the definition of virologic failure and the evaluation of drug resistance among the trials. This review focuses on the methodology and tabulation of resistance to INSTIs in phase 3 clinical trials of first-line regimens and discusses case studies of resistance.

  12. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Bernardo; Joia,Luiz Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. T...

  13. Transfer-factors for radionuclides in the coal-fired power plants environments in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, Dragana; Jankovic, Marija; Joksic, Jasminka; Radenkovic, Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the coal combustion in power plants, radionuclides are distributed in solid and gaseous combustion products and discharged into environment. Radioactivity monitoring of coal-fired power-plants environments (PP Nikola Tesla, PP Kolubara, PP Morava and PP Kostolac) in Serbia was carried out during 2003-2006. Here are presented results concerning the soil-plant and ash-plant systems. Plant samples growing at the soil and ash disposals are analyzed by gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector, relative efficiency 23%) and corresponding transfer factors (TF) for natural isotopes 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were calculated and discussed. Obtained concentrations values of naturally occurring radionuclides are in following ranges: (0.4 - 29) Bq/kg 226 Ra, (0.16 - 23) Bq/kg 232 Th, (245 - 1274) Bq/kg 40 K, (1.7 - 30) Bq/kg 238 U, (0.08 - 4.7) Bq/kg 235 U, (5.6 - 95) Bq/kg 210 Pb; (28 - 288) Bq/kg 7 Be and man-made 137 Cs in range 0.06 - 2.8 Bq/kg. Ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are calculated for several sampling points. Values for both ash-to-plant and soil-to-plant transfer factors are much higher for 40 K than 226 Ra and 232 Th probably due to different assimilation mechanisms of these elements by plants. Analyzed radionuclides have higher concentrations in the ash disposal than soil, and corresponding transfer-factors values obtained for ash-plant systems (ranged from 0,007 to 0,179 for 226 Ra, from 0,015 to 0,174 for 232 Th and from 0,418 to 2,230 for 40 K) are higher, indicating that there is no limit value for absorption in plants. (author)

  14. Use of the neutron activation technique: soil-plant transfer factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wellington Ferrari da; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.; Marques, Douglas José

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the soil-plant transfer factor in the absorption and translocation of chemical elements, thus, it is possible to evaluate a better decision-making in the consecutive plantations. To determine these values, the content of a chemical element present in the plant or part of it with the total content present in the same soil where it is grown is considered. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the chemical elements present in soil, leaf and grains corn, by neutron activation analysis and to compare the different soil-plant transfer factors. The samples were collected in a property located in the region of Biquinhas, MG, and irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 CDTN / CNEN nuclear reactor. Thus, the concentrations of Br, Ce Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Zn were determined. The soil-plant transfer factors for the elements found were varied, indicating a greater potassium absorption capacity (K). (author)

  15. Use of the neutron activation technique: soil-plant transfer factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wellington Ferrari da, E-mail: wferrari250@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SERTA/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Serviço de Técnicas Analíticas. Laboratório de Ativação Neutrônica; Marques, Douglas José, E-mail: douglasjmarques81@yahoo.com.br [Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Setor de Olericultura e Experimentação em Agricultura Orgânica

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the soil-plant transfer factor in the absorption and translocation of chemical elements, thus, it is possible to evaluate a better decision-making in the consecutive plantations. To determine these values, the content of a chemical element present in the plant or part of it with the total content present in the same soil where it is grown is considered. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the chemical elements present in soil, leaf and grains corn, by neutron activation analysis and to compare the different soil-plant transfer factors. The samples were collected in a property located in the region of Biquinhas, MG, and irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 CDTN / CNEN nuclear reactor. Thus, the concentrations of Br, Ce Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Zn were determined. The soil-plant transfer factors for the elements found were varied, indicating a greater potassium absorption capacity (K). (author)

  16. Concentration and measuring Platinum Group Elements (PGE) Transfer Factor in soil and vegetations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibah Sakinah Oyub

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and to measure platinum group elements (PGE) transfer factor in environmental samples of roadside soil and vegetation. The use of vehicle catalytic converter has released platinum group elements (PGE) and other gases into the environment. Thus, roadside soil and plants were exposed to this element and has become the medium for the movement of this elements. Samples of roadside soil and vegetation were taken at various locations in UKM Bangi Toll and the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) is determined using mass spectrometry-inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Overall, the concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE), which is the element platinum (Pt) in soil was 0.016 ± 0.036 μgg -1 . While the concentration of the elements palladium (Pd) was 0.079 ± 0.019 μgg -1 and element rhodium (Rh) is at a concentration of 0.013 ± 0.020 μgg -1 . Overall, the transfer factor for the element platinum (Pt) is 1. While the transfer factor of the element palladium (Pd) is 0.96 and the element rhodium (Rh) is 1.11. In conclusion, the concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in soils have increased. (author)

  17. Cisplatin-resistant cells express increased levels of a factor that recognizes damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, G.; Chang, E.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer treatment with the drug cisplatin is often thwarted by the emergence of drug-resistant cells. To study this phenomenon, the authors identified two independent cellular factors that recognize cisplatin-damaged DNA. One of the two factors, designated XPE binding factor, is deficient in complementation group E of xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disease characterized by defective repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation, cisplatin, and other agents. Human tumor cell lines selected for resistance to cisplatin showed more efficient DNA repair and increased expression of XPE binding factor. These results suggest that XPE binding factor may be responsible, at least in part, for the development of cisplatin resistance in human tumors and that the mechanism may be increased DNA repair

  18. Impact of sex, MHC, and age of recipients on the therapeutic effect of transferred leukocytes from cancer-resistant SR/CR mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Jonathan M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous Regression/Complete Resistant (SR/CR mice are resistant to cancer through a mechanism that is mediated entirely by leukocytes of innate immunity. Transfer of leukocytes from SR/CR mice can confer cancer resistance in wild-type (WT recipients in both preventative and therapeutic settings. In the current studies, we investigated factors that may impact the efficacy and functionality of SR/CR donor leukocytes in recipients. Results In sex-mismatched transfers, functionality of female donor leukocytes was not affected in male recipients. In contrast, male donor leukocytes were greatly affected in the female recipients. In MHC-mismatches, recipients of different MHC backgrounds, or mice of different strains, showed a greater negative impact on donor leukocytes than sex-mismatches. The negative effects of sex-mismatch and MHC-mismatch on donor leukocytes were additive. Old donor leukocytes performed worse than young donor leukocytes in all settings including in young recipients. Young recipients were not able to revive the declining function of old donor leukocytes. However, the function of young donor leukocytes declined gradually in old recipients, suggesting that an aged environment may contain factors that are deleterious to cellular functions. The irradiation of donor leukocytes prior to transfers had a profound suppressive effect on donor leukocyte functions, possibly as a result of impaired transcription. The cryopreserving of donor leukocytes in liquid nitrogen had no apparent effect on donor leukocyte functions, except for a small loss of cell number after revival from freezing. Conclusion Despite the functional suppression of donor leukocytes in sex- and MHC-mismatched recipients, as well as old recipients, there was a therapeutic time period during the initial few weeks during which donor leukocytes were functional before their eventual rejection or functional decline. The eventual rejection of donor

  19. A horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus confers hyper‐resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity and enables survival of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Joanne; Thomas, Jamie; Riboldi, Gustavo P.; Zapotoczna, Marta; Tarrant, Emma; Andrew, Peter W.; Londoño, Alejandra; Planet, Paul J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Waldron, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Excess copper is highly toxic and forms part of the host innate immune system's antibacterial arsenal, accumulating at sites of infection and acting within macrophages to kill engulfed pathogens. We show for the first time that a novel, horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus (copXL), uniquely associated with the SCCmec elements of the highly virulent, epidemic, community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA‐MRSA) USA300, confers copper hyper‐resistance. These genes are additional to existing core genome copper resistance mechanisms, and are not found in typical S. aureus lineages, but are increasingly identified in emerging pathogenic isolates. Our data show that CopX, a putative P1B‐3‐ATPase efflux transporter, and CopL, a novel lipoprotein, confer copper hyper‐resistance compared to typical S. aureus strains. The copXL genes form an operon that is tightly repressed in low copper environments by the copper regulator CsoR. Significantly, CopX and CopL are important for S. aureus USA300 intracellular survival within macrophages. Therefore, the emergence of new S. aureus clones with the copXL locus has significant implications for public health because these genes confer increased resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity, enhancing bacterial fitness by altering S. aureus interaction with innate immunity. PMID:29521441

  20. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  1. High energy approximations for nuclear knockout form factors at small momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We obtain an explicit approximate expression for the nucleon knockout form factor at small momentum transfer induced by a scalar probe in a single particle model in terms of the momentum space bound state wave function. Our form preserves the orthogonality constraint without using explicitly the final state scattering wave function. We examine the leading large momentum behavior of the momentum space wave function and of correction terms to our expression for the form factor in the case where the bound state is an s state

  2. Novel genetic factors involved in resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra-Pardo, C; Raymond, B; Gulzar, A; Rodríguez-Cabrera, L; Morán-Bertot, I; Crickmore, N; Wright, D J

    2015-12-01

    The widespread and sustainable exploitation of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in pest control is threatened by the evolution of resistance. Although resistance is often associated with loss of binding of the Bt toxins to the insect midgut cells, other factors have been implicated. Here we used suppressive subtractive hybridization and gene expression suppression to identify additional molecular components involved in Bt-resistance in Plutella xylostella. We isolated transcripts from genes that were differentially expressed in the midgut of larvae from a resistant population, following ingestion of a Bt kurstaki HD1 strain-based commercial formulation (DiPel), and compared with a genetically similar susceptible population. Quantitative real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed the differential basal expression of a subset of these genes. Gene expression suppression of three of these genes (P. xylostella cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1, stromal cell-derived factor 2-like 1 and hatching enzyme-like 1) significantly increased the pathogenicity of HD1 to the resistant population. In an attempt to link the multitude of factors reportedly influencing resistance to Bt with the well-characterized loss of toxin binding, we also considered Bt-resistance models in P. xylostella and other insects. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Is hormesis an underestimated factor in the development of herbicide resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belz, Regina G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing impact of herbicide resistant weeds increasingly affects weed management and the delay of resistance evolution has become a major task of chemical weed control. Hormesis and, thus, the phenomenon that low doses of herbicides can boost weed growth could be of importance in this regard since the recommended field rate may represent a low dose for weeds that have evolved resistance to the applied herbicide and, thus, a potential hormetic dose. Applying the field rate may thus not only directly select resistant biotypes, it may also indirectly promote the success and spread of resistant biotypes via hormesis. Nevertheless, hormetic effects in resistant weeds are hitherto merely randomly observed and, thus, a clear quantitative basis to judge the significance of hormesis for resistance evolution is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at quantifying the degree and frequency of herbicide hormesis in sensitive and resistant weed species in order to provide a first indication of whether the phenomenon deserves consideration as a potential factor contributing to the development of herbicide resistance. In germination assays complete dose-response experiments were conducted with sensitive and resistant biotypes of Matricaria inodora (ALS-target-site resistant; treated with iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium/mesosulfuron-methyl, Eleusine indica (glyphosateresistant; treated with glyphosate, and Chenopodium album (triazine/triazinone-target-site resistant; treated with terbuthylazine. After 10 days of cultivation under controlled conditions plant growth was analyzed by measuring shoot/root length and mass. Results indicated that herbicide hormesis occurred on average with a total frequency of 29% in sensitive/resistant biotypes with an average growth increase of 53% occurring typically within a dose zone exceeding 350fold. Hormetic effects occurred, however, very variable and only for specific endpoints and not plant growth in general. If such a

  4. Radiative transfer configuration factor catalog: A listing of relations for common geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, John R.; Menguec, M. Pinar

    2011-01-01

    An on-line compilation of radiation configuration factors for over 300 common geometries is provided as a supplementary material from the JQSRT web site at doi: (10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.10.002). The factors are gathered from references across the radiative transfer and illumination engineering literature, as well as from applications in such diverse fields from combustion systems to human factors engineering. These factors are useful in standard surface-surface radiation exchange calculations, and are based on the assumptions that the surfaces exchanging radiation are diffuse, and that the radiosity from each surface is uniform across that surface. The catalog is updated annually, and can be downloaded from JQSRT in .PDF format.

  5. The Variations of Thermal Contact Resistance and Heat Transfer Rate of the AlN Film Compositing with PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Ming Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical industries have been fast developing over the past decades. Moreover, the trend of microelements and packed division multiplex is obviously for the electrical industry. Hence, the high heat dissipative and the electrical insulating device have been popular and necessary. The thermal conduct coefficient of aluminum nitride (i.e., AlN is many times larger than the other materials. Moreover, the green technology of composite with phase change materials (i.e., PCMs is worked as a constant temperature cooler. Therefore, PCMs have been used frequently for saving energy and the green environment. Based on the above statements, it does show great potential in heat dissipative for the AlN film compositing with PCM. Therefore, this paper is focused on the research of thermal contact resistance and heat transfer between the AlN/PCM pairs. According to the experimental results, the heat transfer decreases and the thermal contact resistance increases under the melting process of PCM. However, the suitable parameters such as contact pressures can be used to improve the above defects.

  6. CRISPR-cas-mediated phage resistance enhances horizontal gene transfer by transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, Bridget N.J.; Staals, Raymond H.J.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2018-01-01

    A powerful contributor to prokaryotic evolution is horizontal gene transfer (HGT) through transformation, conjugation, and transduction, which can be advantageous, neutral, or detrimental to fitness. Bacteria and archaea control HGT and phage infection through CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly

  7. Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by Fusarium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Anthony E.; Davis, C. Britton; Gao, Minglu; Gold, Scott E.; Mitchell, Trevor R.; Proctor, Robert H.; Stewart, Jane E.; Snook, Maurice E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of antimicrobial compounds in their environments and often possess metabolic strategies to detoxify such xenobiotics. We have previously shown that Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of maize known for its production of fumonisin mycotoxins, possesses two unlinked loci, FDB1 and FDB2, necessary for detoxification of antimicrobial compounds produced by maize, including the γ-lactam 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA). In support of these earlier studies, microarray analysis of F. verticillioides exposed to BOA identified the induction of multiple genes at FDB1 and FDB2, indicating the loci consist of gene clusters. One of the FDB1 cluster genes encoded a protein having domain homology to the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Deletion of this gene (MBL1) rendered F. verticillioides incapable of metabolizing BOA and thus unable to grow on BOA-amended media. Deletion of other FDB1 cluster genes, in particular AMD1 and DLH1, did not affect BOA degradation. Phylogenetic analyses and topology testing of the FDB1 and FDB2 cluster genes suggested two horizontal transfer events among fungi, one being transfer of FDB1 from Fusarium to Colletotrichum, and the second being transfer of the FDB2 cluster from Fusarium to Aspergillus. Together, the results suggest that plant-derived xenobiotics have exerted evolutionary pressure on these fungi, leading to horizontal transfer of genes that enhance fitness or virulence. PMID:26808652

  8. Transferring of Sclerotinia resistance from wild into cultivated sunflower: Combining of conventional and laboratory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five populations of each H. molis, H. maximiliani, H. rigidus and H. tuberosus were screened for resistance to stem form of Sclerotinia. On the basis of the results obtained by screening, nine crosses of resistant populations with either other wild species populations or with cultivated sunflower were made. As in some crosses a small quantity of seed was produced and the seeds germinated poorly, modified tissue culture methods were used to enhance germination and produce clones of interesting plants. These methods were found to be efficient both for seed germination and plant production and multiplication.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lamivudine resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B: role of clinical and virological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J V; Ayres, Anna; Yuen, Lilly; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Bowden, D Scott; Iser, David M; Chen, Robert Y M; Demediuk, Barbara; Shaw, Gideon; Bell, Sally J; Watson, Katrina J R; Locarnini, Stephen A; Desmond, Paul V

    2007-07-01

    Lamivudine resistance is associated with long-term monotherapy for chronic hepatitis B and can lead to potentially serious clinical consequences. Scant information exists regarding the influence of hepatitis B virus variants in the development of resistance. The present study was designed to identify factors predictive of lamivudine resistance, with a particular focus on the role of precore and basal core promoter variants in the setting of hepatitis B e antigen-negative disease. Eighty-five patients, representing four major genotypes, were followed prospectively on lamivudine therapy. Resistance was defined as an increase in viral load, with polymerase gene sequencing confirming a lamivudine resistance mutation. Median follow up was 19 months (6-54 months). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine variables independently predicting for the early onset of lamivudine resistance. The rate of lamivudine resistance was 6%, 31% and 51% at 12, 24 and 48 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified the precore variant, high baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and persistent viremia (at 6 months) as independent predictors of the early development of lamivudine resistance, with rate ratios of 4.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-18.5), 1.22 (95%CI: 1.08-1.49), and 4.73 (95%CI: 1.49-15.0), respectively (P < 0.05). Female sex predicted early resistance (rate ratio 5.27 [95%CI: 1.23-22.5, P < 0.05]) although numbers were small (n = 12). Genotype did not influence treatment response nor time to onset of resistance. Patients with precore variant hepatitis B virus are likely to develop lamivudine resistance early and should be considered for alternate first-line monotherapy. In the future, combination antiviral therapy may limit the development of resistance.

  11. Interrelationships of metal transfer factor under wastewater reuse and soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Papadopoulos, F; Psoma, P

    2018-06-15

    The transfer of heavy metals under soil pollution wastewater reuse was studied in a Greenhouse experiment using a randomized block design, including 6 treatments of heavy metals mixtures composed of Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, where each metal was taking part in the mixture with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/kg respectively, in four replications. The Beta vulgaris L (beet) was used as a test plant. It was found that the metal transfer factors were statistically significantly related to the: (i) DTPA extractable soil metals, (ii) the soil pollution level as assessed by the pollution indices, (iii) the soil pH, (iv) the beet dry matter yield and (v) the interactions between the heavy metals in the soil. It was concluded that the Transfer Factor is subjected to multifactor effects and its real nature is complex, and there is a strong need for further study for the understanding of its role in metal-plant relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors related to resistance to hematopoietic death in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Yonezawa, Morio; Nishikawa, Ryosuke; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Esaki, Kozaburo.

    1994-01-01

    Mouse strain difference in the radiosensitivity to hematopoietic death is thought to be determined by several factors besides radiosensitivity and the initial number of hematopoietic stem cells. Factors related to the survival of mice exposed to X-irradiation were analyzed using BALB/cHeA and STS/A strains whose LD 50/30 values differ markedly (BALB/cHeA, 5.55 Gy; STS/A, 8.45 Gy). STS/A mice exposed to 4 Gy of X-irradiation showed a small reduction but rapid recovery of blood cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes) when compared with BALB/cHeA mice. The survival of endogenous and exogenous CFU-S was much higher, by a magnitude of one log or more, in STS/A mice than those in BALB/cHeA mice; whereas the initial numbers of femoral CFU-S were similar for the two strains. The recovery of exogenous CFU-S was much more rapid in STS/A mice than it was in BALB/cHeA mice after 4 Gy of X-irradiation. Furthermore, spleen colonies produced by the transfusion of STS/A marrow cells into syngeneic recipients were significantly larger than those produced by BALB/cHeA marrow cells, regardless of whether the mice used for sources of marrow cells had been irradiated. But, there was no such difference when unirradiated marrow cells from the two strains were transfused into (BALB/cHeA X STS/A) F 1 recipients. These results indicate the possible contribution of a host factor (s) that stimulates the growth of spleen colonies after radiation to the radioresistance of STS/A mice, in addition to the primary effect of higher number of survivals of endogenous and exogenous CFU-S in STS/A mice. (author)

  13. Strategies for transferring resistance into wheat: from wide crosses to GM cassettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brande B. H. Wulff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of wheat in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago led to a genetic bottleneck. Modern agriculture has further narrowed the genetic base by introducing extreme levels of uniformity on a vast spatial and temporal scale. This reduction in genetic complexity renders the crop vulnerable to new and emerging pests and pathogens. The wild relatives of wheat represent an important source of genetic variation for disease resistance. For nearly a century farmers, breeders, and cytogeneticists have sought to access this variation for crop improvement. Several barriers restricting interspecies hybridization and introgression have been overcome, providing the opportunity to tap an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. Resistance has been introgressed into wheat from at least 52 species from 13 genera, demonstrating the remarkable plasticity of the wheat genome and the importance of such natural variation in wheat breeding. Two main problems hinder the effective deployment of introgressed resistance genes for crop improvement: (1 the simultaneous introduction of genetically linked deleterious traits and (2 the rapid breakdown of resistance when deployed individually. In this review we discuss how recent advances in molecular genomics are providing new opportunities to overcome these problems.

  14. A standardized conjugation protocol to asses antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampkowska, Joanna; Feld, Louise; Monaghan, Aine

    2008-01-01

    Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAM beta 1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laborator...

  15. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Mascagnia) septentrionalis in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorimia septentrionalis contains sodium monofluoroactetate (MFA) and can cause acute heart failure in ruminants when ingested in toxic doses. In this study, we demonstrate that resistance to poisoning by A. septentrionalis can be improved in goats by the repeated administration of non-toxic doses o...

  16. A standardized conjugation protocol to assess antibiotic resistance transfer between lactococcal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampkowska, J.; Feld, L.; Monaghan, A.; Toomey, N.; Schjørring, S.; Jacobsen, B.; Voet, van der H.; Andersen, S.R.; Bolton, D.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Wilcks, A.; Bardowski, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal conditions and a standardized method for conjugation between two model lactococcal strains, Lactococcus lactis SH4174 (pAMbeta1-containing, erythromycin resistant donor) and L. lactis Bu2-60 (plasmid-free, erythromycin sensitive recipient), were developed and tested in a inter-laboratory

  17. Lack of glyphosate resistance gene transfer from Roundup Ready soybean to Bradyrhizobium japonicum under field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Laura Arango; Opelt, Katja; Wagner, Tobias; Mattes, Elke; Bieber, Evi; Hatley, Elwood O; Roth, Greg; Sanjuán, Juan; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton; Ernst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center to determine the effect of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in combination with herbicide (Roundup) application on its endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. DNA of bacteroids from isolated nodules was analysed for the presence of the transgenic 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) DNA sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To further assess the likelihood that the EPSPS gene may be transferred from the Roundup Ready (RR) soybean to B. japonicum, we have examined the natural transformation efficiency of B. japonicum strain 110spc4. Analyses of nodules showed the presence of the transgenic EPSPS DNA sequence. In bacteroids that were isolated from nodules of transgenic soybean plants and then cultivated in the presence of glyphosate this sequence could not be detected. This indicates that no stable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the EPSPS gene had occurred under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, no natural transformation was detected in B. japonicum strain 110spc4 in the presence of various amounts of recombinant plasmid DNA. Our results indicate that no natural competence state exists in B. japonicum 110spc4. Results from field and laboratory studies indicate the lack of functional transfer of the CP4-EPSPS gene from glyphosate-tolerant soybean treated with glyphosate to root-associated B. japonicum.

  18. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  19. The fosfomycin resistance gene fosB3 is located on a transferable, extrachromosomal circular intermediate in clinical Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Xu

    Full Text Available Some VanM-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from China are also resistant to fosfomycin. To investigate the mechanism of fosfomycin resistance in these clinical isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, filter-mating, Illumina/Solexa sequencing, inverse PCR and fosfomycin resistance gene cloning were performed. Three E. faecium clinical isolates were highly resistant to fosfomycin and vancomycin with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs >1024 µg/ml and >256 µg/ml, respectively. The fosfomycin and vancomycin resistance of these strains could be co-transferred by conjugation. They carried a fosfomycin resistance gene fosB encoding a protein differing by one or two amino acids from FosB, which is encoded on staphylococcal plasmids. Accordingly, the gene was designated fosB3. The fosB3 gene was cloned into pMD19-T, and transformed into E. coli DH5α. The fosfomycin MIC for transformants with fosB3 was 750-fold higher than transformants without fosB3. The fosB3 gene could be transferred by an extrachromosomal circular intermediate. The results indicate that the fosB3 gene is transferable, can mediate high level fosfomycin resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can be located on a circular intermediate.

  20. Next-Generation Sequence Analysis Reveals Transfer of Methicillin Resistance to a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain That Subsequently Caused a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak: a Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Veronica; Bosch, Thijs; Witteveen, Sandra; Landman, Fabian; Schouls, Leo; Kluytmans, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also resistant to fusidic acid, was detected. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing showed that both the MSSA and MRSA isolates were MT4053-MC0005. This finding led to the hypothesis that the MSSA strain acquired the SCC mec and subsequently caused an outbreak. To support this hypothesis, next-generation sequencing of the MSSA and MRSA isolates was performed. This study showed that the MSSA isolate clustered closely with the outbreak isolates based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, with a genetic distance of 17 genes and 44 SNPs, respectively. Remarkably, there were relatively large differences in the mobile genetic elements in strains within and between individuals. The limited genetic distance between the MSSA and MRSA isolates in combination with a clear epidemiologic link supports the hypothesis that the MSSA isolate acquired a SCC mec and that the resulting MRSA strain caused an outbreak. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Uranium and radium in Finnsjoen - an experimental approach for calculation of transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bergman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological safety studies for underground disposal of HLW show that the future individual and collective doses to an important extent may originate from groundwater borne radium and uranium which reach the biosphere. Indications that the dispersion rates presently used give rise to overestimations of calculated doses justified an investigation for more realistic turnover rates of radium and uranium than those which now are in use. Within one of the sites selected for testing, the area around lake Finnsjoen, a small number of environmental samples were collected and analyzed with respect to radium and uranium and the new transfer coefficients between soil and lake water were derived. The dose rates obtained with the new transfer factors show a close agreement for radium and a slight increase for uranium compared with earlier calculations. (Auth.)

  2. 100% classification accuracy considered harmful: the normalized information transfer factor explains the accuracy paradox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Valverde-Albacete

    Full Text Available The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We present evidence of this behavior by means of a combinatorial analysis where every possible contingency matrix of 2, 3 and 4 classes classifiers are depicted on the entropy triangle, a more reliable information-theoretic tool for classification assessment. Motivated by this, we develop from first principles a measure of classification performance that takes into consideration the information learned by classifiers. We are then able to obtain the entropy-modulated accuracy (EMA, a pessimistic estimate of the expected accuracy with the influence of the input distribution factored out, and the normalized information transfer factor (NIT, a measure of how efficient is the transmission of information from the input to the output set of classes. The EMA is a more natural measure of classification performance than accuracy when the heuristic to maximize is the transfer of information through the classifier instead of classification error count. The NIT factor measures the effectiveness of the learning process in classifiers and also makes it harder for them to "cheat" using techniques like specialization, while also promoting the interpretability of results. Their use is demonstrated in a mind reading task competition that aims at decoding the identity of a video stimulus based on magnetoencephalography recordings. We show how the EMA and the NIT factor reject rankings based in accuracy, choosing more meaningful and interpretable classifiers.

  3. Temporal trends and risks factors for antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae urinary isolates from outpatients in Guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyomard-Rabenirina, Stéphanie; Malespine, Joyce; Ducat, Célia; Sadikalay, Syndia; Falord, Mélanie; Harrois, Dorothée; Richard, Vincent; Dozois, Charles; Breurec, Sébastien; Talarmin, Antoine

    2016-06-24

    Urinary tract infections are bacterial infections most commonly encountered in the community. The resistance rate of uropathogens to commonly prescribed antibiotics has increased worldwide but there are no published data concerning the resistance of strains isolated from community-acquired UTI in Guadeloupe. To assess the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from outpatients in Guadeloupe we conducted a prospective study from December 2012 to May 2014 among outpatients consulting at private and public laboratories for urine analysis. Risk factors for E. coli resistance to amoxicillin, third-generation cephalosporin, and ciprofloxacin were also determined. To study the trends of E. coli resistance rates over the past 10 years, data on the susceptibility patterns of E. coli from 2003 to 2014 were also collected from three major laboratories for a retrospective study. During the prospective study, we isolated 1293 bacterial strains from the urine of outpatients presenting for urine analysis. The most commonly isolated bacteria were E. coli (57 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.5 %). Thirty seven per cent of the E. coli strains were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance rates to third generation cephalosporin were low for E. coli and other Enterobacteriaceae (3.1 and 12.2 % respectively) and mostly due to the presence of an Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase. Resistance to cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin was moderate (17.8 and 15.6 % respectively). However, the resistance rate of E. coli to ciprofloxacin has significantly increased during the last 10 years. Risk factors were consistent with previously reported data, especially for the increasing ciprofloxacin resistance with age. General practitioners in Guadeloupe need to be better informed to favor the prescription of fosfomycin-trometamol to reduce the risk of resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  4. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 and bioenergetics in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radde, Brandie N.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mai, Huy Xuan; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Piell, Kellianne; Van Hoose, Patrick; Cole, Marsha P.; Muluhngwi, Penn; Kalbfleisch, Ted S.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Hill, Bradford G.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is a significant clinical problem in treating patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ breast cancer. We reported that ERα increases nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), which regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene transcription, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NRF-1 knockdown stimulates apoptosis. Whether NRF-1 and target gene expression is altered in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells is unknown. We measured NRF-1and metabolic features in a cell model of progressive TAM-resistance. NRF-1 and its target mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were higher in TAM-resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells than TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Using extracellular flux assays we observed that LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells showed similar oxygen consumption rate (OCR), but lower mitochondrial reserve capacity which was correlated with lower Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit B in LCC1 and LCC2 cells. Complex III activity was lower in LCC9 than MCF-7 cells. LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells had higher basal extracellular acidification (ECAR), indicating higher aerobic glycolysis, relative to MCF-7 cells. Mitochondrial bioenergetic responses to estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were reduced in the endocrine-resistant cells compared to MCF-7 cells. These results suggest the acquisition of altered metabolic phenotypes in response to long term antiestrogen treatment may increase vulnerability to metabolic stress. - Highlights: • NRF-1 and TFAM expression are higher in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. • Oxygen consumption rate is similar in endocrine-sensitive and resistant cells. • Mitochondrial reserve capacity is lower in endocrine-resistant cells. • Endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells have increased glycolysis. • Bioenergetic responses to E2 and tamoxifen are lower in endocrine-resistant cells.

  5. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 and bioenergetics in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radde, Brandie N.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mai, Huy Xuan; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Piell, Kellianne; Van Hoose, Patrick; Cole, Marsha P.; Muluhngwi, Penn; Kalbfleisch, Ted S. [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Rouchka, Eric C. [Bioinformatics and Biomedical Computing Laboratory, Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hill, Bradford G. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Klinge, Carolyn M., E-mail: carolyn.klinge@louisville.edu [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is a significant clinical problem in treating patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ breast cancer. We reported that ERα increases nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), which regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene transcription, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NRF-1 knockdown stimulates apoptosis. Whether NRF-1 and target gene expression is altered in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells is unknown. We measured NRF-1and metabolic features in a cell model of progressive TAM-resistance. NRF-1 and its target mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were higher in TAM-resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells than TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Using extracellular flux assays we observed that LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells showed similar oxygen consumption rate (OCR), but lower mitochondrial reserve capacity which was correlated with lower Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit B in LCC1 and LCC2 cells. Complex III activity was lower in LCC9 than MCF-7 cells. LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells had higher basal extracellular acidification (ECAR), indicating higher aerobic glycolysis, relative to MCF-7 cells. Mitochondrial bioenergetic responses to estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were reduced in the endocrine-resistant cells compared to MCF-7 cells. These results suggest the acquisition of altered metabolic phenotypes in response to long term antiestrogen treatment may increase vulnerability to metabolic stress. - Highlights: • NRF-1 and TFAM expression are higher in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. • Oxygen consumption rate is similar in endocrine-sensitive and resistant cells. • Mitochondrial reserve capacity is lower in endocrine-resistant cells. • Endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells have increased glycolysis. • Bioenergetic responses to E2 and tamoxifen are lower in endocrine-resistant cells.

  6. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  7. A Study of the Factors Associated with Successful Technology Transfer and their Applicability to Air Force Technology Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    transfer project. (D) 8a Organization has a technology transfer organization. (D,A) 10a Marketing and advertising of technologies targeted to relevant...Entrepreneurial (D) Developer: 10A: Marketing and advertising of technologies targeted to relevant industries. Most developers indicate that they marketed...regard to marketing and advertising . 10B: Technology maturation supported by internal units or by contracting out. Technology maturation is the

  8. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  9. Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: present status and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Le Hang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6% MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9% were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7% were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively. The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  10. Heat-transfer resistance at solid-liquid interfaces: a tool for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Bart; Vanden Bon, Natalie; Strauven, Hannelore; Grieten, Lars; Murib, Mohammed; Monroy, Kathia L Jiménez; Janssens, Stoffel D; Haenen, Ken; Schöning, Michael J; Vermeeren, Veronique; Ameloot, Marcel; Michiels, Luc; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick

    2012-03-27

    In this article, we report on the heat-transfer resistance at interfaces as a novel, denaturation-based method to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA. We observed that a molecular brush of double-stranded DNA grafted onto synthetic diamond surfaces does not notably affect the heat-transfer resistance at the solid-to-liquid interface. In contrast to this, molecular brushes of single-stranded DNA cause, surprisingly, a substantially higher heat-transfer resistance and behave like a thermally insulating layer. This effect can be utilized to identify ds-DNA melting temperatures via the switching from low- to high heat-transfer resistance. The melting temperatures identified with this method for different DNA duplexes (29 base pairs without and with built-in mutations) correlate nicely with data calculated by modeling. The method is fast, label-free (without the need for fluorescent or radioactive markers), allows for repetitive measurements, and can also be extended toward array formats. Reference measurements by confocal fluorescence microscopy and impedance spectroscopy confirm that the switching of heat-transfer resistance upon denaturation is indeed related to the thermal on-chip denaturation of DNA. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Soil-plant transfer factors for Pu in the field and laboratory in relation to desorption from the solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, S.; Kelly, M.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Horrill, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory hydroponics experiments using an environmentally contaminated sediment as source of Pu, were carried out to determine the soil-plant, soil solution-plant and root-plant transfer factors. Soil-plant transfer factors, calculated from field observations, varied according to the degree of animal usage and were more than two orders of magnitude larger than those from the laboratory experiments. The discrepancies between field and laboratory measurements are probably due to the complex sediment speciation and desorption chemistry of Pu. The transfer factors based on the solution or root activities are likely to provided a better estimate of the vegetation activity than those based on the solid phase activity. (author)

  12. g-factor of the 9/2+ isomeric state in 65Ni from transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.; Matea, I.; Balabanski, D.L.; Daugas, J.M.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Lewitowicz, M.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Blanc, F.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Verney, D.; Lo Bianco, G.; Saltarelli, A.; Lukyanov, S.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Neyens, G.; Vermeulen, N.; Yordanov, D.; Tarisien, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of the g-factor of the I π =9/2 + , t 1/2 =22 ns isomer in 65 Ni. The state of interest was populated and spin-oriented using a single-neutron transfer on an enriched 64 Ni target. The value, which was obtained, g(9/2 + , 65m Ni)=-0.296(3) is well in agreement with the g-factors of the other 9/2 + states in the region and with large-basis shell model calculations. The known g-factor of the 9/2 + isomer in 63 Ni was used in order to verify the strength of the hyperfine field of Ni(Ni) at room temperature. (orig.)

  13. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  14. Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance.

  15. An Evaluation of Effective Factors in Learning Transfer of Nursing On-the-Job Training Courses in Work-Environment Based on Holton’s Transfer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi mohammadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background of Objective: Nursing is one of the health care jobs. In addition to health care, they need to continue education for individual development and be aware of the latest medical science achievements. The main purpose of this study was an evaluation of effective factors in learning transfer of nursing on the job training courses in work environment based on Holton’s transfer model. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which the population was all of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences nurses. Passing on-the-job training courses in 2015 was inclusion criterion. Using random sampling method and Cocran formula, 95 nurses were selected. Research instrument was learning transfer system inventory that was distributed after its validity and reliability were calculated. Data was analyzed by inferential statistical methods and SPSS21. Results: The results showed that effective individual, organizational and educational factors in learning transfer of on-the-job training courses in work environment are important. Also, they showed that individual was the most dominant effective factor (P< 0.05. Conclusion: With special attention to the nurse's on- the -job training courses, it is possible to transfer learning to work environment.

  16. Requirement for Vibrio cholerae integration host factor in conjugative DNA transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sarah M; Burrus, Vincent; Waldor, Matthew K

    2006-08-01

    The requirement for host factors in the transmission of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) has not been extensively explored. Here we tested whether integration host factor (IHF) or Fis, two host-encoded nucleoid proteins, are required for transfer of SXT, a Vibrio cholerae-derived ICE that can be transmitted to many gram-negative species. Fis did not influence the transfer of SXT to or from V. cholerae. In contrast, IHF proved to be required for V. cholerae to act as an SXT donor. In the absence of IHF, V. cholerae displayed a modest defect for serving as an SXT recipient. Surprisingly, SXT integration into or excision from the V. cholerae chromosome, which requires an SXT-encoded integrase related to lambda integrase, did not require IHF. Therefore, the defect in SXT transmission in the V. cholerae IHF mutant is probably not related to IHF's ability to promote DNA recombination. The V. cholerae IHF mutant was also highly impaired as a donor of RP4, a broad-host-range conjugative plasmid. Thus, the V. cholerae IHF mutant appears to have a general defect in conjugation. Escherichia coli IHF mutants were not impaired as donors or recipients of SXT or RP4, indicating that IHF is a V. cholerae-specific conjugation factor.

  17. Atelocollagen sponge and recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor combination therapy for resistant wounds with deep cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Asako; Hakamada, Arata; Isoda, Ken-ichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in bioengineering have introduced materials that enhance wound healing. Even with such new tools, some deep ulcers surrounded by avascular tissues, including bone, tendon, and fascia, are resistant to various therapies and easily form deep cavities with loss of subcutaneous tissue. Atelocollagen sponges have been used as an artificial dermis to cover full-thickness skin defects. Topical recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor has been introduced as a growth factor to induce fibroblast proliferation in skin ulcers. We applied these materials in combination in two patients with deep resistant wounds: one with a cavity reaching the mediastinum through a divided sternum and one with deep necrotic wounds caused by electric burns. These wounds did not respond to the topical basic fibroblast growth factor alone. In contrast, the combination therapy closed the wounds rapidly without further surgical treatment. This combination therapy is a potent treatment for resistant wounds with deep cavities.

  18. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed...

  19. Reliability-based load and resistance factor design for piping: an exploratory case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Abhinav; Choi, Byounghoan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory case study on the application of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach to the Section III of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code for piping design. The failure criterion for defining the performance function is considered as plastic instability. Presently used design equation is calibrated by evaluating the minimum reliability levels associated with it. If the target reliability in the LRFD approach is same as that evaluated for the presently used design equation, it is shown that the total safety factors for the two design equations are identical. It is observed that the load and resistance factors are not dependent upon the diameter to thickness ratio. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to study the variations in the load and resistance factors due to changes in (a) coefficients of variation for pressure, moment, and ultimate stress, (b) ratio of mean design pressure to mean design moment, (c) distribution types used for characterizing the random variables, and (d) statistical correlation between random variables. It is observed that characterization of random variables by log-normal distribution is reasonable. Consideration of statistical correlation between the ultimate stress and section modulus gives higher values of the load factor for pressure but lower value for the moment than the corresponding values obtained by considering the variables to be uncorrelated. Since the effect of statistical correlation on the load and resistance factors is relatively insignificant for target reliability values of practical interest, the effect of correlated variables may be neglected

  20. Low back pain characterized by muscle resistance and occupational factors associated with nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Petersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the occupational factors associated with low back pain using a surveillance tool and to characterize the low back pain by the resistance of the extensor muscles of the vertebral column among nursing professionals at an Intensive Care Unit.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The workers answered a questionnaire about occupational factors and participated in a resistance test of the extensor muscles of the vertebral column. Associations were established through Student's T-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test and correlations using Pearson's test.RESULTS: Out of 48 participants, 32 (67% suffered from low pain. For the resistance test, the subjects suffering from low back pain endured less time in comparison with asymptomatic subjects, but without significant differences (p=0.147. The duration of the pain episode showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016 with the results of the resistance test though. The main factors identified as causes of low back pain were biomechanical and postural elements, conditions of the muscle structure and physical and organizational conditions.CONCLUSIONS: the main occupational factors associated with the low back pain were the posture and the characteristics of the physical and organizational conditions. In addition, the extensor muscles of the column showed a trend towards lesser resistance for workers in pain. This evidence is important when considering prevention and treatment strategies.

  1. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  2. Cluster transfer form factor and intercluster relative motion in the orthogonality-condition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, R.G.; Pal, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    The orthogonality-condition model (OCM), as an approximation method for calculating the overlap and potential overlap functions involved in the form factor of transfer reactions, is tested against microscopic cluster calculations for the 7 Li=α+t system. The OCM overlap and potential overlap turned out to depend strongly on the OCM potential although the potentials are chosen so as to produce the same asymptotic phase. Excellent approximations to microscopic overlaps and potential overlaps are, however, obtained by optimizing the OCM potential so that the OCM may reproduce the microscopic energy surface. This way the dependence on the OCM potential is traced back to the underlying nucleon-nucleon force. (author)

  3. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Analytic of elements for the determination of soil->plant transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liese, T.

    1985-02-01

    This article describes a part of the conventional analytical work, which was done to determine soil to plant transfer factors. The analytical methods, the experiments to find out the best way of sample digestion and the resulting analytical procedures are described. Analytical methods are graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In case of ICP-AES the necessity of right background correction and correction of the spectral interferences is shown. The reliability of the analytical procedure is demonstrated by measuring different kinds of standard reference materials and by comparison of AAS and AES. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  6. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals facilitate the horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes in water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Gu, April Z; Cen, Tianyu; Li, Xiangyang; He, Miao; Li, Dan; Chen, Jianmin

    2018-06-01

    Although widespread antibiotic resistance has been mostly attributed to the selective pressure generated by overuse and misuse of antibiotics, recent growing evidence suggests that chemicals other than antibiotics, such as certain metals, can also select and stimulate antibiotic resistance via both co-resistance and cross-resistance mechanisms. For instance, tetL, merE, and oprD genes are resistant to both antibiotics and metals. However, the potential de novo resistance induced by heavy metals at environmentally-relevant low concentrations (much below theminimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs], also referred as sub-inhibitory) has hardly been explored. This study investigated and revealed that heavy metals, namely Cu(II), Ag(I), Cr(VI), and Zn(II), at environmentally-relevant and sub-inhibitory concentrations, promoted conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between E. coli strains. The mechanisms of this phenomenon were further explored, which involved intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, SOS response, increased cell membrane permeability, and altered expression of conjugation-relevant genes. These findings suggest that sub-inhibitory levels of heavy metals that widely present in various environments contribute to the resistance phenomena via facilitating horizontal transfer of ARGs. This study provides evidence from multiple aspects implicating the ecological effect of low levels of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance dissemination and highlights the urgency of strengthening efficacious policy and technology to control metal pollutants in the environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of clinical risk factors for drug-resistant epilepsy in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kasprzyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological illnesses occurring in children. In approximately 20–30% of cases it is drug-resistant. Aim of the research: To assess the already-known risk factors, analyse the rarely described ones, and find new causes of epilepsy drug resistance in children, taking into account the level of impact of each factor. Material and methods : The study comprised 152 of all 383 children hospitalised in 2012 at the Neurology Department of the Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital in Lodz due to epilepsy. Based on medical documentation, neurological examination, and our own questionnaire, we divided patients into two groups: drug-resistant epilepsy or drug-sensitive epilepsy. We compared the type, level of influence, and prevalence of different factors. For statistical analysis, the 2 test was used. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Drug-resistant epilepsy was found in 64 patients (42.1%, and drug-sensitive epilepsy was found in 88 patients (57.9%. Factors that were most probable to cause drug resistance included: high prevalence of seizures (Cramer’s V = 0.66, type of epileptic syndrome (V = 0.62, psychomotor developmental delay (V = 0.62, and occurrence of status epilepticus (V = 0.6. Factors such as infections of CNS in early childhood, repeated severe infections of airways in childhood, and mother’s infectious diseases with high fever during pregnancy were rare or non occurring (Cramer’s V = 0.41, 0.32, and 0.31, respectively. Conclusions : The study confirmed the previously known causes of drug resistance and indicated the significance of underestimated inflammatory and infectious factors involving pyrexia, in children and also in mothers during pregnancy.

  8. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  9. Transfer patterns of integron-associated and antibiotic resistance genes in S. flexneri during different time intervals in Tianjin, China

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    J Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella is one of the common genera of pathogens responsible for bacterial diarrhoea in humans. According to World Health Organisation (WHO, 800,000-1,700,000 patients in China were infected with Shigella spp. in 2000, and Shigella flexneri is the most common serotype (86%. Objectives: We investigated the transfer patterns of integron-associated and antibiotic resistance genes in S. flexneri during different time intervals in the city of Tianjin in the People′s Republic of China. Materials and Methods: The integrase-encoding and variable regions of the integrons of the bacterial strains were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, followed by gene sequencing. Fifty-six S. flexneri strains, 32 of which were stored in our laboratory and the other 24 were isolated from tertiary hospitals in Tianjin during different time intervals, were tested for their sensitivity to 12 antibiotics by using the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic testing method (K-B method. Results and Conclusion: Of the 32 strains of S. flexneri isolated from 1981 to 1983 and stored in our laboratory, class 1 integron was detected in 28 strains (87.50%, while 27 strains (84.37% harboured an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aadA, in the variable region of their integrons. Class 1 integron was identified in 22 (91.67% of the 24 S. flexneri strains isolated from 2009 to 2010, whereas the variable region and 3′-end amplification were not present in any of the strains. Class 2 integron was not found in the 1981-1983 group (group A of strains; although 19 (79.17% of the 24 strains in the 2009-2010 group (group B possessed class 2 integron, and the variable region of the integron harboured dfrA1 + sat1 + aadA1 genes, which, respectively, mediate antibiotic resistance to trimethoprim, streptothricin and streptomycin. Seventeen strains of the total 56 possessed both class 1 and 2 integrons. Strains belonging to group A were highly resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and a

  10. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-01-01

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow's milk, sheep's milk, goat's milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  11. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  12. Transfer and Persistence of a Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid in situ of the Infant Gut Microbiota in the Absence of Antibiotic Treatment

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    Heidi Gumpert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high-resolution insight into the plasticity, and selective forces shaping individual genomes is scarce. In a longitudinal study, we followed the dynamics of co-existing Escherichia coli lineages in an infant not receiving antibiotics. Using whole genome sequencing, we observed large genomic deletions, bacteriophage infections, as well as the loss and acquisition of plasmids in these lineages during their colonization of the human gut. In particular, we captured the exchange of multidrug resistance genes, and identified a clinically relevant conjugative plasmid mediating the transfer. This resistant transconjugant lineage was maintained for months, demonstrating that antibiotic resistance genes can disseminate and persist in the gut microbiome; even in absence of antibiotic selection. Furthermore, through in vivo competition assays, we suggest that the resistant transconjugant can persist through a fitness advantage in the mouse gut in spite of a fitness cost in vitro. Our findings highlight the dynamic nature of the human gut microbiota and provide the first genomic description of antibiotic resistance gene transfer between bacteria in the unperturbed human gut. These results exemplify that conjugative plasmids, harboring resistance determinants, can transfer and persists in the gut in the absence of antibiotic treatment.

  13. Liver-derived systemic factors drive β-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce β-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human β-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of β-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  14. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  15. Bloodstream infections caused by multi-drug resistant Proteus mirabilis: Epidemiology, risk factors and impact of multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytny, Alexander; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Fransisc; Borer, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial co-resistance among ESBL-producing Enterobactereaceae is extremely high in Israel. Multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strains (MDR-PM), resistant to almost all antibiotic classes have been described. The aim was to determine the risk factors for bloodstream infections caused by MDR-PM and clinical outcomes. A retrospective case-control study. Adult patients with PM bacteremia during 7 years were identified retrospectively and their files reviewed for demographics, underlying diseases, Charlson Comorbidity Index, treatment and outcome. One hundred and eighty patients with PM-bloodstream infection (BSI) were included; 90 cases with MDR-PM and 90 controls with sensitive PM (S-PM). Compared to controls, cases more frequently were from nursing homes, had recurrent hospital admissions in the past year and received antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months, were bedridden and suffered from peripheral vascular disease and peptic ulcer disease (p < 0.001). Two-thirds of the MDR-PM isolates were ESBL-producers vs 4.4% of S-PM isolates (p < 0.001, OR = 47.6, 95% CI = 15.9-142.6). In-hospital crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was 37.7% vs 23.3% in those with S-PM BSI (p = 0.0359, OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.4-3.81). PM bacteremia in elderly and functionally-dependent patients is likely to be caused by nearly pan-resistant PM strains in the institution; 51.8% of the patients received inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment. The crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was significantly higher than that of patients with S-PM BSI.

  16. Risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli from Belgian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, D; Haesebrouck, F; Smet, A; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Martel, A; Catry, B; Berge, A C; Butaye, P; Dewulf, J

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study on 32 different Belgian broiler farms was performed in 2007 and 2008 to identify risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli. On each farm, one E. coli colony was isolated from 30 random birds. Following susceptibility testing of 14 antimicrobials, an on-farm questionnaire was used to obtain information on risk factors. Using a multilevel logistic regression model two factors were identified at the animal level: resistance to amoxicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. On the farm level, besides antimicrobial use, seven management factors were found to be associated with the occurrence of ceftiofur resistance in E. coli from broilers: poor hygienic condition of the medicinal treatment reservoir, no acidification of drinking water, more than three feed changes during the production cycle, hatchery of origin, breed, litter material used, and treatment with amoxicillin. This study confirms that not only on-farm antimicrobial therapy, but also management- and hatchery-related factors influence the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells--metastases suppressor factors as change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Mann, Anita; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Kumar, Maneesh; Roy, Sumitabho Deb; Pore, Subrata Kumar; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Building molecular correlates of drug resistance in cancer and exploiting them for therapeutic intervention remains a pressing clinical need. To identify factors that impact drug resistance herein we built a model that couples inherent cell-based response toward drugs with transcriptomes of resistant/sensitive cells. To test this model, we focused on a group of genes called metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that influence aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancers. Interestingly, modeling of 84 000 drug response transcriptome combinations predicted multiple MSGs to be associated with resistance of different cell types and drugs. As a case study, on inducing MSG levels in a drug resistant breast cancer line resistance to anticancer drugs caerulomycin, camptothecin and topotecan decreased by more than 50-60%, in both culture conditions and also in tumors generated in mice, in contrast to control un-induced cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells based on a model that exploits inherent cellular response profiles.

  18. Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to clinical isolates of E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Musarrat; Zhanel, George G; Sparling, Richard; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-16

    Enterococcus species are part of the normal intestinal flora of a large number of mammals including humans and consequently, they can be used as indicators of faecal contamination in food and water for human consumption. Their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. In the present study, Enterococcus spp., isolated from commercially fermented meat and human clinical specimen were studied to determine genetic relationships. SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns exhibited genomic heterogeneity within and between both groups of isolates. However, in spite of this heterogeneity there were still substantial phenotypic similarities which suggested that food might be a potential vehicle for distribution of resistant bacteria among humans. In vitro conjugation experiments demonstrated transfer of the tetracycline resistant determinant, tet(M), from Enterococcus faecium S27 isolated from fermented sausage to clinical isolates of both E. faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. The streptomycin resistance of E. faecium S27 was also transferred to a clinical strain, E. faecalis 82916, which was confirmed by the presence of the streptomycin resistance gene, aadA, in the donor and transconjugant strains. Since the aadA gene is associated with a class 1 integron, results also suggested that resistance transfer might have occurred via an integron. It appears this is the first identification of a class 1 integron in E. faecium isolated from food. The importance of food enterococci as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and the potential for their genetic transfer to human strains following consumption of uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat is underlined by this work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CRISPR-Cas and Restriction-Modification Act Additively against Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Valerie J; Huo, Wenwen; Sharifi, Ardalan; Palmer, Kelli L

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack CRISPR-Cas and possess an orphan locus lacking cas genes, CRISPR2, that is of unknown function. Little is known about restriction-modification defense in E. faecalis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains are immunocompromised. We assessed MGE acquisition by E. faecalis T11, a strain closely related to the multidrug-resistant hospital isolate V583 but which lacks the ~620 kb of horizontally acquired genome content that characterizes V583. T11 possesses the E. faecalis CRISPR3-cas locus and a predicted restriction-modification system, neither of which occurs in V583. We demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification together confer a 4-log reduction in acquisition of the pheromone-responsive plasmid pAM714 in biofilm matings. Additionally, we show that the orphan CRISPR2 locus is functional for genome defense against another pheromone-responsive plasmid, pCF10, only in the presence of cas9 derived from the E. faecalis CRISPR1-cas locus, which most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack. Overall, our work demonstrated that the loss of only two loci led to a dramatic reduction in genome defense against a clinically relevant MGE, highlighting the critical importance of the E. faecalis accessory genome in modulating horizontal gene transfer. Our results rationalize the development of antimicrobial strategies that capitalize upon the immunocompromised status of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis. IMPORTANCE

  20. Organizational Factors that Affect the University-Industry Technology Transfer Processes of a Private University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Closs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study researched organizational factors that affect the university-industry technology transfer (UITT processes of a private university, chosen by its success and uniqueness in the Brazilian context. Stood out as factors: innovation among pillars of management; valuing of research and intellectual property; qualified students, teachers and managers; multidisciplinary research groups; stability of governing body; performance of the TTO, Technology Management Agency and Technology Park. Difficulties highlighted were: reconciliation of time between activities of professors-researchers, bureaucracy and centralization of administrative and legal support; valuation of research results; approach and negotiation with companies. Among suggestions are: granting greater independence to the structures in charge of UITT and making them self-sustainable; training agents in technology marketing, sale, and negotiation skills.

  1. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  2. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBin; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, Changlong

    2009-07-01

    Repaired Achilles tendons typically take weeks before they are strong enough to handle physiological loads. Gene therapy is a promising treatment for Achilles tendon defects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological/biomechanical effects of Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) were transduced with adenovirus carrying human TGF-beta1 cDNA (Ad-TGF-beta1), human VEGF(165) cDNA (Ad-VEGF(165)), or both (PIRES-TGF-beta1/VEGF(165)) Viruses, no cDNA (Ad-GFP), and the BMSCs without gene transfer and the intact tendon were used as control. BMSCs were surgically implanted into the experimentally injured Achilles tendons. TGF-beta1 distribution, cellularity, nuclear aspect ratio, nuclear orientation angle, vascular number, collagen synthesis, and biomechanical features were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The TGF-beta1 and TGF beta 1/VEGF(165) co-expression groups exhibited improved parameters compared with other groups, while the VEGF(165) expression group had a negative impact. In the co-expression group, the angiogenesis effects of VEGF(165) were diminished by TGF-beta1, while the collagen synthesis effects of TGF-beta1 were unaltered by VEGF(165). Thus treatment with TGF-beta1 cDNA-transduced BMSCs grafts is a promising therapy for acceleration and improvement of tendon healing, leading to quicker recovery and improved biomechanical properties of Achilles tendons.

  3. Appendectomy as a Risk Factor for Bacteremic Biliary Tract Infection Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Kawanishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Recent evidence has suggested that appendix plays a pivotal role in the development and preservation of intestinal immune system. The aim of this study is to examine whether prior appendectomy is associated with an increased risk for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from biliary tract infection (BTI. Methods. Charts from 174 consecutive cases of bacteremia derived from BTI were retrospectively reviewed. Using multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified among the clinical parameters, including a history of appendectomy. Results. In total, 221 bacteria strains were identified from 174 BTI events. Of those, 42 antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified in 34 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior appendectomy (Odds ratio (OR, 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.15–7.87; p=0.026, antibiotic use within the preceding three months (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.26–7.64; p=0.013, and bilioenteric anastomosis or sphincterotomy (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.51–9.66; p=0.0046 were independent risk factors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Conclusions. Prior appendectomy was an independent risk factor for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from BTI.

  4. Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia

    2016-08-01

    The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.

  5. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M; Flake, Alan W; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A

    2012-03-29

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX-encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier who died of causes unrelated to gene transfer. Using Western blot, IHC, and immunofluorescent staining, we show persistent factor IX expression in injected muscle tissue. F.IX transcripts were detected in injected skeletal muscle using RT-PCR, and isolated whole genomic DNA tested positive for the presence of the transferred AAV vector sequence. This is the longest reported transgene expression to date from a parenterally administered AAV vector, with broad implications for the future of muscle-directed gene transfer.

  6. A statistical approach to estimating soil-to-plant transfer factor of strontium in agricultural fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is one of the important parameters in radiation dose assessment models for the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Since TFs are affected by several factors, including radionuclides, plant species and soil properties, development of a method for estimation of TF using some soil and plant properties would be useful. In this study, we took a statistical approach to estimating the TF of stable strontium (TF Sr ) from selected soil properties and element concentrations in plants, which was used as an analogue of 90 Sr. We collected the plant and soil samples used for the study from 142 agricultural fields throughout Japan. We applied a multiple linear regression analysis in order to get an empirical equation to estimate TF Sr . TF Sr could be estimated from the Sr concentration in soil (C Sr soil ) and Ca concentration in crop (C Ca crop ) using the following equation: log TF Sr =-0.88·log C Sr soil +0.93·log C Ca crop -2.53. Then, we replaced our data with Ca concentrations in crops from a food composition database compiled by the Japanese government. Finally, we predicted TF Sr using Sr concentration in soil from our data and Ca concentration in crops from the database of food composition. (author)

  7. Effect of waste mica on transfer factors of 134Cs to spinach and lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Chari, M.; Manjaiah, K.M.; Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of graded levels of waste mica (0, 10, 20 and 40 g kg -1 ) on reducing the radiocesium uptake by spinach (Spinacia olerecea L) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in 134 Cs-contaminated (at 37 k Bq kg -1 soil) Inceptisols, Vertisols and Ultisols. The biomass yield, and potassium content and its uptake by crops have been significantly improved by waste mica application. The crops grown in Vertisols recorded higher biomass yield, and K content and its uptake as compared with Inceptisols and Ultisols. The average 134 Cs transfer factor values recorded were: 0.21, 0.17 and 0.26 at the first cutting, 0.15, 0.12 and 0.28 at the second cutting and 0.07, 0.05 and 0.23 at the third cutting from Inceptisols, Vertisols and Ultisols, respectively. Waste mica significantly suppressed radiocesium uptake, the effect being more pronounced at 40 g mica kg -1 soil. There exists an inverse relationship between the 134 Cs transfer factors with plant potassium content and also the K uptake by the crops. (authors)

  8. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  9. Transfer factors of some selected radionuclides (radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn) from soil to leaf vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1995-01-01

    Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been studied by radiotracer experiments using Andosol as a representative of Japanese soils. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables (average of five vegetables) were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. These values should be used in safety assessment for Japanese agricultural environment. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. The distribution ratios of the elements between soil-solution and soil were in the order Sr>Mn>Cs>Co>Zn, whereas the distribution ratios of the elements between plant and soil-solution were in the order Zn>Cs>Mn>Co>Sr. These results indicate that the selectivity for Sr by plants from the soil-solution was low and that for Zn was very high. (author)

  10. Measurement of the proton form factor ratio at low momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Moshe [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-08-01

    Experiment E08-007-II measured the proton elastic form factor ratio μGE=GM in the momentum transfer range of Q2 ~ 0.02 - 0.08 GeV2, the lowest ever measured by polarization transfer techniques. The experiment was performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, USA during 2012. A polarized electron beam with energies of 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 GeV was elastically scattered off a polarized solid NH3 target. The asymmetries between the cross section of positive and negative helicity states of the beam were determined. These asymmetries can be used to determine the form factor ratio. In this thesis, we present the asymmetry analysis of the experiment, discuss the main challenges and show preliminary results for part of the data. Preliminary asymmetries indicate an increase in the form factor ratio above unity. However, a complete analysis is required before any conclusion can be made. Further analysis is ongoing, and final asymmetry results and form factor extraction is expected during 2017. We also present first results for 14N asymmetries for elastic and quasi-elastic scattering. The measured asymmetries are in agreement with the shell model approximation, within the low accuracy of the measurement. A change in the asymmetry sign between the elastic and the quasi-elastic processes is seen, and should motivate further theoretical studies. These experimental asymmetries will also be useful for systematic studies of other experiments using polarized NH3 targets.

  11. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  12. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  13. Influence of concentration and hydrodynamic factors in sorption of iodine by anion-exchangers of the mass-transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Smirnov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the joint influence of hydrodynamic and concentration factors in sorption of iodine by AV-17-8 and anion exchange resins on the mass-transfer coefficient is the subject of this report. The method of central composite rotatable experimental design was used for quantitative assessment and derivation of the appropriate equations. The investigation yielded the necessary regression equations satisfactorily describing the influence of all the factors in the mass-transfer coefficient. the optimal mass-transfer conditions were determined. On the basis of the values obtained, recommendations are made on the optimal hydrodynamic conditions of operation of equipment with pneumatic circulation of the ion-exchanger

  14. Variations in soil-to-red pepper transfer factors of radionuclides with time of their application and fruit harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Won Yun; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Soo Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Hyun Duk; Lee, Jeong Ho

    1997-01-01

    A mixed solution of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs was applied to the soil of culture boxes in a greenhouse 2 days before transplanting red pepper and at 3 different times during its growth for investigating transfer factors (m 2 /kg-dry) for its green and red fruits. Transfer factors varied with radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about 20-100. They decreased mostly radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about 20-100. They decreased mostly in the order of 85 Sr> 54 Mn> 60 Co> 137 Cs while 54 Mn and 60 Co was higher than 85 Sr when time lapse between application and harvest was short. Transfer factors of 85 Sr and 137 Cs at the last application were lower than those at the previous one by factors of 3-20 depending on harvest time. Variations in 54 Mn and 60 Co transfer factors with application time after transplanting were comparatively low. Transfer factors of 54 Mn, 60 Co and 85 Sr mixed with topsoil before transplanting were up to 3-9 times higher than those for the application onto soil surface 2 days after transplanting root-uptake concentrations of the radionuclides in red pepper fruit and taking proper measures for its harvest and consumption at the event of an accidental release during the growing season of red pepper

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induces multidrug resistance protein in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingqian Lv, Shan Zhao, Jinzhu Han, Likang Zheng, Zixin Yang, Li Zhao Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multidrug resistance is the major cause of chemotherapy failure in many solid tumors, including colon cancer. Hypoxic environment is a feature for all solid tumors and is important for the development of tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α is the key transcription factor that mediates cellular response to hypoxia. HIF-1α has been shown to play an important role in tumor resistance; however, the mechanism is still not fully understood. Here, we found that HIF-1α and the drug resistance-associated gene multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1 were induced by treatment of colon cancer cells with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride. Inhibition of HIF-1α by RNA interference and dominant-negative protein can significantly reduce the induction of MRP1 by hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a hypoxia response element is located at -378 to -373 bp upstream of the transcription start site of MRP1 gene. Luciferase reporter assay combined with mutation analysis confirmed that this element is essential for hypoxia-mediated activation of MRP gene. Furthermore, RNA interference revealed that HIF-1α is necessary for this hypoxia-driven activation of MRP1 promoter. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that HIF-1α could directly bind to this HRE site in vivo. Together, these data suggest that MRP1 is a downstream target gene of HIF-1α, which provides a potential novel mechanism for HIF-1α-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer and maybe other solid tumors as well. Keywords: hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, multidrug resistance associated protein, transcriptional regulation, chemotherapy tolerance

  16. Human Intestinal Cells Modulate Conjugational Transfer of Multidrug Resistance Plasmids between Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems...... to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co...... of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut....

  17. Risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and characteristics of patients infected with gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes de Vega, Irene; Baliu-Piqué, Carola; Bosch Mestres, Jordi; Vergara Gómez, Andrea; Vallés, Xavier; Alsina Gibert, Mercè

    2018-03-01

    There are very few data available regarding risk factors associated with antibiotic resistant-Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A study was conducted on 110 samples from 101 patients with gonococcal infection, in order to describe their characteristics and compare them with the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of their samples. An association was observed between resistant infections and heterosexual men, older age, concurrent sexually transmitted infection, and unsafe sexual behaviors. There is a need for improved data on the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistant gonococcal infection in order to identify risk groups, and to propose public health strategies to control this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance Factors and Alternatives to Antimicrobial Growth Factors within Animal Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Emory

    2014-01-01

    The repercussions of antibiotic resistance in humans give scientists a vivid picture of the effectsof microbial evolution. These repercussions can be felt economically and scientifically as thedemand for stronger antibiotics grows stronger, yet the availability for such an effect remainslow. Citizens must pay more money in order to access antibiotics from their healthcareproviders; however, if treatment is not completed, bacteria become increasingly immune toantibiotics, closing off pathways ...

  19. Complexity of Complement Resistance Factors Expressed by Acinetobacter baumannii Needed for Survival in Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larrayoz, Amaro F; Elhosseiny, Noha M; Chevrette, Marc G; Fu, Yang; Giunta, Peter; Spallanzani, Raúl G; Ravi, Keerthikka; Pier, Gerald B; Lory, Stephen; Maira-Litrán, Tomás

    2017-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A. baumannii serum resistance, a transposon (Tn) sequencing (Tn-seq) approach was used to identify genes contributing to this trait. An ordered Tn library in strain AB5075 with insertions in every nonessential gene was subjected to selection in NHS. We identified 50 genes essential for the survival of A. baumannii in NHS, including already known serum resistance factors, and many novel genes not previously associated with serum resistance. This latter group included the maintenance of lipid asymmetry genetic pathway as a key determinant in protecting A. baumannii from the bactericidal activity of NHS via the alternative complement pathway. Follow-up studies validated the role of eight additional genes identified by Tn-seq in A. baumannii resistance to killing by NHS but not by normal mouse serum, highlighting the human species specificity of A. baumannii serum resistance. The identification of a large number of genes essential for serum resistance in A. baumannii indicates the degree of complexity needed for this phenotype, which might reflect a general pattern that pathogens rely on to cause serious infections. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Associated Factors in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal; Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Gebreyesus, Hailay

    2018-01-01

    Background. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has continued to be a challenge for tuberculosis (TB) control globally. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high MDR-TB burden. Objective. The main purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods. A systematic review of the literatures on prevalence of MDR-TB and associated factors was conducted in the country. Results. In our electronic search, 546 citations were depicted. Amon...

  1. Potential roles of WRKY transcription factors in resistance to Aspergillus flavus colonization of immature maize kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to Aspergillus flavus by maize (Zea mays L.) is mediated by several defense proteins; however the mechanism regulating the expression of these defenses is poorly understood. This study examined the potential roles of six maize WRKY transcription factors, ZmWRKY19, ZmWRKY21, ZmWRKY53, ZmW...

  2. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of

  3. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  4. Risk Factors for Nosocomial Bacterremia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ayats (Josefina); J. Ariza (Javier); F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective surveillance study (February 1990–December 1991) performed at a 1000-bed teaching hospital to identify risk factors for nosocomial methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 309 patients were found to be colonized (n=103; 33 %) or infected (n=206; 67

  5. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  6. Evaluation of the results of the IAEA/FAO CRP on tropical transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.

    1998-01-01

    Future development of tropical countries will include nuclear power. This is particularly true following the recent attention given to the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. From this, it is apparent that there is a need to have the ability to undertake dose assessments within tropical and sub-tropical regions. This includes knowledge of appropriate biological transfer factors for the region. However, most previous transfer factor studies were undertaken within temperate regions, predominantly in the Northern Hemisphere. Following a preliminary data survey, there was thus found to be a paucity of data for tropical and sub-tropical regions (excluding marine ecosystems). In an attempt to rectify this situation, the IAEA and FAO instigated a cooperative research program (CRP) entitled 'Transfer of radionuclides from air, soil and freshwater to the food chain of man in tropical and subtropical environments.' This paper is a synopsis of the findings of the three year CRP project. It is important to recognize that the data used in this presentation are derived from contributors and their colleagues in several countries. A list of chief investigators is given. Dr Martin Frissel, Secretary, European IUR, deserves a special mention for his collation of the CRP data. Some of his figures were used in the presentation or reproduced in this synopsis. The participants undertook regional literature and data surveys, field sampling and experimental investigations. The experimental studies were run by following, as closely as practicable, a suite of standard protocols that helped to reduce variability and errors. The experimental studies comprised two main groups: soil to plant, and: freshwater to fish. Quality assurance on analytical work was performed using intercomparison tests with standard reference materials. The reporting of data was also standardised to facilitate collation and subsequent multivariate statistical analysis. The statistical analysis of the entire

  7. Role of Risk Factors in the Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya Putri Khairani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the risk factors that played roles in the incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in such patients. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Methods: This was a case control study to compare MDR-TB to non-MDR-TB pulmonary tuberculosis outpatients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung on August–September 2014. Fifty MDR-TB outpatients were included as the cases and 50 non-MDR-TB outpatients as controls. Data was collected by questionnaires and patient’s registration forms. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression test, with p<0.05 considered significant. Results: From bivariate analysis, number of previous tuberculosis treatments, regularity of previous treatment, and burden of cost were significant risk factors for developing MDR-TB (p<0.05; while from multivariate analysis, number of previous TB treatments was the only risk factor that played a significant role in the incidence of MDR-TB (OR 24.128 95% CI 6.771-85,976. Conclusions: Patients and medication factors are risk factors that play roles in the incidence of MDR-TB. The significant risk factor is the number of previous TB treatment.

  8. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat in Iran: serogroups, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Jamshidi, Alireza

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the virulence factors, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat samples. A total of 422 chicken meat samples were collected from 5 townships of Iran. Specimens were immediately transferred to the laboratory in a cooler with an ice pack. Samples were cultured, and the positive culture samples were analyzed by PCR assays. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. According to the results, out of 422 samples, 146 (34.59%) were confirmed to be E. coli positive and among E. coli-positive samples, 51 (34.93%) and 31 (21.23%) were from attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subgroups, respectively. All of the EHEC-positive samples had all stx1, eaeA, and ehly virulence genes, whereas only 5 (9.80%) of AEEC subgroup had all stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes. As the data revealed, O157 was the most prevalent and O111 was the least prevalent strains in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) population. Among STEC strains, sulI and blaSHV had the highest and lowest incidence rate, respectively. There was a high resistance to tetracycline (76.82%), followed by chloramphenicol (73.17%) and nitrofurantoin (63.41%), but there was low resistance to cephalotine (7.31%) antibiotics in isolated strains. Results shows that the PCR technique has a high performance for detection of serogroups, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance genes in STEC strains. This study is the first prevalence report of detection of virulence genes, serogroups, and antibiotic resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from chicken meat samples in Iran. Based on the results, chicken meat is one of the main sources of STEC strains and its virulence factors in Iran, so an accurate meat inspection would reduce disease outbreaks.

  9. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  10. A Carbenicillin R Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 64 carbenicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains 40 transferred this resistance to Escherichia coli. R factor RP-638 isolated from Ps. aeruginosa strain 638 conferred resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, kanamycin, neomycin and tetracycline. This R factor was transferred at frequencies 01 10-7 to 10-4 between ...

  11. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  12. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. ► Tcf3 modulates butyrate’s effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. ► Tcf3 modulation of butyrate’s effects differ by cell context. ► Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. ► Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G 1 to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  13. Transfer of human genes conferring resistance to methylating mutagens, but not to UV irradiation and cross-linking agents, into Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaina, B.; Van Zeeland, A.A.; Backendorf, C.; Thielmann, H.W.; Van de Putte, P.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by human DNA ligated to the bacterial gpt (xanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase) gene which was used either in its native form or after partial inactivation with methylnitrosourea. The gpt+ transfectants were screened for resistance to high doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Using this approach, we showed that Chinese hamster ovary cells can acquire N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine resistance upon transfection with DNA from diploid human fibroblasts, that this resistance is transferable by secondary transfection and is specific for methylating mutagens, and that it is not caused by increased removal of O6-methylguanine, 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from DNA

  14. Operational parameters and their influence on particle-side mass transfer resistance in a packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Yumnam, Nivedita; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The influence of internal mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; chitosan coating, flow rate, glucose concentration and particle size. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on particle side mass transfer on substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that chitosan coating, beads size, glucose concentration and flow rate have a significant effect on lag phase duration. The duration of lag phase for different size of beads (0.8, 2 and 4 mm) decreases by increasing flow rate and by decreasing the size of beads. Moreover, longer lag phase were found at higher glucose medium concentration and also with chitosan coated beads. It was observed that by increasing flow rates; lag phase and glucose consumption time decreased. The reason is due to the reduction of external (fluid side) mass transfer as a result of increase in flow rate as glucose is easily transported to the surface of the beads. Varying the size of beads is an additional factor: as it reduces the internal (particle side) mass transfer by reducing the size of beads. The reason behind this is the distance for reactants to reach active site of catalyst (cells) and the thickness of fluid created layer around alginate beads is reduced. The optimum combination of parameters consisting of smaller beads size (0.8 mm), higher flow rate of 90 ml/min and glucose concentration of 10 g/l were found to be the maximum condition for ethanol production.

  15. Comparison of transfer factors of Sr-85 and Cs-134 for soils and crops of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarlou, V.; Papanicolaou, E. P.; Nobeli, C.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of Sr-85 and Cs-134 from soil to plant (CR) was studied in two successive and similar in design glasshouse experiments. Six plant species (wheat, alfalfa, radish, string bean, cucumber, lettuce - only for Sr-85 - and endives - only for Cs-134), were grown in pots on eight Greek soils differing significantly in their physical and chemical properties. After the necessary measurements and analyses, big differences were detected in the transfer factors of both radionuclides with the soil types. The CRs of Sr-85 were higher than those of Cs-134 and for the tested crops and soils ranged between 0.3 and 36.5 for Sr-85 and between < 0.01 and 1.72 for Cs-134. The CRs of grains and seeds were much lower than those of leafy material for Sr-85 while the difference was not so high for Cs-134. The correlation between CRs and pH, negative in all cases, was significant or highly significant for all tested crops or plant parts (for Sr-85 r-bar = - 0.89, for Cs-134 r-bar = - 0.82). The values of CRs indicated a trend for negative correlation with other soil properties (cation exchange capacity-CEC, clay %). From exchangeable cations, exchangeable (Ca + Mg) as well as exchangeable bases, expressed as percentages of CEC, gave a significant or highly significant correlation with CRs of both radionuclides. (author)

  16. Transfer factors across the human gut for plutonium and americium in shellfish from near Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Leonard, D.R.P.; Lovett, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Data on gut transfer factors for environmental forms of radionuclides are essential for estimates of public radiation exposures following ingestion, and thus in decisions on controlling waste disposals. Dose estimates for transuranic nuclides are particularly sensitive to uncertainties stemming from gut transfer data being related to non-environmental forms and/or derived from animal experiments. The main parameter in question is f 1 , the fraction of intake reaching human body fluids following ingestion, as applied in the model of the gastro-intestinal tract used by the ICRP. The ICRP have recently reviewed the metabolism of plutonium and related elements (ICRP, 1986). Values of f 1 were derived from animal data; limited verification was provided by the only human data then available which was based on the low levels of fallout in foodstuffs. The ICRP proposed a cautious value of f 1 of 10 -3 for unknown or mixed compounds of Pu and for other actinides. However, it was recognised that this cautious value may not be appropriate in all situations where a best estimate of absorption is required; in such cases, if a different value more suitable to the specific situation can be justified, it should be employed

  17. Role of Transcription Factor Modifications in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver not due to alcohol abuse. NAFLD is accompanied by variety of symptoms related to metabolic syndrome. Although the metabolic link between NAFLD and insulin resistance is not fully understood, it is clear that NAFLD is one of the main cause of insulin resistance. NAFLD is shown to affect the functions of other organs, including pancreas, adipose tissue, muscle and inflammatory systems. Currently efforts are being made to understand molecular mechanism of interrelationship between NAFLD and insulin resistance at the transcriptional level with specific focus on post-translational modification (PTM of transcription factors. PTM of transcription factors plays a key role in controlling numerous biological events, including cellular energy metabolism, cell-cycle progression, and organ development. Cell type- and tissue-specific reversible modifications include lysine acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. Moreover, phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine residues have been shown to affect protein stability, subcellular distribution, DNA-binding affinity, and transcriptional activity. PTMs of transcription factors involved in insulin-sensitive tissues confer specific adaptive mechanisms in response to internal or external stimuli. Our understanding of the interplay between these modifications and their effects on transcriptional regulation is growing. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PTMs in insulin-sensitive tissues and their involvement in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  18. Could Frequent Carbapenem Use Be a Risk Factor for Colistin Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Aycan; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Kilic, Huseyin; Ozhan, Esra; Altun, Dilek; Cakir, Ozlem; Alp, Emine

    2017-10-13

    The antibiotic colistin, which had been previously abandoned, is being brought back as a last line of defense against bacterial infection. However, colistin resistance was reported shortly after its reintroduction. This study evaluated the risk factors for colonization/infections due to colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (ColR-Ab) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ColR-Kp) strains and characterized the molecular epidemiology of these two strains. Age, previous hospitalization duration, and previous use of carbapenem and colistin were risk factors for ColR-Kp, whereas previous use of carbapenem and colistin was a risk factor for ColR-Ab. According to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, most ColR-Kp strains could be grouped into two major pulsotypes. This appears to be an indicator of cross contamination of ColR-Kp strain, since different isolates appeared to be belonging to the same clones. The existence of colistin-susceptible (ColS) and colistin-resistant (ColR) strains in the same pulsotypes might also be an indicator of the recent emergence of resistance mechanisms. The results highlight the emergence of ColR pathogens in Turkey, which is considered to be developing country, and that carbapenem use coupled with insufficient infection control measures might increase the risk of ColR outbreaks.

  19. Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Notermans, Daan; Witteveen, Sandra; Bathoorn, Erik; Schouls, Leo M.

    In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected

  20. Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C A P; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Schoffelen, Annelot; Notermans, Daan; Witteveen, Sandra; Bathoorn, Erik; Schouls, Leo M

    In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected

  1. Transfer and persistence of a multi-drug resistance plasmid in situ of the infant gut microbiota in the absence of antibiotic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gumpert, Heidi; Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.; Porse, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    lineage was maintained for months, demonstrating that antibiotic resistance genes can disseminate and persist in the gut microbiome; even in absence of antibiotic selection. Furthermore, through in vivo competition assays, we suggest that the resistant transconjugant can persist through a fitness......The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high...... infections, as well as the loss and acquisition of plasmids in these lineages during their colonization of the human gut. In particular, we captured the exchange of multidrug resistance genes, and identified a clinically relevant conjugative plasmid mediating the transfer. This resistant transconjugant...

  2. Enrichment of Cs-137 in some wild plants and determination of the transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.

    1993-01-01

    As a consequence of the nuclear weapons tests and the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant some wild plants exhibit a relatively high enrichment in Cs-137. The examples cited here include heather, forest grown grass, ferns, needles and cones of spruces and firs and, obviously, also some species of mushrooms. While the transfer factors of cultivated plants range from 0.001 to 0.1 according to the literature and measurements of our own, values from 1 to 38 have been measured for heather, depending on the nature of the soil. One of the consequences of this relatively high enrichment is the enhanced cesium content in honeys produced from heather. It is intended to continue the relevant measurements in 1993. (orig.) [de

  3. Mycoremediation. The study of transfer factor for plutonium and americium uptake from the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusan Galanda; Lubomir Matel; Jana Strisovska; Silvia Dulanska

    2014-01-01

    In our scientific research we have monitored mycoremediation's properties of oyster mushrooms in cultivation on the soil what is contaminated by solutions with radioactive isotopes of 239 Pu and 241 Am with known activity. We monitored specific activities of absorbed radionuclides in fruiting bodies and chemical forms of radionuclides which were compared to calculated specific activities of two background samples of oyster mushrooms intended for consumer purpose. We determined distributive coefficients between the ground and the fruiting body of oyster mushrooms. The average value which was obtained for the transfer factor for plutonium was 0.72 and for americium 3.97. To evaluate a quantity of absorbed radionuclides we used a method of liquid extraction. The emitting alpha radiation of alpha radionuclides was detected by spectrometry. For defining individual fractions of plutonium and americium that are contained in mushroom bodies was used the sequential leaching method. (author)

  4. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  5. Mass transfer rate through liquid membranes: interfacial chemical reactions and diffusion as simultaneous permeability controlling factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Chiarizia, R.

    1981-01-01

    Equations describing the permeability of a liquid membrane to metal cations have been derived taking into account aqueous diffusion, membrane diffusion, and interfacial chemical reactions as simultaneous permeability controlling factors. Diffusion and chemical reactions have been coupled by a simple model analogous to the one previously described by us to represent liquid-liquid extraction kinetics. The derived equations, which make use of experimentally determined interfacial reaction mechanisms, qualitatively fit unexplained literature data regarding Cu 2+ transfer through liquid membranes. Their use to predict and optimize membrane permeability in practical separation processes by setting the appropriate concentration of the membrane carrier [LIX 64 (General Mills), a commercial β-hydroxy-oxime] and the pH of the aqueous copper feed solution is briefly discussed. 4 figures

  6. Twisting dependent properties of twisted carbon nanotube fibers: microstructure and strain transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinyuan; Xie, Erqing; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-01-01

    The dependences of twisting parameters on the electric and mechanical properties of twisted CNT fibers were systematically studied. Results from electric and mechanical measurements showed that twisting intensity is very effective to improve the electric and mechanical properties of CNT fibers. Further calculations combined with Raman results indicate that the twisting treatments, to a certain extent, can greatly enhance the strain transfer factors of the samples, which dominates the mechanical properties of CNT fibers. In addition, studies on the effect of twisting speeds suggested that lower twisting speed can lead to higher uniformity but lower performances in the electric and mechanical properties, higher twisting speed to higher Young’s modulus and higher conductance but lower uniformities. Ultra-strong uniform CNT fibers need to be prepared with a suitable twisting speed. (paper)

  7. Statistical data on transfer factors of iodine isotopes from the diet to milk of cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutinin, Yu.V.; Kashparov, V.A.; Lazarev, N.M.; Otreshko, L.N.; Joshchenko, L.V.

    2017-01-01

    The transfer factors of iodine isotopes from the daily diet to milk of the cows in the pasture period for different soil and landscape conditions of Ukraine were evaluated and analyzed. It was shown that the possible values of the considered coefficient of the transition is a random variable, which is satisfactorily described by the lognormal distribution law of probabilities. The resulting estimates of medians (GM = 0.046 +- 0.003) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD = 1.79) for possible iodine conversion coefficient of the daily diet in cow milk were obtained. They refine the IAEA reference data for specific soil-landscape conditions of continental Ukraine and allow obtaining less conservative estimates when predicting the specific content of iodine isotopes in the milk of cows in the pasture period.

  8. Soil-to-crop transfer factors of radium in Japanese agricultural fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 226 Ra in upland field crops (e.g., cabbage, leek, onion, potato, and so on) and associated soils collected from 45 locations throughout Japan were determined in order to obtain soil-to-crop transfer factors (TFs). Concentrations of 226 Ra in the soils collected in southwestern Japan were higher than those in northeastern Japan; however, no correlations between 226 Ra concentrations in crops and soils were observed. The TFs ranged from -3 to 5.8 x 10 -2 with a geometric mean of 6.4 x 10 -3 . These data were within the 95% confidential range of TF-Ra for several crops as reported in the IAEA Technical Reports Series No.364. Among the alkaline earth metals. TF-Ba was similar to TF-Ra. (author)

  9. Transfer factors of radionuclides 137Cs and 65Zn from soil to pearl millet and sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.; Sachdev, M.S.; Deb, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of 137 Cs and 65 Zn were determined for two crops, sorghum and pearl millet, under irrigated conditions in greenhouse and under rain fed conditions in field. In the greenhouse experiment, the accumulation of 137 Cs was almost doubled when the soil contamination level was doubled. Under field conditions, 137 Cs concentration in both pearl millet and sorghum grains as well as straw was nearly four times more at 148 kBq Kg -1 level of soil contamination as compared to lower level of 74 kBq kg -1 soil. The TF values for 65 Zn determined under greenhouse conditions for both the crops were nearly a hundred-fold higher as compared to 137 Cs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Soil to plant transfer factor in the vicinity of coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, M.; Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the monitoring of working and living environment results in 5 coal fired powered plants, for the period from 2004. to 2009. are presented. Soil-plant transfer factor, suitable for estimation of possible contamination of food chain was chosen, as a measure of influence of power plants on the environment. The results gathered over the years of monitoring of working and living environment in the vicinity of the coal fired power plant were analyzed, and it was determined that no significant discrepancy exists comparing to the results reported in world literature. Also, the basic mathematical analysis was conducted, in order to assess the model of the behavior of the results in respect to the frequency count. (author) [sr

  11. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Miller, John M [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  12. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  13. Modification of an impulse-factoring orbital transfer technique to account for orbit determination and maneuver execution errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, J. F.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.; Kelly, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method has previously been developed to satisfy terminal rendezvous and intermediate timing constraints for planetary missions involving orbital operations. The method uses impulse factoring in which a two-impulse transfer is divided into three or four impulses which add one or two intermediate orbits. The periods of the intermediate orbits and the number of revolutions in each orbit are varied to satisfy timing constraints. Techniques are developed to retarget the orbital transfer in the presence of orbit-determination and maneuver-execution errors. Sample results indicate that the nominal transfer can be retargeted with little change in either the magnitude (Delta V) or location of the individual impulses. Additonally, the total Delta V required for the retargeted transfer is little different from that required for the nominal transfer. A digital computer program developed to implement the techniques is described.

  14. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.; Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. 238 U and 232 Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and 210 Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. 22 '6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg -1 for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10 -3 to 2.3 10 -2 for 232 Th; 3.5 10 - '2 to 4.1 10 -2 for 226 Ra, 2.4 10 -1 to 3.2 10 - '1 for 228 Ra, and 3.5 10 -2 to 8.5 10 -2 for 210 Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results obtained in the present study indicated that mobility of radionuclides was low in both soils studied. Calculated effective

  15. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B., E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Siqueira, Maria C.; Taddei, Maria H.; Dias, Fabiana F., E-mail: mc_quimica@hotmail.co, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC)

    2009-07-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and {sup 210}Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. {sup 22}'6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -}'2 to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -}'1 for {sup 228}Ra, and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results

  16. Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Krisha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

  17. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  18. Chemical elements in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), phytoplankton and estuarine sediments from eastern Amazon (Northern Brazil): Bioaccumulation factors and trophic transfer factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Maria P. S. P.; Costa, Marcondes L.; Berrêdo, José F.; Paiva, Rosildo S.; Souza, Crisvaldo C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted near Barcarena County, which is a mid-sized urban center where aluminum ore processing industries (bauxite) and Vila do Conde cargo terminal are located. It aims to discuss the bioaccumulation factors as well as factors related to the trophic transfer of chemical elements in water, oyster, phytoplankton and bottom sediments from an estuary in the Brazilian Northern coast. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), trophic transfer factor (TTF) and biota-sediment-water were used to correlate the contents of chemical elements found in organisms. The sediment, surface water, phytoplankton and pearl oysters chemical composition was analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Pearl oysters showed K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Pb accumulation, which concentration increase is associated with their diet (phytoplankton). Al concentrations are 14 times higher in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), assuming that they are associated with wastewater emissions and with industrialization processes in the area. BAF and BSAF values are 1000 times higher than the metal concentrations in water and bioavailable fraction concentrations. The oyster-phytoplankton trophic transfer factor indicates that P, Ba, Ca, Na, Cd and Zn showed the largest transfers (from 5 to 19). These trophic transfers may be sufficient to cause significant ecotoxicological effects on the region biota.

  19. Cost-effective, transfer-free, flexible resistive random access memory using laser-scribed reduced graphene oxide patterning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ren, Tian-Ling; Li, Cheng; Xue, Qing-Tang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Wu, Can; Yang, Yi; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Laser scribing is an attractive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) growth and patterning technology because the process is low-cost, time-efficient, transfer-free, and flexible. Various laser-scribed rGO (LSG) components such as capacitors, gas sensors, and strain sensors have been demonstrated. However, obstacles remain toward practical application of the technology where all the components of a system are fabricated using laser scribing. Memory components, if developed, will substantially broaden the application space of low-cost, flexible electronic systems. For the first time, a low-cost approach to fabricate resistive random access memory (ReRAM) using laser-scribed rGO as the bottom electrode is experimentally demonstrated. The one-step laser scribing technology allows transfer-free rGO synthesis directly on flexible substrates or non-flat substrates. Using this time-efficient laser-scribing technology, the patterning of a memory-array area up to 100 cm(2) can be completed in 25 min. Without requiring the photoresist coating for lithography, the surface of patterned rGO remains as clean as its pristine state. Ag/HfOx/LSG ReRAM using laser-scribing technology is fabricated in this work. Comprehensive electrical characteristics are presented including forming-free behavior, stable switching, reasonable reliability performance and potential for 2-bit storage per memory cell. The results suggest that laser-scribing technology can potentially produce more cost-effective and time-effective rGO-based circuits and systems for practical applications.

  20. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Fregona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis – from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. RESULTS In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24–14.05 and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81–8.43], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98–7.79, and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15–8.99. CONCLUSIONS The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo.

  1. Proposal for new best estimates of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Biosphere Impact Studies, Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Olyslaegers, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Biosphere Impact Studies, Mol (Belgium); Sanzharova, N.; Shubina, O. [RIAREA, Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Reed, E. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., Center for Risk Analysis, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shang, Z. [Nuclear Safety Center of SEPA, Beijing (China); Velasco, H. [GEA- IMASL, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2009-09-15

    There is increasing interest in radiological assessment of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides into the terrestrial environment. Such assessments require parameter values for the pathways considered in predictive models. An important pathway for human exposure is via ingestion of food crops and animal products. One of the key parameters in environmental assessment is therefore the soil-to-plant transfer factor to food and fodder crops. The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, concerning soil-to-plant transfer factors for uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. Transfer factor estimates were presented for major crop groups (Cereals, Leafy vegetables, Non-leafy vegetables, Root crops, Tubers, Fruits, Herbs, Pastures/grasses, Fodder), and also for some compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content (Sand, Loam, Clay and Organic), and evaluation of transfer factors' dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with estimates currently in use.

  2. Elucidating the Molecular Factors Implicated in the Persistence and Evolution of Transferable Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas

    Being the most diverse and abundant domain of life, bacteria exemplify the remarkable ability of evolution to fit organisms into almost any imaginable niche on the planet. Although the capacity of bacteria to diversify and adapt is fundamental to natural ecosystems and modern biotechnology...... natural environment, we looked into the genomes of Escherichia coli longitudinally sampled from the infant gut over the first year of life. Sequence analysis revealed a high degree of genomic plasticity, with frequent gene acquisition and loss events. While the acquisition of new genetic material is often...

  3. Factor IX expression in skeletal muscle of a severe hemophilia B patient 10 years after AAV-mediated gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Buchlis, George; Podsakoff, Gregory M.; Radu, Antonetta; Hawk, Sarah M.; Flake, Alan W.; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we transferred a human factor IX–encoding adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) into skeletal muscle of men with severe hemophilia B. Biopsy of injected muscle up to 1 year after vector injection showed evidence of gene transfer by Southern blot and of protein expression by IHC and immunofluorescent staining. Although the procedure appeared safe, circulating F.IX levels remained subtherapeutic (< 1%). Recently, we obtained muscle tissue from a subject injected 10 years earlier ...

  4. Gender differences in factors influencing insulin resistance in elderly hyperlipemic non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebícek Jirí

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the prevalence of insulin resistance-related metabolic syndrome, a disorder that greatly increases the risk of diabetes, heart attack and stroke, is alarming. One of the most frequent and early symptoms of metabolic syndrome is hypertriglyceridemia. We examined the gender differences between various metabolic factors related to insulin resistance in elderly non-diabetic men and postmenopausal women of comparable age suffering from hypertriglyceridemia, and compared them with healthy subjects of equal age. Results The indexes of insulin resistance HOMA IR and QUICKI were significantly higher in both hyperlipemic men and women than in controls; 95% confidence limits of hyperlipemic subjects did not overlap with controls. In both normolipemic and hyperlipemic men and women serum leptin correlated significantly with insulin resistance, while HDL-cholesterol correlated inversely with HOMA-IR only in women (both normo- and hyperlipemic, and serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα only in hyperlipemic women. According to results of multiple regression analysis with HOMA-IR as a dependent variable, leptin played a significant role in determining insulin resistance in both genders, but – aside from leptin – triglycerides, TNFα and decreased HDL-cholesterol were significant determinants in women, while body mass index and decreased HDL-cholesterol were significant determinants in men. The coefficient of determination (R2 of HOMA IR by above mentioned metabolic variables was in women above 60%, in men only about 40%. Conclusion The significant role of serum leptin in determination of insulin resistance in both elderly men and postmenopausal women of equal age was confirmed. However, the study also revealed significant gender differences : in women a strong influence of triglycerides, TNFα and decreased HDL-cholesterol, in men only a mild role of BMI and decreased HDL-cholesterol.

  5. Vitamin C deficiency aggravates tumor necrosis factor α-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Wu; Xi-Mei, Wu; Chao-Chun, Zou

    2018-06-15

    Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a major role in the development of insulin resistance. The potential role and underlying mechanism of vitamin C, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, was investigated in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance. Gulonolactone oxidase knockout (Gulo -/- ) mice genetically unable to synthesize vitamin C were used to induce insulin resistance by continuously pumping small doses of TNF-α for seven days, and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells) were used to induce insulin resistance by treatment with TNF-α. Vitamin C deficiency aggravated TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in Gulo -/- mice, resulting in worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) results, higher fasting plasma insulin level, and the inactivation of the protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway in the liver. Vitamin C deficiency also worsened liver lipid accumulation and inflammation in TNF-α-treated Gulo -/- mice. In HepG2 cells, vitamin C reversed the TNF-α-induced reduction of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, which were mediated by increasing GLUT2 levels and the activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1)/AKT/GSK3β pathway. Furthermore, vitamin C inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of not only the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), but also nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Taken together, vitamin C is essential for preventing and improving insulin resistance, and the supplementing with vitamin C may be an effective therapeutic intervention for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interplay of a non-conjugative integrative element and a conjugative plasmid in the spread of antibiotic resistance via suicidal plasmid transfer from an aquaculture Vibrio isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Lisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Fumito; Hirose, Yuu; Onishi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Satoru; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Michiaki; Yano, Hirokazu

    2018-01-01

    The capture of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) plays a critical role in resistance acquisition for human-associated bacteria. Although aquaculture environments are recognized as important reservoirs of ARGs, intra- and intercellular mobility of MGEs discovered in marine organisms is poorly characterized. Here, we show a new pattern of interspecies ARGs transfer involving a 'non-conjugative' integrative element. To identify active MGEs in a Vibrio ponticus isolate, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of a transconjugant obtained by mating between Escherichia coli and Vibrio ponticus. This revealed integration of a plasmid (designated pSEA1) into the chromosome, consisting of a self-transmissible plasmid backbone of the MOBH group, ARGs, and a 13.8-kb integrative element Tn6283. Molecular genetics analysis suggested a two-step gene transfer model. First, Tn6283 integrates into the recipient chromosome during suicidal plasmid transfer, followed by homologous recombination between the Tn6283 copy in the chromosome and that in the newly transferred pSEA1. Tn6283 is unusual among integrative elements in that it apparently does not encode transfer function and its excision barely generates unoccupied donor sites. Thus, its movement is analogous to the transposition of insertion sequences rather than to that of canonical integrative and conjugative elements. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a previously unrecognized type of MGE in a marine organism, highlighting diversity in the mode of interspecies gene transfer.

  7. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  8. Evaluation of factors that affect rutting resistance of asphalt mixes by orthogonal experiment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Zou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutting has been one of the major distresses observed on asphalt pavement in China, due to increasing traffic volume, heavy axle load, continuous hot weather, etc., especially in long-steep-slope section, bus stops, etc. Many factors would affect rutting resistance of asphalt pavement, including material properties, climatic condition, traffic volumes, speed, and axle types, and construction quality.The orthogonal experimental design method was used in this study to reduce the number of tests required, without comprising the validity of the test results. The testing variables and their levels were selected according to investigations and field test results. Effects of various factors on asphalt pavement rutting performance were evaluated, including the asphalt binders, mixture type (aggregate gradation, axle load, vehicle speed and temperature.In this study, the wheel tracking test was used to evaluate rutting performance, as represented by the parameter Dynamic Stability (DS, of the various asphalt mixes. Test results were analyzed using range analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA. All four factors evaluated in this study had significant effects on pavement rutting performance. The ranking of the significance was asphalt mixture type, temperature, loading frequency, and tire-pavement contact pressure. Asphalt mixture type was the most important factor that affects rutting resistance. Within the asphalt mixtures, asphalt binder had significant effects on rutting performance of mixes more than aggregate gradation. Rutting resistance of SBS modified asphalt mixes was significantly better than neat asphalt mixes, and skeleton dense structure mixes were better than suspended dense structure mixes. Keywords: Asphalt mixes, Rutting resistance, Effect factor, Orthogonal experiment design

  9. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  10. Virulence factors and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella strains from periurban areas of Lima (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluque, Angela; Mosquito, Susan; Gomes, Cláudia; Riveros, Maribel; Durand, David; Tilley, Drake H; Bernal, María; Prada, Ana; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to describe the serotype, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, and virulence determinants in Shigella spp. isolated from Peruvian children. Eighty three Shigella spp. were serogrouped and serotyped being established the antibiotic susceptibility. The presence of 12 virulence factors (VF) and integrase 1 and 2, along with commonly found antibiotic resistance genes was established by PCR. S. flexneri was the most relevant serogroup (55 isolates, 66%), with serotype 2a most frequently detected (27 of 55, 49%), followed by S. boydii and S. sonnei at 12 isolates each (14%) and S. dysenteriae (four isolates, 5%). Fifty isolates (60%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR) including 100% of S. sonnei and 64% of S. flexneri. Resistance levels were high to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (86%), tetracycline (74%), ampicillin (67%), and chloramphenicol (65%). Six isolates showed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. No isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, or ceftriaxone. The most frequent resistance genes were sul2 (95%), tet(B) (92%), cat (80%), dfrA1 (47%), blaOXA-1like (40%), with intl1 and intl2 detected in 51 and 52% of the isolates, respectively. Thirty-one different VF profiles were observed, being the ipaH (100%), sen (77%), virA and icsA (75%) genes the most frequently found. Differences in the prevalence of VF were observed between species with S. flexneri isolates, particularly serotype 2a, possessing high numbers of VF. In conclusion, this study highlights the high heterogeneity of Shigella VF and resistance genes, and prevalence of MDR organisms within this geographic region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Community-associated urinary infections requiring hospitalization: risk factors, microbiological characteristics and patterns of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Polo, J; Guerrero-Ramos, F; Pérez-Cadavid, S; Arrébola-Pajares, A; Sopeña-Sutil, R; Benítez-Sala, R; Jiménez-Alcaide, E; García-González, L; Alonso-Isa, M; Lara-Isla, A; Passas-Martínez, J B; Tejido-Sánchez, Á

    2015-03-01

    Although patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually managed as outpatients, a percentage of them requires hospitalization. To review risk factors and microbiological characteristics of community-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) requiring hospitalization has been our objective. A prospective observational study was carried out from November 2011 to December 2013. Incidence, microbiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with CAUTIs that required hospitalization were analyzed. Risk factors (including diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis, urinary catheterization) and resistance rates of each pathogen were also analyzed. Four hundred and fifty seven patients were hospitalized in our department with CAUTI. The mean age was 56.2±19.85 years. Of them, 52.1% patients were women, 19.7% had urinary indwelling catheter and 11.4% have had a previous UTI. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (60.6%), followed by Klebsiella (9.2%), Enterococcus (8.4%) and Pseudomonas (7.2%). Enterobacteriaceae other than E.coli were more prevalent in male and older patients. On the other side the most frequently isolated pathogen in patients with a previous UTI and a urinary catheter was Entercoccus. The resistance rates E. coli against ampicillin/amoxicillin + β lactamase inhibitor was 23.5%, against third-generation cephalosporins 16.6%, against fluoroquinolones 31.3% and 16.7% against aminoglycosides. 11.4% E. coli strains were producers of extended-spectrum Beta-lactamases (ESBL). Finally, the resistance rates of Enterococcus and Pseudomonas against quinolones were of 50.0% and 61.5%, respectively. CAUTIs that require hospitalization are most frequent in older age, male gender, and presence of urinary catheter, with urolithiasis and with previous episodes of UTI. These factors are also related to isolation of pathogens other than E. coli and higher resistance rates. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  12. The Factors That Influence Transfer of Training and Its Effect on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Nazli, Nik Nadian Nisa; Sheikh Khairudin, Sheikh Muhamad Hizam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the relationship between organizational learning culture, psychological contract breach, work engagement, training simulation and transfer of training, to examine the effect of transfer of training on organizational citizenship behaviour and to determine the mediating effect of transfer of training on the…

  13. Intraocular gene transfer of ciliary neurotrophic factor rescues photoreceptor degeneration in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Ping; Lin, Po-Kang; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Khor, Chin-Ni; Lee, Yih-Jing

    2004-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is known as an important factor in the regulation of retinal cell growth. We used both recombinant CNTF and an adenovirus carrying the CNTF gene to regulate retinal photoreceptor expression in a retinal degenerative animal, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae from recombinant-CNTF-treated, adenoviral-CNTF-treated, saline-operated, and contralateral untreated preparations were examined for those exhibiting CNTF photoreceptor protective effects. Cell apoptosis in the outer nuclear layer of the retinae was also detected. It was found that CNTF had a potent effect on delaying the photoreceptor degeneration process in RCS rats. Furthermore, adenovirus CNTF gene transfer was proven to be better at rescuing photoreceptors than that when using recombinant CNTF, since adenoviral CNTF prolonged the photoreceptor protection effect. The function of the photoreceptors was also examined by taking electroretinograms of different animals. Adenoviral-CNTF-treated eyes showed better retinal function than did the contralateral control eyes. This study indicates that adenoviral CNTF effectively rescues degenerating photoreceptors in RCS rats. Copyright 2004 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Measurements of the deuteron and proton magnetic form factors at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosted, P.E.; Katramatou, A.T.; Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; Rock, S.E.; Szalata, Z.M.; Debebe, B.; Frodyma, M.; Hicks, R.S.; Hotta, A.; Peterson, G.A.; Gearhart, R.A.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Dietrich, F.; van Bibber, K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the deuteron elastic magnetic structure function B(Q 2 ) are reported at squared four-momentum transfer values 1.20≤Q 2 ≤2.77 (GeV/c) 2 . Also reported are values for the proton magnetic form factor G Mp (Q 2 ) at 11 Q 2 values between 0.49 and 1.75 (GeV/c) 2 . The data were obtained using an electron beam of 0.5 to 1.3 GeV. Electrons backscattered near 180 degree were detected in coincidence with deuterons or protons recoiling near 0 degree in a large solid-angle double-arm spectrometer system. The data for B(Q 2 ) are found to decrease rapidly from Q 2 =1.2 to 2 (GeV/c) 2 , and then rise to a secondary maximum around Q 2 =2.5 (GeV/c) 2 . Reasonable agreement is found with several different models, including those in the relativistic impulse approximation, nonrelativistic calculations that include meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and six-quark configurations, and one calculation based on the Skyrme model. All calculations are very sensitive to the choice of deuteron wave function and nucleon form factor parametrization. The data for G Mp (Q 2 ) are in good agreement with the empirical dipole fit

  15. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep whith non-toxic dosis of the plant and ruminal content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Becker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Amorimiapubiflora (Malpighiaceae, which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA is the main cause of "sudden death" in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses of the plant and also the possibility to transfer this resistance to other sheep by the transfaunation of ruminal fluid. For this a group of four sheep (G1 received daily doses of 0.5g kg-1 for 20 days and after an interval of 15 days were challenged with three daily doses of 1g kg-1 for 3 days. Also the transfer of resistance to A. pubiflora poisoning was evaluated by transfaunation of rumen fluid (100ml for 10 days from G1 sheep to five sheep (G2, followed by challenge with the dose of 1g kg-1 for 3 days (G2D2 and after a three-day interval they received a single dose of 3g kg-1 (G2D3. The degree of resistance was evaluated by monitoring the onset of clinical signs, heart rate, and outcome of the poisoning compared with the control groups, which were challenged with three daily doses of 1g kg1 (G3 and with a single dose of 3g kg-1 (G4. Clinical parameters evaluated in Groups G1 and G2 were significantly less pronounced than those observed in G3 and G4 (control (P<0.05. Sheep in G4 (control died after receiving a single dose of 3g kg-1, while those in G2 (transfaunated survived. These findings demonstrated that consumption of non-toxic doses of A. pubiflora induced resistance in sheep and that this resistance can be transferred by transfaunation. New experiments are needed to determine the most efficient ways to induce resistance and to use this technique in the field to prevent the poisoning.

  16. Virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2c isolated from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbíčová, T; Pantůček, R; Karpíšková, R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk posed to the human population by the presence of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2c in food based on the characterization of virulence factors of Listeria involved in the invasion of host cells and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. In addition to sequencing of the inlA and inlB genes, the presence of genes lapB, aut, fbpA, ami, vip and llsX was tested. A premature stop codon (PMSC) in the inlA gene was detected in all tested strains of serotype 1/2c and, concurrently, two novel PMSC mutation types were identified. However, neither PMSC in the inlB gene nor deletion of the lapB, aut, fbpA, ami and vip genes were found in any of the strains. The presence of the llsX gene was not confirmed. Even though all L. monocytogenes strains showed sensitivity to the tested antimicrobials on the basis of their phenotype, sequencing revealed the presence of IS1542 insertion in the inlA gene, indicating the possibility of sharing of mobile genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance among strains. Other than the presence of PMSCs in the inlA gene, no PMSC in inlB or deletion of other factors linked to the invasiveness of listeria were detected. Tested strains showed sensitivity to antibiotics used in the therapy of listeriosis. Strains of L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2c typically carry a PMSC in the inlA gene, but these strains still represent a potential threat to public health. The possibility of transfer of IS1542, associated with resistance to vancomycin, between enterococci and Listeria spp. was revealed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Ressac program plants analytical experiments study of a code modelling the soil to plant transfer factor of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Troesch, O.; Legrand, B.

    1989-10-01

    The available data about the soil to plant transfer factor of cesium are numerous but very variable. The variation conditions of the transfer factor are studied with the help of laboratory experiments and the results analysed with the help of a multiple linear regression calculation. The results are applied to the soils and plants types the most frequently present around the French nuclear sites. A calculation model including the plant life conditions such as pH, water-soluble potassium and the available part of cesium in the water of the soil, is proposed. This model allows to predict the transfer factor with a better accuracy (up to ten times) than using the single ratio issue from the experimental data [fr

  18. Analysis of the heat transfer and friction factor correlations influence in the prediction of evaporating flows inside tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raush, G.; Rigola, J.; Morales-Ruiz, S.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C. Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    A methodology for analysing the influence of the heat transfer and friction factor correlations in the prediction of the two-phase flows inside horizontal ducts under evaporation phenomena is presented. An experimental unit based on single stage vapor compression refrigerating system with two parallel evaporation devices has been built to work under real refrigeration conditions. The first evaporation device consists of a double pipe evaporator which allows determining the heat flux through the pipe. The second device is an electrically heated pipe evaporator with uniformly distributed temperature and pressure sensors along the fluid path. The experimental data of temperature and pressure distribution along the smooth heated duct is compared with a selected set of heat transfer and friction factor correlations through a detailed numerical evaporation model. The aim of this paper is to determine possible criteria to select the most suitable heat transfer and friction factor correlations available. (author)

  19. Influence of dilution level on oxidation resistance of plasma transferred arc NiCrAlC coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benegra, M.; Farina, A.B.; Goldenstein, H.; Oliveira, A.S.C.M. d'

    2010-01-01

    NICRALC coatings processed by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) are a new proposal to protect the components exposed to high-temperature oxidation environments. This study evaluated the relationship between the compositional changes in the coatings due to the different levels of dilution, and the morphology and phase constitution of the developing protective oxide scale. Elementary powders were mixed and deposited by PTA welding onto AISI 316L stainless steel, varying current intensity (100 and 130 A). The microstructure of specimens was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy with local chemical analysis and by X-Ray diffraction. The coatings were subjected to thermo-gravimetric balance (TGA), using temperatures range of 700-1,000 °C during 5 hours. Results revealed the alumina formation, independent on the compositional variation. For low dilution level transient q-alumina was observed, while for high dilution level resulted in a stable a-alumina. This difference was attributed to the complexity of aluminum diffusion in intermetallic structures. The accumulated mass were smaller than other materials employed to high-temperature, such as as-cast NiCrAlC, indicating better oxidation resistance of the tested coatings. (author)

  20. Effect of Crack Tip Stress Concentration Factor on Fracture Resistance in Vacuum Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    indicate: (1) in all alloys, the fracture resistance is highest for blunt-notches (smaller Kt), and is lowest for fatigue -sharpened precracked...paths are transgranular and the fracture mode is ductile void coalescence in all cases, irrespective of the stress concentration factor. 20-01-2015...because of corrosion and/or various loading conditions such as fatigue , fretting, abrasion, etc. Also, the geometry of the structure may cause an

  1. Modeling of permeate flux and mass transfer resistances in the reclamation of molasses wastewater by a novel gas-sparged nanofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Tejal Manish; Nath, Kaushik [G H Patel College of Engineering and Technology, Gujarat (India)

    2014-10-15

    A semi-empirical model has been applied to predict the permeate flux and mass transfer resistances during the cross flow nanofiltration of molasses wastewater in flat-sheet module. The model includes laminar flow regime as well as flow in presence of gas sparging at two different gas velocities. Membrane hydraulic resistance (R{sub m}), osmotic pressure resistance (R{sub osm}) and the concentration polarization resistance (R{sub cp}) were considered in series. The concentration polarization resistance was correlated to the operating conditions, namely, the feed concentration, the trans-membrane pressure difference and the cross flow velocity for a selected range of experiments. There was an appreciable reduction of concentration polarization resistance R{sub cp}{sup spar} in presence of gas sparging. Both the concentration polarization resistance R{sub cp}{sup lam} and osmotic pressure resistance R{sub osm} decreased with cross-flow velocity, but increased with feed concentration and the operating pressure. Experimental and theoretical permeate flux values as a function of cross flow velocity for both the cases, in the presence and absence of gas sparging, were also compared.

  2. Modeling of permeate flux and mass transfer resistances in the reclamation of molasses wastewater by a novel gas-sparged nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Tejal Manish; Nath, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    A semi-empirical model has been applied to predict the permeate flux and mass transfer resistances during the cross flow nanofiltration of molasses wastewater in flat-sheet module. The model includes laminar flow regime as well as flow in presence of gas sparging at two different gas velocities. Membrane hydraulic resistance (R m ), osmotic pressure resistance (R osm ) and the concentration polarization resistance (R cp ) were considered in series. The concentration polarization resistance was correlated to the operating conditions, namely, the feed concentration, the trans-membrane pressure difference and the cross flow velocity for a selected range of experiments. There was an appreciable reduction of concentration polarization resistance R cp spar in presence of gas sparging. Both the concentration polarization resistance R cp lam and osmotic pressure resistance R osm decreased with cross-flow velocity, but increased with feed concentration and the operating pressure. Experimental and theoretical permeate flux values as a function of cross flow velocity for both the cases, in the presence and absence of gas sparging, were also compared

  3. Factors influencing survival in patients with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lima Prata-Rocha

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb is a rapidly emerging pathogen in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors of poor outcome in patients with MDR Acb. This is the first report documenting factors influencing survival in patients with MDR Acb in this tertiary hospital. This study is a prospective of the hospital epidemiology database. A total of 73 patients with 84 Acb isolates were obtained between August 2009 and October 2010 in this hospital. In the present study, the 30-day mortality rate was 39.7%. Of 84 Acb isolates, 50 (59% were MDR, nine (11% were pan-resistant, and 25 (30% were non-MDR. The non-MDR isolates were used as the control group. The factors significantly associated with multidrug resistance included previous surgeries, presence of comorbidity (renal disease, use of more than two devices, parenteral nutrition, and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Significant predictors of 30-day mortality in the univariate analysis included pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, use of more than two devices, and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy administered within two days of the onset of infection. The factors associated with mortality in patients with MDR Acb infection in this study were: age > 60 years, pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, use of more than two invasive procedures, and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Vigilance is needed to prevent outbreaks of this opportunistic and deadly pathogen.

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Dairy Leuconostoc, Analysis of the Genetic Basis of Atypical Resistances and Transfer of Genes In Vitro and in a Food Matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Flórez

    Full Text Available In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18, Leuconostoc citreum (11, Leuconostoc lactis (2, Weissella hellenica (2, and Leuconostoc carnosum (1. Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains, tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each, and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each. Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B and tet(S to be associated to a plasmid of ≈35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B and tet(S, but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4 and virginiamycin [vat(E] resistance were further found. The erm(B gene but not tet(S was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the

  5. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  6. Moving Aerospace Structural Design Practice to a Load and Resistance Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace structures are traditionally designed using the factor of safety (FOS) approach. The limit load on the structure is determined and the structure is then designed for FOS times the limit load - the ultimate load. Probabilistic approaches utilize distributions for loads and strengths. Failures are predicted to occur in the region of intersection of the two distributions. The load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach judiciously combines these two approaches by intensive calibration studies on loads and strength to result in structures that are efficient and reliable. This paper discusses these three approaches.

  7. Comparison of Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer and Intrauterine Embryo Transfer for Male-factor Infertility After Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hui Lin

    2004-03-01

    Conclusion: The data presented in this report demonstrate that there was no therapeutic improvement associated with the increased complexity of ZIFT as compared with intrauterine ET after ICSI for the treatment of male-factor infertility. With the advent of improvements in culture techniques in the IVF laboratory, intrauterine ET remains the technique of choice.

  8. New insights in the bacterial spore resistance to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Guenther

    Based on their unique resistance to various space parameters, Bacillus endospores are one of the model systems used for astrobiological studies. The extremely high resistance of bacterial endospores to environmental stress factors has intrigued researchers since long time and many characteristic spore features, especially those involved in the protection of spore DNA, have already been uncovered. The disclosure of the complete genomic sequence of Bacillus subtilis 168, one of the often used astrobiological model system, and the rapid development of tran-scriptional microarray techniques have opened new opportunities of gaining further insights in the enigma of spore resistance. Spores of B. subtilis were exposed to various extreme ter-restrial and extraterrestrial stressors to reach a better understanding of the DNA protection and repair strategies, which them to cope with the induced DNA damage. Following physical stress factors of environmental importance -either on Earth or in space -were selected for this thesis: (i) mono-and polychromatic UV radiation, (ii) ionizing radiation, (iii) exposure to ultrahigh vacuum; and (iv) high shock pressures simulating meteorite impacts. To reach a most comprehensive understanding of spore resistance to those harsh terrestrial or simulated extraterrestrial conditions, a standardized experimental protocol of the preparation and ana-lyzing methods was established including the determination of the following spore responses: (i) survival, (ii) induced mutations, (iii) DNA damage, (iv) role of different repair pathways by use of a set of repair deficient mutants, and (v) transcriptional responses during spore germi-nation by use of genome-wide transcriptome analyses and confirmation by RT-PCR. From this comprehensive set of data on spore resistance to a variety of environmental stress parameters a model of a "built-in" transcriptional program of bacterial spores in response to DNA damaging treatments to ensure DNA restoration

  9. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitic Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Yadav, B R; Singh, R S

    2011-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic factors (adhesin and toxin genes) and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates were carried out using gene amplification and disc diffusion assays, respectively. A high prevalence of MRSA was observed in the tested isolates (13.1%). The isolates were also highly resistant to antibiotics, i.e. 36.4% were resistant to streptomycin, 33.6% to oxytetracycline, 29.9% to gentamicin and 26.2% each to chloramphenicol, pristinomycin and ciprofloxacin. A significant variation in the expression of pathogenic factors (Ig, coa and clf) was observed in these isolates. The overall distribution of adhesin genes ebp, fib, bbp, fnbB, cap5, cap8, map and cna in the isolates was found to be 69.1, 67.2, 6.5, 20.5, 60.7, 26.1, 81.3 and 8.4%, respectively. The presence of fib, fnbB, bbp and map genes was considerably greater in MRSA than in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The proportions of toxin genes, namely, hlb, seb, sec, sed, seg and sei, in the isolates were found to be 94.3, 0.9, 8.4, 0.9, 10.2 and 49.5%, respectively. The proportions of agr genes I, II, III and IV were found to be 39.2, 27.1, 21.5 and 12.1%, respectively. A few isolates showed similar antibiotic-resistance patterns, which could be due to identical strains or the dissemination of the same strains among animals. These findings can be utilized in mastitis treatment programmes and antimicrobials strategies in organized herd.

  10. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on resistance versus resilience of Douglas fir to drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Carnwath

    Full Text Available Significant increases in tree mortality due to drought-induced physiological stress have been documented worldwide. This trend is likely to continue with increased frequency and severity of extreme drought events in the future. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence variability in drought responses among trees will be critical to predicting ecosystem responses to climate change and developing effective management actions. In this study, we used hierarchical mixed-effects models to analyze drought responses of Pseudotsuga menziesii in 20 unmanaged forests stands across a broad range of environmental conditions in northeastern Washington, USA. We aimed to 1 identify the biotic and abiotic attributes most closely associated with the responses of individual trees to drought and 2 quantify the variability in drought responses at different spatial scales. We found that growth rates and competition for resources significantly affected resistance to a severe drought event in 2001: slow-growing trees and trees growing in subordinate canopy positions and/or with more neighbors suffered greater declines in radial growth during the drought event. In contrast, the ability of a tree to return to normal growth when climatic conditions improved (resilience was unaffected by competition or relative growth rates. Drought responses were significantly influenced by tree age: older trees were more resistant but less resilient than younger trees. Finally, we found differences between resistance and resilience in spatial scale: a significant proportion (approximately 50% of the variability in drought resistance across the study area was at broad spatial scales (i.e. among different forest types, most likely due to differences in the total amount of precipitation received at different elevations; in contrast, variation in resilience was overwhelmingly (82% at the level of individual trees within stands and there was no difference in drought resilience

  11. Factors influencing overweight children's commencement of and continuation in a resistance training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuigan Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the child overweight and obesity problem in Australia, resistance training programs have been trialled as an innovative way of assisting children increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing overweight children's participation in a resistance training trial program. Method Parent-child pairs who participated in the trial program were invited to take part in a follow-up individual interview to discuss their program experiences. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child pairs. Results The factors found to be most relevant to program commencement among parents were a desire for their child to lose weight and gain confidence, the proximity of the venue, and no cost for participation. For children, the most relevant factors were the opportunity to build strength and improve fitness and having supportive parents who facilitated program initiation. The factors most relevant to continuation for parents were the quality of the program management, being able to stay for the sessions, the child's improved weight status, coordination, and confidence, and no cost for participation. Weight loss and improved confidence were also motivators for continuation among the children, along with pleasant social interaction with peers and trainers and ongoing parental support. Conclusion Different factors variably influence program commencement and program continuation in both parents and children. This has important implications for future interventions that aim to successfully recruit and retain intervention participants.

  12. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer factors for the root uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn were compared using outdoor lysimeters, Kick-Brauckmann experimental pots under greenhouse conditions and Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The uptake was studied in barley, potatoes, sugar beet and salad vegetables grown on either podsolic or loess soil. The transfer factors for these radionuclides under the specific conditions of the small scale Neubauer cup experiments differed greatly from those obtained from the outdoor lysimeter. In the pot experiments, the transfer factors for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 54 Mn showed less deviation from the lysimeter results especially in crops grown on podsolic soil. For 60 Co, the transfer factors varied for the different crops grown. Transfer factors obtained in pot experiments can only be applicable to a limited extent to field conditions; factors influencing the transfer factors in pot experiments include soil volume, root density, root/shoot ratio, water supply and fertilizer application rate. (UK)

  13. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic...... and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental processes. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that a barley NAC transcription factor has a direct role in regulating basal defence. The gene transcript was isolated by differential display from barley leaves infected with the biotrophic...... powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  14. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  15. Risk Factors for Acquired Rifamycin and Isoniazid Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesha Rockwood

    Full Text Available Studies looking at acquired drug resistance (ADR are diverse with respect to geographical distribution, HIV co-infection rates, retreatment status and programmatic factors such as regimens administered and directly observed therapy. Our objective was to examine and consolidate evidence from clinical studies of the multifactorial aetiology of acquired rifamycin and/or isoniazid resistance within the scope of a single systematic review. This is important to inform policy and identify key areas for further studies.Case-control and cohort studies and randomised controlled trials that reported ADR as an outcome during antitubercular treatment regimens including a rifamycin and examined the association of at least 1 risk factor were included. Post hoc, we carried out random effects Mantel-Haenszel weighted meta-analyses of the impact of 2 key risk factors 1 HIV and 2 baseline drug resistance on the binary outcome of ADR. Heterogeneity was assessed used I2 statistic. As a secondary outcome, we calculated median cumulative incidence of ADR, weighted by the sample size of the studies.Meta-analysis of 15 studies showed increased risk of ADR with baseline mono- or polyresistance (RR 4.85 95% CI 3.26 to 7.23, heterogeneity I2 58%, 95% CI 26 to 76%. Meta-analysis of 8 studies showed that HIV co-infection was associated with increased risk of ADR (RR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28 to 7.11; there was considerable heterogeneity amongst these studies (I2 81%, 95% CI 64 to 90%. Non-adherence, extrapulmonary/disseminated disease and advanced immunosuppression in HIV co-infection were other risk factors noted. The weighted median cumulative incidence of acquired multi drug resistance calculated in 24 studies (assuming whole cohort as denominator, regardless of follow up DST was 0.1% (5th to 95th percentile 0.07 to 3.2%.Baseline drug resistance and HIV co-infection were significant risk factors for ADR. There was a trend of positive association with non-adherence which is likely

  16. The critical success factors and impact of prior knowledge to nursing students when transferring nursing knowledge during nursing clinical practise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Tsai, Ling-Long

    2005-11-01

    Nursing practise plays an important role in transferring nursing knowledge to nursing students. From the related literature review, prior knowledge will affect how learners gain new knowledge. There has been no direct examination of the prior knowledge interaction effect on students' performance and its influence on nursing students when evaluating the knowledge transfer success factors. This study explores (1) the critical success factors in transferring nursing knowledge, (2) the impact of prior knowledge when evaluating the success factors for transferring nursing knowledge. This research utilizes in-depth interviews to probe the initial success factor phase. A total of 422 valid questionnaires were conducted by the authors. The data were analysed by comparing the mean score and t-test between two groups. Seventeen critical success factors were identified by the two groups of students. Twelve items were selected to examine the diversity in the two groups. Students with prior knowledge were more independent than the other group. They also preferred self-directed learning over students without prior knowledge. Students who did not have prior knowledge were eager to take every opportunity to gain experience and more readily adopted new knowledge.

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  18. Gene blaCTX-M Mutation as Risk Factor of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinna Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are more than half from all antibiotics used in the world which is belong to β lactam group, but clinical effectiveness of the antibiotics are limited by antibiotic resistance of microorganisms as causative agents from infectious diseases. Several resistance mechanisms for Enterobacteriaceae are mostly caused by enzymatic hydrolysis of antibiotics specific enzymes, called β lactamases. β lactamases represent a large group of enzyme which is genetically and functionally different as extended‑spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and known as greatest threat of resistence. Plasmid localization from the encoded gene and enzyme distribution among the pathogen increases every year. Most widespread and clinically relevant ESBL are class A ESBL of Temoniera (TEM, Sulphydryl variable (SHV and Cefotaxime (CTX-M types. The purpose of this review was to analyze variant of blaCTX-M gene which cause the most increase incidence of antibiotic resistance. The methods of this review were data-based searching based on Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar, without limitation of index factor by using the keyword “blaCTX-M”, “Extended-spectrum β-lactamase”, and “antibiotic resistance”. The conclusion of the review is CTX-M type ESBL have replaced TEM and SHV type as dominant enzyme in last decade. ESBL produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as one of major nosocomial pathogens. Nosocomial infection caused by CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella pneumoniae dramatically increased in recent years.

  19. Histological transformation after acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi; Zhong, Dian-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations generally respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, acquired resistance will eventually develop place after 8-16 months. Several mechanisms contribute to the resistance including T790M mutation, c-Met amplification, epithelial mesenchymal transformation and PIK3CA mutation; however, histological transformation is a rare mechanism. The patterns and mechanisms underlying histological transformation need to be explored. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and search engines Google Scholar, Medical Matrix for literature related to histological transformation. Case reports, cases series, and clinical and basic medical research articles were reviewed. Sixty-one articles were included in this review. Cases of transformation to small-cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and sarcoma after TKI resistance have all been reported. As the clinical course differed dramatically between cases, a new treatment scheme needs to be recruited. The mechanisms underlying histological transformation have not been fully elucidated and probably relate to cancer stem cells, driver genetic alterations under selective pressure or the heterogeneity of the tumor. When TKI resistance develops, we recommend that patients undergo a second biopsy to determine the reason, guide the next treatment and predict the prognosis.

  20. Pentapeptide-repeat proteins that act as topoisomerase poison resistance factors have a common dimer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Zhang, Yong; Blanchard, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The pentapeptide repeat protein AlbG, provides self-resistance to the nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide termed albicidin. Analysis of the AlbG three-dimensional structure and the sequences of other pentapeptide repeat proteins that confer resistance to topiosomerase poisons suggests they have a similar dimer interface which may be critical to their interaction with topoisomerases. The protein AlbG is a self-resistance factor against albicidin, a nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide with antibiotic and phytotoxic properties produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. Primary-sequence analysis indicates that AlbG is a member of the pentapeptide-repeat family of proteins (PRP). The structure of AlbG from X. albilineans was determined at 2.0 Å resolution by SAD phasing using data collected from a single trimethyllead acetate derivative on a home source. AlbG folds into a right-handed quadrilateral β-helix composed of approximately eight semi-regular coils. The regularity of the β-helix is blemished by a large loop/deviation in the β-helix between coils 4 and 5. The C-terminus of the β-helix is capped by a dimerization module, yielding a dimer with a 110 Å semi-collinear β-helical axis. This method of dimer formation appears to be common to all PRP proteins that confer resistance to topoisomerase poisons and contrasts with most PRP proteins, which are typically monomeric

  1. Factors that Influence the Dissemination of Knowledge in Technology Transfer among Malaysian Manufacturing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughaneswari ap Sahadevan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of technology transfer is so wide but mostly involving some form of technology-re- lated exchange. However, in this particular paper, technology transfer is consider as a concept to examine the process of disseminating knowledge and skills that a person owned to another per- son in order to generate higher productivity with new approach of producing a particular prod- uct or service. Although, many researchers have explored the evolution of technology transfer, nonetheless some drivers are yet to be explored in a Malaysian manufacturing industry. This study, therefore attempts to determine the relationship between absorptive capacity, transfer capacity, communication motivation and learning intent and technology transfer performance. A survey methodology was used in a Japanese multinational company based in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 117 questionnaires were received. Results show that absorptive capacity is the most signifi- cant to influence technology transfer performance.

  2. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurien, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is

  3. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units: risk factors for progression to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Hacer; Sutcu, Murat; Somer, Ayper; Aydın, Derya; Cihan, Rukiye; Ozdemir, Aslı; Coban, Asuman; Ince, Zeynep; Citak, Agop; Salman, Nuran

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients, who are initally colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. A retrospective case-control study was conducted involving pediatric and neonatal intensive care units throughout a five-year period (January 2010-December 2014). Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from Hospital Infection Control Committee reports and patients' medical records. Risk factors were assessed in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who developed subsequent systemic infection (cases) and compared to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who did not develop infection (controls). Throughout the study period, 2.6% of patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units and 3.6% of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units had become colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. After a mean of 10.6±1.9 days (median: 7 days, range: 2-38 days) following detection of colonization, 39.0% of the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in pediatric intensive care units and 18.1% of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in neonatal intensive care units developed systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Types of systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections included bacteremia (n=15, 62.5%), ventilator-associated pneumonia (n=4, 16.6%), ventriculitis (n=2, 8.3%), intraabdominal infections (n=2, 8.3%), and urinary tract infection (n=1, 4.1%). A logistic regression model including parameters found significant in univariate analysis of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization and carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection groups revealed underlying metabolic disease (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.7-37.2), previous carbapenem use (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.2-40.1), neutropenia (OR: 13.8; 95% CI: 3

  4. Internal and external factors on firms? transfer pricing decisions: Insights from organization studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li; Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Well understood in economics, accounting, finance, and legal research, transfer pricing has rarely been comprehensively explored in organization management literature. This paper explores some theoretical explanations of transfer pricing within multidivisional firms drawing insights from various organizational theories – primarily institutional theory, transaction cost economics, and social networks – to develop a conceptual model of transfer pricing. This model focuses on the nature of multi...

  5. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived 129 I (half life: 1.57 x l0 7 yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  6. Gene Transfer of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Prevents Neurodegeneration Triggered by FXN Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsu-Jiménez, Yurika; Loría, Frida; Corona, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Nido, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is a predominantly neurodegenerative disease caused by recessive mutations that produce a deficiency of frataxin (FXN). Here, we have used a herpesviral amplicon vector carrying a gene encoding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to drive its overexpression in neuronal cells and test for its effect on FXN-deficient neurons both in culture and in the mouse cerebellum in vivo. Gene transfer of BDNF to primary cultures of mouse neurons prevents the apoptosis which is triggered by the knockdown of FXN gene expression. This neuroprotective effect of BDNF is also observed in vivo in a viral vector-based knockdown mouse cerebellar model. The injection of a lentiviral vector carrying a minigene encoding for a FXN-specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) into the mouse cerebellar cortex triggers a FXN deficit which is accompanied by significant apoptosis of granule neurons as well as loss of calbindin in Purkinje cells. These pathological changes are accompanied by a loss of motor coordination of mice as assayed by the rota-rod test. Coinjection of a herpesviral vector encoding for BDNF efficiently prevents both the development of cerebellar neuropathology and the ataxic phenotype. These data demonstrate the potential therapeutic usefulness of neurotrophins like BDNF to protect FXN-deficient neurons from degeneration.

  7. Cs-137 soil to plant transfer factors derived from pot experiments and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Mueck, K.

    1989-11-01

    Soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of 137 Cs for different crop plants were determined in pot experiments, in outdoor experiments with plastic containers of 50 l volume, and in field studies. In all cases the soil contamination with 137 Cs resulted from fallout after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Mean TF derived for outdoor plants on a fresh weight basis, ranged from 0,0017 (leaf vegetables) to 0,059 (rye straw) and showed characteristic differences depending on plant part and species. Generally, for fruits and potato tubers a lower TF was found than for vegetative plant parts. Moreover, the data were compared with those from former experiments, carried out before the Chernobyl accident. There is a good agreement for cereals (with exception of rye) fruit vegetables and fodder crops, while actual TF are substantially lower for potatoes, leaf and root vegetables, but higher for rye. A significant negative correlation was observed between the TF and the soil activity concentrations for 137 Cs. In container experiments the TF were found to be influenced mainly by the clay content of the soil. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Authors)

  8. Dependence of soil-to-plant transfer factors of elements on their concentrations in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Watabe, Teruhisa.

    1996-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of 31 stable elements from soil to plant were determined by neutron activation analysis. Soil and plant samples were collected from 112 farm fields in Aomori prefecture, Japan. The elements described are those that could be detected by this method, which include essential elements for plant growth and nonessential elements. Several of these elements were divided into two groups, each having different TF characteristics. In the first group of elements there was an inverse correlation between the TFs and the soil concentrations of the elements, especially for Cl, K and Ca. The concentrations of these elements in plants were independent of their soil concentrations. However, in the second group, especially Sc and Co, the TFs were independent of the soil concentrations of the elements. The fluctuation of TFs observed in this study was smaller than that previously reported. This may be attributed to the relatively narrow geographic area of the present study. In addition, the TFs for the stable elements in this study were generally one to three orders of magnitude lower than those compiled for radioactive isotopes in previous publications. (author)

  9. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  10. Application of gamma ray spectrometry for evaluation of transfer factors in environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma Ray Spectrometry (GRS) is performed using a variety of radiation detectors, to identify and determine radioactivity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides qualitatively, in a wide range of samples. The samples can be of a high inventory power plant origin, NORM category or low level environmental samples, around a power plant. The method is usually applied to non-destructive analysis of environmental samples. However, it can also be applied to destructive analysis i.e. following extraction/separation of the analyte from the sample, if there is a need to pre-concentrate the analyte. The accuracy and precision of the method, depends on the quality of calibration, correction methods employed, stability of the system components, computational algorithms used, analysis of sources of uncertainties etc. The transfer factors among the environmental matrices are simple ratios, but the methodologies used in generating the respective concentrations have to be appropriately documented, including the validity of measurements. Validation mechanisms can include the results of international inter-comparison exercises, the certificates of standards issued by quality-accredited international laboratories. A few parameters involved in the qualitative analysis of gamma spectrometry are discussed here

  11. Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of {sup 99}Tc for Korean Major Upland Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    In order to investigate the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) of {sup 99}Tc for Korean major upland crops (soybean, radish and Chinese cabbage), pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse. Soils were collected from four upland fields (two for soybean and two for radish and Chinese cabbage) around Gyeongju radioactive-waste disposal site. Three to four weeks before sowing, dried soils were mixed with a {sup 99}Tc solution and the mixtures were put into pots and irrigated. TF values were expressed as the ratios of the {sup 99}Tc concentrations in plants (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry or fresh) to those in soils (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry). There was no great difference in the TF value between soils. The TF values for soybean seeds were extremely lower than those for the straws, indicating a very low mobility of {sup 99}Tc to seeds. As representative TF values of{sup 99}Tc,1.8 X 10{sup -1}, 1.2 X 10{sup 1}, 3.2 X 10{sup 2} and 1.3 X 10{sup 2} (for dry plants), arithmetic means for two soils, were proposed for soybean seeds, radish roots, radish leaves and Chinese cabbage leaves, respectively. In the case of the vegetables, proposals for fresh plants were also made. The proposed values are not sufficiently representative so successive updates are needed.

  12. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived {sup 129}I (half life: 1.57 x l0{sup 7} yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  13. The multidrug resistance IncA/C transferable plasmid encodes a novel domain-swapped dimeric protein-disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Kurth, Fabian; Neyer, Simon; Schembri, Mark A; Martin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-31

    The multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C conjugative plasmids disseminate antibiotic resistance genes among clinically relevant enteric bacteria. A plasmid-encoded disulfide isomerase is associated with conjugation. Sequence analysis of several IncA/C plasmids and IncA/C-related integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) from commensal and pathogenic bacteria identified a conserved DsbC/DsbG homolog (DsbP). The crystal structure of DsbP reveals an N-terminal domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A DsbP homodimer is formed through domain swapping of two DsbP N-terminal domains. The catalytic domain incorporates a thioredoxin-fold with characteristic CXXC and cis-Pro motifs. Overall, the structure and redox properties of DsbP diverge from the Escherichia coli DsbC and DsbG disulfide isomerases. Specifically, the V-shaped dimer of DsbP is inverted compared with EcDsbC and EcDsbG. In addition, the redox potential of DsbP (-161 mV) is more reducing than EcDsbC (-130 mV) and EcDsbG (-126 mV). Other catalytic properties of DsbP more closely resemble those of EcDsbG than EcDsbC. These catalytic differences are in part a consequence of the unusual active site motif of DsbP (CAVC); substitution to the EcDsbC-like (CGYC) motif converts the catalytic properties to those of EcDsbC. Structural comparison of the 12 independent subunit structures of DsbP that we determined revealed that conformational changes in the linker region contribute to mobility of the catalytic domain, providing mechanistic insight into DsbP function. In summary, our data reveal that the conserved plasmid-encoded DsbP protein is a bona fide disulfide isomerase and suggest that a dedicated oxidative folding enzyme is important for conjugative plasmid transfer.

  14. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  15. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Simple estimation of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) orientation factor distribution in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loura, Luís M S

    2012-11-19

    Because of its acute sensitivity to distance in the nanometer scale, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found a large variety of applications in many fields of chemistry, physics, and biology. One important issue regarding the correct usage of FRET is its dependence on the donor-acceptor relative orientation, expressed as the orientation factor k(2). Different donor/acceptor conformations can lead to k(2) values in the 0 ≤ k(2) ≤ 4 range. Because the characteristic distance for FRET, R(0), is proportional to (k(2))1/6, uncertainties in the orientation factor are reflected in the quality of information that can be retrieved from a FRET experiment. In most cases, the average value of k(2) corresponding to the dynamic isotropic limit ( = 2/3) is used for computation of R(0) and hence donor-acceptor distances and acceptor concentrations. However, this can lead to significant error in unfavorable cases. This issue is more critical in membrane systems, because of their intrinsically anisotropic nature and their reduced fluidity in comparison to most common solvents. Here, a simple numerical simulation method for estimation of the probability density function of k(2) for membrane-embedded donor and acceptor fluorophores in the dynamic regime is presented. In the simplest form, the proposed procedure uses as input the most probable orientations of the donor and acceptor transition dipoles, obtained by experimental (including linear dichroism) or theoretical (such as molecular dynamics simulation) techniques. Optionally, information about the widths of the donor and/or acceptor angular distributions may be incorporated. The methodology is illustrated for special limiting cases and common membrane FRET pairs.

  17. Multidrug Resistance Acinetobacter Bacteremia Secondary to Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Risk Factors and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Borer, Abraham; Koyfman, Leonid; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Frenkel, Amit; Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Rosenzweig, Vsevolod; Zlotnik, Alexander; Klein, Moti

    2017-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant (MDR), gram-negative bacterium commonly implicated in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with VAP often subsequently develop A baumannii bacteremia, which may significantly worsen outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of 129 ICU patients spanning 6 years with MDR A baumannii VAP; 46 (35%) of these patients had concomitant MDR A baumannii bacteremia. The ICU mortality rate was higher in patients with VAP having A baumannii bacteremia compared to nonbacteremic patients (32.4% vs 9.6% respectively, P 65 years, an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score higher than 20, a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score higher than 7 on the day of bacteremia, and the presence of comorbid disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and chronic renal failure) were found to be independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in this population. Multidrug resistant A baumannii was not an independent risk factor for mortality. Although the presence of comorbid diseases (COPD and chronic renal failure) and severity of disease (APACHE > 20 and SOFA >7) were found to be independent risk factors for ICU mortality, MDR A baumannii bacteremia was not an independent risk factor for mortality in our critically ill population.

  18. An exploration of the perceived factors that affect the learning and transfer of skills taught to student midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Mary K

    2013-08-01

    the aim of this study was to examine the attitudes of student midwives towards skills training and practise. The objectives were to explore the factors in the skills laboratory environment and in clinical practice which affect how successfully student midwives transfer into clinical practice the various skills they have learnt in preparation for an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. a review of the background literature revealed that there were many variables related to successful transfer of skills in general but there appeared to be a gap around perceived factors affecting transfer of skills of student midwives. a mixed methods design was conducted using both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews between June and August 2010. questionnaires were administered to all midwifery students at one university in Wales. These were later followed by semi-structured interviews for 6 student midwives who were purposively selected from all year groups. the results from the questionnaires revealed that a majority of students had positive attitudes to educators and mentors and to their skills acquisition experience in the skills laboratory and to the available opportunities to practise in clinical practice. Although students believed in the transferability of skills from the laboratory setting to clinical practice, a majority thought that clinical practice provided them with a better opportunity to learn clinical skills. The semi-structured interviews demonstrated that facilitating factors in the skills laboratory included having adequate instruction as well as having a designated space. Hindering factors included unrealistic models and equipment. In clinical practice, facilitating factors included having the opportunities to practise skills and support and feedback from the mentor. Hindering factors included deficits in the student-mentor relationship. this study highlighted that midwifery students must be adequately prepared to carry out clinical skills

  19. Neoplastic progression of rat tracheal epithelial cells involves resistance to transforming growth factor beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Primary, transformed, and tumor-derived rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells were grown in serum-free medium containing 0 to 300 pg/mL transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited the growth of primary RTE cells with a 50% drop in the efficiency of colony formation seen at TGFβ concentrations between 10 and 30 pg/ mL. The effect of TGFβ on preneoplastic RTE cells was similar to the effect on normal primary RTE cells. Cell lines established from tumors produced by inoculation of transformed RTE cells into nude mice were relatively resistant to -TGFβ-induced growth inhibition. Resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition, therefore, appears to be a late event in the development of neoplasia. (author)

  20. Chemical plant factors affecting resistance in sugarcane in against Scirpophaga Nivella f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Khan, A.; Ali, A.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted during 2000 to determine the role of various chemical plant factors viz., total minerals, nitrogen, fat contents, carbohydrate, macro an micro nutrients in the leaves of five genotypes of sugarcane i.e., BF-162, SPSG-26, L-118, CP-43/33 and CP-72/2086 by correlating the infestation of top borer, Scirpophaga Nivella F. at tillering stage. None of the genotype was found completely resistant to the pest. CP-43/33 and BF-162 proved susceptible and resistant varieties, respectively. Total mineral, manganese and copper contents did not show significant correlation with the pest infestation, whereas nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and ferrous contents played a positive and significant role. Phosphorous, carbohydrates, fats and zinc contents played a significant and negative effect on the pest infestation at tillering stage. (author)

  1. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  2. Transfer factor of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from Norm contaminated soil to Atriplex, Afelfa and Bermuda grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukhallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.

    2011-10-01

    transfer factors of Radium -226, lead-210 and Polonium-210 from contaminated soil with oil coproduced water to grazing plants in the north eastern region of Syria have been determined. contaminated soil was collected from one of the AL-Furat Petroleum Oil company oil fields;soil was distributed into several pots where the studied plants were planted in order to study the transfer factors of radioisotopes to them. Results have shown that the mean transfer factors of radium to green parts have reached has reached 0.0016 in Atriplex halimus L.,0.0021 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.0025 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss,0.0082 in Bermuda grass and 0.0167 in Medicago Sativ L,which was the highest,while the transfer factors of polonium and lead were ten times higher than those for radium and reacted 0.012 in Atriplex Leucoclada Bioss, 0.011 in Atriplex canescens Nutt, 0.007 in Atriplex halimus L.0.32 in bermuda grass and 0.025 in Afelfa.(author)

  3. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  4. Transfer Factor of Radioactive Cs and Sr from Egyptian Soils to Roots and Leafs of Wheat Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Khadra, S.A.; Abdel Fattah, A.T.; Eissa, H.S.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of long lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr from three different Egyptian soils type to wheat plant have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Most typical Egyptian soils (sandy, sandy loam and clayey) from three different locations (Al -Oboor, Abu- Zaabal and Shebeen cities) were selected for the experiments carried out under outdoor conditions. The plant selected was wheat because the high consumption of wheat in Egypt. In the present study radioactive strontium and caesium uptake from different types of soil was investigated .These radionuclide showed a considerable difference in their distribution within the plant .The results showed that soil type influences the transfer factors. Sandy soil resulted in the highest transfer factor for both (Cs and Sr) from soil to wheat. TFs for leafs were higher than those for roots in case of 90 Sr (for all types of soil). However, TFs of ( 137 Cs) for roots were higher than those for leafs for all soils. Grains of the wheat showed the lowest transfer factor for the Cs and Sr (for all types of soil)

  5. Contribution of SecDF to Staphylococcus aureus resistance and expression of virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND family of multidrug exporters. SecDF has been shown in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to be involved in the export of proteins. RND proteins can mediate resistance against various substances and might be of relevance in antimicrobial therapy. The role of RND proteins in Staphylococcus aureus has not yet been determined. Results Markerless deletion mutants were constructed to analyze the impact of the so far uncharacterized RND proteins in S. aureus. While the lack of Sa2056 and Sa2339 caused no phenotype regarding growth and resistance, the secDF mutant resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. The secDF mutant was cold sensitive, but grew normally in rich medium at 37°C. Resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides and the RND substrates acriflavine, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate was reduced. The secDF mutant showed an aberrant cell separation and increased spontaneous and Triton X-100 induced autolysis, although the amounts of penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane were unchanged. The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. A reduction of the transcription of the cell wall anchored protein A (spa was also found. The accumulation of SpA in the membrane and lowered amounts in the cell wall pointed to an impaired translocation. Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. Thus SecDF could be a potential target for the control and eradication of S. aureus in the future.

  6. EMT transcription factors snail and slug directly contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslehurst, Alexandria M; Weberpals, Johanne; Davey, Scott; Squire, Jeremy; Park, Paul C; Feilotter, Harriet; Koti, Madhuri; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Evans, Ken; Geraci, Joseph; Childs, Timothy; Chen, Jian; Li, Jieran

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell undergoes transdifferentiation into a mesenchymal phenotype. The role of EMT in embryogenesis is well-characterized and increasing evidence suggests that elements of the transition may be important in other processes, including metastasis and drug resistance in various different cancers. Agilent 4 × 44 K whole human genome arrays and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to investigate mRNA and protein expression in A2780 cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Invasion and migration were assessed using Boyden chamber assays. Gene knockdown of snail and slug was done using targeted siRNA. Clinical relevance of the EMT pathway was assessed in a cohort of primary ovarian tumours using data from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 arrays. Morphological and phenotypic hallmarks of EMT were identified in the chemoresistant cells. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors including snail, slug, twist2 and zeb2. Proteomic analysis demonstrated up regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and down regulation of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. By reducing expression of snail and slug, the mesenchymal phenotype was largely reversed and cells were resensitized to cisplatin. Finally, gene expression data from primary tumours mirrored the finding that an EMT-like pathway is activated in resistant tumours relative to sensitive tumours, suggesting that the involvement of this transition may not be limited to in vitro drug effects. This work strongly suggests that genes associated with EMT may play a significant role in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, therefore potentially leading to the development of predictive biomarkers of drug response or novel therapeutic strategies for overcoming drug resistance

  7. EMT transcription factors snail and slug directly contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslehurst Alexandria M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell undergoes transdifferentiation into a mesenchymal phenotype. The role of EMT in embryogenesis is well-characterized and increasing evidence suggests that elements of the transition may be important in other processes, including metastasis and drug resistance in various different cancers. Methods Agilent 4 × 44 K whole human genome arrays and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to investigate mRNA and protein expression in A2780 cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Invasion and migration were assessed using Boyden chamber assays. Gene knockdown of snail and slug was done using targeted siRNA. Clinical relevance of the EMT pathway was assessed in a cohort of primary ovarian tumours using data from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 arrays. Results Morphological and phenotypic hallmarks of EMT were identified in the chemoresistant cells. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors including snail, slug, twist2 and zeb2. Proteomic analysis demonstrated up regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and down regulation of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. By reducing expression of snail and slug, the mesenchymal phenotype was largely reversed and cells were resensitized to cisplatin. Finally, gene expression data from primary tumours mirrored the finding that an EMT-like pathway is activated in resistant tumours relative to sensitive tumours, suggesting that the involvement of this transition may not be limited to in vitro drug effects. Conclusions This work strongly suggests that genes associated with EMT may play a significant role in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, therefore potentially leading to the development of predictive biomarkers of drug response or novel therapeutic strategies for

  8. AZD9291 in epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer have an objective response rate (ORR) of approximately 60-70% and a median progression free-survival (PFS) of approximately 10-13 months. Studies of tumor biopsies performed after progression on EGFR TKI revealed that 50-60% of EGFR mutant NSCLC developed an EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation as a mechanism of acquired resistance. AZD9291 is a third generation irreversible EGFR TKI with activity against the activating EGFR mutation, the T790M acquired resistance mutation, and relative sparing of the wild-type EGFR. AZD9291 was investigated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts in patients with disease progression after EGFR TKI. Patients with and without detectable T790M mutations were enrolled in the trial. The ORR in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 61% (95% CI, 52-70%) and 21% (95% CI, 12-34%), respectively. The PFS observed in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 9.6 months (95% CI, 8.3 to not reached) and 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.1-4.3 months), respectively. At the dose for further investigation, 80 mg daily, the rate of all grade 3-5 drug related adverse events was 11%, and the rates of grade 3 diarrhea and rash were 1% and 0%, respectively. The identification of the T790M resistance mutation and the subsequent development of an agent against the mechanism of resistance provide a template for future drug development for acquired resistance to targeted therapy.

  9. Relativistic quark model and behaviour of the meson electromagnetic form factors at small and intermediate momentum transfer Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Esaybegyan, S.V.; Ter-Isaakyan, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    In a model of hadrons composed of relativistic quarks a description of meson static characteristics and pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of small and intermediate values of momentum transfer 0 2 2 have obtained. It is shown that in such a model the data available on the pion electromagnetic form factor may be described basing on a simplest quark without gluon exchange. The contribution of a one-gluon exchange diagram in such a model cannot exceed 30%

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF RESISTANCE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance status against natural infection to Haemonchus contortus as well as influence of season, sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type on resistance levels were evaluated in 309 numbers of Garole sheep. In adult Garole sheep, egg per gram(EPG of faeces for Haemonchus contortus was varied from 300 to 1600, but overall EPG in Garole have been recorded as 829.96 ± 20.60. The effects of season, sex, and body weight and haemoglobin type on EPG were all found to be highly significant (P < 0.01. EPG count was highest during monsoon (986.27 ± 28.26, followed by summer (832.88 ± 28.26 and lowest during winter (670.74 ± 28.26 which indicated the existence of a seasonal variation of EPG. Rams had higher EPG (954.32 ± 57.93 than ewes (705.60 ± 45.79 which reflected that males appeared to be more susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection compared to females. Animals with lower body weight (upto 10 kg showed higher EPG (1017.20 ± 54.82, then the infection level decreased as body weight increased (886.79 ± 56.23 for 10 kg to 12 kg and 737.18 ± 50.29 for 12 kg to 14 kg and lowest EPG was recorded in animals with above 14 kg body weight (678.68 ± 54.49. This study reveals Hb-BB type animals had higher EPG count (983.81 ± 18.22 in comparison to Hb-AB type animals (676.12 ± 33.96 indicating that Haemoglobin-A locus has some relation with resistance. From our study it can be concluded that resistant level of Garole sheep against Haemonchus contortus is influenced by some intrinsic factors like sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type of the sheep and also by extrinsic factor like season.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance as risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Özlem; Hamilçıkan, Şahin; Can, Emrah; Yiğit, Özgu L

    2017-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015. Obese patients whose age range was 8-14 were included in the study. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase, vitamin D levels were measured; a liver ultrasonography was performed. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), was used to calculate insulin resistance. 108 obese children were included; 39 (36.11%) had dyslipidemia. The average fasting blood glucose (88.74 ± 7.58 vs. 95.31 ± 6.82; p= 0.0001), insulin level (14.71 ± 12.44 vs. 24.39 ± 15.02; p= 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase level (23.45 ± 11.18 vs. 30.4 ± 18.95; p= 0.018) were significantly higher in the children with dyslipidemia. In the dyslipidemic obese children, the average hepatosteatosis rate and HOMA-IR level were higher; 28 (71.9%) had hepatosteatosis, 37 (94.87%) had insulin resistance; the vitamin D levels were dyslipidemia. Obese children in our region exhibit low vitamin D and increased HOMA-IR levels, which are efficient risk factors of dyslipidemia.

  12. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  13. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  14. Predisposition Factors of Career and Technical Education Transfer Students: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Warren; Lester, Derek; Martinez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Six college students, who were career and technical education (CTE) transfer students in the state of Nevada, were interviewed Spring Semester of 2009. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenology framework as the method to identify those predisposition variables that heavily influenced the students in their decision to transfer to a senior…

  15. Evaluation in practice: identifying factors for improving transfer of training in technical domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnard, Y.F.; Veldhuis, G.J.; Rooij, J.C.G.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of training is to prepare trainees for the tasks they are going to perform on their jobs. In other words, training aims at transfer from the classroom to the work floor. Transfer of training can be defined as the extent to which trainees are able to use effectively in their work

  16. Integrated genomic and interfacility patient-transfer data reveal the transmission pathways of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a regional outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkin, Evan S; Won, Sarah; Pirani, Ali; Lapp, Zena; Weinstein, Robert A; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K

    2017-11-22

    Development of effective strategies to limit the proliferation of multidrug-resistant organisms requires a thorough understanding of how such organisms spread among health care facilities. We sought to uncover the chains of transmission underlying a 2008 U.S. regional outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae by performing an integrated analysis of genomic and interfacility patient-transfer data. Genomic analysis yielded a high-resolution transmission network that assigned directionality to regional transmission events and discriminated between intra- and interfacility transmission when epidemiologic data were ambiguous or misleading. Examining the genomic transmission network in the context of interfacility patient transfers (patient-sharing networks) supported the role of patient transfers in driving the outbreak, with genomic analysis revealing that a small subset of patient-transfer events was sufficient to explain regional spread. Further integration of the genomic and patient-sharing networks identified one nursing home as an important bridge facility early in the outbreak-a role that was not apparent from analysis of genomic or patient-transfer data alone. Last, we found that when simulating a real-time regional outbreak, our methodology was able to accurately infer the facility at which patients acquired their infections. This approach has the potential to identify facilities with high rates of intra- or interfacility transmission, data that will be useful for triggering targeted interventions to prevent further spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Use of gamma-rays mutagenesis in obtaining chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) forms resistant to unfavorable environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliciuc, D.

    2013-01-01

    Following experimental use of γ irradiation on chickpea, mutant forms with a series of morpho-physiological treats were obtained. During the study period, these mutants have been subjected to several stress factors like disease, drought, storm wind in which they presented a different resistance. Some of these mutants showed an increased sensitivity in certain environmental conditions and others have presented an increased resistance.

  18. Horizontal transfer of miR-106a/b from cisplatin resistant hepatocarcinoma cells can alter the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Grace R; Sruthi, T V; Edatt, Lincy; Haritha, K; Sharath Shankar, S; Sameer Kumar, V B

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that horizontal transfer of genetic material can act as a communication tool between heterogenous populations of tumour cells, thus altering the chemosensitivity of tumour cells. The present study was designed to check whether the horizontal transfer of miRNAs released by cisplatin resistant (Cp-r) Hepatocarcinoma cells can alter the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells. For this exosomes secreted by cisplatin resistant and cisplatin sensitive HepG2 cells (EXres and EXsen) were isolated and characterised. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that EXres can make Hela cells resistant to cisplatin. Analysis of miR-106a/b levels in EXres and EXsen showed that their levels vary. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-106a/b play an important role in EXsen and EXres mediated change in chemosensitivity of Hela cells to cisplatin. Further SIRT1 was identified as a major target of miR-106a/b using in silico tools and this was proved by experimentation. Also the effect of miR-106a/b in chemosensitivity was seen to be dependent on regulation of SIRT1 by miR-106a/b. In brief, this study brings into light, the SIRT1 dependent mechanism of miR-106a/b mediated regulation of chemosensitivity upon the horizontal transfer from one cell type to another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

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    Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  20. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

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    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  1. Risk Factors for Gaps in Care during Transfer from Pediatric to Adult Cystic Fibrosis Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ostrenga, Joshua; Petren, Kristofer; Fink, Aliza K; D'Agostino, Emma; Strassle, Camila; Schechter, Michael S; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    With improved survival into adulthood, the number of dedicated adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programs has expanded in the United States over the past decade. Transfer from pediatric to adult CF programs represents a potential time for lapses in recommended health care. To describe variability in transfer between pediatric and adult CF care programs and to identify factors associated with prolonged gaps in care. Using the U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry, we identified individuals with CF who transferred care from a pediatric to an adult CF care program during 2007 to 2013. A gap in care was defined as the time in days between the last recorded pediatric encounter and the first recorded adult encounter. A hierarchical multivariable regression model was applied to investigate the effect of program- and patient-level factors on gaps in care. There were 1,946 individuals at 155 pediatric CF programs who transferred to an adult CF program during the analytic period. The mean age at transfer was 21.1 years, with 68% transferring care between ages 18 and 21 years. The mean gap in care during transfer was 183 days (median, 106 d; range, 2-1,843 d); 47% had a less than 100-day gap, and 13% had a greater than or equal to 365-day gap (prolonged gap). Prolonged gaps in care were more likely to occur among those younger than age 18 years (odds ratio, 3.33; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-5.37) at the time of transfer and those who transferred to an adult program that was in a different city from their pediatric or affiliate program (odds ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-3.17). Having any health insurance coverage was associated with decreased likelihood of prolonged gaps (private insurance vs. no insurance [odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.23] or any government insurance versus no insurance [odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.18]). Lung function, nutritional status, and receipt of intravenous antibiotics in the final year of

  2. Variation of over strength factor for mid-rise R.C. moment resisting frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnimi, A. A.; Mahmoodi Sahebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The over strength of a multi-storey structure (as a multi-degree of freedom system) is one of the parameters playing the evaluation of the behaviour factor. This is an important property when the structure exhibits inelastic behaviour and is described by over strength factor. The over strength factor and strength reduction factor due to ductility are considered in most seismic design codes of practice to reduce the elastic strength demand of the structure. In spite the importance of the over strength, its influence has not yet been quantified. This paper is a part of an investigation from which the first part was published in Amirkabir Journal No.36/Winter 1998, entitled as E stimation of over strength of low-ri sed flexural R.C. frames using nonlinear analysis . This paper investigates the variation of over strength factor for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, having several stories (5 to 15) with various spans (3 to 5) and located in high seismicity regions using non-linear inelastic analysis. The results indicate that the over strength factor of these systems efforts 25 to 40 percent reduction in the elastic strength demand of such frames

  3. Mapping the resistance-associated mobilome of a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain reveals insights into factors shaping these regions and facilitates generation of a 'resistance-disarmed' model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dexi; Jiang, Xiaofei; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Ngmenterebo, David; Tai, Cui; Wang, Minggui; Deng, Zixin; Rajakumar, Kumar; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the landscape of the mobile genome, with a focus on antibiotic resistance-associated factors in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mobile genome of the completely sequenced K. pneumoniae HS11286 strain (an ST11, carbapenem-resistant, near-pan-resistant, clinical isolate) was annotated in fine detail. The identified mobile genetic elements were mapped to the genetic contexts of resistance genes. The blaKPC-2 gene and a 26 kb region containing 12 clustered antibiotic resistance genes and one biocide resistance gene were deleted, and the MICs were determined again to ensure that antibiotic resistance had been lost. HS11286 contains six plasmids, 49 ISs, nine transposons, two separate In2-related integron remnants, two integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and seven prophages. Sixteen plasmid-borne resistance genes were identified, 14 of which were found to be directly associated with Tn1721-, Tn3-, Tn5393-, In2-, ISCR2- and ISCR3-derived elements. IS26 appears to have actively moulded several of these genetic regions. The deletion of blaKPC-2, followed by the deletion of a 26 kb region containing 12 clustered antibiotic resistance genes, progressively decreased the spectrum and level of resistance exhibited by the resultant mutant strains. This study has reiterated the role of plasmids as bearers of the vast majority of resistance genes in this species and has provided valuable insights into the vital role played by ISs, transposons and integrons in shaping the resistance-coding regions in this important strain. The 'resistance-disarmed' K. pneumoniae ST11 strain generated in this study will offer a more benign and readily genetically modifiable model organism for future extensive functional studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Factors that Influence the Dissemination of Knowledge in Technology Transfer among Malaysian Manufacturing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughaneswari ap Sahadevan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of technology transfer is so wide but mostly involving some form of technology-related exchange. However, in this particular paper, technology transfer is consider as a concept to examine the process of  disseminating knowledge and skills that a person owned to another person in order to generate higher productivity with new approach of producing a particular product or service. Although, many researchers have explored the evolution of technology transfer, nonetheless some drivers are yet to be explored in a Malaysian manufacturing industry. This study, therefore attempts to determine the relationship between absorptive capacity, transfer capacity, communication motivation and learning intent and technology transfer performance. A survey methodology was used in a Japanese multinational company based in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 117 questionnaires were received. Results show that absorptive capacity is the most significant to influence technology transfer performance. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Key words: Technology transfer, absorptive capacity, Malaysia.   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa

    2016-10-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance.

  5. Adipose Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Direct Role in Obesity-Linked Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-α messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-α protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-α in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-α in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.

  6. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Critical Role in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Associated Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kleemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that MIF also controls metabolic and inflammatory processes underlying the development of metabolic pathologies associated with obesity. This is a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge on the role of MIF in obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities, based on human clinical data as well as animal models of disease.

  7. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  8. Antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with bronchiectasis: prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao YH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong-hua Gao,1,* Wei-jie Guan,2,* Ya-nan Zhu,3 Rong-chang Chen,2 Guo-jun Zhang1 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 2State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common pathogen in bronchiectasis and frequently develops resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, but little is known about the clinical impacts of PA-resistant (PA-R isolates on bronchiectasis. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications of PA-R isolates in hospitalized bronchiectasis patients.Patients and methods: Between June 2011 and July 2016, data from adult bronchiectasis patients isolated with PA at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively analyzed. PA was classified as PA-R in case antibiogram demonstrated resistance on at least one occasion.Results: Seven hundred forty-seven bronchiectasis patients were assessed. Of these, 147 (19.7% had PA isolate in the sputum or bronchoscopic culture. PA-R and PA-sensitive accounted for 88 (59.9% and 59 (31.1% patients, respectively. In multivariate model, factors associated with PA-R isolate in bronchiectasis included prior exposure to antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] =6.18, three or more exacerbations in the previous year (OR =2.81, higher modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores (OR =1.93 and greater radiologic severity (OR =1.15. During follow-up (median: 26 months; interquartile range: 6–59 months, 36 patients died, of whom 24 (66

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FRICTION FACTOR OF Al2O3 NANOFLUID IN A PACKED BED COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinivasa Rao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The forced convection heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are determined for the flow of water and nanofluid in a vertical packed bed column. The analysis is undertaken in the laminar and transition Reynolds number range. The column is filled with spherical glass beads as the bed material. The heat transfer coefficients with Al2O3 nanofluid increased by 12% to 15% with the increase of volume concentration from 0.02% to 0.5% compared with water. The experimental values of axial temperature are in good agreement with the NTU-ε method proposed by Schumann’s model.

  10. Assessing the model transferability for prediction of transcription factor binding sites based on chromatin accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Zibetti, Cristina; Wan, Jun; Wang, Guohua; Blackshaw, Seth; Qian, Jiang

    2017-07-27

    Computational prediction of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in different cell types is challenging. Recent technology development allows us to determine the genome-wide chromatin accessibility in various cellular and developmental contexts. The chromatin accessibility profiles provide useful information in prediction of TF binding events in various physiological conditions. Furthermore, ChIP-Seq analysis was used to determine genome-wide binding sites for a range of different TFs in multiple cell types. Integration of these two types of genomic information can improve the prediction of TF binding events. We assessed to what extent a model built upon on other TFs and/or other cell types could be used to predict the binding sites of TFs of interest. A random forest model was built using a set of cell type-independent features such as specific sequences recognized by the TFs and evolutionary conservation, as well as cell type-specific features derived from chromatin accessibility data. Our analysis suggested that the models learned from other TFs and/or cell lines performed almost as well as the model learned from the target TF in the cell type of interest. Interestingly, models based on multiple TFs performed better than single-TF models. Finally, we proposed a universal model, BPAC, which was generated using ChIP-Seq data from multiple TFs in various cell types. Integrating chromatin accessibility information with sequence information improves prediction of TF binding.The prediction of TF binding is transferable across TFs and/or cell lines suggesting there are a set of universal "rules". A computational tool was developed to predict TF binding sites based on the universal "rules".

  11. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  12. DEWAX Transcription Factor Is Involved in Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulgi Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle of land plants is the first physical barrier to protect their aerial parts from biotic and abiotic stresses. DEWAX, an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor, negatively regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa overexpressing DEWAX and in Arabidopsis dewax mutant. Compared to wild type (WT leaves, Arabidopsis DEWAX OX and dewax leaves were more and less permeable to toluidine blue dye, respectively. The ROS levels increased in DEWAX OX leaves, but decreased in dewax relative to WT leaves. Compared to WT, DEWAX OX was more resistant, while dewax was more sensitive to B. cinerea; however, defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000:GFP were inversely modulated. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the expression of defense-related genes was upregulated in DEWAX OX, but downregulated in dewax relative to WT. Transactivation assay showed that DEWAX upregulated the expression of PDF1.2a, IGMT1, and PRX37. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that DEWAX directly interacts with the GCC-box motifs of PDF1.2a promoter. In addition, ectopic expression of DEWAX increased the tolerance to B. cinerea in C. sativa. Taken together, we suggest that increased ROS accumulation and DEWAX-mediated upregulation of defense-related genes are closely associated with enhanced resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis and C. sativa.

  13. Numerical analysis of flow resistance and heat transfer in the transitional regime of pipe flow with twisted-tape turbulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Cattani, L.; Mocerino, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.; Caminati, R.; Pagliarini, G.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we present the numerical analysis of the fully developed ow and heat transfer in pipes equipped with twisted-tape inserts in the laminar to transitional flow regime. The flow Reynolds number ranges from 210 to 3100 based on the pipe diameter, whereas the Prandtl number of the working fluid, a 40% mixture of water and ethylene glycol, is about 45 at the average film temperature. The numerical study is carried out via Scale Adaptive Simulations (SAS) where the k-ω SST model is employed for turbulence modeling. Using SAS and low-dissipation discretization schemes, the present study shows that it is possible to capture the transition from the laminar regime to the pulsating or pseudo-laminar flow regime induced by the twisted-tape at low Reynolds numbers, as well as the transition to moderate turbulent regime at the higher, yet non-turbulent for smooth pipes, range of Reynolds numbers. Numerical results, validated against experiments performed in a dedicated test rig, show very good agreement with measured data and an increase of the friction factor and Nusselt number in the range of 4 to 7 times and 6 to 15 times, respectively, of the values for an empty pipe.

  14. Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency expert group on gut transfer factors: implications for dose per unit intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This note describes the gut transfer factors recommended by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency for intakes of certain important elements in food and drinking water. The evidence behind the recommendations is discussed and their implications for dose per unit intake is investigated. It is found that in many cases the dose per unit intake calculated using the gut uptake factor recommended by the Expert Group is similar to that calculated using the recommendations of ICRP Publication 30. However, in some cases there are substantial increases in dose per unit intake. The largest increases are by a factor of fifty for intakes of certain thorium isotopes by infants. (author)

  15. NFκBP65 transcription factor modulates resistance to doxorubicin through ABC transporters in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaei, Kobra; Samadi, Nasser; Soltani, Sina; Barazvan, Balal; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2017-07-01

    Shedding light on chemoresistance biology of breast cancer could contribute to enhance the clinical outcome. Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem in breast cancer treatment. The NFκB pathway by siRNAP65 and JSH-23 as a translocational inhibitor of NFκBP65 in the doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7/Dox) and MCF-7 cells was blocked. Then, the ABC transporter expression and function were assessed by real-time qRT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated after inhibition of the NFΚB pathway as well. Our study underlined the upregulation of NFκBP65 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax in the MCF-7/Dox cells compared with control MCF-7 cells. Here, we showed that interplay between nuclear factor kappa B P65 (NFkBP65) as a transcriptional regulator and ABC transporters in the MCF-7/Dox cancer cells. We found that inhibition of the elevated expression of NFκBP65 in the resistant breast cancer, whether translocational inhibition or silencing by siRNA, decreased the expression and function of MDR1 and MRP1 efflux pumps. Furthermore, the blockade of NFκBP65 promoted apoptosis via modulating Bcl-2 and BAX expression. After inhibition of the NFκBP65 signaling pathway, elevated baseline expression of survival Bcl-2 gene in the resistant breast cells significantly decreased. Suppression of the NFκB pathway has a profound dual impact on promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and reducing ABC transporter function and expression, which are some of the chemoresistance features. It was speculated that the NFκB pathway directly acts on doxorubicin-induced MDR1 and MRP1 expression in MCF-7/Dox cells.

  16. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  17. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Mathieu, Romain Blanc; Pocquet, Nicolas; Riaz, Muhammad-Asam; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Sélior, Serge; Darriet, Frédéric; Reynaud, Stéphane; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe; Chandre, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies). The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%). Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  19. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  1. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among Hospitalized Patients at a Malaysian Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, N.M.D.; Nurnajwa, M.H.; Lay, J.; Teoh, J.C.; Syafinaz, A.N.; Niazlin, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted based on medical cases of 100 hospitalized patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa-isolation at a Malaysian hospital. Cases with 50 multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa MDRPA and 50 non-multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (NMDRPA) were randomly included and compared with socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients, using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests as the statistical tool. Analysis found no significant association between MDRPA with ages, gender and ethnicity of patients (p>0.050). Other risk factors being investigated were invasive procedure, immunosuppression, bedridden and clinical diagnosis such as central nervous- and respiratory-system disorder, as well as antibiotic exposure during hospitalization and duration of hospital stay with only the last two were found to have significant association (p=0.035 and 0.019, respectively). Some other studies also reported a similar association indicating that the two factors could serve as an important predictive tool for isolation of MDRPA. More studies involving a larger sampling size are warranted to establish the association. (author)

  2. Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance in Uropathogenic and Commensal Escherichia coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, are the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Aim and Objectives: Escherichia coli (E. coli account for as much as 90% of the community-acquired and also 50% of nosocomial UTIs. Therefore, the identification of E. coli strains and antibiotic resistance patterns is important for both clinical and epidemiological implications. Material and Methods: To characterize uropathogenic strains E. coli, we studied 100 strains recovered from both urine samples of children aged less than 7 years with community-acquired UTIs and stool samples of healthy children, respectively. Results: We assessed Virulence Factors (VFs and drug sensitivities of E. coli isolates. Drug sensitivities of the isolates were 94% (amikacin, 90% (nitrofurantoin, 66% (gentamicin, 56% (cefixime, 40% (nalidixic acid and 28% (cotrimoxazol. Laboratory tests showed that the prevalence of virulence factors ranged from 18% for hemolysin and P-fimbriae to 2% for type1-fimbriae. Most drug resistance was cotrimoxazole and amikacin was the lowest. P-fimbriae and hemolysin in uropathogenic E. coli were more frequent than non-pathogen type of E. coli. Conclusion: Although amikacin appeared to be the first choice for UTI in children, but nitrofurantoin seems to be practical and could be considered as the selective choice for uncomplicated lower UTIs.

  3. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C., E-mail: sheppards@ecomatters.co [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B. [ECOMatters Inc., WB Lewis Business Centre, 24 Aberdeen Avenue, Pinawa, Manitoba, R0E 1L0 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of {sup 129}I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg{sup -1} or d L{sup -1}) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  5. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Long, J.M.; Sanipelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of 129 I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg -1 or d L -1 ) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  6. Verification of radionuclide transfer factors to domestic-animal food products, using indigenous elements and with emphasis on iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    Recent reviews have established benchmark values for transfer factors that describe radionuclide transfer from plants to animal food product such as milk, eggs and meat. They also illustrate the paucity of data for some elements and some food products. The present study quantified transfer data using indigenous elements measured in dairy, poultry and other livestock farms in Canada. Up to 62 elements are reported, with particular emphasis on iodine (I) because of the need to accurately assess the behaviour of (129)I from disposal of nuclear fuel waste. There was remarkable agreement with the literature values, and for many elements the present study involved many more observations than were previously available. Perhaps the most important observation was that product/substrate concentration ratios (CR) were quite consistent across species, whereas the traditional fractional transfer factors (TF, units of d kg(-1) or d L(-1)) necessarily vary with body mass (feed intake). This suggests that for long-term assessments, it may be advisable to change the models to use CR rather than TF.

  7. A chimeric peptide of intestinal trefoil factor containing cholesteryl ester transfer protein B cell epitope significantly inhibits atherosclerosis in rabbits after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Gaofu; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Shengying; Xin, Shanshan; Du, Peng; Zhang, Qingye; Zhao, Xiuyun

    2011-04-01

    Vaccination against cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is proven to be effective for inhibiting atherosclerosis in animal models. In this study, the proteases-resistant intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) was used as a molecular vehicle to construct chimeric TFF3 (cTFF3) containing CETP B cell epitope and tetanus toxin helper T cell epitope. It was found that cTFF3 still preserved a trefoil structure, and can resist proteases digestion in vitro. After oral immunization with cTFF3, the CETP-specific IgA and IgG could be found in intestine lavage fluid and serum, and the anti-CETP antibodies could inhibit partial CETP activity to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and inhibit atherosclerosis in animals. Therefore, TFF3 is a potential molecular vehicle for developing oral peptide vaccines. Our research highlights a novel strategy for developing oral peptide vaccines in the future. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients admitted to the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Alain; Marjollet, Olivier; Berthelot, Philippe; Carricajo, Anne; Guyomarc'h, Stéphane; Robert, Florianne; Zeni, Fabrice; Bertrand, Jean Claude

    2007-10-01

    The objective of our study was to define the characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) presenting with a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The study included all patients admitted to the ED between January 2003 and December 2004 in whom a staphylococcal infection was documented. The risk factors associated with carriage of MRSA, the diagnosis made in the ED, and the treatment administered were established from the patients' medical files. The sites from which the bacteria were isolated, the spectrum of resistance of the staphylococci to different antibiotics, and the presence or absence of the gene coding for Panton-Valentin leukocidin for certain S aureus isolates were determined from the reports issued by the bacteriologic department. Two groups of patients were compared: those with an infection caused by MRSA and those with an infection due to methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA). A total of 238 patients were included, 93 presenting with an infection caused by MRSA and 145 an infection due to MSSA. The patients harboring MRSA had a higher median age than those carrying MSSA (74 vs 61 years, P = .0001), experienced a greater loss of autonomy (according to the Knauss index), and had more comorbidity factors. Nine patients, younger than 40 years