Full Text Available Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters. We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.
Jamie S. Churchyard
Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.
Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Bertholdsson, Nils-Ove; Glynn, Carolyn; Weih, Martin; Aahman, Inger [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits, water use efficiency and tolerance/resistance against metals and herbivores have been identified. A hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados-clone (SW901290) and a S. viminalis-clone ('Jorunn') was used for the different studies in this project. The growth response was analyzed in a greenhouse experiment with two water treatments, normal and drought. In addition, three field experiments with contrasting soils and climates were established. QTL specific for each treatment or field environment but also QTL stable over the treatments or field environments were detected. Each QTL explained from 8 to 29 % of the phenotypic variation depending on trait, treatment or field environment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped indicating a common genetic base or tightly-linked QTL. Stable QTL identified for dryweight can be useful tools for early selection in Salix. In a separate greenhouse experiment, with a subset of ten genotypes from the F2 population, we show that genotype is more important than irrigation treatment for production of phenolic substances as well as for resistance to herbivory by P vulgatissima.
With an aim to develop a durable resistance to the fungal disease anthracnose, two unique genetic sources of resistance were selected to create genetic mapping populations to identify regions of the sorghum genome that encode anthracnose resistance. A series of quantitative trait loci were identifi...
厉广辉; 张昆; 刘风珍; 刘丹丹; 万勇善
[Objective]The main purpose of this paper was to screen leaf traits related to drought resistance, explore the methods of traits index evaluation, and to reveal drought resistance mechanisms of different peanut cultivars. [Method] The drought resistance was studied in twelve peanut cultivars under drought stress and normal irrigation in a pot experiment at seedling stage and a pool culture experiment at pod setting stage. Keeping the water treatments by using weighing at seedling stage and supplemental irrigation based on testing soil moisture at pod setting stage with rain-shedding during drought stress. Leaf morphological and physiological traits including organization structure, thickness, specific leaf weight (SLW), leaf area per plant (PLA), photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll content under the conditions of normal water supply and drought stress at seedling stage were tested, and the relationship between those traits and drought resistance was studied. Drought resistances of cultivars were scored with drought coefficient of biomass at seedling stage and yield at pod setting stage. Drought resistance mechanisms of leaf were evaluated by traits index.[Result]The results by two years experiments showed that, under drought stress, the drought resistance coefficients of different peanut cultivars were significantly different. Drought resistance at seedling and pod-setting stages was basically identical. According to yield-drought resistance coefficient, twelve peanut cultivars could be divided into 3 grads:high-resistance, including A596, Shanhua 11 and Rugaoxiyangsheng; mid-resistance, including Huayu 20, Nongda 818, Haihua 1, Shanhua 9 and 79266;weak-resistance, including ICG6848, Baisha1016, Hua17 and Penglaiyiwohou. Water stress changed organization structure in leaves, functional leaf area, PLA, Gs, Pn and Tr were reduced, but SLW of peanuts was increased under soil drought stress. A significant difference in leaf traits among peanut cultivars with
Velci Queiroz de Souza
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine relationships between insect resistance and some horticulturaltraits and the implications on selection. A potato population of 11 clonal families derived from crosses between insect resistantand genotypes adapted to the southern region of Brazil was used. The following traits were evaluated: plant size and vigor,incidence of insect attacks on leaves and tubers, tuber yield and appearance components. Phenotypic and genotypic correlationsbetween leaf and tuber resistance were not significant for the population, while phenotypic correlations between the tworesistance types were significant for individual families, with exception of the family originated from the cross involvingND263-32. The incidence of insect attacks on tubers was significantly correlated with tuber yield and appearance in familiesderived from crosses of NYL235-4. The manifold correlations of leaf resistance with horticultural traits for all families weresignificant and unfavorable.
Full Text Available Oryza meyeriana is highly resistant to rice bacterial blight (BB and this resistance trait has been transferred to cultivated rice (O. sativa using asymmetric somatic hybridization. However, no resistance genes have yet been cloned. In the present study, a progeny of the somatic hybridization with high BB resistance was crossed with a rice cultivar with high BB susceptibility to develop an F2 population. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA, 17 polymorphic markers that were linked to rice BB resistance were obtained through scanning a total of 186 simple sequence repeats (SSR and sequence-tagged site (STS markers, evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. A genetic linkage map was then constructed based on the 17 linkage markers and the F2 segregating population, which was followed by mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTLs for BB resistance. Three QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5, respectively, and the alleles of the resistant parent at any of the QTLs increased BB resistance. All of the three QTLs had a strong effect on resistance, explaining about 21.5%, 12.3% and 39.2% of the resistance variance, respectively. These QTLs were different from the loci of the BB resistance genes that have been identified in previous studies. The QTLs mapped in this work will facilitate the isolation of novel BB resistance genes and their utilization in rice resistance breeding.
Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique was used to analyze the fingerprinting of four successive generations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis to reveal their disease-resistance traits. Some loci showed quite different genetic frequencies due to artificial selection, which implied that these fragments were putative markers related to the disease-resistance trait. We developed a simple and effective method to further characterize these AFLP fragments. Specific AFLP bands were cut directly from polyacrylamide gels,re-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Eight putative genetic markers were sequenced and their sizes ranged from 63 to 209 bp. The sequences were submitted to dbGSS (database of Genome Sequence Survey); and the BLAST analysis showed low similarity to the function genes, indicating these markers were tightly linked to a disease-resistance trait but were not functional genes.
In order to map the quantitative trait loci for rice stripe resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed based on the lines to rice stripe were investigated by both artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, and the ratios of ranged from 0 to 134.08 and from 6.25 to 133.6 under artificial inoculation at laboratory and natural infection in the field, respectively,and showed a marked bias towards resistant parent (Zhaiyeqing 8), indicating that the resistance to rice stripe was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). QTL analysis showed that the QTLs detected by the two inoculation methods were completely different.Only one QTL, qSTV7, was detected under artificial inoculation, at which the Zhaiyeqing 8 allele increased the resistance to rice stripe, while two QTLs, qSTV5 and qSTV1, were detected under natural infection, in which resistant alleles came from Zhaiyeqing 8and Wuyujing 3, respectively. These results showed that resistant parent Zhaiyeqing 8 carried the alleles associated with the resistance to rice stripe virus and the small brown planthopper, and susceptible parent Wuyujing 3 also carried the resistant allele to rice stripe virus. In comparison with the results previously reported, QTLs detected in the study were new resistant genes to rice stripe disease. This will provide a new resistant resource for avoiding genetic vulnerability for single utilization of the resistant gene Stvb-i.
Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios
Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…
Veerkamp Roel F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection has become a very important tool in animal genetics and is rapidly emerging in plant genetics. It holds the promise to be particularly beneficial to select for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, such as traits that are measured in one environment and selected for in another environment. The objective of this paper was to develop three models that would permit multi-trait genomic selection by combining scarcely recorded traits with genetically correlated indicator traits, and to compare their performance to single-trait models, using simulated datasets. Methods Three (SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism based models were used. Model G and BCπ0 assumed that contributed (covariances of all SNP are equal. Model BSSVS sampled SNP effects from a distribution with large (or small effects to model SNP that are (or not associated with a quantitative trait locus. For reasons of comparison, model A including pedigree but not SNP information was fitted as well. Results In terms of accuracies for animals without phenotypes, the models generally ranked as follows: BSSVS > BCπ0 > G > > A. Using multi-trait SNP-based models, the accuracy for juvenile animals without any phenotypes increased up to 0.10. For animals with phenotypes on an indicator trait only, accuracy increased up to 0.03 and 0.14, for genetic correlations with the evaluated trait of 0.25 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusions When the indicator trait had a genetic correlation lower than 0.5 with the trait of interest in our simulated data, the accuracy was higher if genotypes rather than phenotypes were obtained for the indicator trait. However, when genetic correlations were higher than 0.5, using an indicator trait led to higher accuracies for selection candidates. For different combinations of traits, the level of genetic correlation below which genotyping selection candidates is more effective than obtaining phenotypes for an indicator
Kajonius, Petri; Mac Giolla, Erik
In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individuals from different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has established reliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends this research by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey in English with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive, open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulated that differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this a Similarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities across countries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second, within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patterns across countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries was less than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personality traits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.
Van den Berg, Femke; Lannou, Christian; Gilligan, Christopher A; van de Bosch, Frank
This paper addresses the general concern in plant pathology that the introduction of quantitative resistance in the landscape can lead to increased pathogenicity. Hereto, we study the hypothetical case of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting on pathogen spore production per unit lesion area. To regain its original fitness, the pathogen can break the QTL, restoring its spore production capacity leading to an increased spore production per lesion. Or alternatively, it can increase its lesion size, also leading to an increased spore production per lesion. A data analysis shows that spore production per lesion (affected by the resistance QTL) and lesion size (not targeted by the QTL) are positively correlated traits, suggesting that a change in magnitude of a trait not targeted by the QTL (lesion size) might indirectly affect the targeted trait (spore production per lesion). Secondly, we model the effect of pathogen adaptation towards increased lesion size and analyse its consequences for spore production per lesion. The model calculations show that when the pathogen is unable to overcome the resistance associated QTL, it may compensate for its reduced fitness by indirect selection for increased pathogenicity on both the resistant and susceptible cultivar, but whereby the QTLs remain effective. PMID:24665339
Van den Berg, Femke; Lannou, Christian; Gilligan, Christopher A; van de Bosch, Frank
This paper addresses the general concern in plant pathology that the introduction of quantitative resistance in the landscape can lead to increased pathogenicity. Hereto, we study the hypothetical case of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting on pathogen spore production per unit lesion area. To regain its original fitness, the pathogen can break the QTL, restoring its spore production capacity leading to an increased spore production per lesion. Or alternatively, it can increase its lesion size, also leading to an increased spore production per lesion. A data analysis shows that spore production per lesion (affected by the resistance QTL) and lesion size (not targeted by the QTL) are positively correlated traits, suggesting that a change in magnitude of a trait not targeted by the QTL (lesion size) might indirectly affect the targeted trait (spore production per lesion). Secondly, we model the effect of pathogen adaptation towards increased lesion size and analyse its consequences for spore production per lesion. The model calculations show that when the pathogen is unable to overcome the resistance associated QTL, it may compensate for its reduced fitness by indirect selection for increased pathogenicity on both the resistant and susceptible cultivar, but whereby the QTLs remain effective.
Manenti, T; Sørensen, J G; Moghadam, N N; Loeschcke, V
Laboratory selection in thermal regimes that differed in the amplitude and the predictability of daily fluctuations had a marked effect on stress resistance and life history traits in Drosophila simulans. The observed evolutionary changes are expected to be the result of both direct and correlated responses to selection. Thus, a given trait might not evolve independently from other traits because of genetic correlations among these traits. Moreover, different test environments can induce novel genetic correlations because of the activation of environmentally dependent genes. To test whether and how genetic correlations among stress resistance and life history traits constrain evolutionary adaptation, we used three populations of D. simulans selected for 20 generations in constant, predictable and unpredictable daily fluctuating thermal regimes and tested each of these selected populations in the same three thermal regimes. We explored the relationship between genetic correlations between traits and the evolutionary potential of D. simulans by comparing genetic correlation matrices in flies selected and tested in different thermal test regimes. We observed genetic correlations mainly between productivity, body size, starvation and desiccation tolerance, suggesting that adaptation to the three thermal regimes was affected by correlations between these traits. We also found that the correlations between some traits such as body size and productivity or starvation tolerance and productivity were determined by test regime rather than selection regime that is expected to limit genetic adaptation to thermal regimes in these traits. The results of this study suggest that several traits and several environments are needed to explore adaptive responses, as genetic and environmentally induced correlations between traits as results obtained in one environment cannot be used to predict the response of the same population in another environment.
Because of their elementary significance in almost all fields of science, measures of association between two variables or traits are abundant and multiform. One aspect of association that is of considerable interest, especially in population genetics and ecology, seems to be widely ignored. This aspect concerns association between complex traits that show variable and arbitrarily defined state differences. Among such traits are genetic characters controlled by many and potentially polyploid loci, species characteristics, and environmental variables, all of which may be mutually and asymmetrically associated. A concept of directed association of one trait with another is developed here that relies solely on difference measures between the states of a trait. Associations are considered at three levels: between individual states of two variables, between an individual state of one variable and the totality of the other variable, and between two variables. Relations to known concepts of association are identified. In particular, measures at the latter two levels turn out to be interpretable as measures of differentiation. Examples are given for areas of application (search for functional relationships, distribution of variation over populations, genomic associations, spatiogenetic structure).
van den Berg, F.; Lannou, C.; Gilligan, CA; Bosch, F.
This paper addresses the general concern in plant pathology that the introduction of quantitative resistance in the landscape can lead to increased pathogenicity. Hereto, we study the hypothetical case of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting on pathogen spore production per unit lesion area. To regain its original fitness, the pathogen can break the QTL, restoring its spore production capacity leading to an increased spore production per lesion. Or alternatively, it can increase its lesion ...
Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.
Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.
Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.
Homberg, J.R.; Karel, P.G.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.
Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop treatment strategies. There is agreement that specific behavioural traits increase the risk
Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu
Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or
Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R; De Fruyt, Filip; Jussim, Lee; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T; Sutin, Angelina R; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Yik, Michelle; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R; Crawford, Jarret T; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Marušić, Iris; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Martin, Thomas A; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Pramila, V S; Terracciano, Antonio
Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; De Fruyt, Filip; Jussim, Lee; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; De Bolle, Marleen; Costa, Paul T.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Hřebíčková, Martina; Kourilova, Sylvie; Yik, Michelle; Ficková, Emília; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; de Figueora, Nora Leibovich; Schmidt, Vanina; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Cain, Thomas R.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Nansubuga, Florence; Miramontez, Daniel R.; Benet-Martínez, Veronica; Rossier, Jérôme; Bratko, Denis; Halberstadt, Jamin; Yamaguchi, Mami; Knežević, Goran; Martin, Thomas A.; Gheorghiu, Mirona; Smith, Peter B.; Barbaranelli, Claduio; Wang, Lei; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Lima, Margarida P.; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Sekowski, Andrzej; Alcalay, Lidia; Simonetti, Franco; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Pramila, V. S.; Terracciano, Antonio
Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. PMID:23088227
Full Text Available Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.
Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J
Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.
Full Text Available Blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the limiting factors for rice production world wide. The use of resistant varieties for managing blast disease is considered as the most eco-friendly approaches. However, their resistances may be broken down within a few years due to the appearance of new virulent blast races in the field. The objective of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL conferring resistance to blast disease using 126 recombinant inbred (RI lines originated from a crossing of a durably resistant upland rice genotype (Laka and a highly susceptible rice accession cultivar (Kencana Bali. The RI population was developed through a single seed descent method from 1997 to 2004. Resistance of the RI lines was evaluated for blast in an endemic area of Sukabumi, West Java, in 2005. Disease intensity of the blast was examined following the standard evaluation system developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI. At the same year the RI lines were analyzed with 134 DNA markers. Results of the study showed that one major QTL was found to be associated with blast resistance, and this QTL was located near RM2136 marker on the long arm of chromosome 11. This QTL explained 87% of the phenotypic variation with 37% additive effect. The map position of this QTL differed from that of a partial resistant gene, Pi34, identified previously on chromosome 11 in the Japanese durably resistant variety, Chubu 32. The QTL, however, was almost at the same position as that of the multiple allele-resistant gene, Pik. Therefore, an allelic test should be conducted to clarify the allelic relationship between QTL identified in this study and the Pik. The RI lines are the permanent segregating population that could be very useful for analysing phenotypic variations of important agronomic traits possibly owned by the RI lines. The major QTL identified in this study could be used as a genetic resource in
Jun 30, 2015 ... influence on selection was studied in a yellow maize population, ... correlation, but if they have high heritability, then ... maximum of 13 plants per plot and a plant density of ..... performance for agronomic traits in two broad-.
Hu, Haixiao; Meng, Yujie; Wang, Hongwu; Liu, Hai; Chen, Shaojiang
Stalk lodging in maize causes annual yield losses between 5 and 20% worldwide. Many studies have indicated that maize stalk strength significantly negatively correlates with lodging observed in the field. Rind penetrometer resistance (RPR) measurements can be used to effectively evaluate maize stalk strength, but little is known about the genetic basis of this parameter. The objective of this study was to explore a genetic model and detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) of RPR and determine relationships between RPR and other stalk traits, especially cell wall chemical components. RPR is quantitative trait in nature, and both additive and non-additive effects may be important to consider for the improvement of RPR. Nine additive-effect QTLs covering nine chromosomes, except chromosome 5, and one pair of epistatic QTLs were detected for RPR. CeSA11 involved in cellulose synthesis and colorless2 involved in lignin synthesis were identified as possible candidate genes for RPR. Internode diameter (InD), fresh weight of internode (FreW), dry weight of internode (DryW), fresh weight and dry weight as well as cell wall components per unit volume significantly positively correlated with RPR. The internode water content (InW) significantly negatively correlated with RPR. Notably, these traits significantly correlated with RPR, and the QTLs of these traits co-localized with those of RPR. The corresponding results obtained from correlation analysis and QTL mapping suggested the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes and indicated that these different approaches may be used for cross authentication of relationships between different traits.
Koch, Janne; Hau, Jann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang
AIM: To induce cancer resistance in wild-type mice and detect if the resistance could be inherited to the progeny of the induced resistant mice. Furthermore to investigate the spectrum and immunology of this inherited cancer resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resistance to with live S180 cancer...... cells in BALB/c mice was induced by immunization with inactivated S180 cancer cells. The immunization was performed by either frozen/thawed or irradiated cancer cells or cell-free ascitic fluid (CFAF). RESULTS: In all instances the induced resistance was demonstrated to be inheritable. The phenotype...... was named HICR (heritable induced cancer resistance) and was defined as primary resistant progeny from mice immunized with frozen/thawed or irradiated S180 cells or CFAF obtained from mice with S180 induced ascites. Notably, this resistance was transferred from both male and female mice to the offspring...
Solberg Woods, Leah C; Holl, Katie L; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D.
Primitivo Fermin San
Full Text Available Abstract Background For ruminants reared on grazing systems, gastrointestinal nematode (GIN parasite infections represent the class of diseases with the greatest impact on animal health and productivity. Among the many possible strategies for controlling GIN infection, the enhancement of host resistance through the selection of resistant animals has been suggested by many authors. Because of the difficulty of routinely collecting phenotypic indicators of parasite resistance, information derived from molecular markers may be used to improve the efficiency of classical genetic breeding. Methods A total of 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed along the 26 sheep autosomes were used in a genome scan analysis performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect chromosomal regions associated with parasite resistance. Following a daughter design, we analysed 322 ewes distributed in eight half-sib families. The phenotypes studied included two faecal egg counts (LFEC0 and LFEC1, anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta LIV IgA levels (IgA and serum pepsinogen levels (Peps. Results The regression analysis revealed one QTL at the 5% genome-wise significance level on chromosome 6 for LFEC1 within the marker interval BM4621-CSN3. This QTL was found to be segregating in three out of the eight families analysed. Four other QTL were identified at the 5% chromosome-wise level on chromosomes 1, 10 and 14. Three of these QTL influenced faecal egg count, and the other one had an effect on IgA levels. Conclusion This study has successfully identified segregating QTL for parasite resistance traits in a commercial population. For some of the QTL detected, we have identified interesting coincidences with QTL previously reported in sheep, although most of those studies have been focused on young animals. Some of these coincidences might indicate that some common underlying loci affect parasite resistance traits in different sheep breeds. The
Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam
Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone
Schulman, N F; Sahana, G; Iso-Touru, T;
Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting clinical mastitis (CM) and somatic cell score (SCS) were mapped on bovine chromosome 11. The mapping population consisted of 14 grandsire families belonging to three Nordic red cattle breeds: Finnish Ayrshire (FA), Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Danish Red......, each affecting one trait; or one QTL affecting a single trait. A QTL affecting CM was fine-mapped. In FA, a haplotype having a strong association with a high negative effect on mastitis resistance was identified. The mapping precision of an earlier detected SCS-QTL was not improved by the LDLA analysis...
Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Wenteng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hejun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Songlin
In recent years, Edwardsiella tarda has become one of the most deadly pathogens of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious annual losses in commercial production. In contrast to the rapid advances in the aquaculture of P. olivaceus, the study of E. tarda resistance-related markers has lagged behind, hindering the development of a disease-resistant strain. Thus, a marker-trait association analysis was initiated, combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Based on 180 microsatellite loci across all chromosomes, 106 individuals from the F1333 (♀: F0768 ×♂: F0915) (Nomenclature rule: F+year+family number) were used to detect simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and QTLs associated with E. tarda resistance. After a genomic scan, three markers (Scaffold 404-21589, Scaffold 404-21594 and Scaffold 270-13812) from the same linkage group (LG)-1 exhibited a significant difference between DNA, pooled/bulked from the resistant and susceptible groups (P CIM). These six QTLs, designated qE1-6, explained 16.0%-89.5% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the QTLs, qE-2 and qE-4, were located at the 66.7 cM region, which was considered a major candidate region for E. tarda resistance. This study will provide valuable data for further investigations of E. tarda resistance genes and facilitate the selective breeding of disease-resistant Japanese flounder in the future.
Londo, J P; Bollman, M A; Sagers, C L; Lee, E H; Watrud, L S
Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple 'stacked' traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and tolerance to environmental stresses. The release of crops that express multiple traits could result in ecological changes in weedy environments if feral crop plants or hybrids formed with compatible weeds results in more competitive plants outside of agriculture. To examine the effects of combining transgenes, we developed a stacked line of canola (Brassica napus L.) from a segregating F(2) population that expresses both transgenic glyphosate resistance (CP4 EPSPS) and lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac). Fitness-associated traits were evaluated between this stacked genotype and five other Brassica genotypes in constructed mesocosm plant communities exposed to insect herbivores (Plutella xylostella L.) or glyphosate-drift. Vegetative biomass, seed production and relative fecundity were all reduced in stacked trait plants when compared with non-transgenic plants in control treatments, indicating potential costs of expressing multiple transgenes without selection pressure. Although costs of the transgenes were offset by selective treatment, the stacked genotype continued to produce fewer seeds than either single transgenic line. However, the increase in fitness of the stacked genotype under selective pressure contributed to an increased number of seeds within the mesocosm community carrying unselected, hitchhiking transgenes. These results demonstrate that the stacking of these transgenes in canola results in fitness costs and benefits that are dependent on the type and strength of selection pressure, and could also contribute to changes in plant communities through hitchhiking of unselected traits.
Jan Bocianowski; Piotr Szulc; Kamila Nowosad
The paral el coordinate plot is proposed as an efifcient tool for visualization of 13 traits of“stay-green”maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar exposed to different methods of magnesium application. The ifeld experiment was conducted in the Department of Agronomy, PoznańUniversity of Life Sciences, on the ifelds of the Department of Teaching and Experimental Station in Swadzim in 2006–2008. Experiment was conducted as a single-factor experiment with seven applications of magnesium in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The highest mean values of grain yield and 1 000-grain weight were obtained after application of variant T3 of magnesium (10 kg MgO ha–1 soil) in the al three years of study.
Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Ramchiary, Nirala; Miao, Xinyang; Lee, Su Hee; Sun, Hae Jeong; Kim, Sunggil; Ahn, Chun Hee; Lim, Yong Pyo
Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease in cruciferous plants, including the radish (Raphanus sativus). To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene(s) conferring resistance to FW, we constructed a genetic map of R. sativus using an F2 mapping population derived by crossing the inbred lines '835' (susceptible) and 'B2' (resistant). A total of 220 markers distributed in 9 linkage groups (LGs) were mapped in the Raphanus genome, covering a distance of 1,041.5 cM with an average distance between adjacent markers of 4.7 cM. Comparative analysis of the R. sativus genome with that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa revealed 21 and 22 conserved syntenic regions, respectively. QTL mapping detected a total of 8 loci conferring FW resistance that were distributed on 4 LGs, namely, 2, 3, 6, and 7 of the Raphanus genome. Of the detected QTL, 3 QTLs (2 on LG 3 and 1 on LG 7) were constitutively detected throughout the 2-year experiment. QTL analysis of LG 3, flanked by ACMP0609 and cnu_mBRPGM0085, showed a comparatively higher logarithm of the odds (LOD) value and percentage of phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis using the linked markers to this QTL showed homology to A. thaliana chromosome 3, which contains disease-resistance gene clusters, suggesting conservation of resistance genes between them.
Hu, Ke-Ming; Qiu, De-Yun; Shen, Xiang-Ling; Li, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice, a main staple food for approximately 50% of the world's population. Application of host resistance to these pathogens is the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance. Although large numbers of QTLs for bacterial blight and blast resistance have been identified, these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic control of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown. To isolate disease resistance QTLs, we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map, expression profile, and functional complementation analyses. This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M. grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals. Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL. Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes, whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signal transduction pathways, may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacterial blight and blast.
Beh, K J; Hulme, D J; Callaghan, M J; Leish, Z; Lenane, I; Windon, R G; Maddox, J F
A genome linkage scan was carried out using a resource flock of 1029 sheep in six half-sib families. The families were offspring of sires derived by crossing divergent lines of sheep selected for response to challenge with the intestinal parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. All animals in the resource flock were phenotypically assessed for worm resistance soon after weaning using a vaccination/challenge regime. After correcting for fixed effects using a least squares linear model the faecal egg count data obtained following the first challenge and the faecal egg count data obtained after the second challenge were designated Trait 1 and Trait 2, respectively. A total of 472 lambs drawn from the phenotypic extremes of the Trait 2 faecal egg count distribution were genotyped with a panel of 133 microsatellite markers covering all 26 sheep autosomes. Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for each of the faecal egg count traits was determined using interval analysis with the Animap program with recombination rates between markers derived from an existing marker map. No chromosomal regions attained genome-wide significance for QTL influencing either of the traits. However, one region attained chromosome-wide significance and five other regions attained point-wise significance for the presence of QTL affecting parasite resistance.
Zurek, Ludek; Ghosh, Anuradha
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibiotic resistance is difficult to provide. In this review, we make a case that insects commonly associated with food animals likely represent a direct and important link between animal farms and urban communities for antibiotic resistance traits. Houseflies and cockroaches have been shown to carry multidrug-resistant clonal lineages of bacteria identical to those found in animal manure. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated proliferation of bacteria and horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the insect digestive tract as well as transmission of resistant bacteria by insects to new substrates. We propose that insect management should be an integral part of pre- and postharvest food safety strategies to minimize spread of zoonotic pathogens and antibiotic resistance traits from animal farms. Furthermore, the insect link between the agricultural and urban environment presents an additional argument for adopting prudent use of antibiotics in the food animal industry.
Margaret M. Mayfield; John M. Dwyer; Loic Chalmandrier; Jessie A. Wells; Stephen P. Bonser; Carla P. Catterall; Fabrice DeClerck; Yi Ding; Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Daniel J. Metcalfe; Cibele Queiroz; Peter A. Vesk; John W. Morgan
â¢ Premise of study: Plant functional traits are commonly used as proxies for plant responses to environmental challenges, yet few studies have explored how functional trait distributions differ across gradients of land-use change. By comparing trait distributions in intact forests with those across land-use change gradients, we can improve our understanding of the ways...
Okut, H; Bromley, C M; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D
Genetic parameters for wool traits for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee breeds of sheep were estimated with single- and multiple-trait analyses using REML with animal models. Traits considered were fleece grade, fleece weight, and staple length. Total number of observations ranged from 11,673 to 34,746 for fleece grade and fleece weight and from 3,500 to 11,641 for staple length for the four breeds. For single-trait analyses, data were divided by age of ewe: young ages (age of 1 yr), middle ages (ages of 2 and 3 yr), and older ages (age greater than 3 yr). Heritability estimates averaged over breeds for fleece grade decreased from .42 at a young age to .37 for older ages. For fleece weight, heritability estimates averaged .52, .57, and .55 within the successively older groups. Heritability estimates for staple length averaged .54 for young and middle age classes. Few older ewes had staple length measurements. After single-trait analyses, new data sets were created for three-trait analyses with traits defined by three age classes when animals were measured. Heritability estimates with three-trait analyses, except for a few cases, were somewhat greater than those from single-trait analyses. For fleece grade, the genetic correlations averaged over breeds were .72 for young with middle, .42 for young with older, and .86 for middle with older age classes. For fleece weight, the average genetic correlations were .81, .83, and .98. For staple length, the average genetic correlation for young with middle age classes was .82. Estimates of genetic correlations across ages varied considerably among breeds. The average estimates of correlations suggest that fleece grade may need to be defined by age, especially for the Columbia and Rambouillet breeds. For fleece weight and staple length, however, the average correlations suggest no need to define those traits by age.
Hamzic, Edin; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Juin, Hervé
For successful genetic dissection of disease resistance it is of great importance to accurately identify the respective phenotypes. In case of coccidiosis some of the conventional phenotypes don’t fully reflect the animal health status. The objective of this study was large-scale evaluation of pl...
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major leafy vegetable that is susceptible to powdery mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to powdery mildew under greenhouse conditions in an interspecific population derived from a cross betw...
Gebhardt, C.; Urbany, C.; Li, L.; Stich, B.; Caldas Paulo, M.J.; Draffehn, A.; Ballvora, A.
We summarize the concept of molecular diagnostic of complex traits related to pest and disease resistance and to tuber quality of potato, and describe recent achievements and perspectives. Many potato characteristics are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Knowing the genes and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA is a viral disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar worldwide. The identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting resistance to the disease could improve our understanding of the genetics underlying the trait and provide a means for Marker-Assisted Selection. We previously performed a genome scan on commercial Atlantic salmon families challenge tested for ISA resistance, identifying several putative QTL. In the present study, we set out to validate the strongest of these QTL in a larger family material coming from the same challenge test, and to determine the position of the QTL by interval mapping. We also wanted to explore different ways of performing QTL analysis within a survival analysis framework (i.e. using time-to-event data, and to compare results using survival analysis with results from analysis on the dichotomous trait 'affected/resistant'. Results The QTL, located on Atlantic salmon linkage group 8 (following SALMAP notation, was confirmed in the new data set. Its most likely position was at a marker cluster containing markers BHMS130, BHMS170 and BHMS553. Significant segregation distortion was observed in the same region, but was shown to be unrelated to the QTL. A maximum likelihood procedure for identifying QTL, based on the Cox proportional hazard model, was developed. QTL mapping was also done using the Haley-Knott method (affected/resistant data, and within a variance-component framework (affected/resistant data and time-to-event data. In all cases, analysis using affected/resistant data gave stronger evidence for a QTL than did analysis using time-to-event data. Conclusion A QTL for resistance to Infectious Salmon Anaemia in Atlantic salmon was validated in this study, and its more precise location on linkage group eight was determined. The QTL explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in resistance to the disease. The linkage group also displayed
It is still challenging to identify causal genes governing obesity. Pbwg1.5, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to obesity, was previously discovered from wild Mus musculus castaneus mice and was fine-mapped to a 2.1-Mb genomic region of mouse chromosome 2, where no known gene with an effect on white adipose tissue (WAT) has been reported. The aim of this study was to identify a strong candidate gene for Pbwg1.5 by an integration approach of transcriptome analysis (RNA-sequencing followed by real-time PCR analysis) and the causal inference test (CIT), a statistical method to infer causal relationships between diplotypes, gene expression and trait values. Body weight, body composition and biochemical traits were measured in F2 mice obtained from an intercross between the C57BL/6JJcl strain and a congenic strain carrying Pbwg1.5 on the C57BL/6JJcl background. The F2 mice showed significant diplotype differences in 12 traits including body weight, WAT weight and serum cholesterol/triglyceride levels. The transcriptome analysis revealed that Ly75, Pla2r1, Fap and Gca genes were differentially expressed in the liver and that Fap, Ifih1 and Grb14 were differentially expressed in WAT. However, CITs indicated statistical evidence that only the liver Ly75 gene mediated between genotype and WAT. Ly75 expression was negatively associated with WAT weight. The results suggested that Ly75 is a putative quantitative trait gene for the obesity-resistant Pbwg1.5 QTL discovered from the wild M. m. castaneus mouse. The finding provides a novel insight into a better understanding of the genetic basis for prevention of obesity.
Murphy, Brett; Lilienfeld, Scott; Skeem, Jennifer; Edens, John F
Researchers are vigorously debating whether psychopathic personality includes seemingly adaptive traits, especially social and physical boldness. In a large sample (N = 1,565) of adult offenders, we examined the incremental validity of 2 operationalizations of boldness (Fearless Dominance traits in the Psychopathy Personality Inventory [Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996]; Boldness traits in the triarchic model of psychopathy [Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009]), above and beyond other characteristics of psychopathy, in statistically predicting scores on 4 psychopathy-related measures, including the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The incremental validity added by boldness traits in predicting the PCL-R's representation of psychopathy was especially pronounced for interpersonal traits (e.g., superficial charm, deceitfulness). Our analyses, however, revealed unexpected sex differences in the relevance of these traits to psychopathy, with boldness traits exhibiting reduced importance for psychopathy in women. We discuss the implications of these findings for measurement models of psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Siegling, Alexander B; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V
This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.
Hossain, Md Kamal; Jena, Kshirod Kumar; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Wickneswari, Ratnam
Sheath blight is considered the most significant disease of rice and causes enormous yield losses over the world. Breeding for resistant varieties is the only viable option to combat the disease efficiently. Seventeen diverged rice genotypes along with 17 QTL-linked SSR markers were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pearson's correlation showed only the flag leaf angle had a significant correlation with sheath blight resistance under greenhouse screening. Multivariate analysis based on UPGMA clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the flag leaf angle, flag leaf length, and plant compactness were significantly associated with the following SSR marker alleles: RM209 (116,130), RM202 (176), RM224 (126), RM257 (156), RM426 (175), and RM6971 (196), which are linked to the SB QTLs: QRlh11, qSBR11-3, qSBR11-1, qSBR9-1, qShB3-2, and qSB-9. A Mantel test suggested a weak relationship between the observed phenotypes and allelic variation patterns, implying the independent nature of morphological and molecular variations. Teqing and Tetep were found to be the most resistant cultivars. IR65482-4-136-2-2, MR219-4, and MR264 showed improved resistance potentials. These results suggest that the morphological traits and QTLs which have been found to associate with sheath blight resistance are a good choice to enhance resistance through pyramiding either 2 QTLs or QTLs and traits in susceptible rice cultivars.
Paiva, Marcelo H S; Lovin, Diane D; Mori, Akio; Melo-Santos, Maria A V; Severson, David W; Ayres, Constância F J
Organophosphate insecticides (OP) have extensively been used to control mosquitoes, such as the vector Aedes aegypti. Unfortunately, OP resistance has hampered control programs worldwide. We used Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate temephos resistance in two F1 intercross populations derived from crosses between a resistant Ae. aegypti strain (RecR) and two susceptible strains (MoyoD and Red). A single major effect QTL was identified on chromosome 2 of both segregating populations, named rtt1 (resistance to temephos 1). Bioinformatics analyses identified a cluster of carboxylesterase genes (CCE) within the rtt1 interval. qRT-PCR demonstrated that different CCEs were up-regulated in F2 resistant individuals from both crosses. However, none exceeded the 2-fold expression. Primary mechanisms for temephos resistance may vary between Ae. aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations.
Huang, J.; Liu, M.; Chen, F.; Griffiths, B.S.; Chen, X.; Johnson, S.N.; Hu, F.
Plant-mediated effects of aboveground herbivory on the belowground ecosystem are well documented, but less attention has been paid to agro-ecosystems and in particular how crop cultivars with different traits (i.e. resistance to pests) shape such interactions. A fully factorial experiment was conduc
Qin, Peng; Lin, Yu; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Kun; Mao, Shuangshuang; Li, Zhanyi; Wang, Jirui; Liu, Yaxi; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang
Abstract The D-genome progenitor of wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, possesses numerous genes for resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Therefore, information on the genetic architecture of A. tauschii can aid the development of drought-resistant wheat varieties. Here, we evaluated 13 traits in 373 A. tauschii accessions grown under normal and polyethylene glycol-simulated drought stress conditions and performed a genome-wide association study using 7,185 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We identified 208 and 28 SNPs associated with all traits using the general linear model and mixed linear model, respectively, while both models detected 25 significant SNPs with genome-wide distribution. Public database searches revealed several candidate/flanking genes related to drought resistance that were grouped into three categories according to the type of encoded protein (enzyme, storage protein, and drought-induced protein). This study provided essential information for SNPs and genes related to drought resistance in A. tauschii and wheat, and represents a foundation for breeding drought-resistant wheat cultivars using marker-assisted selection. PMID:27560650
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits and meat quality, thirty-two rabbits for two genotypes (local population – LP; commercial hybrids – HY were used. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days old and slaughtered at 103 days of age for LP and 87 days of age for HY. Comparing the slaughtering traits of two genotypes, LP provided higher dressing out (59.4% vs 56.2%, Pvs 14.2%, Pvs 22.3, Pvs 8,9%, Pvs 0.86%, Pvs 1.12%; Pvs 19.2%; Pvs 31.6%; Pvs 3.8%; P*, higher redness (a*, yellowness (b* and C* value than HY (P
Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard
In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0-14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ(13)C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ(13)C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an internationally significant forage crop. Forage yield, lodging resistance and spring vigor are important agronomic traits conditioned by quantitative genetic and environmental effects. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and mo...
The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Loc...
Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun
Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO3-N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.
Farfan, Ivan D Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N; Murray, Seth C; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L; Kolomiets, Mike
The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines.
Ivan D Barrero Farfan
Full Text Available The primary maize (Zea mays L. production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5-10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines.
Farfan, Ivan D. Barrero; De La Fuente, Gerald N.; Murray, Seth C.; Isakeit, Thomas; Huang, Pei-Cheng; Warburton, Marilyn; Williams, Paul; Windham, Gary L.; Kolomiets, Mike
The primary maize (Zea mays L.) production areas are in temperate regions throughout the world and this is where most maize breeding is focused. Important but lower yielding maize growing regions such as the sub-tropics experience unique challenges, the greatest of which are drought stress and aflatoxin contamination. Here we used a diversity panel consisting of 346 maize inbred lines originating in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical areas testcrossed to stiff-stalk line Tx714 to investigate these traits. Testcross hybrids were evaluated under irrigated and non-irrigated trials for yield, plant height, ear height, days to anthesis, days to silking and other agronomic traits. Irrigated trials were also inoculated with Aspergillus flavus and evaluated for aflatoxin content. Diverse maize testcrosses out-yielded commercial checks in most trials, which indicated the potential for genetic diversity to improve sub-tropical breeding programs. To identify genomic regions associated with yield, aflatoxin resistance and other important agronomic traits, a genome wide association analysis was performed. Using 60,000 SNPs, this study found 10 quantitative trait variants for grain yield, plant and ear height, and flowering time after stringent multiple test corrections, and after fitting different models. Three of these variants explained 5–10% of the variation in grain yield under both water conditions. Multiple identified SNPs co-localized with previously reported QTL, which narrows the possible location of causal polymorphisms. Novel significant SNPs were also identified. This study demonstrated the potential to use genome wide association studies to identify major variants of quantitative and complex traits such as yield under drought that are still segregating between elite inbred lines. PMID:25714370
Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen B
The rate of herbicide resistance evolution in plants depends on fitness traits endowed by alleles in both the presence and absence (resistance cost) of herbicide selection. The effect of two Lolium rigidum spontaneous homozygous target-site resistance-endowing mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly) on both ACCase activity and various plant growth traits have been investigated here. Relative growth rate (RGR) and components (net assimilation rate, leaf area ratio), resource allocation to different organs, and growth responses in competition with a wheat crop were assessed. Unlike plants carrying the Ile-1781-Leu resistance mutation, plants homozygous for the Asp-2078-Gly mutation exhibited a significantly lower RGR (30%), which translated into lower allocation of biomass to roots, shoots, and leaves, and poor responses to plant competition. Both the negligible and significant growth reductions associated, respectively, with the Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly resistance mutations correlated with their impact on ACCase activity. Whereas the Ile-1781-Leu mutation showed no pleiotropic effects on ACCase kinetics, the Asp-2078-Gly mutation led to a significant reduction in ACCase activity. The impaired growth traits are discussed in the context of resistance costs and the effects of each resistance allele on ACCase activity. Similar effects of these two particular ACCase mutations on the ACCase activity of Alopecurus myosuroides were also confirmed.
Hjältén, Joakim; Axelsson, E Petter
Climate change, as well as a more intensive forestry, is expected to increase the risk of damage by pests and pathogens on trees, which can already be a severe problem in tree plantations. Recent development of biotechnology theoretically allows for resistance enhancement that could help reduce these risks but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of benefits and tradeoffs with pest resistant GM (genetically modified) trees. We synthesized the current knowledge on the effectiveness of GM forest trees with increased resistance to herbivores. There is ample evidence that induction of exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis genes reduce performance of target pests whereas upregulation of endogenous resistance traits e.g., phenolics, generates variable results. Our review identified very few studies estimating the realized benefits in tree growth of GM trees in the field. This is concerning as the realized benefit with insect resistant GM plants seems to be context-dependent and likely manifested only if herbivore pressure is sufficiently high. Future studies of secondary pest species and resistance evolution in pest to GM trees should be prioritized. But most importantly we need more long-term field tests to evaluate the benefits and risks with pest resistant GM trees.
Motilal, Lambert A; Zhang, Dapeng; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Lanaud, Claire; Umaharan, Pathmanathan
Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping studies were conducted to identify markers to tag the phenotypic traits. Decay of LD occurred over an average 9.3 cM for chromosomes 1-9 and 2.5 cM for chromosome 10. Marker/trait associations were generally identified based on general linear models (GLMs) that incorporated principal components from molecular information on relatedness factor. Seven markers (mTcCIR 8, 66, 126, 212; TcSNP368, 697, 1370) on chromosomes 1 and 9 were identified for number of filled seeds (NSEED). A single marker was found for black pod resistance (mTcCIR280) on chromosome 3, whereas six markers on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 were detected for WBD (mTcCIR91, 183; TcSNP375, 720, 1230 and 1374). It is expected that this association mapping study in cacao would contribute to the knowledge of the genetic determinism of cocoa traits and that the markers identified herein would prove useful in marker assisted breeding of cacao.
Geffroy, V; Sévignac, M; De Oliveira, J C; Fouilloux, G; Skroch, P; Thoquet, P; Gepts, P; Langin, T; Dron, M
Anthracnose, one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. A "candidate gene" approach was used to map anthracnose resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL). Candidate genes included genes for both pathogen recognition (resistance genes and resistance gene analogs [RGAs]) and general plant defense (defense response genes). Two strains of C. lindemuthianum, identified in a world collection of 177 strains, displayed a reproducible and differential aggressiveness toward BAT93 and JaloEEP558, two parental lines of P. vulgaris representing the two major gene pools of this crop. A reliable test was developed to score partial resistance in aerial organs of the plant (stem, leaf, petiole) under controlled growth chamber conditions. BAT93 was more resistant than JaloEEP558 regardless of the organ or strain tested. With a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between these two parental lines, 10 QTL were located on a genetic map harboring 143 markers, including known defense response genes, anthracnose-specific resistance genes, and RGAs. Eight of the QTL displayed isolate specificity. Two were co-localized with known defense genes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein) and three with anthracnose-specific resistance genes and/or RGAs. Interestingly, two QTL, with different allelic contribution, mapped on linkage group B4 in a 5.0 cM interval containing Andean and Mesoamerican specific resistance genes against C. lindemuthianum and 11 polymorphic fragments revealed with a RGA probe. The possible relationship between genes underlying specific and partial resistance is discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.
Hongguang Xiao; Congyan Wang; Jun Liu; Lei Wang; Daolin Du
Many plants exhibit heterophylly; the spatially and temporally remarkable ontogenetic differences in leaf morphology may play an adaptative role in their success under diverse habitats. Thus, this study aimed to gain insights into differences in leaf functional traits of heterophyllous Syringa oblata Lindl., which has been widely used as an ornamental tree around the world under different light intensities in East China. No significant differences existed in specific leaf area (SLA) between lanceolate-and heart-shaped leaves. Differ-ences in the investment per unit of light capture surface area deployed between lanceolate-and heart-shaped leaves may be not obvious. This may be attributing to the fact that single leaf wet and dry weight of heart-shaped leaves were significantly higher than those of lanceolate leaves but leaf length and leaf thickness of heart-shaped leaves were significantly lower than those of lanceolate leaves. The SLA of shade trees was sig-nificantly higher than that of sun trees. The investment per unit of light capture surface of shade trees was lower than that of sun trees, making it possible to increase light capture and use efficiency in low-light environments. The phenotypic plas-ticity of most leaf functional traits of lanceolate leaves was higher than those of heart-shaped leaves because the former is the juvenile and the latter is the adult leaf shape during the process of phylogenetic development of S. oblate. The higher range of phenotypic plasticity of leaf thickness and leaf moisture for sun trees may be beneficial to obtain a more efficient control of water loss and nutrient deprivation in high-light environments, and the lower range of phenotypic plas-ticity of single leaf wet and dry weight, and SLA for shade trees may gain an advantage to increase resource (especially light) capture and use efficiency in low-light environments. In brief, the successfully ecological strategy of plants is to find an optimal mode for the trade
Moles, Angela T; Wallis, Ian R; Foley, William J; Warton, David I; Stegen, James C; Bisigato, Alejandro J; Cella-Pizarro, Lucrecia; Clark, Connie J; Cohen, Philippe S; Cornwell, William K; Edwards, Will; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Gonzales-Ojeda, Therany; Graae, Bente J; Hay, Gregory; Lumbwe, Fainess C; Magaña-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Moore, Ben D; Peri, Pablo L; Poulsen, John R; Veldtman, Ruan; von Zeipel, Hugo; Andrew, Nigel R; Boulter, Sarah L; Borer, Elizabeth T; Campón, Florencia Fernández; Coll, Moshe; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; De Gabriel, Jane; Jurado, Enrique; Kyhn, Line A; Low, Bill; Mulder, Christa P H; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Seabloom, Eric W; Vesk, Peter A; van Cauter, An; Waldram, Matthew S; Zheng, Zheng; Blendinger, Pedro G; Enquist, Brian J; Facelli, Jose M; Knight, Tiffany; Majer, Jonathan D; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; McQuillan, Peter; Prior, Lynda D
• It has long been believed that plant species from the tropics have higher levels of traits associated with resistance to herbivores than do species from higher latitudes. A meta-analysis recently showed that the published literature does not support this theory. However, the idea has never been tested using data gathered with consistent methods from a wide range of latitudes. • We quantified the relationship between latitude and a broad range of chemical and physical traits across 301 species from 75 sites world-wide. • Six putative resistance traits, including tannins, the concentration of lipids (an indicator of oils, waxes and resins), and leaf toughness were greater in high-latitude species. Six traits, including cyanide production and the presence of spines, were unrelated to latitude. Only ash content (an indicator of inorganic substances such as calcium oxalates and phytoliths) and the properties of species with delayed greening were higher in the tropics. • Our results do not support the hypothesis that tropical plants have higher levels of resistance traits than do plants from higher latitudes. If anything, plants have higher resistance toward the poles. The greater resistance traits of high-latitude species might be explained by the greater cost of losing a given amount of leaf tissue in low-productivity environments.
Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David;
In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organ....... This study shows that organic and conventional farmers differ in their preferences for improvements in BG traits, and the results can be used to set up specific breeding goals for organic and conventional farming systems.......In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organic...
Zhang, Ningwen W; Pelgrom, Koen; Niks, Rients E; Visser, Richard G F; Jeuken, Marieke J W
The nonhost resistance of wild lettuce (Lactuca saligna) to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is based on at least 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL), each effective at one or more plant developmental stages. We used QTL pyramiding (stacking) to determine how many of these QTL from L. saligna are sufficient to impart complete resistance towards B. lactucae to cultivated lettuce, L. sativa. The alleles of four of the most promising QTL, rbq4, rbq5, rbq6+11, and rbq7 are effective at both the young and adult plant stages. Lines with these four QTL in all possible combinations were generated by crossing the respective backcross inbred lines (BIL). Using the 11 resulting lines (combiBIL), we determined that combinations of three QTL, rbq4, rbq5, and rbq6+11, led to increased levels of resistance; however, one QTL, rbq7, did not add to the resistance level when combined with the other QTL. One line, tripleBIL268, which contains the three QTL rbq4, rbq5, and rbq6+11, was completely resistant to B. lactucae at the young plant stage. This suggests that these three QTL are sufficient to confer the complete resistance of the nonhost L. saligna and any additional QTL in L. saligna are redundant. Histological analysis of B. lactucae infection in L. saligna, the BIL, and the combiBIL 48 h after inoculation revealed different microscopical phenotypes of resistance. The QTL differed with respect to the stage of the infection process with which they interfered.
Wu, Chenxi; Davis, Adam S; Tranel, Patrick J
The fitness cost of herbicide resistance (HR) in the absence of herbicide selection plays a key role in HR evolution. Quantifying the fitness cost of resistance, however, is challenging, and there exists a knowledge gap in this area. A synthetic (artificially generated) Amaranthus tuberculatus population segregating for five types of HR was subjected to competitive growth conditions in the absence of herbicide selection for six generations. Fitness costs were quantified by using a combination of phenotyping and genotyping to monitor HR frequency changes over generations. In the absence of herbicide selection, a significant fitness cost was observed for resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides, but not for resistances to atrazine (non-target-site resistance mechanism), protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors, 4-hydroxyphenylpryuvate dioxygenase inhibitors or glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was conferred by multiple mechanisms in the synthetic population, and further analysis revealed that one mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, did decrease in frequency. Our results indicate that herbicide-resistance mitigation strategies (e.g. herbicide rotation) that rely on the existence of fitness costs in the absence of herbicide selection likely will be largely ineffective in many cases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Thierry, Eloïse; Deprez, Eric; Delelis, Olivier
Integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), such as raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir, or dolutegravir (DTG), are efficient antiretroviral agents used in HIV treatment in order to inhibit retroviral integration. By contrast to RAL treatments leading to well-identified mutation resistance pathways at the integrase level, recent clinical studies report several cases of patients failing DTG treatment without clearly identified resistance mutation in the integrase gene raising questions for the mechanism behind the resistance. These compounds, by impairing the integration of HIV-1 viral DNA into the host DNA, lead to an accumulation of unintegrated circular viral DNA forms. This viral DNA could be at the origin of the INSTI resistance by two different ways. The first one, sustained by a recent report, involves 2-long terminal repeat circles integration and the second one involves expression of accumulated unintegrated viral DNA leading to a basal production of viral particles maintaining the viral information. PMID:28123383
Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.
Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th
Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.
Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th
Jay P. Yadav; Bashisth N. Singh
We present evidence for coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population using the same resource, at the same time and same place. D. ananassae has faster larval development time (DT) and faster DT(egg-fly) than other two species thus utilizing the resources at maximum at both larval and adult stages respectively. Therefore, D. ananassae skips the interspecific competition at preadult stage but suffers more from intraspecific competition. However, D. melanogaster and D. biarmipes have rescheduled their various life history traits to avoid interspecific competition. Differences of ranks tests for various life history traits suggest that except for DT(egg-pupa), the difference of ranks is highest for the combination of D. melanogaster and D. ananassae for all other life history traits. This difference is maintained by tradeoffs between larval development time and pupal period and between pupal period and DT(egg-pupa) in D. ananassae.
Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L
The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833
This research was designed to investigate the relationship between Trait-based Individual differences (neuroticism and extraversion) and glare subjective responses as well as the actual contrast sensitivity when exposed to the same manipulated glare condition. In addition, the relationship between the glare subjective responses and actual contrast sensitivity was investigated. To examine the trait-based individual differences, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) was used while th...
Full Text Available By linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci, we previously identified at least 11 natural genetic variants that significantly modulate C. elegans lifespan, many of which would have eluded discovery by knockdown or mutation screens. A region on chromosome IV between markers stP13 and stP35 had striking effects on longevity in three interstrain crosses (each P < 1E–9. In order to define the limits of that interval, we have now constructed two independent lines by marker-based selection during 20 backcross generations, isolating the stP13–stP35 interval from strain Bergerac-BO in a CL2a background. These congenic lines differed significantly from CL2a in lifespan, assayed in two environments (each P<0.001. We then screened for exchange of flanking markers to isolate recombinants that partition this region, because fine mapping the boundaries for overlapping heteroallelic spans can greatly narrow the implicated interval. Recombinants carrying the CL2a allele at stP35 were consistently long-lived compared to those retaining the Bergerac-BO allele (P<0.001, and more resistant to temperature elevation and paraquat (each ~1.7-fold, P<0.0001, but gained little protection from ultraviolet or peroxide stresses. Two rounds of recombinant screening, followed by fine-mapping of break-points and survival testing, narrowed the interval to 0.18 Mb (13.35–13.53 Mb containing 26 putative genes and 6 small-nuclear RNAs – a manageable number of targets for functional assessment.
Mahdavi, P.; Bergmeier, E.
Plant species of a functional group respond similarly to environmental pressures and may be expected to act similarly on ecosystem processes and habitat properties. However, feasibility and applicability of functional groups in ecosystems across very different climatic regions have not yet been studied. In our approach we specified the functional groups in sand dune ecosystems of the Mediterranean, Hyrcanian and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions. We examined whether functional groups are more influenced by region or rather by habitat characteristics, and identified trait syndromes associated with common habitat types in sand dunes (mobile dunes, stabilized dunes, salt marshes, semi-wet sands, disturbed habitats). A database of 14 traits, 309 species and 314 relevés was examined and trait-species, trait-plot and species-plot matrices were built. Cluster analysis revealed similar plant functional groups in sand dune ecosystems across regions of very different species composition and climate. Specifically, our study showed that plant traits in sand dune ecosystems are grouped reflecting habitat affiliation rather than region and species pool. Environmental factors and constraints such as sand mobility, soil salinity, water availability, nutrient status and disturbance are more important for the occurrence and distribution of plant functional groups than regional belonging. Each habitat is shown to be equipped with specific functional groups and can be described by specific sets of traits. In restoration ecology the completeness of functional groups and traits in a site may serve as a guideline for maintaining or restoring the habitat.
Leffler, A Joshua; James, Jeremy J; Monaco, Thomas A; Sheley, Roger L
Functional differences between native and exotic species potentially constitute one factor responsible for plant invasion. Differences in trait values between native and exotic invasive species, however, should not be considered fixed and may depend on the context of the comparison. Furthermore, the magnitude of difference between native and exotic species necessary to trigger invasion is unknown. We propose a criterion that differences in trait values between a native and exotic invasive species must be greater than differences between co-occurring natives for this difference to be ecologically meaningful and a contributing factor to plant invasion. We used a meta-analysis to quantify the difference between native and exotic invasive species for various traits examined in previous studies and compared this value to differences among native species reported in the same studies. The effect size between native and exotic invasive species was similar to the effect size between co-occurring natives except for studies conducted in the field; in most instances, our criterion was not met although overall differences between native and exotic invasive species were slightly larger than differences between natives. Consequently, trait differences may be important in certain contexts, but other mechanisms of invasion are likely more important in most cases. We suggest that using trait values as predictors of invasion will be challenging.
Newhouse, Andrew E; Polin-McGuigan, Linda D; Baier, Kathleen A; Valletta, Kristia E R; Rottmann, William H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a classic example of a native keystone species that was nearly eradicated by an introduced fungal pathogen. This report describes progress made toward producing a fully American chestnut tree with enhanced resistance to the blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica). The transgenic American chestnut 'Darling4,' produced through an Agrobacterium co-transformation procedure to express a wheat oxalate oxidase gene driven by the VspB vascular promoter, shows enhanced blight resistance at a level intermediate between susceptible American chestnut and resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). Enhanced resistance was identified first with a leaf-inoculation assay using young chestnuts grown indoors, and confirmed with traditional stem inoculations on 3- and 4-year-old field-grown trees. Pollen from 'Darling4' and other events was used to produce transgenic T1 seedlings, which also expressed the enhanced resistance trait in leaf assays. Outcrossed transgenic seedlings have several advantages over tissue-cultured plantlets, including increased genetic diversity and faster initial growth. This represents a major step toward the restoration of the majestic American chestnut.
Polania, Jose; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Cajiao, Cesar; Grajales, Miguel; Rivera, Mariela; Velasquez, Federico; Raatz, Bodo; Beebe, Stephen E.
Drought is the major abiotic stress factor limiting yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in smallholder systems in Latin America and eastern and southern Africa; where it is a main source of protein in the daily diet. Identification of shoot and root traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of designing bean genotypes adapted to drought. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia to determine the relationship between grain yield and different shoot and root traits using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population (MD23–24 × SEA 5) of common bean. The main objectives of this study were to identify: (i) specific shoot and root morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding beans for drought resistance; and (ii) superior genotypes with desirable shoot and root traits that could serve as parents in breeding programs that are aimed at improving drought resistance. A set of 121 bean genotypes (111 RILs, 2 parents, 8 checks) belonging to the Mesoamerican gene pool and one cowpea variety were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and rainfed) over three seasons. To complement field studies, a greenhouse study was conducted using plastic cylinders with soil inserted into PVC pipes, to determine the relationship between grain yield obtained under field conditions with different root traits measured under greenhouse conditions. Resistance to drought stress was positively associated with a deeper and vigorous root system, better shoot growth, and superior mobilization of photosynthates to pod and seed production. The drought resistant lines differed in their root characteristics, some of them with a vigorous and deeper root system while others with a moderate to shallow root system. Among the shoot traits measured, pod
Cadotte, Marc; Albert, Cecile H; Walker, Steve C
Species enter and persist in local communities because of their ecological fit to local conditions, and recently, ecologists have moved from measuring diversity as species richness and evenness, to using measures that reflect species ecological differences. There are two principal approaches for quantifying species ecological differences: functional (trait-based) and phylogenetic pairwise distances between species. Both approaches have produced new ecological insights, yet at the same time methodological issues and assumptions limit them. Traits and phylogeny may provide different, and perhaps complementary, information about species' differences. To adequately test assembly hypotheses, a framework integrating the information provided by traits and phylogenies is required. We propose an intuitive measure for combining functional and phylogenetic pairwise distances, which provides a useful way to assess how functional and phylogenetic distances contribute to understanding patterns of community assembly. Here, we show that both traits and phylogeny inform community assembly patterns in alpine plant communities across an elevation gradient, because they represent complementary information. Differences in historical selection pressures have produced variation in the strength of the trait-phylogeny correlation, and as such, integrating traits and phylogeny can enhance the ability to detect assembly patterns across habitats or environmental gradients.
Roumet, Catherine; Urcelay, Carlos; Díaz, Sandra
Here, we tested whether root traits associated with resource acquisition and conservation differed between life histories (annuals, perennials) and families (Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae). Root topology, morphology, chemistry and mycorrhizal colonization were measured on whole root systems of 18 field-grown herbaceous species grown and harvested in central Argentina. Annuals differed from perennials in several root traits important in resource uptake and conservation. They exhibited higher specific root length (SRL), root nitrogen concentration (RNC) and mycorrhizal colonization but had lower root tissue density (RTD) than perennials. They did not differ in topology or construction cost. These differences were consistent among families. Families differed only in a few root traits known to be strongly associated with certain lineages such as topology and nitrogen concentration. There was a strong parallel between root traits and analogous leaf traits described in the literature for annuals and perennials. Our results suggest the existence at the root level of an acquisitive vs conservative syndrome consistent among families similar to that previously reported for above-ground traits.
Pierre R Bushel
Full Text Available Gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL are useful for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with diseases. At times, a genetic variant may be associated with a master regulator involved in the manifestation of a disease. The downstream target genes of the master regulator are typically co-expressed and share biological function. Therefore, it is practical to screen for eQTLs by identifying SNPs associated with the targets of a transcript-regulator (TR. We used a multivariate regression with the gene expression of known targets of TRs and SNPs to identify TReQTLs in European (CEU and African (YRI HapMap populations. A nominal p-value of <1×10(-6 revealed 234 SNPs in CEU and 154 in YRI as TReQTLs. These represent 36 independent (tag SNPs in CEU and 39 in YRI affecting the downstream targets of 25 and 36 TRs respectively. At a false discovery rate (FDR = 45%, one cis-acting tag SNP (within 1 kb of a gene in each population was identified as a TReQTL. In CEU, the SNP (rs16858621 in Pcnxl2 was found to be associated with the genes regulated by CREM whereas in YRI, the SNP (rs16909324 was linked to the targets of miRNA hsa-miR-125a. To infer the pathways that regulate expression, we ranked TReQTLs by connectivity within the structure of biological process subtrees. One TReQTL SNP (rs3790904 in CEU maps to Lphn2 and is associated (nominal p-value = 8.1×10(-7 with the targets of the X-linked breast cancer suppressor Foxp3. The structure of the biological process subtree and a gene interaction network of the TReQTL revealed that tumor necrosis factor, NF-kappaB and variants in G-protein coupled receptors signaling may play a central role as communicators in Foxp3 functional regulation. The potential pleiotropic effect of the Foxp3 TReQTLs was gleaned from integrating mRNA-Seq data and SNP-set enrichment into the analysis.
Greening, Steven G; Mitchell, Derek G V
In this study we demonstrate that the pattern of an amygdala-centric network contributes to individual differences in trait anxiety. Individual differences in trait anxiety were predicted using maximum likelihood estimates of amygdala structural connectivity to multiple brain targets derived from diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic tractography on 72 participants. The prediction was performed using a stratified sixfold cross validation procedure using a regularized least square regression model. The analysis revealed a reliable network of regions predicting individual differences in trait anxiety. Higher trait anxiety was associated with stronger connections between the amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, an area implicated in the generation of emotional reactions, and inferior temporal gyrus and paracentral lobule, areas associated with perceptual and sensory processing. In contrast, higher trait anxiety was associated with weaker connections between amygdala and regions implicated in extinction learning such as medial orbitofrontal cortex, and memory encoding and environmental context recognition, including posterior cingulate cortex and parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, trait anxiety is not only associated with reduced amygdala connectivity with prefrontal areas associated with emotion modulation, but also enhanced connectivity with sensory areas. This work provides novel anatomical insight into potential mechanisms behind information processing biases observed in disorders of emotion.
Marshall, K; Mugambi, J M; Nagda, S; Sonstegard, T S; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L; Gibson, J P
A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep. The mapping population comprised six sire families, with 1026 lambs in total. The lambs were artificially challenged with H. contortus at about 6.5 months of age, and nine phenotypes were measured: fecal egg count, packed cell volume decline, two weight traits and five worm traits. A subset of the population (342 lambs) was selectively genotyped for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of the 26 autosomes. QTL mapping was performed for models which assumed that the QTL alleles were either fixed or segregating within each breed, combined with models with only an additive QTL effect fitted or both additive and dominance QTL effects fitted. Overall, QTL significant at the 1% chromosome-wide level were identified for 22 combinations of trait and chromosome. Of particular interest are a region of chromosome 26 with putative QTL for all nine traits and a region of chromosome 2 with putative QTL for three traits. Favorable QTL alleles for disease resistance originated in both the Red Maasai and Dorper breeds, were not always fixed within breed and had significant dominance effects in some cases. We anticipate that this study, in combination with follow-up work and other relevant studies, will help elucidate the biology of disease resistance.
Bailey, Drew H; Watts, Tyler W; Littlefield, Andrew K; Geary, David C
Substantial longitudinal relations between children's early mathematics achievement and their much later mathematics achievement are firmly established. These findings are seemingly at odds with studies showing that early educational interventions have diminishing effects on children's mathematics achievement across time. We hypothesized that individual differences in children's later mathematical knowledge are more an indicator of stable, underlying characteristics related to mathematics learning throughout development than of direct effects of early mathematical competency on later mathematical competency. We tested this hypothesis in two longitudinal data sets, by simultaneously modeling effects of latent traits (stable characteristics that influence learning across time) and states (e.g., prior knowledge) on children's mathematics achievement over time. Latent trait effects on children's mathematical development were substantially larger than state effects. Approximately 60% of the variance in trait mathematics achievement was accounted for by commonly used control variables, such as working memory, but residual trait effects remained larger than state effects. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Gordon, Tyler C; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Harrison, Stephen A; Carson, Martin L; Obert, Don E; Bonman, J Michael
Developing oat cultivars with partial resistance to crown rust would be beneficial and cost-effective for disease management. Two recombinant inbred-line populations were generated by crossing the susceptible cultivar Provena with two partially resistant sources, CDC Boyer and breeding line 94197A1-9-2-2-2-5. A third mapping population was generated by crossing the partially resistant sources to validate the quantitative trait locus (QTL) results. The three populations were evaluated for crown rust severity in the field at Louisiana State University (LSU) in 2009 and 2010 and at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) in St. Paul, MN, in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An iSelect platform assay containing 5,744 oat single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to genotype the populations. From the 2009 CDL test, linkage analyses revealed two QTLs for partial resistance in the Provena/CDC Boyer population on chromosome 19A. One of the 19A QTLs was also detected in the 2009 LSU test. Another QTL was detected on chromosome 12D in the CDL 2009 test. In the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population, only one QTL was detected, on chromosome 13A, in the CDL 2011 test. The 13A QTL from the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population was validated in the CDC Boyer/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population in the CDL 2010 and 2011 tests. Comparative analysis of the significant marker sequences with the rice genome database revealed 15 candidate genes for disease resistance on chromosomes 4 and 6 of rice. These genes could be potential targets for cloning from the two resistant parents.
Panthee, Dilip R; Piotrowski, Ann; Ibrahem, Ragy
Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Montagne, Bary) is a devastating disease of tomato worldwide. There are three known major genes, Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-3, conferring resistance to late blight. In addition to these three genes, it is also believed that there are additional factors or quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to late blight. Precise molecular mapping of all those major genes and potential QTL is important in the development of suitable molecular markers and hence, marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objective of the present study was to map the genes and QTL associated with late blight resistance in a tomato population derived from intra-specific crosses. To achieve this objective, a population, derived from the crossings of NC 1CELBR × Fla. 7775, consisting of 250 individuals at F2 and F2-derived families, were evaluated in replicated trials. These were conducted at Mountain Horticultural Crops Reseach & Extension Center (MHCREC) at Mills River, NC, and Mountain Research Staion (MRS) at Waynesville, NC in 2011, 2014, and 2015. There were two major QTL associated with late blight resistance located on chromosomes 9 and 10 with likelihood of odd (LOD) scores of more than 42 and 6, explaining 67% and 14% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The major QTLs are probably caused by the Ph-2 and Ph-3 genes. Furthermore, there was a minor QTL on chromosomes 12, which has not been reported before. This minor QTL may be novel and may be worth investigating further. Source of resistance to Ph-2, Ph-3, and this minor QTL traces back to line L3707, or Richter's Wild Tomato. The combination of major genes and minor QTL may provide a durable resistance to late blight in tomato.
Dilip R. Panthee
Full Text Available Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Montagne, Bary is a devastating disease of tomato worldwide. There are three known major genes, Ph-1, Ph-2, and Ph-3, conferring resistance to late blight. In addition to these three genes, it is also believed that there are additional factors or quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring resistance to late blight. Precise molecular mapping of all those major genes and potential QTL is important in the development of suitable molecular markers and hence, marker-assisted selection (MAS. The objective of the present study was to map the genes and QTL associated with late blight resistance in a tomato population derived from intra-specific crosses. To achieve this objective, a population, derived from the crossings of NC 1CELBR × Fla. 7775, consisting of 250 individuals at F2 and F2-derived families, were evaluated in replicated trials. These were conducted at Mountain Horticultural Crops Reseach & Extension Center (MHCREC at Mills River, NC, and Mountain Research Staion (MRS at Waynesville, NC in 2011, 2014, and 2015. There were two major QTL associated with late blight resistance located on chromosomes 9 and 10 with likelihood of odd (LOD scores of more than 42 and 6, explaining 67% and 14% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The major QTLs are probably caused by the Ph-2 and Ph-3 genes. Furthermore, there was a minor QTL on chromosomes 12, which has not been reported before. This minor QTL may be novel and may be worth investigating further. Source of resistance to Ph-2, Ph-3, and this minor QTL traces back to line L3707, or Richter’s Wild Tomato. The combination of major genes and minor QTL may provide a durable resistance to late blight in tomato.
Full Text Available Abstract – Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor’s genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to heterosis, transgressive traits, or changes in metabolism or development. In addition, because evolution is often driven by extreme individuals, decisions based on phenotypic averages of hybrid classes may have unintended results. We demonstrate a strategy to evaluate hybrids for use in restoration by visualizing hybrid phenotypes across selected groups of traits relative to both progenitor species. Specifically, we used discriminant analysis to differentiate among butternut (Juglans cinerea L., black walnut (J. nigra L., and Japanese walnut (J. ailantifolia Carr. var. cordiformis using vegetative characters and then with functional adaptive traits associated with seedling performance. When projected onto the progenitor trait space, naturally occurring hybrids (J. ×bixbyi Rehd. between butternut and Japanese walnut showed introgression towards Japanese walnut at vegetative characters but exhibited a hybrid swarm at functional traits. Both results indicate that hybrids have morphological and ecological phenotypes that distinguish them from butternut, demonstrating a lack of ecological equivalency that should not be carried into restoration breeding efforts. Despite these discrepancies, some hybrids were projected into the space occupied by butternut seedlings’ 95% confidence ellipse, signifying that some hybrids were similar at the measured traits. Determining how to consistently identify these individuals is imperative for future breeding and species
Oliver Richard P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the genetic basis of plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens is incomplete and has been characterised in relatively few pathosystems. In this study, the cytology and genetics of resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot caused by Phoma medicaginis, an economically important necrotrophic pathogen of Medicago spp., was examined in the model legume M. truncatula. Results Macroscopically, the resistant response of accession SA27063 was characterised by small, hypersensitive-like spots following inoculation while the susceptible interaction with accessions A17 and SA3054 showed necrotic lesions and spreading chlorosis. No unique cytological differences were observed during early infection (2 populations segregating for resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot were established between SA27063 and the two susceptible accessions, A17 and SA3054. The cross between SA27063 and A17 represented a wider cross than between SA27063 and SA3054, as evidenced by higher genetic polymorphism, reduced fertility and aberrant phenotypes of F2 progeny. In the SA27063 × A17 F2 population a highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL, LOD = 7.37; P Phoma medicaginis one (rnpm1 genetically mapped to the top arm of linkage group 4 (LG4. rnpm1 explained 33.6% of the phenotypic variance in the population's response to infection depicted on a 1–5 scale and was tightly linked to marker AW256637. A second highly significant QTL (LOD = 6.77; P rnpm2, was located on the lower arm of LG8 in the SA27063 × SA3054 map. rnpm2 explained 29.6% of the phenotypic variance and was fine mapped to a 0.8 cM interval between markers h2_16a6a and h2_21h11d. rnpm1 is tightly linked to a cluster of Toll/Interleukin1 receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR genes and disease resistance protein-like genes, while no resistance gene analogues (RGAs are apparent in the genomic sequence of the reference accession A17 at the
Iseppi, Ramona; Messi, Patrizia; Anacarso, Imacolata; Bondi, Moreno; Sabia, Carla; Condò, Carla; de Niederhausern, Simona
We investigated presence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistances and other biological characters in enterococci isolated from faeces of healthy dogs and cats because these microorganisms represent important human and veterinary pathogens/opportunists, and a significant burden for healthcare systems. In all samples (n=115) we detected enterococci, with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (42; 36.5%) and Enterococcus faecalis (36; 31.3%) species, endowed with virulence traits and multidrug-resistance. The two predominant resistance patterns (erythromycin, tetracycline) were examined by polymerase chain reaction for tet and erm genes. Only tetM for tetracycline, and ermA and ermB for erythromycin were detected. PCR for gelatinase gene (gelE) was positive in 62.6% of isolates, but only 26.1% produce gelatinase suggesting the existence of silent genes. efaAfs and efaAfm genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively. 89.6% of isolates produced bacteriocin-like substances with a prevailing action against Listeria genus and, among these, 33.9% were positive for the bacteriocin structural genes entA, entL50 or entP. According to our study, pet animals can be considered a reservoir of potentially pathogenic enterococci and we cannot exclude that those microorganisms may be responsible for opportunistic infections in high-risk pet owners.
Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András
Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes.
Full Text Available Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances. On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes.
Full Text Available Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits. In the present study, the simple-to-handle I-sensor was developed. The sensor enables the fast and reliable measurement of electrical impedance of the grape berry cuticles and its epicuticular waxes (CW. Statistical experiments revealed highly significant correlations between relative impedance of CW and the resistance of grapevines to B. cinerea. Thus, the relative impedance Zrel of CW was identified as the most important phenotypic factor with regard to the prediction of grapevine resistance to B. cinerea. An ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed a R2McFadden of 0.37 and confirmed the application of Zrel of CW for the prediction of bunch infection and in this way as novel phenotyping trait. Applying the I-sensor, a preliminary QTL region was identified indicating that the novel phenotypic trait is as well a valuable tool for genetic analyses.
Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W
A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts.
Baroncelli, Andrea; Ciucci, Enrica
This study investigated whether different components of trait emotional intelligence (or trait emotional self-efficacy) were uniquely related to traditional bullying and cyberbullying in a sample of 529 preadolescents (mean age of 12 years and 7 months), while controlling for the other forms of bullying/victimization. Binary logistic regressions showed that the dimension of emotional intelligence concerning the regulation and use of emotions was negatively related both to traditional bullying and cyberbullying; however, this association did not emerge when traditional bullying was controlled for cyberbullying, whilst it still emerged when cyberbullying was controlled for traditional bullying and both forms of victimization. Differently, the dimensions concerning appraisal of own and others' emotions were not deficient in children performing bullying and/or cyberbullying behaviors. Despite high co-occurrence between traditional and electronic bullying, our results suggested that these two forms are distinct phenomena, involving different personality traits. Implications for interventions are discussed.
Hong-Mei Wang; Zhong-Xu Lin; Xian-Long Zhang; Wei Chen; Xiao-Ping Guo; Yi-Chun Nie; Yun-Hai Li
Verticillium wilt is one of the most serious constraints to cotton production in almost all of the cotton-growing countries. In this study, "XinLuZao1" (XLZ1), a susceptible cultivar Gossypium hirsutum L. and "Hai7124" (H7124), a resistant line G. barbadense, and their F2:3 families were used to map and study the disease Index induced by verticillium wilt. A total of 430 SSR loci were mapped into 41 linkage groups; the map spanned 3 745.9 cM and the average distance between adjacent loci was 8.71 cM. Four and five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected based on the disease index investigated on July 22 and August 24 in 2004, respectively. These nine QTLs explained 10.63-28.83% of the phenotypic variance, six of them were located on the D sub-genome. Two QTLs located In the same marker intervals may partly explain the significant correlation of the two traits. QTLs explaining large phenotypic variation were identified in this study, which may be quite useful in cotton anti-disease breeding.
Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.
Katjiua, Mutjinde L J; Ward, David
Resource availability, degree of herbivore damage, genetic variability, and their interactions influence the allocation of investment by plants to resistance and tolerance traits. We evaluated the independent and interactive effects of soil nutrients and moisture, and simulated the effects of herbivore damage on condensed tannins (resistance) and growth/regrowth (tolerance) traits of Terminalia sericea, a deciduous tree in the Kalahari desert that constitutes a major component of livestock diet. We used a completely crossed randomized-block design experiment to examine the effects of nutrients, water availability, and herbivore damage on regrowth and resistance traits of T. sericea seedlings. Plant height, number of branches, internode length, leaf area, leaf mass for each seedling, combined weight of stems and twigs, and root mass were recorded. Condensed tannin concentrations were 22.5 and 21.5% higher under low nutrients and low soil moisture than under high nutrient and high water treatment levels. Tannin concentrations did not differ significantly between control and experimental seedlings 2 mo after simulated herbivore damage. Tannin concentrations correlated more strongly with growth traits under low- than under high-nutrient conditions. No trade-offs were detected among individual growth traits, nor between growth traits and condensed tannins. T. sericea appeared to invest more in both resistance and regrowth traits when grown under low-nutrient conditions. Investment in the resistance trait (condensed tannin) under high-nutrient conditions was minimal and, to a lesser degree, correlated with plant growth. These results suggest that T. sericea displays both resistance and tolerance strategies, and that the degree to which each is expressed is resource-dependent.
Full Text Available Genetic modifications of trees may provide many benefits, e.g. increase production, and mitigate climate change and herbivore impacts on forests. However, genetic modifications sometimes result in unintended effects on innate traits involved in plant-herbivore interactions. The importance of intentional changes in plant defence relative to unintentional changes and the natural variation among clones used in forestry has not been evaluated. By a combination of biochemical measurements and bioassays we investigated if insect feeding on GM aspens is more affected by intentional (induction Bt toxins than of unintentional, non-target changes or clonal differences in innate plant defence. We used two hybrid wildtype clones (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides and Populus tremula x P. alba of aspen that have been genetically modified for 1 insect resistance (two Bt lines or 2 reduced lignin properties (two lines COMT and CAD, respectively. Our measurements of biochemical properties suggest that unintended changes by GM modifications (occurring due to events in the transformation process in innate plant defence (phenolic compounds were generally smaller but fundamentally different than differences seen among different wildtype clones (e.g. quantitative and qualitative, respectively. However, neither clonal differences between the two wildtype clones nor unintended changes in phytochemistry influenced consumption by the leaf beetle (Phratora vitellinae. By contrast, Bt induction had a strong direct intended effect as well as a post experiment effect on leaf beetle consumption. The latter suggested lasting reduction of beetle fitness following Bt exposure that is likely due to intestinal damage suffered by the initial Bt exposure. We conclude that Bt induction clearly have intended effects on a target species. Furthermore, the effect of unintended changes in innate plant defence traits, when they occur, are context dependent and have in comparison to Bt
Greer Gordon J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently most pastoral farmers rely on anthelmintic drenches to control gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep. Resistance to anthelmintics is rapidly increasing in nematode populations such that on some farms none of the drench families are now completely effective. It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. Results Rams obtained from crossing nematode parasite resistant and susceptible selection lines were used to derive five large half-sib families comprising between 348 and 101 offspring per sire. Total offspring comprised 940 lambs. Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. Initially the 22 most resistant and 22 most susceptible progeny from each pedigree were used in a genome scan that used 203 microsatellite markers spread across all sheep autosomes. This study identified 9 chromosomes with regions showing sufficient linkage to warrant the genotyping of all offspring. After genotyping all offspring with markers covering Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 22 and 23, the telomeric end of chromosome 8 was identified as having a significant QTL for parasite resistance as measured by the number of Trichostrongylus spp. adults in the abomasum and small intestine at the end of the second parasite challenge. Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. Conclusion Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. The QTL
Maria A. Bobowicz
Full Text Available Two-year-old cones were collected from 388 dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra plants of ten populations of this species from the Tatra Mts. - five of them from calcareous and five from calcium-free undersoil. Their 14 morphological traits are described. The data served for performing multivariate analysis of variance and testing of statistical hypotheses, for discriminate analysis. for calculating Mahalanobis distances between populations and plotting a dendrite based on the shortest Mahalanobis distances and for agglomerative clustering by the method of nearest neighbourhood. Wide differences in the populations were found as regards all the studied traits and the existence of two groups in the population, which, do not, however, correlate with the substrate type. The "calcareous and calcium-free" populations show statistically significant differences in six of the 14 studied traits.
Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Pontieri, E; Pourshaban, M
The presence of antibiotic resistance marker genes in genetically engineered plants is one of the most controversial issues related to Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)-containing food, raising concern about the possibility that these markers could increase the pool of antibiotic resistance genes. This study investigates the in vitro survival of genes bla and cryIA(b) of maize Bt176 in human gastric juice samples. Five samples of gastric juice were collected from patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux or celiac disease and three additional samples were obtained by pH modification with NaHCO3. DNA was extracted from maize Bt176 and incubated with samples of gastric juices at different times. The survival of the target traits (bla gene, whole 1914 bp gene cry1A(b), and its 211 bp fragment) was determined using PCR. The stability of the target genes was an inverse function of their lengths in all the samples. Survival in samples from untreated subjects was below the normal physiological time of gastric digestion. On the contrary, survival time in samples from patients under anti-acid drug treatment or in samples whose pH was modified, resulted strongly increased. Our data indicate the possibility that in particular cases the survival time could be so delayed that, as a consequence, some traits of DNA could reach the intestine. In general, this aspect must be considered for vulnerable consumers (people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases related to altered digestive functionality, physiological problems or drug side-effects) in the risk analysis usually referred to healthy subjects.
Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E
Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides.
Carvalho, Maria João; Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Correia, António; Saavedra, Maria José
It is well known that water constitutes an important contamination route for microorganisms. This is especially true for Aeromonas which are widespread in untreated and treated waters. In this study, Portuguese untreated waters not regularly monitored were screened for the presence and diversity of aeromonads. A total of 206 isolates were discriminated by RAPD-PCR and 80 distinct strains were identified by gyrB based phylogenetic analysis. The most frequently detected species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas bestiarum and Aeromonas media. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of these strains was determined and showed a typical profile of the genus. Nonetheless, the percentage of resistant strains to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and/or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was lower than that reported for clinical isolates and isolates recovered from aquacultures and other environments historically subjected to antibiotic contamination. This suggests that the existence of such pressures in those environments selects for resistant Aeromonas. A similar trend for integron presence was found. Genes coding for CphA and TEM, and tet(A), (E), (C) or (D) genes were found in 28%, 1%, and 10% of the strains, respectively. 10% of the strains contained an integron. Variable regions of seven class 1 integrons and one class 2 integron were characterised. Furthermore, strains displayed virulence related phenotypes such as extracellular lipolytic and proteolytic activities as well as aerolysin related genes (43% of strains). The ascV and aexT genes were found in 16% and 3% of strains respectively and, in some cases, concomitantly in the same specimen. This study shows that diverse Aeromonas spp. presenting distinct antibiotic resistance features and putative virulence traits are frequently present in waters for human and animal consumption in Portugal. Genes associated to antibiotic resistance and microbial virulence previously identified in organisms with human health significance
interact significantly with life-history and stress tolerance traits over long ecological timescales to determine forest composition. Climate is the ultimate control on postglacial forest composition and species abundances, but long-term community assembly is also constrained through interspecific differences in plant traits.
Zhang, N.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Niks, R.E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jeuken, M.J.W.
The nonhost resistance of wild lettuce (Lactuca saligna) to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is based on at least 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL), each effective at one or more plant developmental stages. We used QTL pyramiding (stacking) to determine how many of these QTL from L. saligna are suffici
Buchwalter, D.B.; Cain, D.J.; Martin, C.A.; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, S.N.; Garland, T.
We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance....... The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...
Ritter, Olesja; Jelenik, Tomas; Roden, Michael
Increased dietary fat intake and lipolysis result in excessive lipid availability, which relates to impaired insulin sensitivity. Over the last years, several mechanisms possibly underlying lipid-mediated insulin resistance evolved. Lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols (DAG) associate with changes in insulin sensitivity in many models. DAG activate novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms followed by inhibitory serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) raises another lipid class, ceramides (CER), which induce pro-inflammatory pathways and lead to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of glucosylceramide and ganglioside synthesis results in improved insulin sensitivity and increased activatory tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 in the muscle. Incomplete fat oxidation can increase acylcarnitines (ACC), which in turn stimulate pro-inflammatory pathways. This review analyzed the effects of lipid metabolites on insulin action in skeletal muscle of humans and rodents. Despite the evidence for the association of both DAG and CER with insulin resistance, its causal relevance may differ depending on the subcellular localization and the tested cohorts, e.g., athletes. Nevertheless, recent data indicate that individual lipid species and their degree of fatty acid saturation, particularly membrane and cytosolic C18:2 DAG, specifically activate PKCθ and induce both acute lipid-induced and chronic insulin resistance in humans.
Wydra, K; Zinsou, V; Jorge, V; Verdier, V
ABSTRACT Cassava suffers from bacterial blight attack in all growing regions. Control by resistance is unstable due to high genotype-environment interactions. Identifying genes for resistance to African strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis can support breeding efforts. Five F(1) cassava genotypes deriving from the male parent 'CM2177-2' and the female parent 'TMS30572' were used to produce 111 individuals by backcrossing to the female parent. In all, 16 genotypes among the mapping population were resistant to stem inoculation by four strains of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis from different locations in Africa, and 19 groups with differential reactions to the four strains were identified, suggesting that the strains represent different pathotypes. Four genotypes were resistant to leaf inoculation, and three were resistant to both stem and leaf inoculations. Genotypes with susceptible, moderately resistant, and resistant reactions after leaf and stem inoculation partly differed in their reactions on leaves and stems. Based on the genetic map of cassava, single-markeranalysis of disease severity after stem-puncture inoculation was performed. Eleven markers were identified, explaining between 16 and 33.3% of phenotypic variance of area under disease progress curve. Five markers on three and one linkage groups from the female- and male-derived framework of family CM8820, respectively, seem to be weakly associated with resistance to four strains of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis. Based on the segregation of alleles from the female of family CM8873, one marker was significantly associated with resistance to two X. axonopodis pv. manihotis strains, GSPB2506 and GSPB2511, whereas five markers were not linked to any linkage group. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping results also suggest that the four African strains belong to four different pathotypes. The identified pathotypes should be useful for screening for resistance, and the QTL and markers will support
Doty, Ed; Tomkiewicz, Joe; Bass, Kenneth
This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male accounting majors' managerial motivational traits, perceptions of ethical issues, ethical judgments, and ethical behavioral intentions regarding ethically equivocal business situations. Subjects were presented with two scales to measure their motivational…
Doty, Ed; Tomkiewicz, Joe; Bass, Kenneth
This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male accounting majors' managerial motivational traits, perceptions of ethical issues, ethical judgments, and ethical behavioral intentions regarding ethically equivocal business situations. Subjects were presented with two scales to measure their motivational…
The purpose of this study was to measure the self-directed learning of educators and explore the differences between and among the variables of age, level of education, position, school district ratings, levels of poverty and affluence, and gender. The Survey of Adult Learning Traits (SALT) authored by Hogg was used as the instrument to measure…
Lijffijt, M.; Bekker, E.M.; Quik, E.H.; Bakker, J.; Kenemans, J.L.; Verbaten, M.N.
Objective: The present study investigates whether there is an association between trait impulsivity in the normal population and inhibitory motor control as assessed by the stop task. Method: Low- and high-impulsive participants (as assessed by the I7questionnaire; both groups n = 31) performed the
Lijffijt, M.; Bekker, E.M.; Quik, E.H.; Bakker, J.; Kenemans, J.L.; Verbaten, M.N.
Objective: The present study investigates whether there is an association between trait impulsivity in the normal population and inhibitory motor control as assessed by the stop task. Method: Low- and high-impulsive participants (as assessed by the I7questionnaire; both groups n = 31) performed the
Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xin; Bao, Weikai
Ecophysiological studies of bryophytes have generally been conducted at the shoot or canopy scale. However, their growth forms are diverse, and knowledge of whether bryophytes with different shoot structures have different functional trait levels and scaling relationships is limited. We collected 27 bryophyte species and categorised them into two groups based on their growth forms: erect and prostrate species. Twenty-one morphological, nutrient and photosynthetic traits were quantified. Trait levels and bivariate trait scaling relationships across species were compared between the two groups. The two groups had similar mean values for shoot mass per area (SMA), light saturation point and mass-based nitrogen (N(mass)) and phosphorus concentrations. Erect bryophytes possessed higher values for mass-based chlorophyll concentration (Chl(mass)), light-saturated assimilation rate (A(mass)) and photosynthetic nitrogen/phosphorus use efficiency. N(mass), Chl(mass) and A(mass) were positively related, and these traits were negatively associated with SMA. Furthermore, the slope of the regression of N(mass) versus Chl(mass) was steeper for erect bryophytes than that for prostrate bryophytes, whereas this pattern was reversed for the relationship between Chl(mass) and A(mass). In conclusion, erect bryophytes possess higher photosynthetic capacities than prostrate species. Furthermore, erect bryophytes invest more nitrogen in chloroplast pigments to improve their light-harvesting ability, while the structure of prostrate species permits more efficient light capture. This study confirms the effect of growth form on the functional trait levels and scaling relationships of bryophytes. It also suggests that bryophytes could be good models for investigating the carbon economy and nutrient allocation of plants at the shoot rather than the leaf scale.
Enrico, Lucas; Díaz, Sandra; Westoby, Mark; Rice, Barbara L
The influence of leaf mechanical properties on local ecosystem processes, such as trophic transfer, decomposition and nutrient cycling, has resulted in a growing interest in including leaf mechanical resistance in large-scale databases of plant functional traits. 'Specific work to shear' and 'force to tear' are two properties commonly used to describe mechanical resistance (toughness or strength) of leaves. Two methodologies have been widely used to measure them across large datasets. This study aimed to assess correlations and standardization between the two methods, as measured by two widely used apparatuses, in order to inter-convert existing data in those global datasets. Specific work to shear (W(SS)) and force to tear (FT) were measured in leaves of 72 species from south-eastern Australia. The measurements were made including and excluding midribs. Relationships between the variables were tested by Spearman correlations and ordinary least square regressions. A positive and significant correlation was found between the methods, but coefficients varied according to the inclusion or exclusion of the midrib in the measurements. Equations for prediction varied according to leaf venation pattern. A positive and significant (r = 0·90, P resistance data obtained with both methodologies could be pooled together into a single coarser variable, using the equations provided in this paper. However, more detailed datasets of FT cannot be safely filled in with estimations based on W(SS), or vice versa. In addition, W(SS) values of green leaves can be predicted with good accuracy from W(SS) of rehydrated leaves of the same species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa
Cement industries located nearby limestone outcrops in Brazil have contributed to the coating of cement dust over native plant species. However, little is known about the extent of the response of tropical woody plants to such environmental pollutant particularly during the first stages of plant development and establishment. This work focused on the investigation of possible alterations in leaf structural and ultrastructural traits of 5-month-old Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), 6-month-old Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae), and 9-month-old Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) challenged superficially with cement dust during new leaf development. Leaf surface of plants, the soil or both (leaf plus soil), were treated (or not) for 60 days, under controlled conditions, with cement dust at 2.5 or 5.0 mg cm(-2). After exposure, no significant structural changes were observed in plant leaves. Also, no plant death was recorded by the end of the experiment. There was also some evidence of localized leaf necrosis in G. ulmifolia and T. hirta, leaf curling in M. urundeuva and T. hirta, and bulges formation on epidermal surface of T. hirta, after cement dust contact with plant shoots. All species studied exhibited stomata obliteration while T. hirta, in particular, presented early leaf abscission, changes in cellular relief, and organization and content of midrib cells. No significant ultrastructural alterations were detected under the experimental conditions studied. Indeed, mesophyll cells presented plastids with intact membrane systems. The high plant survival rates, together with mild morphoanatomic traits alterations in leaves, indicate that G. ulmifolia is more resistant to cement dust pollutant, followed by M. urundeuva and T. hirta. Thus, the three plant species are promising for being used to revegetate areas impacted by cement industries activities.
Full Text Available Analysis of antibiosis resistance to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. has progressed significantly, but the immediate cause remains unknown. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis of pubescence density and plant development stage because these factors are assumed to be the immediate cause of resistance to cutworm. The QTLs for pubescence appeared to be identical to the previously detected the Pd1 and Ps loci controlling pubescence density. We found no candidate loci for flowering time QTLs, although one could be identical to the gene governing the long-juvenile trait or to the E6 loci controlling maturity. None of the QTLs overlapped with the QTLs for antibiosis resistance.
Full Text Available Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase 2 (TPST2 is one of the enzymes responsible for tyrosine O-sulfation and catalyzes the sulfation of the specific tyrosine residue of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR. Since this modification is indispensable for the activation of TSH signaling, a non-functional TPST2 mutation (Tpst2(grt in DW/J-grt mice leads to congenital hypothyroidism (CH characterized by severe thyroid hypoplasia and dwarfism related to TSH hyporesponsiveness. Previous studies indicated that the genetic background of the 129(+Ter/SvJcl (129 mouse strain ameliorates Tpst2(grt-induced CH. To identify loci responsible for CH resistance in 129 mice, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis using backcross progenies from susceptible DW/J and resistant 129 mice. We used the first principal component calculated from body weights at 5, 8 and 10 weeks as an indicator of CH, and QTL analysis mapped a major QTL showing a highly significant linkage to the distal portion of chromosome (Chr 2; between D2Mit62 and D2Mit304, particularly close to D2Mit255. In addition, two male-specific QTLs showing statistically suggestive linkage were also detected on Chrs 4 and 18, respectively. All QTL alleles derived from the 129 strain increased resistance to growth retardation. There was also a positive correlation between recovery from thyroid hypoplasia and the presence of the 129 allele at D2Mit255 in male progenies. These results suggested that the major QTL on Chr 2 is involved in thyroid development. Moreover, since DW/J congenic strain mice carrying both a Tpst2(grt mutation and 129 alleles in the major QTL show resistance to dwarfism and thyroid hypoplasia, we confirmed the presence of the resistant gene in this region, and that it is involved in thyroid development. Further genetical analysis should lead to identification of genes for CH tolerance and, from a better understanding of thyroid organogenesis and function, the subsequent
Studies were conducted on specific core collections constructedon the basis of different traits and sample size by the method of stepwise cluster with three sampling strategies based on genotypic values of cotton.A total of 21 traits (11 agronomy traits,5 fiber traits and 5 seed traits) were used to construct main core collections.Specific core collections,as representative of the initial collection,were constructed by agronomy,fiber or seed trait,respectively.As compared with the main core collection,specific core collections tended to have similar property for maintaining genetic diversity of agronomy,seed or fiber traits.Core collections developed by about sample size of 17% (P2=0.17) and 24% (P1= 0.24) with three sampling strategies could be quite representative of the initial collection.
Vitali, Beatrice; Turroni, Silvia; Serina, Stefania; Sosio, Margherita; Vannini, Lucia; Candela, Marco; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Brigidi, Patrizia
Nucleotide mutations inside a core region of the rpoB gene, encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase, were found in rifaximin-resistant mutants of Bifidobacterium. Five different missense mutations of codons 513, 516, 522 and 529 were identified. Further aspects of rifaximin resistance were investigated, using Bifidobacterium infantis BI07 as a model strain. Partial resistance of RNA polymerase of a BI07 mutant at a rifaximin concentration >10 microg/mL was observed by cell-free transcription assay. Mass spectrometry detection of rifaximin in the cellular pellet of the BI07 resistant mutant, as well as changes in biosynthesis of saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids during growth, suggested a reduction in membrane permeability for the antibiotic moiety.
Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L
This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary.
Christensen, Stina; Heimes, Christine; Agerbirk, Niels; Kuzina, Vera; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hauser, Thure Pavlo
The interactions of plants with herbivores and pathogens have been suggested to drive the evolution of resistances in plants and in some cases new lineages and taxa. However, such divergence may require reproductive isolation, e.g., in allopatry. In the crucifer Barbarea vulgaris, some plants are resistant to the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum, due to production of specific saponins, whereas others are susceptible. Resistant and susceptible plants additionally differ in resistance to the pathogen Albugo candida, content of glucosinolates, and leaf pubescence, and they are genetically strongly divergent and partially reproductively incompatible. This suggests that at some point they were separated for a considerable length of time. Previously, the insect susceptible P-type had been described only from Denmark, Sweden, and Estonia, whereas the resistant G-type is widely distributed in Western Europe. Here, we tested whether the two plant types have divergent geographical distributions and maintain their distinct trait associations throughout their range. The insect-susceptible type was found in Russia, the Baltics, and parts of Fennoscandia, but not in Central Europe. In contrast, the insect resistant type was found from Finland and westwards. Their different trait associations were consistent within the two ranges. We therefore suggest that the two plant types diverged in allopatry at some time in the past, and evolved different resistances in response to local antagonists. The two plant types probably maintain their distinctness due to a hybridization barrier. Thus, the present distributions of the two types may be shaped by both historical processes and current differential biotic selection.
Inuggi, Alberto; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; González-Salinas, Carmen; Valero-García, Ana V; García-Santos, Jose M; Fuentes, Luis J
Impulsivity is a core personality trait forming part of normal behavior and contributing to adaptive functioning. However, in typically developing children, altered patterns of impulsivity constitute a risk factor for the development of behavioral problems. Since both pathological and non-pathological states are commonly characterized by continuous transitions, we used a correlative approach to investigate the potential link between personality and brain dynamics. We related brain functional connectivity of typically developing children, measured with magnetic resonance imaging at rest, with their impulsivity scores obtained from a questionnaire completed by their parents. We first looked for areas within the default mode network (DMN) whose functional connectivity might be modulated by trait impulsivity. Then, we calculated the functional connectivity among these regions and the rest of the brain in order to assess if impulsivity trait altered their relationships. We found two DMN clusters located at the posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus which were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. The whole-brain correlation analysis revealed the classic network of correlating and anti-correlating areas with respect to the DMN. The impulsivity trait modulated such pattern showing that the canonical anti-phasic relation between DMN and action-related network was reduced in high impulsive children. These results represent the first evidence that the impulsivity, measured as personality trait assessed through parents' report, exerts a modulatory influence over the functional connectivity of resting state brain networks in typically developing children. The present study goes further to connect developmental approaches, mainly based on data collected through the use of questionnaires, and behavioral neuroscience, interested in how differences in brain structure and functions reflect in differences in behavior.
Lu, H; Song, Y; Xu, M; Wang, X; Li, X; Liu, J
Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N=247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC, but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being.
Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András
.... Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes...
Full Text Available Research demonstrates that social preferences are characterized by significant individual differences. An important question, often overlooked, is from where do these individual differences originate? And what are the processes that underlie such differences? In this paper, we outline the neural trait approach to uncovering sources of individual differences in social preferences, particularly as evidenced in economic games. We focus on two primary methods—resting-state electroencephalography and structural magnetic resonance imaging—used by researchers to quantify task-independent, brain-based characteristics that are stable over time. We review research that has employed these methods to investigate social preferences with an emphasis on a key psychological process in social decision-making; namely, self-control. We then highlight future opportunities for the neural trait approach in cutting-edge decision-making research. Finally, we explore the debate about self-control in social decision-making and the potential role neural trait research could play in this issue.
Phua, S H; Dodds, K G; Morris, C A; Henry, H M; Beattie, A E; Garmonsway, H G; Towers, N R; Crawford, A M
Facial eczema (FE) is a secondary photosensitization disease arising from liver cirrhosis caused by the mycotoxin sporidesmin. The disease affects sheep, cattle, deer and goats, and costs the New Zealand sheep industry alone an estimated NZ$63M annually. A long-term sustainable solution to this century-old FE problem is to breed for disease-resistant animals by marker-assisted selection. As a step towards finding a diagnostic DNA test for FE sensitivity, we have conducted a genome-scan experiment to screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting this trait in Romney sheep. Four F(1) sires, obtained from reciprocal matings of FE resistant and susceptible selection-line animals, were used to generate four outcross families. The resulting half-sib progeny were artificially challenged with sporidesmin to phenotype their FE traits measured in terms of their serum levels of liver-specific enzymes, namely gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase. In a primary screen using selective genotyping on extreme progeny of each family, a total of 244 DNA markers uniformly distributed over all 26 ovine autosomes (with an autosomal genome coverage of 79-91%) were tested for linkage to the FE traits. Data were analysed using Haley-Knott regression. The primary screen detected one significant and one suggestive QTL on chromosomes 3 and 8 respectively. Both the significant and suggestive QTL were followed up in a secondary screen where all progeny were genotyped and analysed; the QTL on chromosome 3 was significant in this analysis.
Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Pilkington, Jill G; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M
A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cM. The traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (FEC), the coccidia faecal oocyst count (FOC) and a count of keds (Melophagus ovinus). QTL mapping was performed by means of variance component analysis so that the genetic parameters of the study traits were also estimated and compared with previous studies in Soay and domestic sheep. Strongyle FEC and coccidia FOC showed moderate heritability (h(2)=0.26 and 0.22, respectively) in lambs but low heritability in adults (h(2)scans were performed for the traits with moderate heritability and two genomic regions reached the level of suggestive linkage for coccidia FOC in lambs (logarithm of the odds=2.68 and 2.21 on chromosomes 3 and X, respectively). We believe this is the first study to report a QTL search for parasite resistance in a free-living animal population and therefore may represent a useful reference for similar studies aimed at understanding the genetics of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild.
Full Text Available Two-year-old needles were collected from 429 individuals of dwarf mountain pine (Pius mugn Turra from 10 populations of this species growing in the Tatra Mts. (5 populations from calcareous and 5 from calcium-free undersoil. Thirteen anatomical traits of the needles were studied. For obtaining a full picture of the variability of the dwarf mountain pine, the differences were investigated in ten populations (385 plants as regards 27 traits of needles and cones. The data obtained by measurements served as basis for performing multivariate analysis of variance and testing the statistical hypotheses, for discriminant analysis, calculation of the Mahalanobis distances and construction of a minimum spanning tree of the shortest Mahalanobis distances and agglumerative clustering by the method of' nearest neighbourhood. The results of these analyses indicated that the dwarf mountain pine populations differ ,statistically significantly as regards the whole complex of needle traits and form three groups not correlated with the type of undersoil on which they grow. Most closely similar are the populations from Kominy Tylkowe, Morskie Oko and Wyżni Toporowy Staw. The population from Kobylarz is the most diverse. Investigation of' the differences in the complex of' needle and cone traits proved that the traits of cones are decisive for the variability picture.
Full Text Available The collection of 10 parental lines of tetraploid wheat genotypes with various origin was cultivated in growth chamber. Leaf and growth traits such as assimilation pigments content, dry mass and leaf area of plants were measured. The genotype differences were recognized by chlorophyll a fluorescence fast kinetics method applied on penultimate young wheat leaves. Consequently, heat stress susceptibility based on the exposure of whole plants in pots to air temperature of 42oC for 6 hours was measured, too. Rapid chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics method gave us better knowledge about differences among tetraploid wheat genotypes collection comparing to classic assimilation pigments analyse. Genotypes with higher content of pigments did not always exhibit good resistance against heat stress. Using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, the rating of genotypes based on photosynthetic performance as well as photosystem II (PSII thermostability was done. We identified the genotypes TRG7 (Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum, PI 384230, Ethiopia and RONCAL (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon, TRI 17700, Spain as the perspective donors of genes for better thermostability of photosynthetic apparatus in changed climate conditions and material into wheat efficiency breeding programs.
Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; John D E Gabrieli
This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...
Geise, Geoffrey M.
Membrane ionic resistance is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt concentration is known to affect membrane resistance when the same concentration is used on both sides of the membrane, little is known about membrane resistance when the membrane is placed between solutions of different concentrations, such as in a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack. Ionic resistance measurements obtained using Selemion CMV and AMV that separated sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate solutions of different concentrations were greater than those measured using only the high-concentration solution. Measured RED stack resistances showed good agreement with resistances calculated using an equivalent series resistance model, where the membranes accounted for 46% of the total stack resistance. The high area resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling and optimizing membranes used in RED systems.
Zeki Bostan, S.
Full Text Available This study was conducted on âTombulâ hazelnut growing at four elevations (0-50 m, 100-150 m, 200-250 m and 300-350 m in Persembe (Ordu/ Northern Turkey province in 1999 and 2000 years. Sixteen traits (oil, protein and ash contents as chemical; nut weight, nut size, shell thickness, kernel weight, kernel size, percent kernel, internal cavity, shriveled kernels, good kernels as physical; pH, organic matter, phosphorus and potassium in soil were examined at each elevation. Interrelationships among important soil, nut and kernel characteristics were examined. There were significant correlation and interrelationships among the traits. The correlation between oil-nut size, oil- protein positively; protein-kernel size, protein- shriveled kernel negatively; organic matter- shell thickness, organic matter-good kernel negatively; pH- shell thickness, pH-good kernel negatively; good kernel-shell thickness positively; shriveled kernel-kernel weight, shriveled kernel-percent kernel negatively; internal cavity-nut weight positively and internal cavity-nut size negatively; percent kernel-kernel weight, percent kernel-kernel size positively; kernel size-kernel weight positively, and kernel weight-nut weight positively were significant. Significant differences among elevations were observed for shell thickness, ash content in kernel, and pH value in soil. The highest coefficients of variation were observed for phosphorus, shriveled kernels, potassium, internal cavity and organic matter, respectivelyEste estudio ha sido realizado en la avellana âTombulâ que crece en cuatro elevaciones (0-50 m, 100-150 m, 200-250 m y 300- 350 m en la provincia de Persembe (Ordu/ Norte de Turquía en los años 1999 y 2000. Dieciséis rasgos (contenido en aceite, proteína y ceniza como características químicas; peso, tamaño y grosor de cáscara, peso, tamaño y porcentaje del grano, cavidad interna, granos arrugados y granos buenos como características f
Elberse, I.A.M.; Vanhala, T.K.; Turin, J.H.B.; Stam, P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; van Tienderen, P.H.
The genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity of relative growth rate (RGR), its components and associated morphological traits was studied in relation to nutrient limitation. In all, 140 F3 lines from a cross, made between two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) accessions sampled in Israel, were subject
Mukherjee, Vaskar; Steensels, Jan; Lievens, Bart; Van de Voorde, Ilse; Verplaetse, Alex; Aerts, Guido; Willems, Kris A; Thevelein, Johan M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Ruyters, Stefan
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the organism of choice for many food and beverage fermentations because it thrives in high-sugar and high-ethanol conditions. However, the conditions encountered in bioethanol fermentation pose specific challenges, including extremely high sugar and ethanol concentrations, high temperature, and the presence of specific toxic compounds. It is generally considered that exploring the natural biodiversity of Saccharomyces strains may be an interesting route to find superior bioethanol strains and may also improve our understanding of the challenges faced by yeast cells during bioethanol fermentation. In this study, we phenotypically evaluated a large collection of diverse Saccharomyces strains on six selective traits relevant for bioethanol production with increasing stress intensity. Our results demonstrate a remarkably large phenotypic diversity among different Saccharomyces species and among S. cerevisiae strains from different origins. Currently applied bioethanol strains showed a high tolerance to many of these relevant traits, but several other natural and industrial S. cerevisiae strains outcompeted the bioethanol strains for specific traits. These multitolerant strains performed well in fermentation experiments mimicking industrial bioethanol production. Together, our results illustrate the potential of phenotyping the natural biodiversity of yeasts to find superior industrial strains that may be used in bioethanol production or can be used as a basis for further strain improvement through genetic engineering, experimental evolution, or breeding. Additionally, our study provides a basis for new insights into the relationships between tolerance to different stressors.
Jang, Taehwan; Lee, Kwang Pum
Multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence starvation resistance, which is an important determinant of fitness in many organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent studies have revealed that mating can alter starvation resistance in female D. melanogaster, but little is known about the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying such mating-mediated changes in starvation resistance. In the present study, we first investigated whether the effect of mating on starvation resistance is sex-specific in D. melanogaster. As indicated by a significant sex×mating status interaction, mating increased starvation resistance in females but not in males. In female D. melanogaster, post-mating increase in starvation resistance was mainly attributed to increases in food intake and in the level of lipid storage relative to lean body weight. We then performed quantitative genetic analysis to estimate the proportion of the total phenotypic variance attributable to genetic differences (i.e., heritability) for starvation resistance in mated male and female D. melanogaster. The narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) of starvation resistance was 0.235 and 0.155 for males and females, respectively. Mated females were more resistant to starvation than males in all genotypes, but the degree of such sexual dimorphism varied substantially among genotypes, as indicated by a significant sex×genotype interaction for starvation resistance. Cross-sex genetic correlation was greater than 0 but less than l for starvation resistance, implying that the genetic architecture of this trait was partially shared between the two sexes. For both sexes, starvation resistance was positively correlated with longevity and lipid storage at genetic level. The present study suggests that sex differences in starvation resistance depend on mating status and have a genetic basis in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A study of biological characteristics of both field and laboratory isolates revealed that highly resistant isolates were morphologically different from their original wild types. The majority of them were less pathogenic and produced less sclerotia than the original ones.Significant negative correlation between osmotic sensitivity and the degree of resistance was recorded. The correlation between micelium growth rate and resistance to dicarboximides was also significant and negative. Growth medium, acidity and growth temperature had less effect on the micelium growth rate of the highly resistant isolates than on the sensitive ones.
Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno; Al Rifaï, Mehdi; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Comby, Morgane; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Expert, Pascale; Kerdraon, Tifenn; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Ravon, Elisa; Durel, Charles-Eric
Quantitative plant resistance affects the aggressiveness of pathogens and is usually considered more durable than qualitative resistance. However, the efficiency of a quantitative resistance based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) is expected to decrease over time due to the selection of isolates with a high level of aggressiveness on resistant plants. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed scab incidence over an eight-year period in an orchard planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled 79 Venturia inaequalis isolates from this orchard at three dates and we tested their level of aggressiveness under controlled conditions. Isolates sampled on resistant genotypes triggered higher lesion density and exhibited a higher sporulation rate on apple carrying the resistance allele of the QTL T1 compared to isolates sampled on susceptible genotypes. Due to this ability to select aggressive isolates, we expected the QTL T1 to be non-durable. However, our results showed that the quantitative resistance based on the QTL T1 remained efficient in orchard over an eight-year period, with only a slow decrease in efficiency and no detectable increase of the aggressiveness of fungal isolates over time. We conclude that knowledge on the specificity of a QTL is not sufficient to evaluate its durability. Deciphering molecular mechanisms associated with resistance QTLs, genetic determinants of aggressiveness and putative trade-offs within pathogen populations is needed to help in understanding the erosion processes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease affecting mainly Vitis vinifera cultivated varieties around the world. Breeding for resistance through the crossing with less susceptible species is one of the possible means to reduce the disease incidence and the application of fungicides. The hybrid Bianca and some of its siblings are considered very promising but their resistance level can vary depending on the pathogen strain. Moreover, virulent strains characterized by high fitness can represent a potential threat to the hybrid cultivation. Results The host response and the pathogen virulence were quantitatively assessed by artificially inoculating cv Chardonnay, cv Bianca and their siblings with P. viticola isolates derived from single germinating oospores collected in various Italian viticultural areas. The host phenotypes were classified as susceptible, intermediate and resistant, according to the Area Under the Disease Progress Curve caused by the inoculated strain. Host responses in cv Bianca and its siblings significantly varied depending on the P. viticola isolates, which in turn differed in their virulence levels. The fitness of the most virulent strain did not significantly vary on the different hybrids including Bianca in comparison with the susceptible cv Chardonnay, suggesting that no costs are associated with virulence. Among the individual fitness components, only sporangia production was significantly reduced in cv Bianca and in some hybrids. Comparative histological analysis revealed differences between susceptible and resistant plants in the pathogen diffusion and cytology from 48 h after inoculation onwards. Defence mechanisms included callose depositions in the infected stomata, increase in peroxidase activity, synthesis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and the necrosis of stomata and cells immediately surrounding the point of invasion and determined alterations in
Tuckfield, C; J V Mcarthur (NOEMAIL), J
Sediment bacteria samples were collected from three streams in South Carolina, two contaminated with multiple metals (Four Mile Creek and Castor Creek), one uncontaminated (Meyers Branch), and another metal contaminated stream (Lampert Creek) in northern Washington State. Growth plates inoculated with Four Mile Creek sample extracts show bacteria colony growth after incubation on plates containing either one of two aminoglycosides (kanamycin or streptomycin), tetracycline or chloramphenocol. This study analyzes the spatial pattern of antibiotic resistance in culturable sediment bacteria in all four streams that may be due to metal contamination. We summarize the two aminoglycoside resistance measures and the 10 metals concentrations by Principal Components Analysis. Respectively, 63% and 58% of the variability was explained in the 1st principal component of each variable set. We used the respective multivariate summary metrics (i.e. 1st principal component scores) as input measures for exploring the spatial correlation between antibiotic resistance and metal concentration for each stream reach sampled. Results show a significant and negative correlation between metals scores versus aminoglycoside resistance scores and suggest that selection for metal tolerance among sediment bacteria may influence selection for antibiotic resistance differently than previously supposed.. In addition, we borrow a method from geostatistics (variography) wherein a spatial cross-correlation analysis shows that decreasing metal concentrations scores are associated with increasing aminoglycoside resistance scores as the separation distance between sediment samples decreases, but for contaminated streams only. Since these results were counter to our initial expectation and to other experimental evidence for water column bacteria, we suspect our field results are influenced by metal bioavailability in the sediments and by a contaminant promoted interaction or ''cocktail effect
Lio, Guillaume; Gomez, Alice; Sirigu, Angela
Facial width to height ratio (fWHR) is a morphological cue that correlates with sexual dimorphism and social traits. Currently, it is unclear how vertical and horizontal components of fWHR, distinctly capture faces’ social information. Using a new methodology, we orthogonally manipulated the upper facial height and the bizygomatic width to test their selective effect in the formation of impressions. Subjects (n = 90) saw pair of faces and had to select the face expressing better different social traits (trustworthiness, aggressiveness and femininity). We further investigated how sex and fWHR components interact in the formation of these judgements. Across experiments, changes along the vertical component better predicted participants' ratings rather than the horizontal component. Faces with smaller height were perceived as less trustworthy, less feminine and more aggressive. By dissociating fWHR and testing the contribution of its components independently, we obtained a powerful and discriminative measure of how facial morphology guides social judgements. PMID:28235081
Alan C L Yu
Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual and the outcome (positive vs. negative of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.
Sánchez-Kuhn, Ana; León, José Juan; Gôngora, Karinna; Pérez-Fernández, Cristian; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando; Moreno, Margarita; Flores, Pilar
Lack of inhibitory control is present in impulsive and compulsive personality traits. The Go/No-Go task is one of the most effective means to assess response inhibition measured by the ability to appropriately withhold responding to No-Go stimuli. The aim of this work was to study whether differences in performance of Go/No-Go task predicts differences in personality traits related to inhibitory control. For this purpose 63 healthy participants divided into two groups based on the median split of false alarms on the Go/No-Go task completed Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Questionnaire (MOCI). Results showed that participants with high false alarms (H-FA) displayed a high-risk strategy of responding, and higher scores in the MOCI Total and MOCI Checking subscale compared to participants with low false alarms (L-FA). The results show for the first time a relation between the execution of the Go/No-Go task and the MOCI scale. Surprisingly, no relation was found between the Go/No-Go task and the BIS-11 scale. Further studies are needed to define the heterogeneous constructs of compulsivity and impulsivity, and to improve the convergence of the clinical scales and the behavioral measures of these two personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Narendra Kumar, S. B. S. Tikka, Bhagirath Ram, M. C. Dagla
Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to study extent of heterosis under four different environments for yield and its component traits in sesame. Diallel mating design excluding reciprocals was used to develop 28 F1 crosses from eight parents. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the parents vs hybrids was observed under four environments for all the characters, indicating the presence of significant amount of genetic variability for all traits under studied. Heterosis was worked out over mid parent, better parent and standard check, GT-2. For seed yield, crosses Pbtil-1 × AT-124, GT-10 × Pbtil-1 and GT-2 × PT-64 in E1, crosses GT-10 × TMV-3, GT-2 × PT-64 and GT-10 × Pbtil-1 in E2 and crosses TMV-3 × C-1013, TMV-3 × Pbtil-1 and GT-10 × Pbtil-1 in environment E3 having high per se performance along with significant mid parent, batter parent and standard heterosis. Hence, these crosses would be exploited for isolating transgressive segregants for seed yield and its component traits for genetic improvement in sesame.
Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.
Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum accessio
Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura
Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.
This study aims to evaluate a multidimensional latent trait model to determine how well the model works in various empirical contexts. Contrary to the assumption of these latent trait models that the traits are normally distributed, situations in which the latent trait is not shaped with a normal distribution may occur (Sass et al, 2008; Woods…
Full Text Available The ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN mouse is a chronic kidney disease (CKD model that is characterized histologically by glomerulosclerosis, vascular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and clinically by proteinuria and anemia, which are common symptoms and pathological changes associated with a variety of kidney diseases. Previously, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis to identify the causative genes for proteinuria in ICGN mice, and found a deletion mutation of the tensin 2 gene (Tns2nph, MGI no: 2447990. Interestingly, the congenic strain carrying the Tns2nph mutation on a C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background exhibited milder phenotypes than did ICGN mice, indicating the presence of several modifier genes controlling the disease phenotype. In this study, to identify the modifier/resistant loci for CKD progression in Tns2-deficient mice, we performed QTL analysis using backcross progenies from susceptible ICGN and resistant B6 mice. We identified a significant locus on chromosome (Chr 2 (LOD = 5.36; 31 cM and two suggestive loci on Chrs 10 (LOD = 2.27; 64 cM and X (LOD = 2.65; 67 cM with linkage to the severity of tubulointerstitial injury. One significant locus on Chr 13 (LOD = 3.49; approximately 14 cM and one suggestive locus on Chr 2 (LOD = 2.41; 51 cM were identified as QTLs for the severity of glomerulosclerosis. Suggestive locus in BUN was also detected in the same Chr 2 region (LOD = 2.34; 51 cM. A locus on Chr 2 (36 cM was significantly linked with HGB (LOD = 4.47 and HCT (LOD = 3.58. Four novel epistatic loci controlling either HGB or tubulointerstitial injury were discovered. Further genetic analysis should lead to identification of CKD modifier gene(s, aiding early diagnosis and providing novel approaches to the discovery of drugs for the treatment and possible prevention of kidney disease.
Cantalapiedra, Carlos P; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Silvar, Cristina; Perovic, Dragan; Ordon, Frank; Gracia, María Pilar; Igartua, Ernesto; Casas, Ana M
Powdery mildew causes severe yield losses in barley production worldwide. Although many resistance genes have been described, only a few have already been cloned. A strong QTL (quantitative trait locus) conferring resistance to a wide array of powdery mildew isolates was identified in a Spanish barley landrace on the long arm of chromosome 7H. Previous studies narrowed down the QTL position, but were unable to identify candidate genes or physically locate the resistance. In this study, the exome of three recombinant lines from a high-resolution mapping population was sequenced and analyzed, narrowing the position of the resistance down to a single physical contig. Closer inspection of the region revealed a cluster of closely related NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat containing protein) genes. Large differences were found between the resistant lines and the reference genome of cultivar Morex, in the form of PAV (presence-absence variation) in the composition of the NBS-LRR cluster. Finally, a template-guided assembly was performed and subsequent expression analysis revealed that one of the new assembled candidate genes is transcribed. In summary, the results suggest that NBS-LRR genes, absent from the reference and the susceptible genotypes, could be functional and responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. The procedure followed is an example of the use of NGS (next-generation sequencing) tools to tackle the challenges of gene cloning when the target gene is absent from the reference genome.
Carlos P. Cantalapiedra
Full Text Available Powdery mildew causes severe yield losses in barley production worldwide. Although many resistance genes have been described, only a few have already been cloned. A strong QTL (quantitative trait locus conferring resistance to a wide array of powdery mildew isolates was identified in a Spanish barley landrace on the long arm of chromosome 7H. Previous studies narrowed down the QTL position, but were unable to identify candidate genes or physically locate the resistance. In this study, the exome of three recombinant lines from a high-resolution mapping population was sequenced and analyzed, narrowing the position of the resistance down to a single physical contig. Closer inspection of the region revealed a cluster of closely related NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat containing protein genes. Large differences were found between the resistant lines and the reference genome of cultivar Morex, in the form of PAV (presence-absence variation in the composition of the NBS-LRR cluster. Finally, a template-guided assembly was performed and subsequent expression analysis revealed that one of the new assembled candidate genes is transcribed. In summary, the results suggest that NBS-LRR genes, absent from the reference and the susceptible genotypes, could be functional and responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. The procedure followed is an example of the use of NGS (next-generation sequencing tools to tackle the challenges of gene cloning when the target gene is absent from the reference genome.
O'Rourke, Norm; Claxton, Amy; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas
In this study of 125 older couples married for an average of 34 years, multilevel models were computed to simultaneously examine intra-couple personality trait averages and between-spouse trait similarity as predictors of marital satisfaction. Our findings suggest that higher intra-couple levels of extraversion predict marital satisfaction, both husbands and wives. In addition, between-spouse similarity in openness to experience appears associated with higher levels of marital satisfaction as reported by husbands; concomitantly, between-spouse similarity in agreeableness predicts wives' marital satisfaction. With respect to openness (husbands) and agreeableness (wives), it did not matter which spouse within couples reported higher or lower trait levels. The most notable finding to emerge from this study is that neuroticism is not associated with marital satisfaction, neither husbands nor wives. This result stands in contrast to previously reported findings--the vast majority of prior research conducted with dating and newlywed couples. Conflicting results may reflect the degree to which neuroticism determines divorce within the first years of married life, adaptation to the foibles of one's spouse over time, overreliance on younger samples in marriage and family research, or some combination of these alternate explanations.
Somers, J G C J; Schouten, W G P; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Metz, J H M
Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a straw yard (SY). Twenty cows per farm were selected and stratified by parity. Information on claw traits was recorded on right lateral hind claws between October 2002 and May 2003. In addition, lesion development of interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE) and digital dermatitis (DD) was studied in both rear feet. No differences in claw traits were detected among groups on different floor types, with the exception of claw angle. Claw angles were smallest in cows on SY. Claws of cows on SC were steeper than those on SL and GR. The study provided no evidence that floor-related differences in claw lesions were related to differences in horn growth, wear, and resulting claw shape. Lesions of IDHE developed gradually over time and did not differ among flooring types. Cows in SY had the smallest lesion scores for DD, whereas cows on SL had significantly less DD than cows on SC and GR. Incidence of DD fluctuated over time. Development of different stages of DD was monitored in-depth. Both early and healed stages were rather changeable and often turned into other disease stages. Classical ulcerative lesions (stage M2) persisted for a long time, with 20% of the initially unaffected claws having active lesions of DD within 5 mo. The M2 lesions generally did not cure effectively after claw trimming, and frequent use of footbaths resulted in a poor prognosis for recovery.
Full Text Available Changes in personality over ontogeny can occur even when every agent (individual or genotype is exposed to the same set of cues, experiences or environmental conditions. A recent Bayesian model (Stamps and Krishnan, in press shows how individual differences in the means and variances of prior distributions of estimates of variables such as danger can generate predictable individual differences in behavioral developmental trajectories, and predictable changes in the differential consistency (broad-sense repeatability of behavior over ontogeny, even if every subject is reared and maintained under the same conditions. We use this model to highlight the distinction between potential plasticity (the ability of an agent to change its phenotype in response to different types of experience and realized plasticity (the extent to which an agent’s phenotype actually changes in response to a specific experience, and to demonstrate why the realized behavioral developmental plasticity of a given agent might vary as a function of the type of cues to which that agent was exposed over ontogeny. We describe two commonly used experimental protocols for studying individual differences in developmental plasticity (within-individual versus replicate individual designs, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each for investigating individual differences in the developmental plasticity of personality traits, and explain why replicate individual designs provide better estimates than within-individual designs of the potential developmental plasticity of behavioral traits. More generally, we suggest that a Bayesian approach to development, especially one which assumes that individuals differ with respect to the information provided by their immediate and distant ancestors, can provide valuable insights into how genes, epigenetic factors, maternal effects and personal experiences might combine across the lifetime to affect the development of personality and other
Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.
Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Chapman, Samantha K. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Whitham, Thomas G [Northern Arizona University; Hart, Stephen C [Northern Arizona University; Koch, George W [Northern Arizona University
It is generally assumed that leaf and root litter decomposition have similar drivers and that nutrient release from these substrates is synchronized. Few studies have examined these assumptions, and none has examined how plant genetics (i.e., plant susceptibility to herbivory) could affect these relationships. Here we examine the effects of herbivore susceptibility and resistance on needle and fine root litter decomposition of pi on pine, Pinus edulis. The study population consists of individual trees that are either susceptible or resistant to herbivory by the pi on needle scale, Matsucoccus acalyptus, or the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella. Genetic analyses and experimental removals and additions of these insects have identified trees that are naturally resistant and susceptible to these insects. These herbivores increase the chemical quality of litter inputs and alter soil microclimate, both of which are important decomposition drivers. Our research leads to four major conclusions: Herbivore susceptibility and resistance effects on 1) needle litter mass loss and phosphorus (P) retention in moth susceptible and resistant litter are governed by microclimate, 2) root litter nitrogen (N) and P retention, and needle litter N retention are governed by litter chemical quality, 3) net nutrient release from litter can reverse over time, 4) root and needle litter mass loss and nutrient release are determined by location (above- vs. belowground), suggesting that the regulators of needle and root decomposition differ at the local scale. Understanding of decomposition and nutrient retention in ecosystems requires consideration of herbivore effects on above- and belowground processes and how these effects may be governed by plant genotype. Because an underlying genetic component to herbivory is common to most ecosystems of the world and herbivory may increase in climatic change scenarios, it is important to evaluate the role of plant genetics in affecting carbon and
Haggard, J Erron; Johnson, Emily B; St Clair, Dina A
When the allele of a wild species at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring a desirable trait is introduced into cultivated species, undesirable effects on other traits may occur. These negative phenotypic effects may result from the presence of wild alleles at other closely linked loci that are transferred along with the desired QTL allele (i.e., linkage drag) and/or from pleiotropic effects of the desired allele. Previously, a QTL for resistance to Phytophthora infestans on chromosome 5 of Solanum habrochaites was mapped and introgressed into cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum). Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were generated and used for fine-mapping of this resistance QTL, which revealed coincident or linked QTL with undesirable effects on yield, maturity, fruit size, and plant architecture traits. Subsequent higher-resolution mapping with chromosome 5 sub-NILs revealed the presence of multiple P. infestans resistance QTL within this 12.3 cM region. In our present study, these sub-NILs were also evaluated for 17 horticultural traits, including yield, maturity, fruit size and shape, fruit quality, and plant architecture traits in replicated field experiments over the course of two years. Each previously detected single horticultural trait QTL fractionated into two or more QTL. A total of 41 QTL were detected across all traits, with ∼30% exhibiting significant QTL × environment interactions. Colocation of QTL for multiple traits suggests either pleiotropy or tightly linked genes control these traits. The complex genetic architecture of horticultural and P. infestans resistance trait QTL within this S. habrochaites region of chromosome 5 presents challenges and opportunities for breeding efforts in cultivated tomato.
Marília Pastro Vidal
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of lambs fed high-concentrate diets (92.65% containing different cereal grains (ground corn, whole grain corn, whole grain sorghum, or replacement of 40% whole grain corn with whole grain millet. Twenty-four feedlot intact lambs of undefined breed, with a body weight of 22.35 ± 3,.71 kg, kept in individual pens for 56 days were allocated in a completely randomized design. Dry matter intake expressed as a percentage of body weight was higher (P=0.0046 for the diets containing sorghum and ground corn (3.73% and 3.39%, respectively compared to the diets containing millet and whole grain corn (3.23% and 3.13%, respectively. Feed efficiency was higher (P=0.014 for whole grain corn and millet (0.293 and 0.269, respectively and lower for ground corn and sorghum (0.247 and 0.226, respectively. The apparent digestibility of organic matter, dry matter and crude protein was lower for the sorghum diet (P=0.0003. The carcass traits, meat cuts traits or objective longissimus muscle tenderness were not influenced by the diets offered to the animals. Meat color (P<0.0001 and luminosity (P=0.0063 were improved with inclusion of whole grains. The use of whole corn and millet grains is recommended for the feeding of feedlot lambs considering their nutritional benefits, feed efficiency, and improved carcass traits and meat quality attributes.
Full Text Available The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 reports on large samples of children/ adolescents (2 to 15 years in both countries were obtained. Gender differences were small and similar across countries, and their patterns were closer to each other for the same data source across countries than they were for the two sources of information within the country. The parents in both countries concurred in rating daughters as somewhat more achievement orientated, compliant, considerate, and organized, whereas sons were assessed as slightly more active, antagonistic, and distractible. At the higher-order trait level, girls were perceived to be more conscientious and agreeable relative to the boys, especially from middle childhood onwards. Regarding self-reports, adolescent girls also scored significantly higher on Considerate and Positive Emotions scales than boys, while the former reported on higher agreeableness relative to the latter in Slovenia only. Gender differences were evident even in parental assessments of the youngest group but they did not systematically increase over children's age.
Adamski, Marek; Kuźniacka, Joanna; Banaszak, Mirosław; Wegner, Marcin
The aim of the study was to compare Sussex cockerels and capons as well as to estimate the influence of age on slaughter yield and meat quality. The tests were performed on cockerels and capons from strain S11 (Sussex). At 16, 18, and 20 wk of age, a dissection of the entire carcass was conducted. The breast and leg muscles were tested for physio-chemical traits, as well as chemical parameters. It was noted that, due to significant differences in BW of the eviscerated carcasses between wk 18 and 20 of slaughter, the best time to cease rearing S11 cockerels could be wk 20. However, for S11 capons, the optimal time for slaughter appeared to be wk 18 (no significant differences in BW and carcass weight or musculature between wk 18 and 20). The trait which did not differ between cockerels and capons slaughtered at different ages was slaughter yield. Fatness of the cockerels increased with age whilst the weight of capons' skin with subcutaneous fat was the same at wk 18 and 20 of evaluation. With increasing age, pH indicators of cockerels and capons' breast muscles were increasing; the water holding capacity of capons' breast muscles were also increasing. Both cockerels and capons showed darker color of breast muscle at wk 20 compared to wk 16 of evaluation. Redness of the breast muscle in the following periods of evaluation did not show significant differences, although with age, the yellowness of the cockerels and capons' breast muscle increased significantly. Among cockerels and capons, the water content in the breast and leg muscles were decreasing with age whilst the protein content was increasing. A significant growing tendency of the percentage of fat share in the breast and leg muscles with age was noted in the capon group. Conclusions for breeding practice are as follows: due to meat and quality traits, Sussex cockerels and capons can be used until wk 18 or 20 of life.
Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy
The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.
Luan, Junwen; Wang, Fei; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Juren
Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is one of the most serious virus diseases of maize worldwide, and it causes great reduction of maize production. In China, the pathogen was shown to be rice black-streaked virus (RBSDV). Currently, MRDD has spread broadly and leads to significant loss in China. However, there has been little research devoted to this disease. Our aims were to identify the markers and loci underlying resistance to this virus disease. In this study, segregation populations were constructed from two maize elite lines '90110', which is highly resistant to MRDD and 'Ye478', which is highly susceptible to MRDD. The F(2) and BC(1) populations were used for bulk sergeant analysis (BSA) to identify resistance-related markers. One hundred and twenty F(7:9) RILs were used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping through the experiment of multiple environments over 3 years. Natural occurrence and artificial inoculation were both used and combined to determine the phenotype of plants. Five QTL, qMRD2, qMRD6, qMRD7, qMRD8 and qMRD10 were measured in the experiments. The qMRD8 on chromosome 8 was proved to be one major QTL conferring resistance to RBSDV disease in almost all traits and environments, which explained 12.0-28.9 % of the phenotypic variance for disease severity in this present study.
We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.
Chambers, Jeanne; Germino, Matthew; Belnap, Jayne; Brown, Cynthia; Schupp, Eugene W.; St. Clair, Samuel B
The factors that determine plant community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species (Bromushereafter) are diverse and context specific. They are influenced by the environmental characteristics and attributes of the community, the traits of Bromus species, and the direct and indirect interactions of Bromus with the plant community. Environmental factors, in particular ambient and soil temperatures, have significant effects on the ability of Bromus to establish and spread. Seasonality of precipitation relative to temperature influences plant community resistance toBromus through effects on soil water storage, timing of water and nutrient availability, and dominant plant life forms. Differences among plant communities in how well soil resource use by the plant community matches resource supply rates can influence the magnitude of resource fluctuations due to either climate or disturbance and thus the opportunities for invasion. The spatial and temporal patterns of resource availability and acquisition of growth resources by Bromus versus native species strongly influence resistance to invasion. Traits of Bromus that confer a “priority advantage” for resource use in many communities include early-season germination and high growth and reproductive rates. Resistance to Bromus can be overwhelmed by high propagule supply, low innate seed dormancy, and large, if short-lived, seed banks. Biological crusts can inhibit germination and establishment of invasive annual plants, including several annual Bromus species, but are effective only in the absence of disturbance. Herbivores can have negative direct effects on Bromus, but positive indirect effects through decreases in competitors. Management strategies can be improved through increased understanding of community resistance to exotic annual Bromus species.
Horne, Roland N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Li, Kewen [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
The objective was to develop geophysical approaches to detecting and evaluating the fractures created or existing in EGS and other geothermal reservoirs by measuring the resistivity at different frequencies. This project has been divided into two phases: Phase I (first year): Proof of Concept – develop the resistivity approach and verify the effect of frequency on the resistivity in rocks with artificial or natural fractures over a wide range of frequencies. Phase II: Prototyping Part 1 (second year): measure the resistivity in rocks with fractures of different apertures, different length, and different configurations at different frequencies. Part 2 (third year): develop mathematical models and the resistivity method; infer the fracture properties using the measured resistivity data.
Marandel, Grégoire; Salava, Jaroslav; Abbott, Albert; Candresse, Thierry; Decroocq, Véronique
Plum pox virus (PPV) is responsible for sharka disease, one of the most detrimental stone fruit diseases affecting Prunus trees worldwide. Only a few apricot cultivars have been described as resistant, most originating from North American breeding programmes. Several PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been mapped in various progenies, consistently highlighting the contribution to the resistance of the upper part of linkage group 1 (LG1). However, to date, no consensus has been reached on the precise number of QTLs linked to the resistance to PPV in apricot and P. davidiana or on their accurate position on the genetic linkage map. In the present study, the quantitative resistance of cultivar 'Harlayne' was analysed over five growth periods in a large F1 population. Four QTLs were identified, three mapping on LG1, explaining between 5% and 39% of the observed phenotypic variance. In an effort to further this analysis of PPV resistance in apricot, these results were merged in a single QTL meta-analysis with those of five other PPV resistance analyses available in the literature. Three consensus QTL regions were identified on LG1 and a putative fourth region on LG3. QTL meta-analysis also revealed the contribution of each resistant cultivar to metaQTLs, providing interesting comparative data on the resistance factors shared between the resistance sources used in the various studies. Finally, it was shown that one of the metaQTLs co-localizes with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E, thus providing new hypotheses on the mechanisms of PPV resistance in apricot.
Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R
The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species' native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion
Oscar N.E. Kjell
Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose.Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being.Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being.Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well
Matsushita, Michinari; Takao, Mikako; Makita, Akifumi
In dioecious plants, differences in growth traits between sexes in a response to micro-environmental heterogeneity may affect sex ratio bias and spatial distributions. Here, we examined sex ratios, stem growth traits and spatial distribution patterns in the dioecious clonal shrub Aucuba japonica var. borealis, in stands with varying light intensities. We found that male stems were significantly more decumbent (lower height/length ratio) but female stems were upright (higher height/length ratio). Moreover, we found sex-different response in stem density (no. of stems per unit area) along a light intensity gradient; in males the stem density increased with increases in canopy openness, but not in females. The higher sensitivity of males in increasing stem density to light intensity correlated with male-biased sex ratio; fine-scale sex ratio was strongly male-biased as canopy openness increased. There were also differences between sexes in spatial distributions of stems. Spatial segregation of sexes and male patches occupying larger areas than female patches might result from vigorous growth of males under well-lit environments. In summary, females and males showed different growth responses to environmental variation, and this seemed to be one of possible causes for the sex-differential spatial distributions and locally biased sex ratios.
Full Text Available Farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, sampled from three different culture systems (intensive in sea-cages, intensive in land-based basins and extensive in lagoon and storage basins of salt-work, of the Northern, Central and Southern Italy, were analyzed with the aim to employ nutritional trait to describe and to distinguish the “origin” of the product. Lipid and fatty acid profile, strongly affected by the feeding history and environmental factors, responsible of the nu- tritional and perceived quality of fish product, are proposed as marker of origin.
Full Text Available Oxidative stress serves as an important host/environmental signal that triggers a wide range of responses in microorganisms. Here, we identified an oxidative stress sensor and response regulator in the important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium belonging to the MarR family and called AsrR (antibiotic and stress response regulator. The AsrR regulator used cysteine oxidation to sense the hydrogen peroxide which results in its dissociation to promoter DNA. Transcriptome analysis showed that the AsrR regulon was composed of 181 genes, including representing functionally diverse groups involved in pathogenesis, antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide resistance, oxidative stress, and adaptive responses. Consistent with the upregulated expression of the pbp5 gene, encoding a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, the asrR null mutant was found to be more resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Deletion of asrR markedly decreased the bactericidal activity of ampicillin and vancomycin, which are both commonly used to treat infections due to enterococci, and also led to over-expression of two major adhesins, acm and ecbA, which resulted in enhanced in vitro adhesion to human intestinal cells. Additional pathogenic traits were also reinforced in the asrR null mutant including greater capacity than the parental strain to form biofilm in vitro and greater persistance in Galleria mellonella colonization and mouse systemic infection models. Despite overexpression of oxidative stress-response genes, deletion of asrR was associated with a decreased oxidative stress resistance in vitro, which correlated with a reduced resistance to phagocytic killing by murine macrophages. Interestingly, both strains showed similar amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Finally, we observed a mutator phenotype and enhanced DNA transfer frequencies in the asrR deleted strain. These data indicate that AsrR plays a major role in antimicrobial
Clarence F. G. Castillo
Full Text Available Antibiotics resistance is a serious biomedical issue as formally susceptible organisms gain resistance under its selective pressure. There have been contradictory results regarding the prevalence of resistance following withdrawal and disuse of the specific antibiotics. Here, we use experimental evolution in “digital organisms” to examine the rate of gain and loss of resistance under the assumption that there is no fitness cost for maintaining resistance. Our results show that selective pressure is likely to result in maximum resistance with respect to the selective pressure. During deselection as a result of disuse of the specific antibiotics, a large initial loss and prolonged stabilization of resistance are observed, but resistance is not lost to the stage of preselection. This suggests that a pool of partial persists organisms persist long after withdrawal of selective pressure at a relatively constant proportion. Hence, contradictory results regarding the prevalence of resistance following withdrawal and disuse of the specific antibiotics may be a statistical variation about constant proportion. Our results also show that subsequent reintroduction of the same selective pressure results in rapid regain of maximal resistance. Thus, our simulation results suggest that complete elimination of specific antibiotics resistance is unlikely after the disuse of antibiotics once a resistant pool of microorganisms has been established.
Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D E
This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies-observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences.
Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.
Cocozza, Claudia; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, L'ubica; Marino, Stefano; Maiuro, Lucia; Alvino, Arturo; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Bolte, Andreas; Tognetti, Roberto
Frequency and intensity of heat waves and drought events are expected to increase in Europe due to climate change. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important native tree species in Europe. Beech populations originating throughout its native range were selected for common-garden experiments with the aim to determine whether there are functional variations in drought stress responses among different populations. One-year old seedlings from four to seven beech populations were grown and drought-treated in a greenhouse, replicating the experiment at two contrasting sites, in Italy (Mediterranean mountains) and Germany (Central Europe). Experimental findings indicated that: (1) drought (water stress) mainly affected gas exchange describing a critical threshold of drought response between 30 and 26% SWA for photosynthetic rate and Ci/Ca, respectively; (2) the Ci to Ca ratio increased substantially with severe water stress suggesting a stable instantaneous water use efficiency and an efficient regulation capacity of water balance achieved by a tight stomatal control; (3) there was a different response to water stress among the considered beech populations, differently combining traits, although there was not a well-defined variability in drought tolerance. A combined analysis of functional and structural traits for detecting stress signals in beech seedlings is suggested to assess plant performance under limiting moisture conditions and, consequently, to estimate evolutionary potential of beech under a changing environmental scenario. PMID:27446118
Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M
Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.
showed that the sexual disparity in heritability values may be explained by a slightly greater genetic component for most ... heritabilities of economic traits in sheep was reported by Kyle .... out of the nine traits studied, does not necessarily add.
Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F
Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple “stacked” traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...
Feilhauer, Johanna; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud
The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional (CU) Traits (ICU) is a self-report questionnaire which was developed to measure the affective features of psychopathy in children and adolescents. Previous studies reported both support and difficulties with this promising new measure. The present study investigated the psychometric and discriminating qualities of the Dutch questionnaire across different groups by examining its structure, distribution and correlates. The ICU was administered to young clinical offenders (detained, N=127), healthy controls (community, N=172), non-clinical offenders (not detained, N=42) and an externalizing non-offender group (under treatment for behavioral problems, N=42). The age range for all groups was 13-20years. Since confirmatory factor analysis of models from earlier research did not yield an acceptable fit, exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Five factors were extracted: Lack of Conscience, Uncaring, Unemotional, Callousness and Lack of Empathy. The results indicated moderate to good test-retest stability and adequate internal consistency. CU traits correlated well with measures of conduct problems and aggression, indicating a good criterion and convergent validity. Results indicate weak associations with expert (Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version, PCL:YV) and informant (Antisocial Process Screening Device, APSD) measures of psychopathic traits. Although groups could be differentiated on a statistical basis, no meaningful distinction based on CU traits alone was possible. Results of this study cast doubt on the validity of the current ICU. Suggestions are made for improvement.
Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans
Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest succession and increasing light scarcity during wet forest succession. Although
Greer, Laura G.; Roberts, Scott W.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Rogers, Vanessa L.; Hill, James B.; Mcintire, Donald D.; Wendel, George D.
Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases) had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission). Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth). Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients. PMID:18923674
Wang, Yan-ping; Xu, Tan; Zhu, Wan-rui; Wang, Qi-tong; Liu, Meng-ling; Wang, Hua-tian; Li, Chuan-rong; Dong, Yu-feng
Based on the fine root samples of the first and second generations of poplar (Populus x euramericana ' Neva'), this study examined the response of quantitative and morphological traits of fine roots of different orders and the difference between generations. The results showed that, the quantitative traits of fine roots, such as root length, root surface area and root biomass, presented obvious seasonal variation, and the fine root traits had obvious difference among root orders. The quantitative traits of lower-order fine roots showed significant seasonal difference, and the fine root biomass increased in the growing season and then decreased significantly. The specific root length (SRL) of higher-order roots also showed significant change with season, while the root length density (RLD) and root tissue density (RTD) changed a little. The successive rotation resulted in the significant increase of root length, root biomass, SRL and RLD of 1-2 orders in the growing season. The quantitative traits of first order root significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, and significantly negatively correlated with the soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, the quantitative traits of second order root only showed significant correlation with soil nutrient content. The seasonal dynamics of poplar fine roots and the difference between successive rotation plantations implied carbon investment change of poplar to roots. Soil nutrient deficiency induced more carbon investment into roots, and this carbon allocation pattern might affect the aboveground productivity of poplar plantation.
Patricia L Lockwood
Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD can behave in ways that suggest lack of empathy towards others. However, many different cognitive and affective processes may lead to unempathic behavior and the social processing profiles of individuals with high psychopathic vs. ASD traits are likely different. Whilst psychopathy appears characterized by problems with resonating with others’ emotions, ASD appears characterized by problems with cognitive perspective-taking. In addition, alexithymia has previously been associated with both disorders, but the contribution of alexithymia needs further exploration. In a community sample (N=110 we show for the first time that although affective resonance and cognitive perspective-taking are related, high psychopathic traits relate to problems with resonating with others’ emotions, but not cognitive perspective taking. Conversely, high ASD traits relate to problems with cognitive perspective-taking but not resonating with others’ emotions. Alexithymia was associated with problems with affective resonance independently of psychopathic traits, suggesting that different component processes (reduced tendency to feel what others feel and reduced ability to identify and describe feelings comprise affective resonance. Alexithymia was not associated with the reduced cognitive perspective-taking in high ASD traits. Our data suggest that (1 elevated psychopathic and ASD traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains and (2 reduced affective resonance in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits and the reduced cognitive perspective taking in individuals with elevated ASD traits are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. (3 Alexithymia is independently associated with reduced affective resonance. Consequently, our data point to different component processes within the construct of empathy that are suggestive of partially separable cognitive
Ziello, Chiara; Estella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette
On the basis of an extensive plant phenological dataset which involves phenological stations distributed all over Europe (from Spain to Russia, from the Alps to the Scandinavian Peninsula), we assess those differences in temporal trends related to Plant Functional Types (PFTs, i.e. woodiness), ecological traits (i.e. dates of flowering) and functional traits (i.e. pollination mode). We analyze differences in the sensitivity of different flowering stages to these traits. We focus on different substages such as beginning of flowering, full flowering, end of flowering because flowering seems to be so far one of the stages most affected by climate change. An increasing risk of pollinosis is one of the most likely expected consequences of climate change, and the detection of differences in responses of wind-pollinated plants with respect to other vegetation categories is important also to understand the impact of increasing temperatures on the behavior of allergenic plants. Wind-pollinated plants can be considered as representative of allergenic species because anemophilous species include those ones with the highest capability of causing allergy-related diseases in human subjects (e.g. the birch family, some cultivated and spontaneous grasses). Our main results indicate that, during the last three decades, wind-pollinated plants are advancing more than insect-pollinated ones, moreover showing a significant linear dependence of trends on phenodates. The tendency towards an earlier onset of flowering of anemophilous species could be explained due to the fact that all the considered species are angiosperms. For this plant division, anemophily is a condition derived from entomophily, and likely developed as a response to adverse or changing environmental conditions. So, it could be possible to look at them as species somehow predisposed to a more rapid adaptation process. On the other hand, this behavior could also be caused by the direct dependence on temperature of these
Weixing ZHANG; Zhi ZHAO; Guangxiao BAI; Fangjing FU
Using cultivating experiments in fields under drought stress, yields and characteristics in morphology, growth and development of different genotype maize inbred lines were studied systematically. We evaluated and classified the drought resistance of these materials based on the needed indexes, including subordinate func-tion values of drought resistance (SV), drought coefficient (DC) and drought index (DI) of yield by fuzzy function method and cluster analysis. We also analyzed the corre-lations between parameters and tested values of traits. The effective parameters and indexes of comprehensive evalu-ation for drought resistance were selected with principal component analysis. The results showed that under drought stress, the yield of maize inbred lines obviously decreased. The anthesis and silking interval (ASI) was prolonged compared with the control, with a smaller leaf area, thinner stalk, shorter and smaller ears, lengthened barren ear tip, a decline in plant height and ear position, reduced grain number per ear and grain weight, which led to a yield decline. Effects of drought treatment on differ-ent maize inbred lines were significantly different. 79-1E, Jiao51, Su1-1 and 18599 were found to be highly resistant to drought, while 1125 and 5311 performed the worst. DI and SV were significantly correlated with drought resist-ance. Our results indicated that DI, SV, yield and leaf area could be used as parameters and indexes to effectively evaluate the drought resistance of maize. Meanwhile, DC, plant height, ASI, grain number per ear or row, ear length and diameter could be taken as auxiliary para-meters and indexes. An applied scientific method for the comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance was offered in this paper.
Bahrndorff, Simon; Holmstrup, Martin; Petersen, H.
. Desiccation resistance increased towards the most southern and northern population, suggesting that both low and high temperature extremes affect desiccation resistance. Body mass, water pool and WLR showed interpopulation as well as sex specific variation. This provides evidence for geographical variation...... in stress resistance of springtails related to climatic conditions. Keywords: Geographic variation; Climatic change; Adaptation; Orchesella cincta; Soil ecosystems...
Improving resistance for Phytophthora root and stem rot is an important goal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding. Partial resistance can be as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify QTL con...
Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S
Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.
Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E
It has been proposed, and only minimally explored, that personality factors may play a role in determining an individual's sensitivity to and preference for capsaicin containing foods. We explored these relationships further here. Participants rated a number of foods and sensations on a generalized liking scale in a laboratory setting; after leaving the laboratory, they filled out an online personality survey, which included Arnett's Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS) and the Sensitivity to Punishment-Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Recently, we reported strong and moderate correlations between the liking of a spicy meal and the personality constructs of Sensation Seeking (AISS) and Sensitivity to Reward (SPSRQ), respectively. Here, we use moderation models to explore the relationships between personality traits, perceived intensity of the burn of capsaicin, and the liking and consumption of spicy foods. Limited evidence of moderation was observed; however differential effects of the personality traits were seen in men versus women. In men, Sensitivity to Reward associated more strongly with liking and consumption of spicy foods, while in women, Sensation Seeking associated more strongly with liking and intake of spicy foods. These differences suggest that in men and women, there may be divergent mechanisms leading to the intake of spicy foods; specifically, men may respond more to extrinsic factors, while women may respond more to intrinsic factors.
John T. Hunter
Full Text Available Inselbergs and the adjacent matrix represent extremes of different environmental conditions and should shed light on the changing allocation of plant resources across strong and abrupt resource gradients. Here I use collated life history trait data from 840 taxa found within typical insular inselberg and adjacent matrix floras from the New England Batholith region of eastern Australia. These species were sorted into guilds of specificity to the inselberg environment. Scored traits include life form, plant height, leaf area, fruit size, seed size, mono- or polycarpy, underground storage organs, regenerative/clonality, and flowering phenology. With reduced water and nutrient resources, typical of inselbergs, allocation of plant resources to vegetative reproduction and storage organs is a disadvantage. Plants restricted to inselbergs were shorter, usually polycarpic shrubs, with smaller leaves, fruits, and seeds. Flowering time was found to be earlier and reduced in length; diaspores often have dormancy and are dispersed locally in comparison to the matrix. The results show that with limited resources the creation of underground storage organs or vegetative reproduction becomes unviable on habitats characterised by shallow soil. Inselberg taxa of the study region are likely to be under greater threat than the matrix due to anthropogenic climate change.
Full Text Available Populus nigra L. (black poplar possesses amphistomatic leaves, with large (giant and normal sized stomata. The role of giant stomata in leaf development, and the consequences on stomatal density in adult leaves remains elusive. This paper describes the characteristics of ordinary and giant stomata in leaves of two black poplar genotypes (58-861 with large leaves from northern Italy, and Poli with small leaves from southern Italy. Stomatal traits in both genotypes were studied using light microscopy on mature leaf adaxial and abaxial epidermal impressions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy was applied to study giant and normal stomata in early, young, and mature leaves. Leaf abaxial surfaces in the two genotypes revealed variable sizes and patterns of stomata related to differences in intrinsic water use efficiency (Wi. These observations provided evidence of different stomatal types in mature black poplar leaves, and new information regarding the presence and potential role of giant stomata in black poplar leaves.
Odintsova, I G; Radchenko, E E; Tyryshkin, L G
Different hypotheses concerning durable plant resistance against different pest were tested: 1) resistance is weak and polygenetically controlled; 2) resistance depends on "residual effect" of oligogenes that were overcome by pests. Contrast pair of plants and pests were used in experiments: wheat, barley--facultative parasite Bipolaris sorokiniana Shoem., wheat--obligate parasite Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm., sorghum--greenbug Schizaphis graminum Rond. Differential interaction between parasite and host plant resulted in their increased compatibility under long reproduction of parasite on resistant varieties were regarded as criteria of quick overcoming of resistance. The results did not support any hypothesis. The rate of adaptation of B. sorokiniana to the resistant varieties of wheat and barley did not depend on the level of resistance expression (weak, moderate or strong) and genetic control (oligogenic, polygenic or cytoplasmatic). It was shown by hybridological analysis that "residual effect" of oligogenes of sorghum resistance against greenbug depended on small resistance genes, that can be independent or weakly connected with marker oligogene. These data allows to doubt in phenomenon of "residual effect" of oligogenes. It was shown that non specific pathogenicity of parasitic fungi increased during their reproductions on sensitive varieties of plants. Thus, cultivation of sensitive varieties causes damage of crop culture non only because of their own losses, but also by increasing the infection of moderately resistant varieties.
Argyris, Jason M; Pujol, Marta; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat; Garcia-Mas, Jordi
The availability of the genome sequence of many crop species during the past few years has opened a new era in plant biology, allowing for the performance of massive genomic studies in plant species other than the classical models Arabidopsis and rice. One of these crop species is melon (Cucumis melo), a cucurbit of high economic value that has become an interesting model for the study of biological processes such as fruit ripening, sex determination and phloem transport. The recent availability of the melon genome sequence, together with a number of genetic and genomic resources, provides powerful tools that can be used to assist in the main melon breeding targets, namely disease resistance and fruit quality. In this review, we will describe recent data obtained combining the use of a melon near isogenic line (NIL) population and genomic resources to gain insight into agronomically important traits as fruit ripening, resistance to Cucumber Mosaic virus (CMV) and the accumulation of sugars in fruits.
Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large effect QTL for fire blight resistance has been pre...
Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis has been very well investigated worldwide. However, there are only limited reports on the characterization of methicillin resistant and sensitive coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS across the globe. Hence, in the present study, we aim to determine the phenotypic traits based on antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genotypic characterization by verifying the presence of resistance determinants, virulence and toxin genes present in the CoNS causing clinical mastitis. We obtained 62 CoNS isolates from 167 mastitic milk samples collected from three different states of India. The 62 isolates comprises of 10 different CoNS species S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes, S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. simulans, S. agnetis, S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, and S. cohinii. Susceptibility screening against 11 antibiotics determined 45.16% isolates as multidrug resistant (resistant to more than two class of antibiotic, 46.74% resistant (one or two antibiotic class and 8.06% isolates were pan-sensitive (sensitive to all drugs. High resistance was observed against oxacillin and cefoxitin, whereas all isolates were susceptible toward vancomycin and linezolid. Fifty three isolates were methicillin resistant and 9 isolates were sensitive as determined by oxacillin susceptibility assay. The methicillin resistance gene, mecA was found in 95.16% isolates and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing predominantly revealed Type III (n = 34 and Type V (n = 18. Interestingly, 11.9% of mecA positive isolates were oxacillin susceptible and referred as oxacillin susceptible mecA positive staphylococci (OS-MRS. Additionally, genes encoding for enterotoxin, (sea, seb, seh, see toxic shock syndrome (tsst, exfoliatin (eta, etb, etd and virulence (pvl, Y-hlg were also screened. Of all the genes examined, 67.74% of isolate were positive for the Y-hlg gene, followed by the sea gene in
Leffler, A Joshua; James, Jeremy J; Monaco, Thomas A
Performance differences between native and exotic invasive plants are often considered static, but invasive grasses may achieve growth advantages in western North America shrublands and steppe under only optimal growing conditions. We examine differences in N uptake and several morphological variables that influence uptake at temperatures between 5 and 25 °C. We contrast two native perennial grasses in western North America: Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata; two invasive annual grasses: Bromus tectorum and Taeniatherum caput-medusae; and one highly selected non-native perennial grass: Agropyron cristatum. The influence of temperature on N uptake is poorly characterized, yet these invasive annual grasses are known to germinate in warm soils in the autumn, and both experience cool soils during the short growing season following snowmelt in the spring. To further explore the influence of temperature on the correlation between morphological variables and N uptake, our data are applied to a previously published path model and one proposed here. Differences in N uptake between native and invasive grasses were small at the lowest temperature, but were large at the highest temperature. At lower temperatures, uptake of N by annuals and perennials was correlated with leaf N and mass. At higher temperatures, uptake by annuals was correlated only with these leaf traits, but uptake by perennials was correlated with these leaf traits as well as root N and mass. Consequently, our results imply that annual grasses face fewer morphological constraints on N uptake than perennial grasses, and annual grasses may gain further advantage in warmer temperature conditions or during more frequent warm periods.
Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M
Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.
Graham, Eileen K; Lachman, Margie E
Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associated with faster reaction time, yet lower reasoning. The association between neuroticism and performance was found primarily among younger adults. In older adulthood, better performance was associated with positive emotional aspects of personality. We discuss how personality may have different associations with performance across age and the implications for possible interventions.
Xu, Jie; Shi, Chunlei; Song, Minghui; Xu, Xuebin; Yang, Puyu; Paoli, George; Shi, Xianming
Staphylococcus aureus is a recognized pathogen in humans, which causes nosocomial infections and food poisoning. The transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus (ARSA), especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus, between food products and humans has become a serious problem. Hence, it is necessary to monitor S. aureus through the food supply chain. In this study, the disk diffusion method and epsilometer test were performed to determine the prevalence of ARSA in 78 foodborne isolates using 18 antibiotics. The highest resistance frequency was found for penicillin G (74.4%), followed by erythromycin (59.0%) and clindamycin (44.9%), whereas no vancomycin-resistant isolates were found. The 78 isolates could be subtyped into 31 resistance profiles and 11 clusters based on their antimicrobial susceptibility. Furthermore, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening for the presence of 13 genes conferring antibiotic resistance was conducted. The presence of resistance genes was relatively high: blaTEM (80.8%), ermB (41.0%), grlA (38.5%), ermC (35.9%), and aac6'/aph2" (35.9%). The incidence of antibiotic resistance was significantly correlated to food types (p = 0.018), with isolates from meat and raw milk more resistant to antibiotics than those from frozen food and vegetables.
Xiaohua Cao; Jianghong Zhou; Xiaoping Gong; Guangyao Zhao; Jizeng Jia; Xiaoquan Qi
Stripe (yellow) rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend.f.sp.tritici Eriks (Pst),is one of the most important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) diseases and causes significant yield losses.A recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between Yanzhan 1 and Xichang 76-9 cultivars was evaluated for resistance to wheat stripe rust strain CYR32 at both the seedling and adult plant stages.Four resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in this population,in which the major one,designated as Yrq1,was mapped on chromosome 2DS.The strategy of using the Brachypodium distachyon genome,wheat expressed sequence tags and a draft DNA sequences (scaffolds) of the D-genome (Aegilops tauschii Coss.) for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was successfully used to identify 147 SSRs in hexaploid wheat.Of the 19 polymorphic SSRs in the RI population,17 SSRs were mapped in the homeologous group 2 chromosomes near Yrq1 region and eight SSRs were genetically mapped in the 2.7 cM region of Yrq1,providing abundant DNA markers for fine-mapping of Yrq1 and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding program.The effectiveness of Yrq1 was validated in an independent population,indicating that this resistance QTL can be successfully transferred into a susceptible cultivar for improvement of stripe rust resistance.
Mikolajczak, Moïra; Luminet, Olivier; Menil, Clementine
As trait emotional intelligence [TEI] is claimed to facilitate adaptation, study 1 (N= 80) investigated whether TEI would be associated with adaptative outcomes such as enhanced self-reported mental and physical health. As these assumptions were supported, study 2 (N= 75) tested the hypothesis of a moderating effect of TEI on the relationship between stress and psychological and somatic health. Incremental validity of TEI over alexithymia and optimism was also examined. We chose academic exam...
Gardiner Susan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1 and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90. In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY
Measuring the resistance of different substructure materials by sticking them to dentine with ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Materials and Methods: In an in vitro study, 72 central upper front teeth were ...
Singh, A; Pandey, M P; Singh, A K; Knox, R E; Ammar, K; Clarke, J M; Clarke, F R; Singh, R P; Pozniak, C J; Depauw, R M; McCallum, B D; Cuthbert, R D; Randhawa, H S; Fetch, T G
Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. tritici Eriks.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) cause major production losses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The objective of this research was to identify and map leaf, stripe and stem rust resistance loci from the French cultivar Sachem and Canadian cultivar Strongfield. A doubled haploid population from Sachem/Strongfield and parents were phenotyped for seedling reaction to leaf rust races BBG/BN and BBG/BP and adult plant response was determined in three field rust nurseries near El Batan, Obregon and Toluca, Mexico. Stripe rust response was recorded in 2009 and 2011 nurseries near Toluca and near Njoro, Kenya in 2010. Response to stem rust was recorded in field nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, in 2010 and 2011. Sachem was resistant to leaf, stripe and stem rust. A major leaf rust quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on chromosome 7B at Xgwm146 in Sachem. In the same region on 7B, a stripe rust QTL was identified in Strongfield. Leaf and stripe rust QTL around DArT marker wPt3451 were identified on chromosome 1B. On chromosome 2B, a significant leaf rust QTL was detected conferred by Strongfield, and at the same QTL, a Yr gene derived from Sachem conferred resistance. Significant stem rust resistance QTL were detected on chromosome 4B. Consistent interactions among loci for resistance to each rust type across nurseries were detected, especially for leaf rust QTL on 7B. Sachem and Strongfield offer useful sources of rust resistance genes for durum rust breeding.
Staphylococcus aureus is a recognized pathogen in humans, which causes nosocomial infections and food poisoning. The transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus (ARSA), especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), between food products and humans has become a serious problem. Hence, it is n...
Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdmann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the US. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of t...
Linhagens de feijoeiro com resistência à antracnose selecionadas quanto a características agronômicas desejáveis Common bean lines with resistance to anthracnose selected to desirable agronomical traits
Helton Santos Pereira
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar entre as linhagens de feijoeiro resistentes à antracnose, aquelas com alta produtividade, tipo de grãos Carioca, resistência à mancha-angular (Phaeoisariopsis griseola e porte arbustivo. Foram avaliadas 256 linhagens oriundas de um programa de melhoramento genético por retrocruzamentos. Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos em três locais no Estado de Minas Gerais, em que foram avaliadas a produção e o tipo de grãos, o porte e a reação à mancha-angular. Observaram-se acentuadas diferenças genéticas entre as linhagens e, conseqüentemente, as herdabilidades foram também elevadas e propiciaram acentuados ganhos com a seleção. A maioria das correlações fenotípicas estimadas entre os caracteres não foi significativa, indicando a possibilidade de seleção de linhagens superiores em todos os fenótipos de interesse. Foram selecionadas cinco linhagens com alto potencial produtivo, grãos do tipo Carioca, porte arbustivo e maior nível de resistência à mancha-angular, sendo que duas delas possuem uma pirâmide de alelos de resistência à antracnose.Besides the anthracnose resistance, the objective of this research was to identify lines with Carioca grain type, high grain yield, angular leaf spot resistance (Phaeoisariopsis griseola, and upright plant architecture. Two hundred and fifty six lines from a backcross breeding program aiming to get anthracnose resistance lines were evaluated. Four field trials were set up in three places of the Minas Gerais State, and grain type and yield, reaction to angular leaf spot and plant architecture were measured. Great genetic differences were observed among the lines and therefore, the heritabilities estimates were also of great magnitude and assure considerable selection progress. The majority of the phenotypic correlation among the evaluated traits were not significant, suggesting the possibility to select improved lines for all traits. Five
Armour, D J; Mackie, J M; Musial, J M; Irwin, J A G
Five asymmetric hybrid plants were obtained between Medicago sativa (2n = 4x = 32) and Medicago arborea (2n = 4x = 32) through sexual reproduction and the use of a cytoplasmically male sterile M. sativa genotype. Over 2,000 pollinations were made to obtain these hybrids. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that in the most studied hybrid (WA2273), 4% of the bands unique to the M. arborea parent were present, versus 72% for the unique M. sativa bands. This suggests that only a single M. arborea chromosome or chromosome parts has been transferred. WA2273 had 7% of AFLP bands which were not present in either parent, which is suggestive of chromosome rearrangements as would be expected if only chromosome parts or a single part had been transferred from M. arborea. Phenotypic evidence for hybridity was obtained for pod coiling (1.4 coils in WA2273 versus three coils in the M. sativa parent and its self and testcross populations, and one coil in M. arborea), and Colletotrichum trifolii race 2 resistance (transferred from the resistant M. arborea parent, as the M. sativa parent and the self populations were highly susceptible). The hybrids were self sterile, but were female fertile to a high level when crossed with 4x, but not 2x, M. sativa, indicating they were at or near 4x. Both the pod coiling trait and anthracnose resistance segregated in the progeny of testcrosses between WA2273 and M. sativa. The work demonstrates that agronomically useful traits can be introgressed into M. sativa from M. arborea by use of male sterile M. sativa and sexual reproduction.
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric; Myers, Wade C
Information on psychopathological characteristics of sexual homicide offenders is scarce. To investigate criminal, paraphilic and personality trait differences between serial and single-victim sexual homicide offenders. All 73 single-victim and 13 serial sexual homicide offenders presenting within a cohort of 671 men sentenced for sexual crimes between 1994 and 2005 and serving their sentence in one high-security Canadian prison and who consented to interview were assessed and compared on their offending patterns, personality pathology and paraphilic behaviours. Serial sexual homicide offenders were more likely than the single offenders to report deviant sexual fantasies, having selected victims with distinctive characteristics, to have targeted strangers, structured premeditation and/or verbal humiliation of their victims during the offences. Personality pathology, defined by at least two Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria for personality disorder, was common in both groups, but the serial offenders were more likely to have narcissistic, schizoid and/or obsessive-compulsive traits; they were also more likely to engage in sexual masochism, partialism, homosexual paedophilia, exhibitionism and/or voyeurism. Samples of serial sexual homicide offenders will, fortunately, always be small, and it may be that more could be learned to assist in preventing such crimes if data from several studies or centres were pooled. Our findings suggest that an investigation of sexual homicide offenders should include strategies for evaluating premeditation as well as personality and paraphilic characteristics. Crime scene features that should alert investigators should include similar characteristics between victims and particular aspects of body exposure or organisation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A.; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans
Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment). We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a ‘Community-Weighted Mean’ plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest
Full Text Available Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment. We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during
Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven
There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…
Lawing, Kathryn; Frick, Paul J.; Cruise, Keith R.
In the present study, the authors investigated whether callous and unemotional (CU) traits designated a distinct and important group of adolescent sex offender. A sample of 150 detained adolescents (mean age = 15.89, SD = 1.53) with a current sexual offense disposition was assessed with a self-report measure of CU traits and through extensive…
Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander
Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype consistently in autistic men and women. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form in a large sample of autistic adults. It also systematically explored specific sex differences at the item level, to determine whether the scale assesses the autism phenotype equivalently across males and females. Factor analyses were conducted among 265 males and 285 females. A two-factor structure consisting of a social behaviour and numbers and patterns factor was consistent across groups, indicating that the latent autism phenotype is similar among both autistic men and women. Subtle differences were observed on two social behaviour item thresholds of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form, with women reporting scores more in line with the scores expected in autism on these items than men. However, these differences were not substantial. This study showed that the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form detects autistic traits equivalently in males and females and is not biased towards the male autism phenotype.
Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.
LIUBaozhong; LIANGYubo; LIUXiaolin; DONGBo; XIANGJianhai
The shell traits and weight traits are measured in cultured populations of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. The results of regression analysis show that the regression relationships for all the traits are significant (P0.05). The multiple regression equation is obtained to estimate live body weight and tissue weight. The above traits except anterior and posterior auricle length are used for the growth and production comparison among three cultured populations, Duncan's new multiple range procedure analysis shows that all the traits in the Lingshuiqiao (LSQ) population are much more significant than those of the other two populations (P0.05). The results indicate that the LSQ population has a higher growth rate and is expected to be more productive than the other two populations.
Pinto, Pedro M.; Hontoria, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade; Bio, Ana
There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A. parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A. franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A. parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A. franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A. parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations.
Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs were used to study the effects of sex (barrows or gilts and terminal sire line (Iberian or three genetic lines of Duroc: Duroc 1, Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 on performance and carcass and meat quality traits. Gilts showed slightly lower average daily gain, shoulder weight and trimming losses, but slightly better primal cuts yields and higher loin weight, while there was no significant effect of sex on meat quality traits or on the fatty acid composition of lard and muscle. There were important differences in performance and in carcass and primal cuts quality traits between pure Iberian pigs and all Iberian × Duroc crossbreeds evaluated, partly due to the lower slaughter weights reached by the formers. The different sire lines showed differences in several traits; Duroc 1 group showed lower backfat thickness and ham and shoulder trimming losses, and higher primal cut yields than Duroc 2 and Duroc 3 groups. Intramuscular fat (IMF content remained unaffected by crossbreeding, but meat color resulted more intense and redder in crosses from the Duroc 1 sire line. The accumulation of fatty acids in lard was not affected by Duroc sire line, while animals of the group Duroc 2 showed higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid and lower of polyunsaturated ones in IMF. These results highlight the importance of considering not only performance, but also carcass and meat quality traits when deciding the Duroc sire line for crossbreeding in Iberian pig production.
Sep 17, 2008 ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Biotechnology Centre, P.O. Box 14733, Nairobi 00800. Accepted 2 .... two types of resistance against P. sorghi: partial and race-specific. .... complete block design with three replicates.
Background Soil salinity is an abiotic stress wide spread in rice producing areas, limiting both plant growth and yield. The development of salt-tolerant rice requires efficient and high-throughput screening techniques to identify promising lines for salt affected areas. Advances made in image-based phenotyping techniques provide an opportunity to use non-destructive imaging to screen for salinity tolerance traits in a wide range of germplasm in a reliable, quantitative and efficient way. However, the application of image-based phenotyping in the development of salt-tolerant rice remains limited. Results A non-destructive image-based phenotyping protocol to assess salinity tolerance traits of two rice cultivars (IR64 and Fatmawati) has been established in this study. The response of rice to different levels of salt stress was quantified over time based on total shoot area and senescent shoot area, calculated from visible red-green-blue (RGB) and fluorescence images. The response of rice to salt stress (50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl) could be clearly distinguished from the control as indicated by the reduced increase of shoot area. The salt concentrations used had only a small effect on the growth of rice during the initial phase of stress, the shoot Na+ accumulation independent phase termed the ‘osmotic stress’ phase. However, after 20 d of treatment, the shoot area of salt stressed plants was reduced compared with non-stressed plants. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the concentration of Na+ in the shoot. Variation in the senescent area of the cultivars IR64 and Fatmawati in response to a high concentration of Na+ in the shoot indicates variation in tissue tolerance mechanisms between the cultivars. Conclusions Image analysis has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening procedures in the development of salt-tolerant rice. The ability of image analysis to discriminate between the different aspects of salt stress (shoot ion
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study whether commercial nucleus lines of rabbits selected for different traits, and experimental lines having commercial purposes, have the same degree of maturity when compared at the same slaughter age. The study was carried out with 17897 rabbits from Universitat Politècnica de València. Rabbits came from the maternal lines A (3902 rabbits; 44th generation, V (4238 rabbits; 39th generation and LP (6115 rabbits; 9th generation, selected for litter size at weaning; the paternal line R (2023 rabbits; 25th generation, selected for growth rate between 28 and 63 days of age; the maternal line OR (586 rabbits; 11th generation selected for ovulation rate; and the lines High (503 rabbits; 5th generation and Low (530 rabbits; 5thgeneration lines, from a divergent selection for high and low intramuscular fat, respectively. Rabbits were weighted at 28 (W28 and 63 (W63 days of age. Rabbit does (42, 25, 39, 94, 14, 32 and 22 from lines A, V, R, LP, OR, High and Low, respectively were weighed between 30 and 80 wk of age to determine adult weight (AW. Line R had higher W28 and W63, growth rate between 28 and 63 d of age and AW than lines A, V and LP (5802 g vs. 4410, 4222, and 4391 g for AW, respectively. No relevant differences between lines in degrees of maturity at 28 and 63 d of age and time to reach 40% of degree of maturity (percentage of weight compared to AW were found between lines A, V, R and LP, but the degree of maturity at 2000 g and the time taken to reach that weight were lower in line R (34.7% and 55.2 d than in lines A (45.5% and 71.1 d, V (47.4% and 69.6 d, and LP (45.8% and 68.0 d. No relevant differences were found between lines OR, High and Low in the traits analysed. A robustness analysis showed that results can be extrapolated to other commercial lines and other slaughter weights. In conclusion, comparison of lines at similar slaughter age could be considered a valid approach for comparisons at the same
Bonin, Aurélie; Paris, Margot; Frérot, Hélène; Bianco, Erica; Tetreau, Guillaume; Després, Laurence
The bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is an increasingly popular alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling mosquito populations. Because Bti toxicity relies on the action of four main toxins, resistance to Bti is very likely a complex phenotype involving several genes simultaneously. Dissecting the underlying genetic basis thus requires associating a quantitative measure of resistance to genetic variation at many loci in a segregating population. Here, we undertake this task using the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, as a study model. We conducted QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus) and admixture mapping analyses on two controlled crosses and on an artificial admixed population, respectively, all obtained from resistant and susceptible lab strains. We detected 16 QTL regions, among which four QTLs were revealed by different analysis methods. These four robust QTLs explained altogether 29.2% and 62.2% of the total phenotypic variance in the two QTL crosses, respectively. They also all showed a dominant mode of action. In addition, we found six loci showing statistical association with Bti resistance in the admixed population. Five of the supercontigs highlighted in this study contained candidate genes as suggested by their function, or by prior evidence from expression and/or outlier analyses. These genomic regions are thus good starting points for fine mapping of resistance to Bti or functional analyses aiming at identifying the underlying genes and mutations. Moreover, for the purpose of this work, we built the first Ae. aegypti genetic map based on markers associated with genes expressed in larvae. This genetic map harbors 229 SNP markers mapped across the three chromosomes for a total length of 311.9cM. It brought to light several assembly discrepancies with the reference genome, suggesting a high level of genome plasticity in Ae. aegypti.
Biro, Peter A
Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.
Olderbak, Sally G; Malter, Frederic; Wolf, Pedro Sofio Abril; Jones, Daniel N; Figueredo, Aurelio José
We evaluated five competing hypotheses about what predicts romantic interest. Through a half-block quasi-experimental design, a large sample of young adults (i.e., responders; n = 335) viewed videos of opposite-sex persons (i.e., targets) talking about themselves and responders rated the targets' traits and their romantic interest in the target. We tested whether similarity, dissimilarity, or overall trait levels on mate value, physical attractiveness, life history strategy, and the Big-Five personality factors predicted romantic interest at zero acquaintance, and whether sex acted as a moderator. We tested the responders' individual perception of the targets' traits, in addition to the targets' own self-reported trait levels and a consensus rating of the targets made by the responders. We used polynomial regression with response surface analysis within multilevel modeling to test support for each of the hypotheses. Results suggest a large sex difference in trait perception; when women rated men, they agreed in their perception more often than when men rated women. However, as a predictor of romantic interest, there were no sex differences. Only the responders' perception of the targets' physical attractiveness predicted romantic interest; specifically, responders' who rated the targets' physical attractiveness as higher than themselves reported more romantic interest.
The Resistance to Change Scale was designed to measure an individual's dispositional inclination to resist changes. In Study 1, exploratory analyses indicated 4 reliable factors: Routine Seeking, Emotional Reaction to Imposed Change, Cognitive Rigidity, and Short-Term Focus. Studies 2, 3, and 4 confirmed this structure and demonstrated the scale's convergent and discriminant validities. Studies 5, 6, and 7 demonstrated the concurrent and predictive validities of the scale in 3 distinct contexts. The scale can be used to account for the individual-difference component of resistance to change and to predict reactions to specific change.
Lu, Songsong; Xin, Ying; Tang, Xiaolong; Yue, Feng; Wang, Huihui; Bai, Yucheng; Niu, Yonggang; Chen, Qiang
Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae) is considered to be the highest living reptile in the world (about 4500-5000 m above sea level), whereas Phrynocephalus przewalskii inhabits low altitudes (about 1000-1500 m above sea level). Here, we report the differences in hematological traits between these two different Phrynocephalus species. Compared with P. przewalskii, the results indicated that P. erythrurus own higher oxygen carrying capacity by increasing red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and hematocrit (Hct) and these elevations could promote oxygen carrying capacity without disadvantage of high viscosity. The lower partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) of P. erythrurus did not cause the secondary alkalosis, which may be attributed to an efficient pulmonary system for oxygen (O2) loading. The elevated blood-O2 affinity in P. erythrurus may be achieved by increasing intrinsic O2 affinity of isoHbs and balancing the independent effects of potential heterotropic ligands. We detected one α-globin gene and three β-globin genes with 1 and 33 amino acid substitutions between these two species, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation results showed that amino acids substitutions in β-globin chains could lead to the elimination of hydrogen bonds in T-state Hb models of P. erythrurus. Based on the present data, we suggest that P. erythrurus have evolved an efficient oxygen transport system under the unremitting hypobaric hypoxia.
Full Text Available Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae is considered to be the highest living reptile in the world (about 4500-5000 m above sea level, whereas Phrynocephalus przewalskii inhabits low altitudes (about 1000-1500 m above sea level. Here, we report the differences in hematological traits between these two different Phrynocephalus species. Compared with P. przewalskii, the results indicated that P. erythrurus own higher oxygen carrying capacity by increasing red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration ([Hb] and hematocrit (Hct and these elevations could promote oxygen carrying capacity without disadvantage of high viscosity. The lower partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2 of P. erythrurus did not cause the secondary alkalosis, which may be attributed to an efficient pulmonary system for oxygen (O2 loading. The elevated blood-O2 affinity in P. erythrurus may be achieved by increasing intrinsic O2 affinity of isoHbs and balancing the independent effects of potential heterotropic ligands. We detected one α-globin gene and three β-globin genes with 1 and 33 amino acid substitutions between these two species, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation results showed that amino acids substitutions in β-globin chains could lead to the elimination of hydrogen bonds in T-state Hb models of P. erythrurus. Based on the present data, we suggest that P. erythrurus have evolved an efficient oxygen transport system under the unremitting hypobaric hypoxia.
Very little empirical evidence exists linking the motivational traits portion of the motivational traits and skills framework to goal setting processes. The present study explored relationships between motivational traits, task-specific self-efficacy and self-set goal level during a computer-based task. Along with direct assessment of these relationships, we assessed whether task-specific self-efficacy mediates relationships between motivational traits and self-set goal level. In the current ...
Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G. M.; van Heemst, D.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; de Craen, A. J. M.; Maier, A. B.
Skeletal muscle is important in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Sarcopenia is, therefore, a possible risk factor for insulin resistance. Currently, different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia include low muscle mass, muscle strength, and walking speed. We assessed these muscle characteristics in relation to insulin resistance in nondiabetics. This cross-sectional study included 301 nondiabetics, mean age 65.9 years. Area under curve (AUC) calculations of insulin and glucose from a 2-h ora...
de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R
Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning.
Laura G. Greer
Full Text Available Objective. To measure the incidence of ampicillin-resistant uropathogens in acute antepartum pyelonephritis and to determine if patients with resistant organisms had different clinical outcomes. Study design. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted with pyelonephritis, diagnosed by standard clinical and laboratory criteria. All patients received ampicillin and gentamicin. Results. We identified 440 cases of acute pyelonephritis. Seventy-two percent (316 cases had urine cultures with identification of organism and antibiotic sensitivities. Fifty-one percent of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant. The patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms were more likely to be older and multiparous. There were no significant differences in hospital course (length of stay, days of antibiotics, ECU admission, or readmission. Patients with ampicillin-resistant organisms did not have higher complication rates (anemia, renal dysfunction, respiratory insufficiency, or preterm birth. Conclusion. A majority of uropathogens were ampicillin resistant, but no differences in outcomes were observed in these patients.
Ordonez, J.C.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Witte, J.P.M.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Dobben, van H.F.; Aerts, R.
The large variation in the relationships between environmental factors and plant traits observed in natural communities exemplifies the alternative solutions that plants have developed in response to the same environmental limitations. Qualitative attributes, such as growth form, woodiness, and leaf
Haddad, Nizar; Mahmud Batainh, Ahmed; Suleiman Migdadi, Osama; Saini, Deepti; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Parameswaran, Sriram; Alhamuri, Zaid
Apis mellifera syriaca exhibits a high degree of tolerance to pests and pathogens including varroa mites. This native honey bee subspecies of Jordan expresses behavioral adaptations to high temperature and dry seasons typical of the region. However, persistent honey bee imports of commercial breeder lines are endangering local honey bee population. This study reports the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to study the A. m. syriaca genome and to identify genetic factors possibly contributing toward mite resistance and other favorable traits. We obtained a total of 46.2 million raw reads by applying the NGS to sequence A. m. syriaca and used extensive bioinformatics approach to identify several candidate genes for Varroa mite resistance, behavioral and immune responses characteristic for these bees. As a part of characterizing the functional regulation of molecular genetic pathway, we have mapped the pathway genes potentially involved using information from Drosophila melanogaster and present possible functional changes implicated in responses to Varroa destructor mite infestation toward this. We performed in-depth functional annotation methods to identify ∼600 candidates that are relevant, genes involved in pathways such as microbial recognition and phagocytosis, peptidoglycan recognition protein family, Gram negative binding protein family, phagocytosis receptors, serpins, Toll signaling pathway, Imd pathway, Tnf, JAK-STAT and MAPK pathway, heamatopioesis and cellular response pathways, antiviral, RNAi pathway, stress factors, etc. were selected. Finally, we have cataloged function-specific polymorphisms between A. mellifera and A. m. syriaca that could give better understanding of varroa mite resistance mechanisms and assist in breeding. We have identified immune related embryonic development (Cactus, Relish, dorsal, Ank2, baz), Varroa hygiene (NorpA2, Zasp, LanA, gasp, impl3) and Varroa resistance (Pug, pcmt, elk, elf3-s10, Dscam2, Dhc64C, gro
Chao; Lv; Yanxia; Song; Lifeng; Gao; Qin; Yao; Ronghua; Zhou; Rugen; Xu; Jizeng; Jia
Fusarium head blight(FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most destructive wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) diseases worldwide. Identification of quantitative trait loci(QTL) conferring FHB resistance followed by marker assisted selection(MAS) is an efficient approach to breed FHB-resistant varieties. In this study, 38 additive QTL and 18 pairs of epistatic QTL for FHB resistance were detected in four environments using a population of recombinant inbred lines(RILs) derived from varieties Neixiang 188 and Yanzhan 1. Six QTL clusters were located on chromosomes 2D, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5D and 7B, suggesting possible polytrophic functions. Six elite lines with good FHB resistance and agronomic traits were selected from the same population using the associated markers. Our results suggest that MAS of multiple QTL will be effective and efficient in wheat breeding.
Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most destructive wheat (Triticum aestivum L. diseases worldwide. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring FHB resistance followed by marker assisted selection (MAS is an efficient approach to breed FHB-resistant varieties. In this study, 38 additive QTL and 18 pairs of epistatic QTL for FHB resistance were detected in four environments using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from varieties Neixiang 188 and Yanzhan 1. Six QTL clusters were located on chromosomes 2D, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5D and 7B, suggesting possible polytrophic functions. Six elite lines with good FHB resistance and agronomic traits were selected from the same population using the associated markers. Our results suggest that MAS of multiple QTL will be effective and efficient in wheat breeding.
Research shows that high levels of stress correlate with higher consumption of high- fat and high-sugar snack-type foods, particularly amongst women. However, it has been observed that not all individuals are vulnerable to this pattern of ‘stress-related’ eating. Both stress and dietary habits have been strongly correlated with specific personality traits but previous research has neglected to observe whether personality traits significantly affect correlations between perceived stress and ty...
Rebecca SAFRAN, Samuel FLAXMAN, Michael KOPP, Darren E. IRWIN, Derek BRIGGS, Matthew R. EVANS, W. Chris FUNK, David A. GRAY, Eileen A. HEBE
Full Text Available Whereas a rich literature exists for estimating population genetic divergence, metrics of phenotypic trait divergence are lacking, particularly for comparing multiple traits among three or more populations. Here, we review and analyze via simulation Hedges’ g, a widely used parametric estimate of effect size. Our analyses indicate that g is sensitive to a combination of unequal trait variances and unequal sample sizes among populations and to changes in the scale of measurement. We then go on to derive and explain a new, non-parametric distance measure, “Δp”, which is calculated based upon a joint cumulative distribution function (CDF from all populations under study. More precisely, distances are measured in terms of the percentiles in this CDF at which each population’s median lies. Δp combines many desirable features of other distance metrics into a single metric; namely, compared to other metrics, p is relatively insensitive to unequal variances and sample sizes among the populations sampled. Furthermore, a key feature of Δp—and our main motivation for developing it—is that it easily accommodates simultaneous comparisons of any number of traits across any number of populations. To exemplify its utility, we employ Δp to address a question related to the role of sexual selection in speciation: are sexual signals more divergent than ecological traits in closely related taxa? Using traits of known function in closely related populations, we show that traits predictive of reproductive performance are, indeed, more divergent and more sexually dimorphic than traits related to ecological adaptation [Current Zoology 58 (3: 423-436, 2012].
Rebecca SAFRAN; Nathalie SEDDON; Elizabeth SCORDATO; Laurel B.SYMES; Joseph A.TOBIAS; David P.L.TOEWS; J.Albert C.UY; Samuel FLAXMAN; Michael KOPP; Darren E.IRWIN; Derek BRIGGS; Matthew R.EVANS; W.Chris FUNK; David A.GRAY; Eileen A.HEBETS
Whereas a rich literature exists for estimating population genetic divergence,metrics of phenotypic trait divergence are lacking,particularly for comparing multiple traits among three or more populations.Here,we review and analyze via simulation Hedges' g,a widely used parametric estimate of effect size.Our analyses indicate that g is sensitive to a combination of unequal trait variances and unequal sample sizes among populations and to changes in the scale of measurement.We then go on to derive and explain a new,non-parametric distance measure,“Δp”,which is calculated based upon a joint cumulative distribution function (CDF) from all populations under study.More precisely,distances are measured in terms of the percentiles in this CDF at which each population's median lies.Δp combines many desirable features of other distance metrics into a single metric;namely,compared to other metrics,p is relatively insensitive to unequal variances and sample sizes among the populations sampled.Furthermore,a key feature of Δp—and our main motivation for developing it—is that it easily accommodates simultaneous comparisons of any number of traits across any number of populations.To exemplify its utility,we employ Ap to address a question related to the role of sexual selection in speciation:are sexual signals more divergent than ecological traits in closely related tara? Using traits of known function in closely related populations,we show that traits predictive of reproductive performance are,indeed,more divergent and more sexually dimorphic than traits related to ecological adaptation.
Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø;
but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...... nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both CM and MY peaked in the 26 to 40 Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single...
Liu, Shubing; Cai, Shibin; Graybosch, Robert; Chen, Cuixia; Bai, Guihua
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat is a major problem that severely limits the end-use quality of flour in many wheat-growing areas worldwide. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance, a population of 171 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from the cross between PHS-resistant white wheat cultivar Rio Blanco and PHS-susceptible white wheat breeding line NW97S186. The population was evaluated for PHS in three greenhouse experiments and one field experiment. After 1,430 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were screened between the two parents and two bulks, 112 polymorphic markers between two bulks were used to screen the RILs. One major QTL, QPhs.pseru-3AS, was identified in the distal region of chromosome 3AS and explained up to 41.0% of the total phenotypic variation in three greenhouse experiments. One minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.1, was detected in the 2005 and 2006 experiments and for the means over the greenhouse experiments, and explained 5.0-6.4% of phenotypic variation. Another minor QTL, QPhs.pseru-2B.2, was detected in only one greenhouse experiment and explained 4.5% of phenotypic variation for PHS resistance. In another RIL population developed from the cross of Rio Blanco/NW97S078, QPhs.pseru-3AS was significant for all three greenhouse experiments and the means over all greenhouse experiments and explained up to 58.0% of phenotypic variation. Because Rio Blanco is a popular parent used in many hard winter wheat breeding programs, SSR markers linked to the QTLs have potential for use in high-throughput marker-assisted selection of wheat cultivars with improved PHS resistance as well as fine mapping and map-based cloning of the major QTL QPhs.pseru-3AS.
Full Text Available Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that REM sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness and emotional load. More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5-8 Hz EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences.
Scarpelli, Serena; D'Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5-8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences.
Scarpelli, Serena; D’Atri, Aurora; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Ferrara, Michele; De Gennaro, Luigi
Dreaming represents a peculiar form of cognitive activity during sleep. On the basis of the well-known relationship between sleep and memory, there has been a growing interest in the predictive role of human brain activity during sleep on dream recall. Neuroimaging studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by limbic activation and prefrontal cortex deactivation. This pattern could explain the presence of emotional contents in dream reports. Furthermore, the morphoanatomical measures of amygdala and hippocampus predict some features of dream contents (bizarreness, vividness, and emotional load). More relevant for a general view of dreaming mechanisms, empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness. A notable overlap between the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying emotional memory formation and some peculiar EEG features of REM sleep has been suggested. In particular, theta (5–8 Hz) EEG oscillations on frontal regions in the pre-awakening sleep are predictive of dream recall, which parallels the predictive relation during wakefulness between theta activity and successful retrieval of episodic memory. Although some observations support an interpretation more in terms of an intraindividual than interindividual mechanism, the existing empirical evidence still precludes from definitely disentangling if this relation is explained by state- or trait-like differences. PMID:25999908
Geraldo Helber Batista Maia Filho
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary energy sources on the carcass and meat traits of feedlot Nellore bulls. A total of 48 Nellore bulls at 32 months of age with 354.35±19.56 kg body weight were studied for 85 days. The bulls were allotted to four groups of 12 individuals: Whole corn grain - diet based on whole corn grain; Ground corn - diet based on ground corn grain; Citrus pulp - diet based on citrus pulp; and Steam-flaked corn - diet based on steam-flaked corn. Diets did not influence carcass quality or meat quality. Average values for fat depth, rib eye area, shear force, total cooking losses, and carcass yield were 4.97 mm, 74.71 cm2, 5.85 kgf, 26.82%, and 52.0%, respectively. Based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of this study, there is no restriction for the adoption of any of the tested diets in feedlots with Nellore bulls and the evaluated energy sources may be used to replace ground corn grain.
Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Bueno, Hector; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Ordovas, Jose Maria; Ibañez, Borja; Fuster, Valentin; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Laclaustra, Martin
This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as a proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baseline data from 3,987 subjects without diabetes in the Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) Study. For the second, third, and fourth ox-LDL quartiles versus the first, the odds ratios (95% CI) for MS were 0.84 (0.52, 1.36), 1.47 (0.95, 2.32), and 2.57 (1.66, 4.04) (P insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results showing the same trend were found for all MS components except glucose concentration. Ox-LDL mediated 13.9% of the association of waist circumference with triglycerides and only 1-3% of the association with HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and insulin concentration. HOMA-IR did not mediate the association between ox-LDL and MS components. This study found higher ox-LDL concentrations were associated with MS and its components independently of central obesity and insulin resistance. Ox-LDL may reflect core mechanisms through which MS components develop and progress in parallel with insulin resistance and could be a clinically relevant predictor of MS development. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.
Powdery mildew of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) caused by Erysiphe pulchra is one of the most destructive diseases in nursery production of flowering dogwood throughout the southeastern U.S. Since the mid-1990s, efforts to breed for resistance to the disease have been undertaken, but to-date on...
Cécile Robin; Amira Mougou-Hamdane; Jean-Marc Gion; Antoine Kremer; Marie-Laure. Desprez-Loustau
Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe alphitoides (Ascomycete), is the most frequent disease of oaks, which are also known to be host plants for Phytophthora cinnamomi (Oomycete), the causal agent of ink disease. Components of genetic resistance to these two pathogens, infecting either leaves or root and collar, were...
An association mapping approach was employed to find markers for color, size, girth and mass of fruits; seed number and butterfat content; and resistance to black pod and witches’ broom diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...
Dobrota, Snježana; Reic Ercegovac, Ina
The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between music preferences of different mode and tempo and personality traits. The survey included 323 students who had to fill out the following tests: questionnaire of music preferences, scale of optimism and pessimism and International Personality Item Pool for measuring Big Five…
Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
This experimental study examined if (1) emotion experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, giving in, neutral) when listening to a well-known rock music fragment, and if (2) personality and trait affect intensity can predict individual differences in effec
Vorkapic, Sanja Tatalovic; Cepic, Renata; Šekulja, Ivana
The main aim of this study was to examine personality traits and life satisfaction of future preschool and primary school teachers and to examine if there are differences between these two groups of students. The study was conducted on a sample of 290 students of the University of Rijeka attending Early and Preschool Education and Teacher…
Full Text Available Autism spectrum traits exist on a continuum and are more common in males than in females, but the basis for this sex difference is unclear. To this end, the present study draws on the extreme male brain theory, investigating the relationship between sex difference and the default mode network (DMN, both known to be associated with autism spectrum traits. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was carried out in 42 females (mean age ± standard deviation, 22.4 ± 4.2 years and 43 males (mean age ± standard deviation, 23.8 ± 3.9 years with typical development. Using a combination of different analyses (viz., independent component analysis (ICA, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF, regional homogeneity (ReHo, and seed-based analyses, we examined sex differences in the DMN and the relationship to autism spectrum traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient (AQ scores. We found significant differences between female and male subjects in DMN brain regions, with seed-based analysis revealing a significant negative correlation between default-mode resting state functional connectivity of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex seed (aMPFC and AQ scores in males. However, there were no relationships between DMN sex differences and autism spectrum traits in females. Our findings may provide important insight into the skewed balance of functional connectivity in males compared to females that could serve as a potential biomarker of the degree of autism spectrum traits in line with the extreme male brain theory.
Wisniewski, Michael; Fazio, Gennaro; Burchard, Erik; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Levin, Elena; Droby, Samir
Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. There are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple. However, resistance has been described in wild Malus sieversii accessions, including plant introduction (PI)613981. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic loci controlling resistance to blue mold in this accession. We describe the first quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the Rosaceae tribe Maleae conditioning resistance to P. expansum on genetic linkage group 3 (qM-Pe3.1) and linkage group 10 (qM-Pe10.1). These loci were identified in a M.× domestica ‘Royal Gala’ X M. sieversii PI613981 family (GMAL4593) based on blue mold lesion diameter seven days post-inoculation in mature, wounded apple fruit inoculated with P. expansum. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in 169 progeny over a four year period. PI613981 was the source of the resistance allele for qM-Pe3.1, a QTL with a major effect on blue mold resistance, accounting for 27.5% of the experimental variability. The QTL mapped from 67.3 to 74 cM on linkage group 3 of the GMAL4593 genetic linkage map. qM-Pe10.1 mapped from 73.6 to 81.8 cM on linkage group 10. It had less of an effect on resistance, accounting for 14% of the experimental variation. ‘Royal Gala’ was the primary contributor to the resistance effect of this QTL. However, resistance-associated alleles in both parents appeared to contribute to the least square mean blue mold lesion diameter in an additive manner at qM-Pe10.1. A GMAL4593 genetic linkage map composed of simple sequence repeats and ‘Golden Delicious’ single nucleotide polymorphism markers was able to detect qM-Pe10.1, but failed to detect qM-Pe3.1. The subsequent addition of genotyping-by-sequencing markers to the linkage map provided better coverage of the PI613981 genome on linkage group 3 and facilitated discovery of q
Norelli, John L; Wisniewski, Michael; Fazio, Gennaro; Burchard, Erik; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Levin, Elena; Droby, Samir
Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. There are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple. However, resistance has been described in wild Malus sieversii accessions, including plant introduction (PI)613981. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic loci controlling resistance to blue mold in this accession. We describe the first quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the Rosaceae tribe Maleae conditioning resistance to P. expansum on genetic linkage group 3 (qM-Pe3.1) and linkage group 10 (qM-Pe10.1). These loci were identified in a M.× domestica 'Royal Gala' X M. sieversii PI613981 family (GMAL4593) based on blue mold lesion diameter seven days post-inoculation in mature, wounded apple fruit inoculated with P. expansum. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in 169 progeny over a four year period. PI613981 was the source of the resistance allele for qM-Pe3.1, a QTL with a major effect on blue mold resistance, accounting for 27.5% of the experimental variability. The QTL mapped from 67.3 to 74 cM on linkage group 3 of the GMAL4593 genetic linkage map. qM-Pe10.1 mapped from 73.6 to 81.8 cM on linkage group 10. It had less of an effect on resistance, accounting for 14% of the experimental variation. 'Royal Gala' was the primary contributor to the resistance effect of this QTL. However, resistance-associated alleles in both parents appeared to contribute to the least square mean blue mold lesion diameter in an additive manner at qM-Pe10.1. A GMAL4593 genetic linkage map composed of simple sequence repeats and 'Golden Delicious' single nucleotide polymorphism markers was able to detect qM-Pe10.1, but failed to detect qM-Pe3.1. The subsequent addition of genotyping-by-sequencing markers to the linkage map provided better coverage of the PI613981 genome on linkage group 3 and facilitated discovery of qM-Pe3.1. A DNA
Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo
Key characteristics relating oxidative damage to aging and longevity are reviewed. Available information indicates that the specific composition of tissue macromolecules (proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA) in long-lived animal species gives them an intrinsically high resistance to modification that likely contributes to the superior longevity of these species. This is obtained in the case of lipids by decreasing fatty acid unsaturation, and in the proteins by lowering their methionine content. Long-lived animals also show low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. On the other hand, dietary restriction decreases mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and proteins. These changes are due to the decreased intake of dietary proteins (not of lipids or carbohydrates) of the dietary restricted animals. In turn, these effects of protein restriction seem to be specifically due to the lowered methionine intake of the protein and dietary restricted animals. It is emphasized that both a low rate of generation of endogenous damage and an intrinsically high resistance to modification of tissue macromolecules are key traits of animal longevity.
Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay
Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses.
Negi, Manisha; Sanagala, Raghavendrarao; Rai, Vandna; Jain, Ajay
Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 days- and 7 days-treatments on two and eight different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 days were also evident on different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences in the responses of primary root growth along with lateral roots on it and the number and length of seminal and adventitious roots. Notably though, there were attenuating effects of Pi deficiency on the lateral roots on seminal and adventitious roots and total root length in both these genotypes. The study thus revealed both differential and comparable effects of Pi deficiency on different root traits in these genotypes. Pi deficiency also triggered reduction in Pi content and induction of several Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes in roots of MI48. Together, the analyses validated the fidelity of this modified hydroponic system for documenting Pi deficiency-mediated effects not only on different traits of RSA but also on physiological and molecular responses. PMID:27200025
Claudia D. Silva
Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches, root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance.
Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A.; Grimsby, Jonna L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associat...
Full Text Available Three quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring broad spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, were previously identified on chromosomes 7HS, 7HL and 6HL in the Spanish barley landrace-derived lines SBCC097 and SBCC145. In the present work, a genome-wide putative linear gene index of barley (Genome Zipper and the first draft of the physical, genetic and functional sequence of the barley genome were used to go one step further in the shortening and explicit demarcation on the barley genome of these regions conferring resistance to powdery mildew as well as in the identification of candidate genes. First, a comparative analysis of the target regions to the barley Genome Zippers of chromosomes 7H and 6H allowed the development of 25 new gene-based molecular markers, which slightly better delimit the QTL intervals. These new markers provided the framework for anchoring of genetic and physical maps, figuring out the outline of the barley genome at the target regions in SBCC097 and SBCC145. The outermost flanking markers of QTLs on 7HS, 7HL and 6HL defined a physical area of 4 Mb, 3.7 Mb and 3.2 Mb, respectively. In total, 21, 10 and 16 genes on 7HS, 7HL and 6HL, respectively, could be interpreted as potential candidates to explain the resistance to powdery mildew, as they encode proteins of related functions with respect to the known pathogen defense-related processes. The majority of these were annotated as belonging to the NBS-LRR class or protein kinase family.
Kong, Feng; Liu, Ling; Wang, Xu; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia
Eudaimonic well-being (EWB) is the fulfillment of human potential and a meaningful life. Previous studies have shown that personality traits, especially extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, significantly contribute to EWB. However, the neurobiological pathways linking personality and EWB are not understood. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate this issue. Specifically, we correlated individuals' EWB scores with the regional fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) of the brain, and then examined how personality traits predicted EWB-related spontaneous brain activity. We found that EWB was positively correlated with the fALFF in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and thalamus, and negatively correlated with the strength of the thalamic-insular connectivity. More importantly, we found that personality traits influenced EWB in different ways. At the regional level, the fALFF in the pSTG and thalamus mediated the effects of neuroticism and extraversion on EWB, whereas the thalamus mediated the effect of conscientiousness on EWB. At the functional connectivity level, the thalamic-insular connectivity only mediated the effect of neuroticism on EWB. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that EWB is associated with personality traits through different neural substrates.
Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R
The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species’ native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the
Papst, C; Bohn, M; Utz, H F; Melchinger, A E; Klein, D; Eder, J
In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in F(2) derived lines for ECB resistance are still expressed in hybrid combinations. The objectives of our study were: (1) to identify and characterize QTL for ECB resistance as well as agronomic and forage quality traits in a population of testcrossed F(2:3) families; (2) to evaluate the consistency of QTL for per se and TC performances; and (3) to determine the association between per se and TC performances of F(2:3) lines for these traits. Two hundred and four F(2:3) lines were derived from the cross between maize lines D06 (resistant) and D408 (susceptible). These lines were crossed to D171 and the TC progenies were evaluated for ECB resistance and agronomic performance in two locations in 2000 and 2001. Using these TC progenies, six QTL for stalk damage rating (SDR) were found. These QTL explained 27.4% of the genotypic variance in a simultaneous fit. Three QTL for SDR were detected consistently for per se and TC performance. Phenotypic and genotypic correlations were low for per se and TC performance for SDR. Correlations between SDR and quality traits were not significant. Based on these results, we conclude that MAS will not be an efficient method for improving SDR. However, new molecular tools might provide the opportunity to use QTL data as a first step to identify genes involved in ECB resistance. Efficient MAS procedures might then be based on markers designed to trace and to combine specific genes and their alleles in elite maize breeding germplasm.
De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio
Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Somers, J.G.C.J.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.
Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a str
Bakker, M.A.; Carreño Rocabado, G.; Poorter, L.
1. Decomposition is a key ecosystem process that determines nutrient and carbon cycling. Individual leaf and litter characteristics are good predictors of decomposition rates within biomes worldwide, but knowledge of which traits are the best predictors for tropical species remains scarce. Also, the
Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W
Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.
Full Text Available Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE interaction effects for the fruit shape traits fruit length and fruit circumference in the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical (L Roem. Violales, Cucurbitaceae was conducted for diallel cross data from two planting seasons. A genetic model including fruit direct effects and maternal effects and unconditional and conditional variances analysis was used to evaluate the development of the fruit at four maturation stages. The variance analysis results indicated that fruit length and circumference were simultaneously affected by fruit direct genetic effects and maternal effects as well as GE interaction effects. Fruit direct genetic effects were relatively more important for both fruit shape traits during the whole developmental period. Gene activation was mostly due to additive effects at the first maturation stage and dominance effects were mainly active during the other three stages. The fruit shape trait correlation coefficients due to different genetic effects and the phenotypic correlation coefficients varied significantly for the various maturation stages. The results indicate that it is relatively easy to improve the two fruit shape traits for market purposes by carefully selecting the parents at the first maturation stage 3 days after flowering instead of at fruit economic maturation.
Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; El-Full, E A
The objective of the current study was to evaluate a multi-trait selection program based on aggregated breeding values using an animal model Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) in Japanese quail. The estimated genetic gain was compared by both mixed model and least squares methods. Data of 1,682 female Japanese quails were collected through four consecutive generations to estimate genetic gain, depending on aggregated breeding values, for age at first egg (AFE), body weight at sexual maturity (BWSM), and days needed to produce the first ten eggs (DN10). Estimates of cumulative selection response were favorable for all the studied traits and significant for AFE (-3.03) and BWSM(10.38), but not significant for DN10(-0.15). Estimates of direct heritability were moderate for AFE (0.21) and BWSM(0.25) but low for DN10(0.08), while estimates of maternal heritability were moderate for AFE (0.19) but low for BWSM(0.04) and DN10(0.01). High (0.45 to 0.56) genetic and low (-0.01 to -0.18) phenotypic correlations were observed among the studied traits. Negative (-0.23 to -0.95) correlations between additive genetic and maternal genetic effects were observed for all traits. Genetic trends were -0.76 (P=0.031), 2.54 (P=0.037), and -0.06 (P=0.052) with calculated product-moment correlations between breeding values, estimated by BLUP and phenotypic selection methods, of 0.78 (P=0.002), 0.77 (P=0.004), and 0.61 (P=0.007) for AFE, BWSM, and DN10, respectively. Aggregated breeding value estimation based on animal model BLUP could be an effective method of constructing a selection program to achieve a favorable selection response in egg production traits in Japanese quail.
DiRienzo, Nicholas; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier
1. Developmental experience, for example food abundance during juvenile stages, is known to affect life history and behaviour. However, the life history and behavioural consequences of developmental experience have rarely been studied in concert. As a result, it is still unclear whether developmental experience affects behaviour through changes in life history, or independently of it. 2. The effect of developmental experience on life history and behaviour may also be masked or affected by individual condition during adulthood. Thus, it is critical to tease apart the effects of developmental experience and current individual condition on life history and behaviour. 3. In this study, we manipulated food abundance during development in the western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, by rearing spiders on either a restricted or ad lib diet. We separated developmental from condition-dependent effects by assaying adult foraging behaviour (tendency to attack prey and to stay on out of the refuge following an attack) and web structure multiple times under different levels of satiation following different developmental treatments. 4. Spiders reared under food restriction matured slower and at a smaller size than spiders reared in ad lib conditions. Spiders reared on a restricted diet were more aggressive towards prey and built webs structured for prey capture, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet were less aggressive and built safer webs. Developmental treatment affected which traits were plastic as adults: restricted spiders built safer webs when their adult condition increased, while ad lib spiders reduced their aggression when their adult condition increased. The amount of individual variation in behaviour and web structure varied with developmental treatment. Spiders reared on a restricted diet exhibited consistent variation in all aspects of foraging behaviour and web structure, while spiders reared on an ad lib diet exhibited consistent individual variation in
Koller, Gabi; Preuss, Ullrich; Lü, Osman; Soyka, Michael; Pogarell, Oliver
We compared personality traits of 27 persons with multiple substance dependence with personality data of 52 alcohol-dependent persons regarding their personality traits and disorders (obtained by using SCID-II, TCI and NEO FFI). Both patient groups were free of any other mental disorder. In SKD-II, we found significant differences in the male group in dependent and scizotypic personality disorder. There were no significant differences in the female group, but sample was very small. We also found significant differences between alcohol-dependent and multiple substance-dependent persons in extraversion and novelty seeking. We detected significant differences in personality disorders evaluated by SCID-II. Temperament and character items—as evaluated by NEO FFI and TCI—showed also significant differences in personality traits. Given the limited number of subjects, the data should be regarded as preliminary until replicated in a larger sample. Nevertheless, the findings may be of clinical relevance with respect to prognosis or individualized treatment. These findings should be treated with caution until replicated.
Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Lopez, Miriam D; Wang, Haichuan; Fraser, Lisa M; Kroemer, Jeremy A; Spencer, Terrence; Kim, Kyung S; Abel, Craig A; Hellmich, Richard L; Siegfried, Blair D
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an introduced crop pest in North America that causes major damage to corn and reduces yield of food, feed, and biofuel materials. The Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic hybrid corn is highly toxic to O. nubilalis larvae and effective in minimizing feeding damage. A laboratory colony of O. nubilalis was selected for high levels of Cry1F resistance (>12,000-fold compared to susceptible larvae) and is capable of survival on transgenic hybrid corn. Genetic linkage maps with segregating AFLP markers show that the Cry1F resistance trait is controlled by a single quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group 12. The map position of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers indicated that midgut Bt toxin-receptor genes, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N, and cadherin, are not linked with the Cry1F QTL. Evidence suggests that genes within this genome interval may give rise to a novel Bt toxin resistance trait for Lepidoptera that appears independent of known receptor-based mechanisms of resistance.
Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A
Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense.
López, Camilo E; Acosta, Iván F; Jara, Carlos; Pedraza, Fabio; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Gallego, Gerardo; Beebe, Steve; Tohme, Joe
ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.
Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P
Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.
Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A.; Meredith, Michael P.; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N.; Ratcliffe, Norman
1. Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. 2. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficul...
Full Text Available The effect of the farming system on biometry traits and dressing out yield were inves- tigated in market-size European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax cultured extensively or intensively in sea cages or land-based basins. Fish external appearences and shapes were studies with geometric morphometrics in order to assess the potential of combined methodologies in the assessment of finfish quality. Both standard biometry and geometric morphometrics were able to discriminate between sea bass farmed extensively from those cultured under intensive conditions. Geometric morphometrics has been shown to be a valuable tool for describing changes in shape features and could result a useful technique to be associated to biometry traits in the context of fish quality assessment.
Baiocco, Roberto; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Bianchi, Dora; Ioverno, Salvatore; Morelli, Mara; Nappa, Maria R.
Selfies are self-portrait photos shared on Social Networks. Previous literature has investigated how personality traits, and specifically narcissism, are associated with selfie-posting behaviors. In this contribution we investigated how selfie-posting behaviors are predicted by the six HEXACO personality traits, controlling for age, gender and sexual orientation. The Kinsey scale, three questions about the frequency of own selfies, group selfies and selfies with partner, and 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised were administered to 750 young people from 13 to 30 years. Females, adolescents and not-exclusively heterosexual people posted more own selfies, and adolescents posted also more group selfies and selfies with partner. Moreover, lower Honesty/Humility, lower Conscientiousness, higher Emotionality and higher Extraversion significantly predict own selfies and group selfies. Finally, only lower Honesty/Humility and higher Emotionality predict selfies with partner. Theoretical and practical implications are provided. PMID:28119662
Baiocco, Roberto; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Bianchi, Dora; Ioverno, Salvatore; Morelli, Mara; Nappa, Maria R
Selfies are self-portrait photos shared on Social Networks. Previous literature has investigated how personality traits, and specifically narcissism, are associated with selfie-posting behaviors. In this contribution we investigated how selfie-posting behaviors are predicted by the six HEXACO personality traits, controlling for age, gender and sexual orientation. The Kinsey scale, three questions about the frequency of own selfies, group selfies and selfies with partner, and 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised were administered to 750 young people from 13 to 30 years. Females, adolescents and not-exclusively heterosexual people posted more own selfies, and adolescents posted also more group selfies and selfies with partner. Moreover, lower Honesty/Humility, lower Conscientiousness, higher Emotionality and higher Extraversion significantly predict own selfies and group selfies. Finally, only lower Honesty/Humility and higher Emotionality predict selfies with partner. Theoretical and practical implications are provided.
Evrim Dereli Fidan
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of regular visual contact by the stockperson wearing clothes of different colour on fear and stress reactions, some meat quality traits and performance parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to four different colour clothing groups (red, blue, green and gray, and two visual human contact groups (60 and 300 s durations were designed. From day 15, the chickens were exposed to regular visual contacts with the stockperson, who wore different colour clothings every day. Tonic immobility (TI test revealed that visual contact duration increase (300 s has a positive effect on fear in broilers. The heterophil lymphocyte (H/L ratio was the highest (0.89 in the green clothing group, but the lowest (0.45 in red clothing group (P<0.001. From meat quality traits in breast muscle (P<0.01 it was determined that clothing colour has statistically significant effects on lightness value. Final body weights were higher in blue coloured clothing group (2593.82 g than the green one (2348.42. The results demonstrate that regular visual human contact has no effect on parameters such as H/L ratio, some blood parameters, meat quality, TI duration and performance traits, while colour of clothes has a significant effect on H/L ratio, lightness colour value, and body weight in broiler chickens.
Galea, Samantha; Lindell, Annukka K
Like language, emotion is a lateralized function. Because the right hemisphere typically dominates emotion processing, people express stronger emotion on the left side of their face. This prompts a left cheek bias: we offer the left cheek to express emotion and rate left cheek portraits more emotionally expressive than right cheek portraits. Though the majority of the population show this left cheek bias (60-70%), individual differences exist but remain largely unexplained. Given that people with higher self-rated emotional expressivity show a stronger left cheek bias, personality variables associated with increased emotional expressivity and emotional intelligence, such as extraversion and openness, may help account for individual differences. The present study thus examined whether the Big Five traits predict left cheek preferences. Participants (M = 58, F = 116) completed the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and viewed pairs of left and right cheek images (half mirror-reversed); participants made forced-choice decisions, indicating which image in each pair looked happier. Hierarchical regression indicated that neither trait extraversion nor openness predicted left cheek selections, with NEO-FFI personality subscales accounting for negligible variance in preferences. As the Big Five traits have been discounted, exploration of other potential contributors to individual differences in the left cheek bias is clearly needed.
Н. О. Горган
Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying hybrid combinations of common onion to the Botrytis allii Munn pathogen. It is found out that as for the combinations being studied the resistance to pathogen was inherited as dominant, intermediate or recessive trait. Better resistance to neck rot was inherent in the hybrid combinations which parents comprised resistant and immune varieties, insofar as the determination of inheritance coefficient has indicated F1 hybrids have this characteristic expression dependant by 50 to 78% on the parental plant (h2 =0,50–0,78. Studying the determination of the impact of both parental components on inheritance of the resistance to B. allii pathogen showed that the regression coefficient subject to hybrid combination fell within R = 0,12–0,39, while the resistance coefficient within 0,24–0,78, respectively. Efficiency of selection is proved by the trait of resistance to neck rot based on the populations of Grandina х Mavka, Olina х Grandina, Grandina х Skvyrska і Skvyrska х Grandina, as their respective inheritance coefficient reached the level of 0,42 to 0,78.
Panozzo, Silvia; Scarabel, Laura; Collavo, Alberto; Sattin, Maurizio
Robust protocols to test putative herbicide resistant weed populations at whole plant level are essential to confirm the resistance status. The presented protocols, based on whole-plant bioassays performed in a greenhouse, can be readily adapted to a wide range of weed species and herbicides through appropriate variants. Seed samples from plants that survived a field herbicide treatment are collected and stored dry at low temperature until used. Germination methods differ according to weed species and seed dormancy type. Seedlings at similar growth stage are transplanted and maintained in the greenhouse under appropriate conditions until plants have reached the right growth stage for herbicide treatment. Accuracy is required to prepare the herbicide solution to avoid unverifiable mistakes. Other critical steps such as the application volume and spray speed are also evaluated. The advantages of this protocol, compared to others based on whole plant bioassays using one herbicide dose, are related to the higher reliability and the possibility of inferring the resistance level. Quicker and less expensive in vivo or in vitro diagnostic screening tests have been proposed (Petri dish bioassays, spectrophotometric tests), but they provide only qualitative information and their widespread use is hindered by the laborious set-up that some species may require. For routine resistance testing, the proposed whole plant bioassay can be applied at only one herbicide dose, so reducing the costs.
Tang, Zhihong; Guo, Li; Liu, Yang; Shao, Changwei; Chen, Songlin; Yang, Guanpin
A cultured female half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) was crossed with a wild male, yielding the first filial generation of pseudo-testcrossing from which 200 fish were randomly selected to locate the Vibrio anguillarum resistance trait in half-smooth tongue sole at its microsatellite linkage map. In total, 129 microsatellites were arrayed into 18 linkage groups, ≥4 each. The map reconstructed was 852.85 cM in length with an average spacing of 7.68 cM, covering 72.07% of that expected (1 183.35 cM). The V. anguillarum resistance trait was a composite rather than a unit trait, which was tentatively partitioned into Survival time in Hours After V. anguillarum Infection (SHAVI) and Immunity of V. Anguillarum Infection (IVAI). Above a logarithm of the odds (LOD) threshold of 2.5, 18 loci relative to SHAVI and 3 relative to IVAI were identified. The 3 loci relative to IVAI explained 18.78%, 5.87% and 6.50% of the total phenotypic variation in immunity. The microsatellites bounding the 3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of IVAI may in future aid to the selection of V. anguillarum-immune half-smooth tongue sole varieties, and facilitate cloning the gene(s) controlling such immunity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%. This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4% under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b
Gui-He Lu; Yi-Rong Zhang; Jing-Rui Dai; Ji-Hua Tang; Jian-Bing Yan; Xi-Qing Ma; Jian-Sheng Li; Shao-Jiang Chen; Jian-Cang Ma; Zhan-Xian Liu; Li-Zhu E
Drought or water stress is a serious agronomic problem resulting in maize (Zea mays L.) yield loss throughout the world. Breeding hybrids with drought tolerance is one important approach for solving this problem. However, lower efficiency and a longer period of breeding hybrids are disadvantages of traditional breeding programs. It is generally recognized that applying molecular marker techniques to traditional breeding programs could improve the efficiency of the breeding of drought-tolerant maize. To provide useful information for use in studies of maize drought tolerance,the mapping and tagging of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield and its components were performed in the present study on the basis of the principle of a mixed linear model. Two hundred and twenty-one recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of Yuyu 22 were grown under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. In the former treatment group, plants were well irrigated, whereas those in the latter treatment group were stressed at flowering time.Ten plants of each genotype were grown in a row that was 3.00 m×0.67 m (length×width). The results show that a few of the QTL were the same (one additive QTL for ear length, two additive QTL and one pair of epistatic QTL for kernel number per row, one additive QTL for kernel weight per plant), whereas most of other QTL were different between the two different water treatment groups. It may be that genetic expression differs under the two different water conditions. Furthermore, differences in the additive and epistatic QTL among the traits under water-stressed conditions indicate that genetic expression also differs from trait to trait.Major and minor QTL were detected for the traits,except for kernel number per row, under water-stressed conditions. Thus, the genetic mechanism of drought tolerance in maize is complex because the additive and epistatic QTL exist at the same time and the major and minor QTL all contribute to phenotype under water
Full Text Available Introduction Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. is a tolerant plant to water deficit due to long roots and capability for high water absorption from soil deeper parts. Safflower can growth successfully in regions with low soil fertility and temperature. Behdani and Mosavifar (2011 reported that drought stress affect on yield by reducing yield components and agronomic traits. Biofertilizer during a biological process chanced the nutrients from unusable to usable form for plants in soils (Aseretal, 2008. Mirzakhani et al. (2008 found that inoculation of seed with free-living bacterium azotobacter and a symbiotic fungus productive mycorrhiza addition to increasing oil and seed cause increasing resistance against two factors of unfavorable environmental and to improve quality of product. In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of Safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experimental design was conducted. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experiment was carried out split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in experimental farm of payame-Noor university of Zabol during 2012-2013 growing season. Irrigation regime in three levels include: I1 (control irrigation in all growth stages, I2 stop irrigation from sowing to flowering (irrigation in growth stages flowering, and seed filling, I3 irrigation in growth stages rosset, stem elongation, heading and stop irrigation in flowering, and seed filling were as main plots and fertilizer resources in five levels included: F1 non application chemical fertilizer (control, F2 pure application chemical fertilizer (NPK 99, 44 and 123 kg.ha-1 respectively, F3 Nitroxin application (2 L.ha-1 F4 Azotobacter application (2 L.ha-1 and F5
Oliveira, H R; Silva, F F; Siqueira, O H G B D; Souza, N O; Junqueira, V S; Resende, M D V; Borquis, R R A; Rodrigues, M T
We proposed multiple-trait random regression models (MTRRM) combining different functions to describe milk yield (MY) and fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentage in dairy goat genetic evaluation by using Bayesian inference. A total of 3,856 MY, FP, and PP test-day records, measured between 2000 and 2014, from 535 first lactations of Saanen and Alpine goats, including their cross, were used in this study. The initial analyses were performed using the following single-trait random regression models (STRRM): third- and fifth-order Legendre polynomials (Leg3 and Leg5), linear B-splines with 3 and 5 knots, the Ali and Schaeffer function (Ali), and Wilmink function. Heterogeneity of residual variances was modeled considering 3 classes. After the selection of the best STRRM to describe each trait on the basis of the deviance information criterion (DIC) and posterior model probabilities (PMP), the functions were combined to compose the MTRRM. All combined MTRRM presented lower DIC values and higher PMP, showing the superiority of these models when compared to other MTRRM based only on the same function assumed for all traits. Among the combined MTRRM, those considering Ali to describe MY and PP and Leg5 to describe FP (Ali_Leg5_Ali model) presented the best fit. From the Ali_Leg5_Ali model, heritability estimates over time for MY, FP. and PP ranged from 0.25 to 0.54, 0.27 to 0.48, and 0.35 to 0.51, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and FP, MY and PP, and FP and PP ranged from -0.58 to 0.03, -0.46 to 0.12, and 0.37 to 0.64, respectively. We concluded that combining different functions under a MTRRM approach can be a plausible alternative for joint genetic evaluation of milk yield and milk constituents in goats.
Ravenelle, Rebecca; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Niedzielak, Timothy; Donaldson, S Tiffany
In clinical populations, prevalence rates for a number of anxiety disorders differ between males and females and gonadal hormones are thought to contribute to these differences. While these hormones have been shown to modulate the anxiolytic effects of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in some models, findings are inconsistent. Here, we tested for sex differences in response to anxiogenic stimuli following a 30-min diazepam (1.0mg/kg) pre-treatment in male and female rats showing high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze. Acute diazepam administration resulted in decreased anxiety-like behavior only in HAn males as demonstrated by a significant increase in percent open arm time in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Immunohistochemical analysis for parvalbumin (PV; a calcium-binding protein that selectively stains GABAergic neurons) in central amygdala (CeA), caudate putamen (CPu) and the hippocampus indicated the number of GABAergic interneurons in these areas differed across sex and anxiety trait. In the CPu, females had significantly more PV-immunoreactive (IR) cells than males, and LAn females had greater PV-IR neurons than HAn females. In the CeA, males displayed an increased number of PV-IR neurons compared to females, with no differences found between LAn and HAn. Further, trait differences were evident in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, regardless of sex. Taken together, these data suggest that gonadal hormones and trait anxiety may influence the sensitivity to the anti-anxiety effects of diazepam and these differences may be due in part to the distribution of GABA-containing interneurons.
França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Worschech, Claudia Cia; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Lovadino, José Roberto
The aim of this study is to verify the fracture resistance of premolars with large mesiocclusodistal (MOD) preparations with composite resin using different incremental techniques when subjected to an occlusal load. Forty maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Class II MOD cavities were prepared in all specimens with parallel walls and no approximal boxes. The resulting isthmus width was 1/3 the distance between the cusp tips and (3/4) the height of the crown. Teeth in group I, the control group, were not restored. Specimens in group II were restored in three incremental vertical layers. Group III specimens were restored in three horizontal layers, and finally, specimens in group IV were restored in oblique layers. With exception of the placement technique, specimens in groups II, III and IV were restored using the Single Bond adhesive system and P60 composite resin following manufacturer's recommendations. A 4 mm diameter steel sphere contacted the buccal and lingual cusps of the tested teeth at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. The values obtained in this study were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey-Kramer test. Only group I (non-restored) obtained a minor means of fracture resistance. No significant differences among groups II, III, and IV were found. This study shows on large MOD cavities the incremental filling techniques do not influence the fracture resistance of premolar teeth restored with composite resin.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled. Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled. The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15 root/group and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system; in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system; and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system. All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots.
de León Francisco
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of pH and soil chemical composition on morphological traits of common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.. A two-year study was conducted based on observations, measurements and analyses of material collected from 24 stands in the following regions: Równina Włocławska (Włocławek Plain, Wyżyna Lubelska (Lublin Upland, Padół Zamojski (Zamość Depression, Działy Grabowieckie (Grabowiec Divide Płaskowyż Suchedniowski (Suchedniów Plateau, Wysoczyzna Siedlecka (Siedlce High Plain and Niecka Połaniecka (Połaniec Basin. Morphological traits of tansy shoots were determined: number of plants per clump, stem length, number of leaves per plant, total leaf length, petiole length, number of branches from the main stem, number of flower heads per corymb and flower head diameter. A soil analysis was performed determining the content of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus available for plants. The soil pH was also determined. The collected results indicate significant differentiation of the investigated samples, both in terms of morphological traits of the shoots and the chemical composition of the soils. A negative correlation was found between soil pH and number of leaves per shoot as well as number of branches per corymb. A positive correlation was noted between soil pH and total leaf length as well as between magnesium content and number of flower heads per corymb. The increased content of available phosphorus in the soil was associated with petiole shortening. A growth trend in the tansy shoot length was observed at larger amounts of available magnesium in the soil. On soils with low nutrient availability and a low pH, a reduced population density of the species in question was observed.
Full Text Available The biomass of Salix viminalis is the most highly valued source of green energy, followed by S. schwerinii, S. dasyclados and other species. Significant variability in productivity and leaf rust resistance are noted both within and among willow species, which creates new opportunities for improving willow yield parameters through selection of desirable recombinants supported with molecular markers. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs linked with biomass yield-related traits and the resistance/susceptibility of Salix mapping population to leaf rust. The experimental material comprised a mapping population developed based on S. viminalis × S. schwerinii hybrids. Phenotyping was performed on plants grown in a field experiment that had a balanced incomplete block design with 10 replications. Based on a genetic map, 11 QTLs were identified for plant height, 9 for shoot diameter, 3 for number of shoots and 11 for resistance/susceptibility to leaf rust. The QTLs identified in our study explained 3%–16% of variability in the analyzed traits. Our findings make significant contributions to the development of willow breeding programs and research into shrubby willow crops grown for energy.
Lippa, Richard A
Using data from over 200,000 participants from 53 nations, I examined the cross-cultural consistency of sex differences for four traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and male-versus-female-typical occupational preferences. Across nations, men and women differed significantly on all four traits (mean ds = -.15, -.56, -.41, and 1.40, respectively, with negative values indicating women scoring higher). The strongest evidence for sex differences in SDs was for extraversion (women more variable) and for agreeableness (men more variable). United Nations indices of gender equality and economic development were associated with larger sex differences in agreeableness, but not with sex differences in other traits. Gender equality and economic development were negatively associated with mean national levels of neuroticism, suggesting that economic stress was associated with higher neuroticism. Regression analyses explored the power of sex, gender equality, and their interaction to predict men's and women's 106 national trait means for each of the four traits. Only sex predicted means for all four traits, and sex predicted trait means much more strongly than did gender equality or the interaction between sex and gender equality. These results suggest that biological factors may contribute to sex differences in personality and that culture plays a negligible to small role in moderating sex differences in personality.
Dibaji, Fatemeh; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Bidkhori, Babak; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad
Introduction: Vertical root fracture inevitably leads to tooth extraction. Thus, root filling with obturating materials and sealers that can reinforce the tooth would be an ideal way to reduce fracture in root treated teeth. This study aimed to assess the fracture resistance of roots following the application of different sealers including Epiphany, iRoot sealer and AH-plus. Methods and Materials: Fifty extracted human single-canal premolars without caries, curvature or cracks were used in this study. Tooth crowns were cut to yield 13-mm-long roots. Five roots were put in the negative control group and were left unprepared. Forty-five canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files up to F3 and were then randomly divided into three groups based on the sealer type (n=15). The root canals were filled using cold lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and AH-Plus sealer, gutta-percha and iRoot sealer and Resilon and Epiphany sealer, in groups one to three, respectively. The roots were then mounted in acrylic molds for fracture resistance testing and subjected to compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA. Results: The mean fracture resistance was 673.38±170.42 N in AH-Plus, 562.00±184.68 N in iRoot, 708.03±228.05 N in Resilon and 592.59±117.29 N in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups and the negative control group (P=0.26). Conclusion: Application of AH-Plus, bioceramic and Resilon sealers did not change the fracture resistance of roots compared to that of unprepared root canals. PMID:28179924
Dinesh D. Jayasena
Full Text Available With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL, KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS, broiler for baeksuk (BL, and broiler for samgyetang (BS were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.
Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem
Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant's ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed.
Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.
Estrogen receptor (ESR) and Follicular-stimula- ting hormone beta subunit (FSHb) genes were chosen as candidates to determine whether they control litter size and some other reproductive traits in swine. 269 sows from five different pig breeds were genotyped by an established PCR- RFLPs protocol at both ESR and FSHb loci. The effects of both ESR and FSHb on pig reproductive traits, including total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA), are analyzed by SAS software (version 6.12). These computation results demonstrated that both ESR locus and FSHb locus are the major genes influencing litter size in pigs. The sows of BBBB combined genotype of ESR and FSHb loci generally produce 1.85-3.01 TNB and 2.0-3.0 NBA more than those of ABAA combined genotype. The notable effect of ESR locus and FSHb locus on litter size of pigs have made it possible to improve the pig reproduction by Marker-assisted selection (MAS). Moreover, introgression of the beneficial alleles into commercial pig breeding lines, in which the alleles were not present, will improve greatly the economically imp- ortant reproductive traits and efficiency of pig production.
Lee-Rowland, Lauren M; Barry, Christopher T; Gillen, Christopher T A; Hansen, Laura K
The current study examined the moderating influence that different aspects of narcissism have on the relation between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and aggression in a sample of 720 adolescents (500 males), ages 16-19 enrolled in a 22-week residential program. Findings from the two studies revealed that psychopathy-linked narcissism as assessed by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Antisocial process screening device. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.) and vulnerable narcissism as assessed using the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009; Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379) significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression in adolescents. Conversely, non-pathological narcissism assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory for Children (NPIC; Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003; The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152) and PNI grandiose narcissism did not significantly impact this relation. These results suggest that forms of narcissism most closely connected to internalizing problems combined with CU traits are associated with relatively heightened aggression in youth. The implications of these findings are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:14-25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852 and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775. Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.
Buddle, Christopher M.; Fournier, Valérie
Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks) within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852) and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775). Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal) but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.
Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A; Grimsby, Jonna L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ladenvall, Claes; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lahti, Jari; Lecoeur, Cecile; Liu, Yongmei; Martinez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Montasser, May E; Navarro, Pau; Perry, John R B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Salo, Perttu; Sattar, Naveed; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M; An, Ping; de Andrade, Mariza; Andrews, Jeanette S; Aspelund, Thor; Atalay, Mustafa; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Jacques S; Beilby, John P; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Boban, Mladen; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bouchard, Claude; Brunner, Eric; Budimir, Danijela; Campbell, Harry; Carlson, Olga; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S; Corbatón-Anchuelo, Arturo; Couper, David; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Egan, Josephine M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Eury, Elodie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Fox, Caroline S; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Franks, Paul W; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Galan, Pilar; de Geus, Eco; Gigante, Bruna; Glazer, Nicole L; Goel, Anuj; Groop, Leif; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hallmans, Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Ola; Harris, Tamara B; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon; Hercberg, Serge; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joseph; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jhun, Min A; Johnson, Paul C D; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti; Kao, W H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo; Lannfelt, Lars; Lathrop, G Mark; Launer, Lenore J; Leander, Karin; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loos, Ruth J F; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Marmot, Michael; Meneton, Pierre; Mohlke, Karen L; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A; Miljkovic, Iva; Narisu, Narisu; O'Connell, Jeff; Ong, Ken K; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S; Peden, John F; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pehlic, Marina; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda; Pericic, Marijana; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peyser, Patricia A; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P; Province, Michael A; Räikkönen, Katri; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rehnberg, Emil; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saaristo, Timo; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B; Saxena, Richa; Schwarz, Peter; Seedorf, Udo; Sennblad, Bengt; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Siscovick, David S; Smit, Johannes H; Small, Kerrin S; Smith, Nicholas L; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Yan V; Swift, Amy J; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Uusitupa, Matti; Vikström, Max; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voight, Benjamin F; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Wheeler, Eleanor; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willems, Sara M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wright, Alan F; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zelenika, Diana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Wareham, Nicholas J; McCarthy, Mark I; Barroso, Ines; Watanabe, Richard M; Florez, Jose C; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B; Langenberg, Claudia
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 × 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
Manning, Alisa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A.; Grimsby, Jonna L.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ladenvall, Claes; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lahti, Jari; Lecoeur, Cecile; Liu, Yongmei; Martinez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Montasser, May E.; Navarro, Pau; Perry, John R. B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Salo, Perttu; Sattar, Naveed; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; An, Ping; de Andrade, Mariza; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Aspelund, Thor; Atalay, Mustafa; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Boban, Mladen; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bouchard, Claude; Brunner, Eric; Budimir, Danijela; Campbell, Harry; Carlson, Olga; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Corbatón-Anchuelo, Arturo; Couper, David; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Egan, Josephine M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eury, Elodie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Fox, Caroline S; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Franks, Paul W; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Galan, Pilar; de Geus, Eco; Gigante, Bruna; Glazer, Nicole L.; Goel, Anuj; Groop, Leif; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hallmans, Göran; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Ola; Harris, Tamara B.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon; Hercberg, Serge; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joseph; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta; Jhun, Min A.; Johnson, Paul C.D.; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti; Kao, W.H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo; Lannfelt, Lars; Lathrop, G Mark; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian’an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Marmot, Michael; Meneton, Pierre; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A.; Miljkovic, Iva; Narisu, Narisu; O’Connell, Jeff; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S.; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pehlic, Marina; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda; Pericic, Marijana; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peyser, Patricia A; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Province, Michael A.; Räikkönen, Katri; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rehnberg, Emil; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saaristo, Timo; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B.; Saxena, Richa; Schwarz, Peter; Seedorf, Udo; Sennblad, Bengt; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Siscovick, David S.; Smit, Johannes H.; Small, Kerrin S.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Yan V.; Swift, Amy J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Vikström, Max; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Wheeler, Eleanor; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willems, Sara M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wright, Alan F.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zelenika, Diana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Barroso, Ines; Watanabe, Richard M.; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B.; Langenberg, Claudia
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction, but contributed little to our understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways may be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interaction between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a novel joint meta-analytical approach to test associations with fasting insulin (FI) and glucose (FG) on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown FI loci at Pdiscovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels, suggestive of a role for these FI loci in insulin resistance pathways. The localization of these additional loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology. PMID:22581228
Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.
Thieme, Ramona; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Nachtigall, Marion; Schubert, Jörg; Hammann, Thilo; Antonova, Olga; Gavrilenko, Tatjana; Heimbach, Udo; Thieme, Thomas
Interspecific somatic hybrids between commercial cultivars of potato Solanum tuberosum L. Agave and Delikat and the wild diploid species Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (cph) were produced by protoplast electrofusion. The hybrid nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by flow cytometry, simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite-anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) markers and morphological analysis. Somatic hybrids were assessed for their resistance to Colorado potato beetle (CPB) using a laboratory bioassay, to Potato virus Y (PVY) by mechanical inoculation and field trials, and foliage blight in a greenhouse and by field trials. Twenty-four and 26 somatic hybrids of cph + cv. Agave or cph + cv. Delikat, respectively, showed no symptoms of infection with PVY, of which 3 and 12, respectively, were also resistant to foliage blight. One hybrid of cph + Agave performed best in CPB and PVY resistance tests. Of the somatic hybrids that were evaluated for their morphology and tuber yield in the field for 3 years, four did not differ significantly in tuber yield from the parental and standard cultivars. Progeny of hybrids was obtained by pollinating them with pollen from a cultivar, selfing or cross-pollination. The results confirm that protoplast electrofusion can be used to transfer the CPB, PVY and late blight resistance of cph into somatic hybrids. These resistant somatic hybrids can be used in pre-breeding studies, molecular characterization and for increasing the genetic diversity available for potato breeding by marker-assisted combinatorial introgression into the potato gene pool.
Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it
subject. The bovine subject is a member of Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red and White, or Danish Red cattle breed (claimed). ADVANTAGE - The method efficiently selects bovine subjects with increased resistance to mastitis and thereby avoiding economic losses in connection with animals suffering from mastitis......NOVELTY - Determining (m1) resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject, involves detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of at least one genetic marker that is associated with at least one trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off......-spring from it, where the genetic marker is located on the bovine chromosome BTA11 in the region flanked by and including the zeta-chain associated protein 70kD (ZAP70) and CD8B genes, where the presence or absence of the genetic marker is indicative of mastitis resistance. USE - For determining resistance...
Beadle, Janelle N; Brown, Vanessa; Keady, Brian; Tranel, Daniel; Paradiso, Sergio
Loneliness has been shown to be inversely correlated with empathy in younger adults. The present study extends previous research by investigating the association between empathy and loneliness across the adult lifespan and examining the role of relevant demographic and personality factors. 110 community-dwelling adults (18 to 81 years old) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Empathy Quotient. Empathy scores were inversely associated with rated loneliness and predicted 8.7% of variance in loneliness scores after accounting for sex, age, relationship status, education, and neuroticism. The Social Skills factor of the Empathy Quotient was the strongest predictor of the association between perceived empathy and loneliness. Previous research is extended by the finding that rated loneliness was inversely associated with empathy scores across the adult lifespan. Underlying this relationship may be negative perceptions of personal social proclivity as a function of difficulty in understanding the mental states of others and high trait neuroticism.
Sadeh, Naomi; Bredemeier, Keith
Attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007) posits that taxing attentional resources impairs performance efficiency in anxious individuals. This theory, however, does not explicitly address if or how the relation between anxiety and attentional control depends upon the perceptual demands of the task at hand. Consequently, the present study examined the relation between trait anxiety and task performance using a perceptual load task (Maylor & Lavie, 1998). Sixty-eight male college students completed a visual search task that indexed processing of irrelevant distractors systematically across four levels of perceptual load. Results indicated that anxiety was related to difficulty suppressing the behavioural effects of irrelevant distractors (i.e., decreased reaction time efficiency) under high, but not low, perceptual loads. In contrast, anxiety was not associated with error rates on the task. These findings are consistent with the prediction that anxiety is associated with impairments in performance efficiency under conditions that tax attentional resources.
Zhou, Li-biao; Yan, Xing-fu; Wang, Jian-li; Zhou, Yun-feng
A field survey was conducted in the Quercus wutaishanica shrubs in Liupan Mountains of Ningxia, Northwest China to study the predation and removal of rodents on the seeds of Q. wutaishanica, Prunus salicina and Pinus armandii, aimed to explore the effects of seed size and pericarp traits on the predation and removal behaviors of rodents. The in situ seed predation rates of smaller Q. wutaishanica seeds and P. armandii seeds were significantly higher than those of larger Q. wutaishanica seeds and P. salicina seeds. The P. salicina seeds with hard and thick pericarp (endocarp) had the highest predation rate and hoarding rate after the removal by rodents. The movement distance of larger Q. wutaishanica seeds during predation events was the longest (3.10 m), and the seed hoarding distance of this species (6.48 m) was significantly longer than that of the three other types of seeds. Over 80% of sites were used as the predation sites by rodents for the seeds, except that the P. salicina seeds contained only a single seed and the cache sites contained a single seed accounted for over 90% for all types of seeds. Few predation and cache sites containing over two seeds were detected. Higher proportion of P. armandii seeds were predated in microhabitats except at the base of shrubs and in the holes after removal by rodent, while the seeds of other three types were predated mainly at the base of shrubs and in the holes after removal by rodents. The seed hoarding patterns after removal by rodents were primarily determined by pericarp traits, and higher proportion of soil burial that the rodents hoarded seeds with hard pericarp (endocarp) was detected.
Matheus Coelho Bandéca
Full Text Available This study evaluated the fracture resistance of teeth submitted to internal bleaching and restored with different non-metallic post. Eighty mandibular incisors were endodontically treated and randomly divided in 10 groups (n = 8: G1- restored with composite resin (CR, G2- CR + fiber-reinforced composite post (FRC, Everstick post, Sticktech cemented with resin cement self-etch adhesive (RCS, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray, G3- CR + FRC + self-adhesive resin cement (SRC, Breeze, Pentral Clinical, G4- CR+ glass fiber post (GF, Exacto Post, Angelus + RCS, G5- CR + GF + SRC. The G6 to G10 were bleached with hydrogen peroxide (HP and restored with the same restorative procedures used for G1 to G5, respectively. After 7 days storage in artificial saliva, the specimens were submitted to the compressive strength test (N at 0.5 mm/min cross-head speed and the failure pattern was identified as either reparable (failure showed until 2 mm below the cement-enamel junction or irreparable (the failure showed <2 mm or more below the cement-enamel. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05. No significant difference (p < 0.05 was found among G1 to G10. The results suggest that intracoronal bleaching did not significantly weaken the teeth and the failure patterns were predominately reparable for all groups. The non-metallic posts in these teeth did not improve fracture resistance.
Moffet, A.; Okansinski, A.; Sloan, C.; Grace, J. M.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L. J.; Camps, M.
High-energy ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation is a significant challenge to life in environments such as high altitude areas, the early Earth, the Martian surface, and space. As UV-C exposure is both a selection pressure and a mutagen, adaptation dynamics in such environments include a high rate of change in both tolerance-related and non-tolerance-related genes, as well changes in linkages between the resulting traits. Determining the relationship between the intensity and duration of the UV-C exposure, mutation rate, and emergence of UV-C resistance will inform our understanding of both the emergence of radiation-related extremophily in natural environments and the optimal strategies for generating artificial extremophiles. In this study, we iteratively exposed an Escherichia colistrain to UV-C radiation of two different fluxes, 3.3 J/m^2/s for 6 seconds and 0.5 J/m^2/s for 40 seconds, with the same overall fluence of 20 J/m^2. After each iteration, cells from each exposure regime were assayed for increased UV-C tolerance as an adaptive trait. The exposed cells carried a plasmid bearing a TEM beta-lactamase gene, which in the absence of antibiotic treatment is a neutral reporter for mutagenesis. Sequencing of this gene allowed us to determine the baseline mutation frequency for each flux. As an additional readout for adaptation, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase mutations was tested by plating UV-exposed cultures in cefotaxime plates. We observed an increase of approximately one-million-fold in UV-C tolerance over seven iterations; no significant difference between the two fluxes was found. Future work will focus on identifying the genomic changes responsible for the change in UV-C tolerance; determining the mechanisms of the emerged UV-C tolerance; and performing competition experiments between the iteration strains to quantify fitness tradeoffs resulting from UV-C adaptation.
Shu, Xiaoli; Jia, Limeng; Ye, Hongxia; Li, Chengdao; Wu, Dianxing
The hydrolysis of starch is a key factor for controlling the glycemic index (GI). Slow digestion properties of starch lead to slower glucose release and lower glycemic response. Food with high resistant starch (RS) possesses great value for controlling the GI. To elucidate the factors that play a role in slow digestibility, seven rice mutants different in RS contents were selected for comparative studies. The degree of hydrolysis showed highly significant correlation with RS, apparent amylose content (AAC), lipid content (LC), and other starch physiochemical properties in all these materials with different RS contents. The rate of in vitro digestible starch correlated positively with RS, whereas digestibility was affected mostly by lipid content for those mutants with similar RS. Starch-lipid complexes and short chains with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 8-12 strongly influenced starch digestion. The integrity of aggregated starch and the number of round starch granules might influence the digestibility of starch directly.
Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., as a leafy vegetable, has considerable economic benefits. Although nowadays the tendency is to grow lettuce hydroponically, growers use different nutrients solutions for lettuce production and there is not an optimal nutrients solution for lettuce production in Iran. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to introduce the optimal solution out of current solutions in the market for lettuce production. In this experiment, effects of four nutrients solutions (Hoagland and Arnon, NSHoag; Knop’s, NSKnop, England, NSUK, and University of Tabriz solution, NSUT on two cultivars of lettuce (Siahoo and Conquistador were assessed. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized blocks design with four replications at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, and traits such as total soluble solids (TSS, panel test, percentage of leaf dry matter and leaf nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and nitrate contents were assessed. Results showed that different nutrients solutions had significant effect on nutrients concentration and some of the qualitative characteristics of lettuce. The highest percentage of dry mater, leaf nitrogen and potassium content, were observed in Knop’s, UT and Hoagland solutions, respectively. Interaction between cultivar and nutrients solution became significant on panel test results. Hoagland and Knop’s solutions in Conquistador cultivar and England and Hoagland solutions in Siahoo cultivar showed maximum panel-test results. Nutrients solutions didn’t have significant effects on other traits. Therefore, it is concluded that Hoagland nutrients solution was the best solution for qualitative traits in lettuce production. But, it is necessary to analyze these nutrients solutions for lettuce yield and economic aspects.
Williams, Justin H G; Cameron, Isobel M; Ross, Emma; Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D
Empathy is usually conceived of as independent of the non-verbal behaviors which mediate its experience, though embodied cognition theory predicts that individual differences in action representation will affect empathic traits. The "Actions and Feelings Questionnaire" (AFQ) was designed to capture individual differences in self-awareness of own and others' actions, particularly those associated with feelings, which we predicted would correlate with levels of empathic traits. A pilot 30-item questionnaire included items on perceptual sensitivity to action, imitation, action imagery, and gestural and facial expression. It was completed by a sample of 278 adults (mean age 21.2 years; 189 females, 89 males) along with the 15-item Empathic Quotient (EQ) Questionnaire. Total scores on the final 18-item questionnaire showed strong internal coherence (Cronbach's alpha of 0.81) and test-retest reliability (ICC=0.88), marked effect of sex and highly significant correlation with EQ. The questionnaire was administered to participants in an fMRI study investigating the neural correlates of facial imitation. Total AFQ score correlated with activity in somatosensory cortex, insula, anterior cingulate, and visual cortex. The AFQ shows promise as a brief and simple self-report measure sensitive to variability in the self-awareness of actions associated with feelings. It suggests that much of the variability of empathic traits in typical populations is accounted for by variance in this capacity. We suggest that being more empathic really is about being "touchy-feely," and this questionnaire provides a novel measure of action-based empathy.
Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.
The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional (CU) Traits (ICU) is a self-report questionnaire which was developed to measure the affective features of psychopathy in children and adolescents. Previous studies reported both support and difficulties with this promising new measure. The present study investiga
ZHANG Wu-jun; LI Gang-hua; YANG Yi-ming; LI Quan; ZHANG Jun; LIU Jin-you; WANG Shao-hua; TANG She; DING Yan-feng
The objective of this study was to determine the morphology mechanism of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and ratio on lodging resistance through analying its effects among lodging index (LI), lodging-related morphological traits and physical strength in basal internodes by comparing japonica and indica super rice cultivars. Field experiments, with three nitrogen levels (0, 150 and 300 kg ha-1) and two ratios of basal to topdressing (8:2 and 5:5) with two super rice cultivars (Yliangyou 2 and Wuyunjing 23), were conducted in the Baolin Farm, Danyang Country, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2011 and 2012. Effects of N fertilizer rates and ratios on morphology of whole plant, morphology traits in basal internodes and culm’s physical strength parameters were investigated at 20 d after full heading stage. LI of Yliangyou 2 was signiifcant greater than that of Wuyunjing 23 due to larger bending moment by whole plant (WP) with higher plant height and gravity center height. With higher volume of N fertilizer, LI of two super rice cultivars was increased conspicuously. However, no signiifcant effect was detected with increase of panicle fertilizer ratio. The size of breaking strength (M) in basal internodes was the key factor determining LI among N fertilizer treatments. Correlation analysis revealed that M value was positively related bending stress (BS) of Wuyunjing 23 and section modulus (Z) of Yliangyou 2, respectively. The higher N fertilizer levels induced reduction of BS of Wuyunjing 23 due to weak culm and leaf sheath plumpness status and reduced Z of Yliangyou 2 owning to small diameter and culm wall thickness, consequently, inlfuencing their M indirectly. These results suggested that breaking strength was the key factor inlfuencing LI with increase of N fertilizer levels. However, the lodging-related morphology mechanism was different with genotypes. Culm wall thickness and diameter in basal internodes of indica super rice and culm and leaf sheath plumpness status of
Full Text Available The additive and dominance genetic variances of 5,801 Duroc reproductive and growth records were estimated usingBULPF90 PC-PACK. Estimates were obtained for number born alive (NBA, birth weight (BW, number weaned (NW, andweaning weight (WW. Data were analyzed using two mixed model equations. The first model included fixed effects andrandom effects identifying inbreeding depression, additive gene effect and permanent environments effects. The secondmodel was similar to the first model, but included the dominance genotypic effect. Heritability estimates of NBA, BW, NWand WW from the two models were 0.1558/0.1716, 0.1616/0.1737, 0.0372/0.0874 and 0.1584/0.1516 respectively. Proportionsof dominance effect to total phenotypic variance from the dominance model were 0.1024, 0.1625, 0.0470, and 0.1536 for NBA,BW, NW and WW respectively. Dominance effects were found to have sizable influence on the litter size traits analyzed.Therefore, genetic evaluation with the dominance model (Model 2 is found more appropriate than the animal model (Model 1.
Hicks, Brian M; Carlson, Marie D; Blonigen, Daniel M; Patrick, Christopher J; Iacono, William G; Mgue, Matt
Theorists have speculated that primary psychopathy (or Factor 1 affective-interpersonal features) is prominently heritable whereas secondary psychopathy (or Factor 2 social deviance) is more environmentally determined. We tested this differential heritability hypothesis using a large adolescent twin sample. Trait-based proxies of primary and secondary psychopathic tendencies were assessed using Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) estimates of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality, respectively. The environmental contexts of family, school, peers, and stressful life events were assessed using multiple raters and methods. Consistent with prior research, MPQ Impulsive Antisociality was robustly associated with each environmental risk factor, and these associations were significantly greater than those for MPQ Fearless Dominance. However, MPQ Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality exhibited similar heritability, and genetic effects mediated the associations between MPQ Impulsive Antisociality and the environmental measures. Results were largely consistent across male and female twins. We conclude that gene-environment correlations rather than main effects of genes and environments account for the differential environmental correlates of primary and secondary psychopathy.
Roberto dos Santos Trindade
Full Text Available Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars with enhanced root growth would be a strategy for increasing P uptake and grain yield in tropical soils, but the strong plasticity of root traits may compromise their inclusion in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of the genotypic variability of root traits in common bean plants at two ontogenetic stages and two soil P levels. Twenty-four common bean genotypes, comprising the four growth habits that exist in the species and two wild genotypes, were grown in 4 kg pots at two levels of applied P (20 and 80 mg kg-1 and harvested at the stages of pod setting and early pod filling. Root area and root length were measured by digital image analysis. Significant genotype × P level and genotype × harvest interactions in analysis of variance indicate that the genotypic variation of root traits depended on soil nutrient availability and the stage at which evaluation was made. Genotypes differed for taproot mass, basal and lateral root mass, root area and root length at both P levels and growth stages; differences in specific root area and length were small. Genotypes with growth habits II (upright indeterminate and III (prostrate indeterminate showed better adaptation to limited P supply than genotypes of groups I (determinate and IV (indeterminate climbing. Between the two harvests, genotypes of groups II and III increased the mass of basal and lateral roots by 40 and 50 %, respectively, whereas genotypes of groups I and IV by only 7 and 19 %. Values of the genotypic coefficient of determination, which estimates the proportion of phenotypic variance resulting from genetic effects, were higher at early pod filling than at pod setting. Correlations between shoot mass and root mass, which could indicate indirect selection of root systems via aboveground biomass, were higher at early pod filling than at pod setting. The results indicate that selection for root
Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor
Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness.
Brown, Seth A
Limited information is available on understanding why particular individuals engage in non-suicidal deliberate self-harm (DSH), especially among non-clinical populations. An array of personality traits, such as those included in the five-factor model of personality, may further an understanding of DSH. The purpose of this study was to examine personality traits among non-clinical groups with or without a history of DSH. College students (N=238) completed self-report measures of DSH and personality. Both multivariate (MANOVA, discriminant analysis) and univariate (ANOVA) statistical procedures supported the hypothesis that those with a history of DSH (n=59) had significantly higher levels of neuroticism and openness to experience, and significantly lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in extraversion between the two groups. These results indicate personality differences among those with a history of DSH, which with additional research, may prove to be risk factors or targets of intervention for future DSH or collateral problems.
The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la
Crowder, David W; Carrière, Yves
Genetically modified (GM) crops are used extensively worldwide to control diploid agricultural insect pests that reproduce sexually. However, future GM crops will likely soon target haplodiploid and parthenogenetic insects. As rapid pest adaptation could compromise these novel crops, strategies to manage resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests are urgently needed. Here, we developed models to characterize factors that could delay or prevent the evolution of resistance to GM crops in diploid, haplodiploid, and parthenogenetic insect pests. The standard strategy for managing resistance in diploid pests relies on refuges of non-GM host plants and GM crops that produce high toxin concentrations. Although the tenets of the standard refuge strategy apply to all pests, this strategy does not greatly delay the evolution of resistance in haplodiploid or parthenogenetic pests. Two additional factors are needed to effectively delay or prevent the evolution of resistance in such pests, large recessive or smaller non-recessive fitness costs must reduce the fitness of resistance individuals in refuges (and ideally also on GM crops), and resistant individuals must have lower fitness on GM compared to non-GM crops (incomplete resistance). Recent research indicates that the magnitude and dominance of fitness costs could be increased by using specific host-plants, natural enemies, or pathogens. Furthermore, incomplete resistance could be enhanced by engineering desirable traits into novel GM crops. Thus, the sustainability of GM crops that target haplodiploid or parthenogenetic pests will require careful consideration of the effects of reproductive mode, fitness costs, and incomplete resistance.
Full Text Available Temperature variation is an important factor determining the outcomes of interspecific interactions, including those involving hosts and parasites. This can apply to variation in average temperature or to relatively short but intense bouts of extreme temperature. We investigated the effect of heat shock on the ability of aphids (Aphis fabae harbouring protective facultative endosymbionts (Hamiltonella defensa to resist parasitism by Hymenopteran parasitoids (Lysiphlebus fabarum. Furthermore, we investigated whether heat shocks can modify previously observed genotype-by-genotype (G x G interactions between different endosymbiont isolates and parasitoid genotypes. Lines of genetically identical aphids possessing different isolates of H. defensa were exposed to one of two heat shock regimes (35°C and 39°C or to a control temperature (20°C before exposure to three different asexual lines of the parasitoids. We observed strong G x G interactions on parasitism rates, reflecting the known genetic specificity of symbiont-conferred resistance, and we observed a significant G x G x E interaction induced by heat shocks. However, this three-way interaction was mainly driven by the more extreme heat shock (39°C, which had devastating effects on aphid lifespan and reproduction. Restricting the analysis to the more realistic heat shock of 35°C, the G x G x E interaction was weaker (albeit still significant, and it did not lead to any reversals of the aphid lines' susceptibility rankings to different parasitoids. Thus, under conditions feasibly encountered in the field, the relative fitness of different parasitoid genotypes on hosts protected by particular symbiont strains remains mostly uncomplicated by heat stress, which should simplify biological control programs dealing with this system.
Zangaro, Waldemar; de Assis, Rafael Leandro; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; Gonçalves, Melissa Camargo; Andrade, Galdino; Nogueira, Marco Antonio
Fine root morphological traits and distribution, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, soil fertility, and nutrient concentration in fine root tissue were compared in sites under different successional phases: grass plants, secondary forest, and mature forest in Londrina county, Paraná state, southern Brazil. Soil cores were collected randomly at the 0-10- and 10-20-cm depths in three quadrants (50 m2) in each site. Plants from the different successional stages displayed high differences in fine root distribution, fine root traits, and mycorrhizal root colonization. There were increases in the concentration of nutrients both in soil and fine roots and decrease of bulk soil density along the succession. The fine root biomass and diameter increased with the succession progress. The total fine root length, specific root length, root hair length, and root hair incidence decreased with the succession advance. Similarly, the mycorrhizal root colonization and the density of AM fungi spores in the soil decreased along the succession. Mycorrhizal root colonization and spore density were positively correlated with fine root length, specific root length, root hair length, root hair incidence, and bulk density and negatively correlated with fine root diameter and concentration of some nutrients both in soil and root tissues. Nutrient concentration in root tissue and in soil was positively correlated with fine root diameter and negatively correlated with specific root length, root hair length, and root hair incidence. These results suggest different adaptation strategies of plant roots for soil exploration and mineral acquisition among the different successional stages. Early successional stages displayed plants with fine root morphology and AM fungi colonization to improve the root functional efficiencies for uptake of nutrients and faster soil resource exploration. Late successional stages displayed plants with fine root morphology and mycorrhizal symbiosis for both a lower
Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Surma, Maria; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Górny, Andrzej G; Kempa, Michał; Szarejko, Iwona; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Gudyś, Kornelia
High-yielding capacity of the modern barley varieties is mostly dependent on the sources of semi-dwarfness associated with the sdw1/denso locus. The objective of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the plant height and yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown under various soil moisture regimes. The plant material was developed from a hybrid between the Maresi (European cv.) and CamB (Syrian cv.). A total of 103 QTLs affecting analysed traits were detected and 36 of them showed stable effects over environments. In total, ten QTLs were found to be significant only under water shortage conditions. Nine QTLs affecting the length of main stem were detected on 2H-6H chromosomes. In four of the detected QTLs, alleles contributed by Maresi had negative effects on that trait, the most significant being the QLSt-3H.1-1 in the 3H.1 linkage group. The close linkage between QTLs identified around the sdw1/denso locus, with positive alleles contributed by Maresi, indicates that the semi-dwarf cv. Maresi could serve as a donor of favourable traits resulting in grain yield improvement, also under water scarcity. Molecular analyses revealed that the Syrian cv. also contributed alleles which increased the yield potential. Available barley resources of genomic annotations were employed to the biological interpretation of detected QTLs. This approach revealed 26 over-represented Gene Ontology terms. In the projected support intervals of QGWSl-5H.3-2 and QLSt-5H.3 on the chromosome 5H, four genes annotated to 'response to stress' were found. It suggests that these QTL-regions may be involved in a response of plant to a wide range of environmental disturbances.
Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.
Huang, Jia; Wang, Yi; Jin, Zhen; Di, Xin; Yang, Tao; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Shum, David H K; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K
In daily life facial expressions change rapidly and the direction of change provides important clues about social interaction. The aim of conducting this study was to elucidate the dynamic happy facial expression processing with different social interaction cues in individuals with (n=14) and without (n=14) schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) traits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), dynamic happy facial expression processing was examined by presenting video clips depicting happiness appearing and disappearing under happiness inducing ('praise') or reducing ('blame') interaction cues. The happiness appearing condition consistently elicited more brain activations than the happiness disappearing condition in the posterior cingulate bilaterally in all participants. Further analyses showed that the SPD group was less deactivated than the non-SPD group in the right anterior cingulate cortex in the happiness appearing-disappearing contrast. The SPD group deactivated more than the non-SPD group in the left posterior cingulate and right superior temporal gyrus in the praise-blame contrast. Moreover, the incongruence of cues and facial expression activated the frontal-thalamus-caudate-parietal network, which is involved in emotion recognition and conflict resolution. These results shed light on the neural basis of social interaction deficits in individuals with schizotypal personality traits.
Full Text Available Drought resistance is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Identification of genes involved in drought tolerance will facilitate breeding for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa. Our objective was to use a diversity panel of alfalfa accessions comprised of 198 cultivars and landraces to identify genes involved in drought tolerance. The panel was selected from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System alfalfa collection and genotyped using genotyping by sequencing. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping two important traits associated with drought tolerance: drought resistance index (DRI and relative leaf water content (RWC. Marker-trait association identified nineteen and fifteen loci associated with DRI and RWC, respectively. Alignments of target sequences flanking to the resistance loci against the reference genome of M. truncatula revealed multiple chromosomal locations. Markers associated with DRI are located on all chromosomes while markers associated with RWC are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Co-localizations of significant markers between DRI and RWC were found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Most loci associated with DRI in this work overlap with the reported QTLs associated with biomass under drought in alfalfa. Additional significant markers were targeted to several contigs with unknown chromosomal locations. BLAST search using their flanking sequences revealed homology to several annotated genes with functions in stress tolerance. With further validation, these markers may be used for marker-assisted breeding new alfalfa varieties with drought resistance and enhanced water use efficiency.
Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Li, Yajun; Rivera, Martha; Main, Dorrie; Greene, Stephanie L
Drought resistance is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Identification of genes involved in drought tolerance will facilitate breeding for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa. Our objective was to use a diversity panel of alfalfa accessions comprised of 198 cultivars and landraces to identify genes involved in drought tolerance. The panel was selected from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System alfalfa collection and genotyped using genotyping by sequencing. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping two important traits associated with drought tolerance: drought resistance index (DRI) and relative leaf water content (RWC). Marker-trait association identified nineteen and fifteen loci associated with DRI and RWC, respectively. Alignments of target sequences flanking to the resistance loci against the reference genome of M. truncatula revealed multiple chromosomal locations. Markers associated with DRI are located on all chromosomes while markers associated with RWC are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Co-localizations of significant markers between DRI and RWC were found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Most loci associated with DRI in this work overlap with the reported QTLs associated with biomass under drought in alfalfa. Additional significant markers were targeted to several contigs with unknown chromosomal locations. BLAST search using their flanking sequences revealed homology to several annotated genes with functions in stress tolerance. With further validation, these markers may be used for marker-assisted breeding new alfalfa varieties with drought resistance and enhanced water use efficiency.
Dixit, Shalabh; Grondin, Alexandre; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Henry, Amelia; Olds, Thomas-Mitchell; Kumar, Arvind
Interaction and genetic control for traits influencing the adaptation of the rice crop to varying environments was studied in a mapping population derived from parents (Moroberekan and Swarna) contrasting for drought tolerance, yield potential, lodging resistance, and adaptation to dry direct seeding. A BC2F3-derived mapping population for traits related to these four trait groups was phenotyped to understand the interactions among traits and to map and align QTLs using composite interval mapping (CIM). The study also aimed to identify QTLs for the four trait groups as composite traits using multivariate least square interval mapping (MLSIM) to further understand the genetic control of these traits. Significant correlations between drought- and yield-related traits at seedling and reproductive stages respectively with traits for adaptation to dry direct-seeded conditions were observed. CIM and MLSIM methods were applied to identify QTLs for univariate and composite traits. QTL clusters showing alignment of QTLs for several traits within and across trait groups were detected at chromosomes 3, 4, and 7 through CIM. The largest number of QTLs related to traits belonging to all four trait groups were identified on chromosome 3 close to the qDTY 3.2 locus. These included QTLs for traits such as bleeding rate, shoot biomass, stem strength, and spikelet fertility. Multivariate QTLs were identified at loci supported by univariate QTLs such as on chromosomes 3 and 4 as well as at distinctly different loci on chromosome 8 which were undetected through CIM. Rice requires better adaptation across a wide range of environments and cultivation practices to adjust to climate change. Understanding the genetics and trade-offs related to each of these environments and cultivation practices thus becomes highly important to develop varieties with stability of yield across them. This study provides a wider picture of the genetics and physiology of adaptation of rice to wide range of
Full Text Available Fillets and cooking yields, water holding capacity, textural properties, colour, proximate composition, collagen and fatty acids of five strains (IT1, IT2, IT3, USA, UK of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in three farms (F1, F2, F3, were measured before and after cooking. Physico-chemical parameters of the strains greatly differed both in raw and cooked state. IT2 and USA recorded the highest yields. IT2 distinguished from the other strains, showing lowest values of hardness, chewiness, gumminess and springiness. It also had brighter and less pigmented flesh with low fat, mainly in the raw state. USA strain showed the most valuable traits in terms of texture and colour, and had higher fat and collagen content in flesh. The physico-chemical profile of each strain was differently modified by cooking. USA strain maintained a positive texture and colour profile after cooking and its quality was the best.
Madeleine Bieg; Thomas Goetz; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.
This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94) and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131) participated. Students' trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess the...
Rushton, J. Philippe; Rushton, Elizabeth W.
Correlated brain size differences with 37 musculoskeletal variables shown in evolutionary textbooks to change with brain size. Findings from a sample of more than 6,000 U.S. military personnel indicate that racial differences in brain size are securely established and are the most likely biological mediators of race differences in intelligence.…
Sarup, Pernille Merete; Loeschcke, Volker
-down resistance after development at either constant or fluctuating temperatures in nine Drosophila buzzatii populations collected along an altitudinal gradient in Tenerife, Spain. Flies that developed at fluctuating temperatures had higher stress resistance despite experiencing a slightly lower average...
Ramírez-Valiente, Jose Alberto; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Aranda, Ismael; Valladares, Fernando
Plants distributed across a wide range of environmental conditions are submitted to differential selective pressures. Long-term selection can lead to the development of adaptations to the local environment, generating ecotypic differentiation. Additionally, plant species can cope with this environmental variability by phenotypic plasticity. In this study, we examine the importance of both processes in coping with environmental heterogeneity in the Mediterranean sclerophyllous cork oak Quercus suber. For this purpose, we measured growth and key functional traits at the leaf level in 9-year-old plants across 2 years of contrasting precipitation (2005 and 2006) in a common garden. Plants were grown from acorns originated from 13 populations spanning a wide range of climates along the distribution range of the species. The traits measured were: leaf size (LS), specific leaf area (SLA), carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and leaf nitrogen content per unit mass (N(mass)). Inter-population differences in LS, SLA and Delta(13)C were found. These differences were associated with rainfall and temperature at the sites of origin, suggesting local adaptation in response to diverging climates. Additionally, SLA and LS exhibited positive responses to the increase in annual rainfall. Year effect explained 28% of the total phenotypic variance in LS and 2.7% in SLA. There was a significant genotype x environment interaction for shoot growth and a phenotypic correlation between the difference in shoot growth among years and the annual mean temperature at origin. This suggests that populations originating from warm sites can benefit more from wet conditions than populations from cool sites. Finally, we investigated the relationships between functional traits and aboveground growth by several regression models. Our results showed that plants with lower SLA presented larger aboveground growth in a dry year and plants with larger leaf sizes displayed larger growth rates in both
Drawz, Sarah M; Porter, Stephen; Kuskowski, Michael A; Johnston, Brian; Clabots, Connie; Kline, Susan; Ferrieri, Patricia; Johnson, James R
Escherichia coli sequence type 13 (ST131), an emergent cause of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal infections, has important phylogenetic subsets, notably the H30 and H30Rx subclones, with distinctive resistance profiles and, possibly, clinical associations. To clarify the local prevalence of these ST131 subclones and their associations with antimicrobial resistance, ecological source, and virulence traits, we extensively characterized 233 consecutive E. coli clinical isolates (July and August 2013) from the University of Minnesota Medical Center-Fairview Infectious Diseases and Diagnostic Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN, which serves three adjacent facilities (a children's hospital and low- and high-acuity adult facilities). ST131 accounted for 26% of the study isolates (more than any other clonal group), was distributed similarly by facility, and was closely associated with ciprofloxacin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. The H30 and H30Rx subclones accounted for most ST131 isolates and for the association of ST131 with fluoroquinolone resistance and ESBL production. Unlike ST131 per se, these subclones were distributed differentially by hospital, being most prevalent at the high-acuity adult facility and were absent from the children's hospital. The virulence gene profiles of ST131 and its subclones were distinctive and more extensive than those of other fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing isolates. Within ST131, bla CTX-M-15 was confined to H30Rx isolates and other bla CTX-M variants to non-Rx H30 isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis documented a predominance of globally distributed pulsotypes and no local outbreak pattern. These findings help clarify the epidemiology, ecology, and bacterial correlates of the H30 and H30Rx ST131 subclones by documenting a high overall prevalence but significant segregation by facility, strong associations with fluoroquinolone resistance and specific ESBL variants, and distinctive
Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance...... in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology....
Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Alba, Juan M; Pons, Clara; Granell, Antonio; Kant, Merijn R; Moriones, Enrique; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages. Treatment of young plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) resulted in a 60% increase in type-IV trichome density, acylsucrose production, and enhanced resistance to whiteflies, leading to 50% decrease in the virus disease incidence compared to cultivated tomato. Using transcriptomics, metabolite analysis, and insect bioassays we established the basis of this inducible resistance. We found that MeJA activated the expression of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defensive acylsugars in young BC5S2 plants leading to enhanced chemical defenses in their acquired type-IV trichomes. Our results show that not only constitutive but also these inducible defenses can be transferred from wild into cultivated crops to aid sustainable protection, suggesting that conventional breeding strategies provide a feasible alternative to increase pest resistance in tomato.
Full Text Available Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV, we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages. Treatment of young plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA resulted in a 60% increase in type-IV trichome density, acylsucrose production, and enhanced resistance to whiteflies, leading to 50% decrease in the virus disease incidence compared to cultivated tomato. Using transcriptomics, metabolite analysis and insect bioassays we established the basis of this inducible resistance. We found that MeJA activated the expression of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defensive acylsugars in young BC5S2 plants leading to enhanced chemical defenses in their acquired type-IV trichomes. Our results show that not only constitutive but also these inducible defenses can be transferred from wild into cultivated crops to aid sustainable protection, suggesting that conventional breeding strategies provide a feasible alternative to increase pest resistance in tomato.
Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Alba, Juan M.; Pons, Clara; Granell, Antonio; Kant, Merijn R.; Moriones, Enrique; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael
Whiteflies damage tomatoes mostly via the viruses they transmit. Cultivated tomatoes lack many of the resistances of their wild relatives. In order to increase protection to its major pest, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and its transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV), we introgressed a trichome-based resistance trait from the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium into cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. The tomato backcross line BC5S2 contains acylsucrose-producing type-IV trichomes, unlike cultivated tomatoes, and exhibits increased, yet limited protection to whiteflies at early development stages. Treatment of young plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) resulted in a 60% increase in type-IV trichome density, acylsucrose production, and enhanced resistance to whiteflies, leading to 50% decrease in the virus disease incidence compared to cultivated tomato. Using transcriptomics, metabolite analysis, and insect bioassays we established the basis of this inducible resistance. We found that MeJA activated the expression of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defensive acylsugars in young BC5S2 plants leading to enhanced chemical defenses in their acquired type-IV trichomes. Our results show that not only constitutive but also these inducible defenses can be transferred from wild into cultivated crops to aid sustainable protection, suggesting that conventional breeding strategies provide a feasible alternative to increase pest resistance in tomato. PMID:27920785
Prokkola, J; Roff, D; Kärkkäinen, T; Krams, I; Rantala, M J
Insect cuticle melanism is linked to a number of life-history traits, and a positive relationship is hypothesized between melanism and the strength of immune defense. In this study, the phenotypic and genetic relationships between cuticular melanization, innate immune defense, individual development time and body size were studied in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) using three different temperatures with a half-sib breeding design. Both innate immune defense and cuticle darkness were higher in females than males, and a positive correlation between the traits was found at the lowest temperature. The effect of temperature on all the measured traits was strong, with encapsulation ability and development time decreasing and cuticle darkness increasing with a rise in temperature, and body size showing a curved response. The analysis showed a highly integrated system sensitive to environmental change involving physiological, morphological and life-history traits.
Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufm. & Gerd. and flooding can limit growth and productivity, of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], especially on poorly drained soils. The primary objective of this research project was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with f...
Peressotti, E.; Dolzani, C.; Poles, L.; Banchi, E.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Vezzulli, S.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.
To date, molecular markers are available for many economically important traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as well as in other fruit crops. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of the allelic variation of the related genes hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These m
Peressotti, E.; Dolzani, C.; Poles, L.; Banchi, E.; Stefanini, M.; Salamini, F.; Velasco, R.; Vezzulli, S.; Riaz, S.; Walker, M.A.; Reisch, B.I.; De Weg, Van W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.
To date, molecular markers are available for many economically important traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as well as in other fruit crops. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of the allelic variation of the related genes hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These
In this chapter, critical race and expectancy violation theories are used to deconstruct students' resistance to a female faculty member of color, a Muslim Arab American who wears the traditional Islamic cover. The author provides a narrative of her teaching experience and some techniques she has used to face such resistance.
LU Zuo-mei; XU Bao-qin; SUN Da-yun
Early generation stability of a japonica rice variety,84-15,was retested by using the allelic differences of two qualitative traits,i.e.,glume tip color and waxy endosperm.Results showed that both glume tip color and waxy endosperm segregated in progenies of single F1 plants derived from two crosses of 84-15/Zi 18 (purple color) and 84-15/Dahuaxiangnuo (waxy).The results denied the conclusion obtained in previous studies that 84-15 had a characteristic of early generation stability.Moreover,it was found that using the coefficient of variation as an indicator of early generation stability was unreasonable by analyzing plant height as an example.Importance of avoiding systematic error in research works was also discussed.
Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).
Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon
An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.
Papadopoulou, B; Kündig, C; Singh, A; Ouellette, M
The main line of defense available against parasitic protozoa is chemotherapy. Drug resistance has emerged however, as a primary obstacle to the successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases. Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis, have served as a useful model for studying mechanisms of drug resistance in vitro. Antimonials and amphotericin B are the first line drugs to treat Leishmania followed by pentamidine and a number of other drugs. Parasites resistant against all these classes of drugs have been selected under laboratory conditions. A multiplicity of resistance mechanisms has been detected, the most prevalent being gene amplification and transport mutations. With the tools now available, it should be possible to elucidate the mechanisms that govern drug resistance in field isolates and develop more effective chemotherapeutic agents.
Pozza, Andrea; Giaquinta, Nicoletta; Dèttore, Davide
Pathological skin picking (SP) is a strongly impairing condition characterized by repetitive picking behaviors resulting in significant tissue damage and distress. Recent research suggested the presence of different subtypes of SP. No study has investigated which personality traits could be specifically associated with different subtypes. In a community sample (N=285, 71.20% females, mean age =34.98 years, standard deviation =15.91), this cross-sectional study investigated which personality traits and emotion regulation deficits could predict specific SP subtypes. Participants completed the Milwaukee Inventory for the Dimensions of Adult Skin Picking (MIDAS), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality scales (MCMI-III), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) questionnaires. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.28, t=4.88, P<0.001), MCMI-III avoidant scale (β=0.18, t=2.59, P<0.01), and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.19, t=3.27, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS automatic scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III borderline (β=0.30, t=5.23, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.52, P<0.05) and DERS limited access to emotion regulation strategies (β=0.21, t=3.26, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS focused scale. Higher scores on the MCMI-III sadistic (β=0.19, t=3.30, P<0.001) and DERS difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior (β=0.15, t=2.68, P<0.01) predicted higher scores on the MIDAS mixed scale. Implications for future research and treatment are discussed.
YU Yanwei; LU Zhengding; LING Hefei
In this paper a blind image watermarking that can resist to rotation, scaling and translation (RST) attacks is proposed. Based on the spread spectrum, the watermark is modulated before embedding. The log-polar mapped discrete fourier transform (LPM-DFT) magnitude of a disk, a part of the origin image, constitutes the RST-invariant domain, where the origin of the LPM is the center of the disk and the sampling rates of the LPM are constant. After the middle frequency band of LPM-DFT magnitude, namely the watermark-embedding domain, is grouped according to the watermark length, the watermark is embedded by adjusting the difference between the two sub-region energy in each group. To improve the imperceptibility, the watermark-embedding domain is shuffled before embedding and the watermark is not embedded directly into the watermark-embedding domain. In watermark detection procedure, neither the original image nor any knowledge about the distortions is required. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is very robust against RST distortion and common image processing attacks.
Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z
The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.
Full Text Available Investigations related to morphological and anatomical traits of leaves of four largefruited hazelnut (Corylus L. cultivars characterised by different susceptibility to filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli Goetze feeding. The following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the number of stomata, the length of secretory and mechanical hairs and their density on the leaf, the thickness of adaxial and abaxial epidermis and the thickness of their external cell walls. Observations of cross sections of the leaves were made in a light microscope and the surface of the adaxial epidermis was analysed in a scanning electron microscope. It was shown that leaves of the cultivars susceptible to M. coryli feeding had the thinnest leaf blade, especially in the main vein, and many more stomata. Besides, the cultivar most resistant to filbert aphid feeding, White Filbert, was marked by the largest height of the adaxial epidermis cells and the strongest striation of the cuticle in abaxial epidermis. On leaves of this cultivar, the number of mechanical hairs was the highest, while the lowest number of them was noted on Wonder from Bollwiller, the most susceptible cultivar.
欧红梅; 张自立; 姚大年
To test the roles of La3+on yield and quality of wheat for different end uses, experiments were conducted using split-plot design for different La3+treatments as main plot and different gluten types of wheat as subplot, by foliar spraying La3+at jointing stage and filling stage. The results showed that spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+increased the yield and 1000-kernel weight of wheat of different gluten types. The protein content of strong-gluten wheat Wanmai 33 increased after spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+, which made it achieve the good quality standard of strong-gluten wheat, whereas its LOX and PPO activity reduced, the carotenoid content increased. These La3+treatments prolonged the storage period of grain, improved flour nutritional value and the food processing qual-ity. Spraying 0.5-1.5 mmol/L La3+also increased flour peak viscosity of medium-gluten wheat Yangmai 158, as improving its starch properties. Spraying La3+ significantly decreased flour water absorption rate of weak gluten type variety Wanmai 48 to meet the weak-gluten flour standard. The total pentosan content reduced at 1-1.5 mmol/L La3+, which would be good for making biscuit. Re-sults suggested that spraying appropriate concentration of La3+increased wheat yield and benefited wheat quality for different end uses.
Stickle, Timothy R.; Marini, Victoria A.; Thomas, Jamila N.
The current study investigated gender differences in types and correlates of aggression among 150 adjudicated youth (M age = 15.2, SD = 1.4). In cluster analysis, consistent with past studies, one aggressive group characterized by moderate levels of reactive aggression and one characterized by high levels of proactive and reactive aggression…
Grove, Rachel; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Wierda, Marlies; Begeer, Sander
Research has highlighted potential differences in the phenotypic and clinical presentation of autism spectrum conditions across sex. Furthermore, the measures utilised to evaluate autism spectrum conditions may be biased towards the male autism phenotype. It is important to determine whether these instruments measure the autism phenotype…
Tomlinson, K.W.; Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.; Borghetti, F.; Jacobs, L.; Langevelde, van F.
Background and Aims Plant relative growth rate (RGR) depends on biomass allocation to leaves (leaf mass fraction, LMF), efficient construction of leaf surface area (specific leaf area, SLA) and biomass growth per unit leaf area (net assimilation rate, NAR). Functional groups of species may differ in
Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras
Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji
Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.
Full Text Available Most of the existing studies on musical practice are concerned with instrumentalists only. Since singers are seldom considered in research, the present study is based on an online-sample of amateur vocal students (N = 120; 92 female, 28 male. The study investigated the correlations between personality traits, flow-experience and several aspects of practice characteristics. Personality was represented by the three personality dimensions extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, assessed by Eysenck’s Personality Profiler as well as the trait form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. ‘Flow-experience’, ‘self-congruence’ and ‘fear of losing control over concentration’, assessed by the Practice Flow Inventory, served as variables for flow-experience. The practice motivation was measured by the Practice Motivation Questionnaire in four categories (‘self’, ‘group’, ‘audience’, ‘teacher’. In addition, the Practice Behavior Questionnaire was used to provide an insight into the practice situation and behavior of singing students. The results show significant correlations: Participants with high extraversion-scores experience significantly more flow than less extraverted persons, whereas lesser flow-experience seems to be related to high neuroticism-scores. Nevertheless, there is no influence in flow-experience concerning singing style (‘classical’ or ‘popular’. The longer the practicing time, the more likely students are to achieve flow-experience. However, older singers tend to have less flow-experience. Consequently, singers seem to differ in their personality and practice behavior compared to other musicians. Most of the findings show that having control over one’s instrument is decisive for achieving a performance of high quality, especially for singers. On the other hand, certainty in handling an instrument is essential to arouse a flow-feeling. However, flow-experience seems to be common mainly with
Full Text Available The supplementation of blue light to red light enhanced plant growth compared with the use of red alone. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different doses of blue light on the biometric traits and photosynthesis of dill plants. The plants were grown in pots in a growth chamber. They were grown in red light (100 μmol m-2 s-1 and blue light (from 10 to 50 μmol m-2 s-1 in five combinations. Light emitting diode modules were the source of light. The plants were evaluated every 7 days during vegetation, for the first time - seven days after germination and later on the 14th, 21st and 28th day after germination. The share of blue light in the spectrum significantly influenced the biometric traits of the dill plants. It significantly inhibited the elongation growth of the plants and negatively affected the increase in fresh weight. A small dose of blue light (20% had positive effect on the plants’ area. The research did not reveal a simple relationship between the amount of blue light and dry weight yield. The value of physiological indexes depended both on the combination and measurement time. The plants from the combination with 30% blue light were characterised by the greatest photosynthesis intensity. An effective share of blue light in the spectrum may range from 10 to 30% in relation to red light and depends on the plant’s development phase and on the result we want to achieve in the cultivation of plants.
DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO
Jan 26, 2012 ... Table 1. The varieties of C. oleifera. Number Sampling location Origin. Name. Natural resistance ..... Disord Drug Targets 6: 273-281. Crawford GH, Sciacca JR ... canines suffering from cutaneous skin disease. Schweiz Arch.
May 26, 2015 ... cement (Panavia F 2.0 Light) and a self‑adhesive resin cement ... Resistance of substructure materials with two cements. 731 ..... is known to have several disadvantages like the increase .... There are no conflicts of interest.
Moraes Gonçalves, de T.; Nunes de Oliveira, H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
A Bayesian marker-free segregation analysis was applied for the estimation of variance components and to search for evidence of segregation genes affecting two carcass traits: intramuscular fat (IMF), %, and backfat thickness (BF), mm ; and one growth trait: body weight gain (LG) from 25 to 90 kg, a
Pablo A Oyarzún
Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.
Bellahirech, A; Inácio, M L; Nóbrega, F; Henriques, J; Bonifácio, L; Sousa, E; Ben Jamâa, M L
Platypus cylindrus is an important wood borer of cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in the Mediterranean region, namely Portugal, Morocco and Algeria where its presence has drastically increased in the past few decades. On the contrary, the insect is not a relevant pest in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to analyze morphological and genetic differences among Tunisian and Portuguese populations in order to understand their role in the diverse population dynamics (e.g., aggressiveness) of the insect. The information could be used as a novel tool to implement protective measures. Insects were collected from cork oak stands in Tunisia (Ain Beya, Babouch and Mzara) and Portugal (Chamusca and Crato). Morphological traits of female and male mycangial pits were determined, using scanning electron microscopy but no significant differences were found. Genetic differences were analyzed using nuclear (internal simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I (COI)) molecular markers. The results showed a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism and genetic diversity. The alignment of COI sequences showed high percentage of identical sites (99%) indicating a very low variation in nucleotide composition. Other variables related with the ecology of the insect and its associated fungi must be studied for a better understanding of the differences in the insect population's dynamic in Mediterranean countries.
YAN Chun-geng; CAO Rui-fang; ZHENG Zong-dao; ZHENG Si-xiang; CUI Guo-xian
Different ploidy ramie materials were studied via microscopic observation on stem sections andmacerated fiber cells. Morphologic differences between different ploidy plants were analyzed. Average barkarea percentages in ramie stem transection of hapioids, tetraploids, diploids and triploids were 28.91, 27. 05,26.97 and 24.77 % respectively. Average percentages of fiber layer area of diploids, haploids, tetraploids andtriploids were 16.80, 16.58, 15.52 and 13.78% respectively. Average fiber cell diameter and cell wall thick-ness were increased along with the increase of the ploidy of the plants. Average fiber length of diploids, trip-loids and haploids were 8.49, 7. 96 and 6.93 em respectively. Average L/B (length/breadth) of diploids,triploids and haploids were 2 470.7, 2 390.6 and 1 616.3 respectively. Average breadths of fiber of haploids,diploids and triploids were 29.30, 33. 87 and 49. 20 μm respectively. However, there were relatively largevariations in the above characteristics among the ramie materials of the same ploidy levels. Field performanceof different ploidy plants was also investigated. As the chromosome ploidy increasing, there was a tendency ofdeclining in shoot number per plant and increasing in stem diameter. Average shoots per plant of haploids,diploids, triploids and tetrapioids were 5.83, 5.30, 3.77 and 3.65 whereas their average stem diameters were0.66, 0.67, 0. 74 and 0. 76 cm respectively. Triploids were the tallest, while haploids were the shortest.Triploids had strong growth vigour, diploids and tetraploids had moderate growth vigour, while haploids ap-peared to be lack of growth vigour. Cold stress tolerance of tetraploids were the strongest, diploid had themoderate tolerance, while haploids and triploids were the least tolerant to cold stress. Both haploids and trip-loids were sterile.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different agricultural products on quantitative aspects of carcass, body constituents, cooking loss, shear force and colorimetry of the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in Santa Ines lambs. 24 Santa Ines female lambs received one of four diets which were isoproteic and isoenergetic with fixed levels of forage (60% and concentrate (40% of corn and soybean meal during 45 days. The forages per diet differed: coast-cross hay (HAY, cassava hay (CASS, dehydrated by-product of pea crop (PEA and sugarcane (SC. The average weight of the lambs at the beginning of the experiment was 26.35kg. Animals were slaughtered in a federally certified abattoir. Initial and final pH, cooking losses, color using the CIELAB system, shear force and the quantity of sarcomeres per 100μm were measured. Hot carcass, cold and half carcass weights were affected by treatments (P<0.05. The sarcomere length of Triceps brachii muscle 24 hours after slaughter differed between diets and coast-cross hay had the lowest value. The sarcomere length differed significantly between diets and the dehydrated by-product of pea crop had the lowest number of sarcomeres immediately after slaughter compared to other diets. There was no influence of diet on colorimetry, cooking loss and shear force. The decrease in pH followed the development of the process of rigor mortis in the Longissimus lumborum and Triceps brachii muscles in the first hour and up to 24 hours after slaughter. Diets did not alter the pH, water holding capacity, colorimetry or shear force. The pea by-product and sugarcane can replace traditional sources of fodder without depreciation of meat characteristics.
AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191...
Negri, Alfredo S.; Prinsi, Bhakti; Failla, Osvaldo; Scienza, Attilio; Espen, Luca
The role of grape berry skin as a protective barrier against damage by physical injuries and pathogen attacks requires a metabolism able to sustain biosynthetic activities such as those relating to secondary compounds (i.e., flavonoids). In order to draw the attention on these biochemical processes, a proteomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed among Riesling Italico, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, and Croatina cultivars, which are known to accumulate anthocyanins to a different ext...
Alfredo Simone Negri; Bhakti ePrinsi; Osvaldo eFailla; Attilio eScienza; Luca eEspen
The role of grape berry skin as a protective barrier against damage by physical injuries and pathogen attacks requires a metabolism able to sustain biosynthetic activities such as those relating to secondary compounds (i.e. flavonoids). In order to draw the attention on these biochemical processes, a proteomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed among Riesling Italico, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir and Croatina cultivars, which are known to accumulate anthocyanins to a different exten...
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish whether there are differences in the longevity and production characteristics within the studied breeds of cows of different origin. Holstein cows of Slovenian (461 and foreign (356 origin and Simmental cows of Slovenian (261 and foreign (43 origin were studied. Only culled animals that previously had between 1 and 9 lactations were included. The analyzed properties consisted of characteristics related to the longevity and lifetime productivity. Compared with Slovenian cows, imported Holstein cows had a significantly longer calving interval (1210±31 days, 1337±39 days, P=0.008, a longer dry period (172±6 days, 192±7 days, P=0.022, and a significantly lower daily milk yield (23.0±0.2 kg, 22.0±0.3 kg, P=0.002. Significant differences between Simmental cows of Slovenian and foreign origin were observed in functional productivity (1317±52 days, 1808±186 days, P=0.006, longevity (2175±53 days, 2701±145 days, P=0.004, and duration of lifetime lactation (990±38 days, 1265±137 days, P=0.037.
Nadai, Chiara; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana
From a technological point of view, yeast resistance to sulfite is of great interest and represents an important technological character for winemaking. Several mechanisms are involved, and strain-dependent strategies to obtain SO2 resistance can deeply influence wine quality, although this choice is less relevant in determining the technological performance of the strain during fermentation. In this study, to better understand the strain-specific mechanisms of resistance, 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, whose genomes have been previously sequenced, were selected. Their attitude towards sulfites, in terms of resistance and production, was evaluated, and RNA-sequencing of four selected strains was performed during fermentation process in synthetic grape must in the presence of SO2. Results demonstrated that at molecular level, the physical effect of SO2 triggered multiple stress responses in the cell and high tolerance to general enological stressing condition increased SO2 resistance. Adaptation mechanism due to high basal gene expression level rather than specific gene induction in the presence of sulfite seemed to be responsible in modulating strain resistance. This mechanism involved higher basal gene expression level of specific cell wall proteins, enzymes for lipid biosynthesis, and enzymes directly involved in SO2 assimilation pathway and efflux.
In this work polymeric materials were developed to be used as a solvent and heat resistance membrane for different applications. In ultrafiltration, poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes were manufactured by combining phase inversion and functionalization reaction between epoxy groups and amine modified polyether oligomers (Jeffamine®). Polysilsesquioxanes or oligo silsesquioxanes containing epoxy functionalities were in-situ grown in the casting solution and made available for further reaction with amines in the coagulation/annealing baths. Water permeances up to 1500 l m-2 h-1 bar-1 were obtained with sharp pore size distribution and a pore diameter peak at 66 nm, confirmed by porosimetry, allowing 99.2 % rejection of γ-globulin. The membranes were stable in 50:50 dimethylformamide/water, 50:50 N-methyl pyrrolidone/water and 100 % tetrahydrofuran. In pervaporation, Novel hydrophobic Hyflon®/Extem® and Hyflon®/PVDF were developed and investigated for ethylene glycol dehydration and n-butanol dehydration respectively. For ethylene glycol different Extem® concentrations were evaluated with regard to both flux and amount of water in the permeate side. Eighteen (18) wt% gave more than 90 wt% water in the permeate. Increasing feed temperature from 25 to 85°C increased the water flux from 31 to 91 g m-2 h-1 when using 5 wt% water in ethylene glycol as feed. The water flux of 40 wt% water:ethylene glycol at 45°C was found to be 350 g m-2 h-1. And for n-butanol dehydration the coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g m-2 h-1 with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt%. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes. In membrane distillation, PVDF
Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students.
Preti, Emanuele; Richetin, Juliette; Suttora, Chiara; Pisani, Alberto
Dysfunctions in social cognition characterize personality disorders. However, mixed results emerged from literature on emotion processing. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) traits are either associated with enhanced emotion recognition, impairments, or equal functioning compared to controls. These apparent contradictions might result from the complexity of emotion recognition tasks used and from individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. We conducted a study in a sample of undergraduate students (n=80), assessing BPD traits, using an emotion recognition task that requires the processing of only visual information or both visual and acoustic information. We also measured individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. Results demonstrated the moderating role of some components of impulsivity and effortful control on the capability of BPD traits in predicting anger and happiness recognition. We organized the discussion around the interaction between different components of regulatory functioning and task complexity for a better understanding of emotion recognition in BPD samples.
Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behaviour - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioural deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. Conditioned inhibition by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n=176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion. The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically-based personality theories, Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (1982 and Eysenck’s psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism theory (1991. Following the behavioural tasks, participants completed the behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system scales (BIS/BAS and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS. Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioural activation and behavioural inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.
He, Zhimin; Cassaday, Helen J; Bonardi, Charlotte; Bibby, Peter A
Conditioned inhibition (CI) is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behavior - and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioral deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. CI by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores) were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n = 176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion). The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically based personality theories, Gray's (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory and Eysenck and Eysenck (1991) psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism theory. Following the behavioral tasks, participants completed the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scales and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS). Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale) and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.
Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others
Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used
Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina
Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.
Hojat Damiri, Morteza Chaji*, Mohammad Bojarpour and Morteza Mamuei
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of different sodium bentonite (SB levels on performance, carcass characteristics and passage rate of broilers. Two hundred eighty eight day-old Ross strain mix broilers were allocated to 6 experimental diets with 4 replications in a completely randomized design. Treatments levels of sodium bentonite were 0.00, 0.75, 1.50, 2.25, 3.00 and 3.75%. Broilers fed SB containing diets consumed more feeds (P0.05 with no difference across treatments containing SB. The diet with 3.75% SB had the best FCR. Relative weight of liver decreased as percentage of SB increased in diet while control group had highest relative weight of breast (P<0.05. Supplementation of diets by SB increased retention time and decreased gastrointestinal passage rate. The use of SB in broiler diets had no adverse effects on performance; addition SB to broiler diets had beneficial effects on performance, carcass characteristics and passage rate and resulted in improved efficiency of production.
Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of different cage stocking densities on the performance of Italian quails in the laying period. Two hundred and sixty four quails with 30 weeks of age and 280g mean body weight were used. Birds were randomly assigned to 96 x 33 x 16 cm cages and distributed in a randomized block design with 4 treatments (12, 15, 18 and 21 quails per cage or 264, 211, 176 and 151 cm² per quail, respectively and 4 replicates. Birds were given feed and water ad libitum and submitted to the same experimental conditions. The experimental diet was formulated based on NRC (1994 recommendations. There were no significant differences among treatments for feed conversion per egg mass (kg:kg, percentage of broken eggs and mortality. There was a linear reduction (p<0.05 in egg weight, feed consumption, percentage of production, egg mass and feed conversion per dozen with the increase in stocking density. The gain per house per day was better at the cage density of 151 cm² per bird. However, the density of 211 cm² per bird provided the best gain per bird per day, because this stocking density had better productive indexes when compared with the other treatments.
Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja
Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.
Tânia Patrícia Schafaschek
Full Text Available We evaluated varroa infestation and the performance of Africanized honeybee colonies with queens selected for honey and royal jelly production, and also unselected queens, correlating with climatic variables. In Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment I used 10 Langstroth hives and in Mafra, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, the experiment II was performed with 15 Schenk hives. A mapping in areas of sealed and unsealed brood, honey and pollen was carried out on days zero, 45 and 90 days after the introduction of the queen. In the experiment I, there was interaction between the type of queen selection and the evaluation period for areas of sealed brood, honey, and total stored food. The group selected for royal jelly production presented larger sealed brood area and smaller honey area at 90 days. Varroa infestation was lower (p < 0.05 at 90 days. The type of queen selection and the evaluation period influenced the sealed brood area, the total brood and the total area occupied in the colony. The high relative humidity caused greater honey storage for the local group. The different groups of queens presented different behavior according to the environment in which they are settled.
Alfredo Simone Negri
Full Text Available The role of grape berry skin as a protective barrier against damage by physical injuries and pathogen attacks requires a metabolism able to sustain biosynthetic activities such as those relating to secondary compounds (i.e. flavonoids. In order to draw the attention on these biochemical processes, a proteomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed among Riesling Italico, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir and Croatina cultivars, which are known to accumulate anthocyanins to a different extent. The application of multivariate statistics on the dataset pointed out that the cultivars were distinguishable from each other and the order in which they were grouped mainly reflected their relative anthocyanin contents. Sorting the spots according to their significance 100 proteins were characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Through GC-MS, performed in Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM mode, 57 primary metabolites were analyzed and the differences in abundance of 16 of them resulted statically significant to ANOVA test. Considering the functional distribution, the identified proteins were involved in many physiological processes such as stress, defense, carbon metabolism, energy conversion and secondary metabolism. The trends of some metabolites were related to those of the protein data.Taken together, the results permitted to highlight the relationships between the secondary compound pathways and the main metabolism (e.g. glycolysis and TCA cycle. Moreover, the trend of accumulation of many proteins involved in stress responses, reinforced the idea that they could play a role in the cultivar specific developmental plan.
Negri, Alfredo S; Prinsi, Bhakti; Failla, Osvaldo; Scienza, Attilio; Espen, Luca
The role of grape berry skin as a protective barrier against damage by physical injuries and pathogen attacks requires a metabolism able to sustain biosynthetic activities such as those relating to secondary compounds (i.e., flavonoids). In order to draw the attention on these biochemical processes, a proteomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed among Riesling Italico, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, and Croatina cultivars, which are known to accumulate anthocyanins to a different extent. The application of multivariate statistics on the dataset pointed out that the cultivars were distinguishable from each other and the order in which they were grouped mainly reflected their relative anthocyanin contents. Sorting the spots according to their significance 100 proteins were characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Through GC-MS, performed in Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode, 57 primary metabolites were analyzed and the differences in abundance of 16 of them resulted statistically significant to ANOVA test. Considering the functional distribution, the identified proteins were involved in many physiological processes such as stress, defense, carbon metabolism, energy conversion and secondary metabolism. The trends of some metabolites were related to those of the protein data. Taken together, the results permitted to highlight the relationships between the secondary compound pathways and the main metabolism (e.g., glycolysis and TCA cycle). Moreover, the trend of accumulation of many proteins involved in stress responses, reinforced the idea that they could play a role in the cultivar specific developmental plan.
Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a nutritional disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) which when left unchecked can result in a severe yield penalty or even death in the most extreme cases. In order to curb these effects, resistance to the disease is needed. Breeding for resistance has been ...
Manning, Alisa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A.; Grimsby, Jonna L.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ladenvall, Claes; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lahti, Jari; Lecoeur, Cecile; Liu, Yongmei; Martinez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Montasser, May E.; Navarro, Pau; Perry, John R. B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Salo, Perttu; Sattar, Naveed; Shungin, Dmitry; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; An, Ping; de Andrade, Mariza; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Aspelund, Thor; Atalay, Mustafa; Aulchenko, Yurii; Balkau, Beverley; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Boban, Mladen; Boehnke, Michael; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bouchard, Claude; Brunner, Eric; Budimir, Danijela; Campbell, Harry; Carlson, Olga; Chines, Peter S.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Corbaton-Anchuelo, Arturo; Couper, David; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Egan, Josephine M.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Erdos, Michael R.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Eury, Elodie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Fox, Caroline S.; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Franks, Paul W.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Froguel, Philippe; Galan, Pilar; de Geus, Eco; Gigante, Bruna; Glazer, Nicole L.; Goel, Anuj; Groop, Leif; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hallmans, Goeran; Hamsten, Anders; Hansson, Ola; Harris, Tamara B.; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon; Hercberg, Serge; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hui, Jennie; Hung, Joseph; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jhun, Min A.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti; Kao, W. H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo; Lannfelt, Lars; Lathrop, G. Mark; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Li, Guo; Lind, Lars; Lindstrom, Jaana; Lobbens, Stephane; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Marmot, Michael; Meneton, Pierre; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent; Morken, Mario A.; Miljkovic, Iva; Narisu, Narisu; O'Connell, Jeff; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S.; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pehlic, Marina; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda; Pericic, Marijana; Perola, Markus; Perusse, Louis; Peyser, Patricia A.; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Province, Michael A.; Raikkonen, Katri; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rehnberg, Emil; Rice, Ken; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Saaristo, Timo; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Salomaa, Veikko; Savage, David B.; Saxena, Richa; Schwarz, Peter; Seedorf, Udo; Sennblad, Bengt; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Siscovick, David S.; Smit, Johannes H.; Small, Kerrin S.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stancakova, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stumvoll, Michael; Sun, Yan V.; Swift, Amy J.; Toenjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Trompet, Stella; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Vikstrom, Max; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Watkins, Hugh; Wheeler, Eleanor; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willems, Sara M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wright, Alan F.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Zelenika, Diana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Barroso, Ines; Watanabe, Richard M.; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josee; Meigs, James B.; Langenberg, Claudia
Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathw
Wallinga, Alinde E.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Granneman, Ramon A.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke
This study investigated whether trait-like differences in brain monoaminergic functioning relate to differential vulnerability for the long-term neurochemical depletion effects of MDMA. Genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and non-aggressive (LAL) house-mice differing in baseline serotonergic and d
Oury, François-Xavier; Lasme, P; Michelet, C; Dubat, A; Gardet, O; Heumez, E; Rolland, B; Rousset, M; Abecassis, J; Bar L'Helgouac'h, C; Lullien-Pellerin, V
Genetic (Pinb-D1 alleles) and environment (through vitreousness) have important effects on bread wheat milling behavior. SKCS optimal values corresponding to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains were defined to obtain the highest total flour yield. Near-isogenic lines of bread wheat that differ in hardness, due to distinct puroindoline-b alleles (the wild type, Pinb-D1a, or the mutated forms, Pinb-D1b or Pinb-D1d), were grown in different environments and under two nitrogen fertilization levels, to study genetic and environmental effects on milling behavior. Milling tests used a prototype mill, equipped with two break steps, one sizing step, and two reduction steps, and this enabled 21 individual or aggregated milling fractions to be collected. Four current grain characters, thousand grain weight, test weight, grain diameter, and protein content, were measured, and three characters known to influence grain mechanical resistance, NIRS hardness, SKCS hardness index, and grain vitreousness (a character affecting the grain mechanical behavior but generally not studied). As expected, the wild type or mutated forms of Pinb-D1 alleles led to contrasted milling behavior: soft genotypes produced high quantities of break flour and low quantities of reduction flour, whereas reverse quantities were observed for hard genotypes. This different milling behavior had only a moderate influence on total flour production. NIRS hardness and vitreousness were, respectively, the most important and the second most important grain characters to explain milling behavior. However, contrary to NIRS hardness, vitreousness was only involved in endosperm reduction and not in the separation between the starchy endosperm and the outer layers. The highest flour yields were obtained for SKCS values comprised between 30 and 50, which corresponded either to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains. Prediction equations were defined and showed a good accuracy estimating break and reduction flours portions, but
Fletcher, Garth J O; Tither, Jacqueline M; O'Loughlin, Claire; Friesen, Myron; Overall, Nickola
Prior research and theory suggest that people use three main sets of criteria in mate selection: warmth/trustworthiness, attractiveness/vitality, and status/resources. In two studies, men and women made mating choices between pairs of hypothetical potential partners and were forced to make trade-offs among these three criteria (e.g., warm and homely vs. cold and attractive). As predicted, women (relative to men) placed greater importance on warmth/trustworthiness and status/resources in a potential mate but less importance on attractiveness/vitality. In addition, as expected (a) ratings of ideal standards partly mediated the link between sex and mate choices, (b) ideal standards declined in importance from long-term to short-term relationships, with the exception of attractiveness/vitality, and unexpectedly, (c) sex differences were higher for long-term (compared to short-term) mate choice. Explanations and implications are discussed.
Lico, Chiara; Giardullo, Paola; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Santi, Luca; Baschieri, Selene
Self-assembling plant virus nanoparticles (pVNPs) have started to be explored as nanometre-sized objects for biomedical applications, such as vaccine or drug delivery and imaging. Plant VNPs may be ideal tools in terms of biocompatibility and biodegradability endowed with a wide diversity of symmetries and dimensions, easy chemical/biological engineering, and rapid production in plants. Recently, we defined that icosahedral Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and filamentous Potato virus X (PVX) are neither toxic nor teratogenic. We report here the results of an interdisciplinary study aimed to define for the first time the biodistribution of unlabelled, unpegylated, underivatized TBSV and PVX by proved detecting antibodies. These data add new insights on the in vivo behaviour of these nano-objects and demonstrate that the pVNPs under scrutiny are each intrinsically endowed with peculiar properties foreshadowing different applications in molecular medicine.
Ghobadi, Mohammad Eghbal; Ghobadi, Mokhtar; Zebarjadi, Alireza
Excess rainfalls may be the cause of waterlogging in soil, which affects the growth and development of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of waterlogging on shoot and root growth and physiological characteristics of wheat. Three experiments were conducted: experiment 1 (E1): evaluation of seedling growth on ten Iranian winter wheat varieties with waterlogging periods (1-4, 4-8, 8-12, and 12-16 days starting from seed germination). Seminal roots and plumule were investigated at seedling. The others are E2: pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and stem elongation stages and its effects on shoot and root growth at anthesis stage and experiment 3 (E3): pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and jointing stages and its effects on yield and yield components and also evaluation of stress tolerance indexes. The results of the seedling growth test (E1) showed that 1-4- and 4-8-day waterlogging severity reduced seminal root length (94.5 to 93.7 %) and plumule length (86.2 to 50.0 %) compared to control. Results of E2 indicated that waterlogging stress decreased shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total secondary root length, and chlorophyll a + b content of flag leaf by 28-31, 44-35, 20-31, and 28-35 %, respectively. Also, result of E3 showed that the grain yields of wheat varieties at two conditions of stress were different in base tolerance indexes. In general, the responses of wheat varieties to waterlogging were different at the three experiments. The varieties that had the most of dry weight and length of the root were tolerant. Thus, it is possible to use these characteristics as an index for selecting the varieties with tolerance to waterlogging.
Full Text Available The effects of five tomato genotypes (cv. Narvik and hybrids NS-6, Tamaris, Alliance and Marko on the survival, reproduction, development and population growth of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum were examined. A laboratory population of T. vaporariorum had been reared on tobacco plants for three years before the study. Females that laid eggs on the genotype Marko lived significantly longer and their offspring needed significantly shorter periods to develop than females on the genotype Narvik. The highest gross and net fecundity rates were found in females on the genotype Marko (36.74 eggs/ female and 27.93 eggs/female, respectively and they differed significantly from the corresponding rates of females living on the genotype NS-6 (18.55 eggs/female and 15.33 eggs/ female, who had the lowest fecundity rates. The highest gross and net fertility rates were also found in females on the genotype Marko (31.24 adults/female and 23.73 adults/female, and they were significantly higher than those of females living on NS-6 (14.85 adults/female and 12.53 adults/female. Besides, net fertility rate of the females living on the genotype Narvik (13.80 adults/female was also significantly lower than the rate of females on Marko. The instantaneous rates of increase showed no significant difference over a 10-day interval following the start of oviposition, while the increase rate was significantly higher on the genotype Marko after 12, 14 and 16 days, compared to the genotype NS-6. Eighteen, 20 and 22 days after the beginning of oviposition, the instantaneous rate of increase on the genotype Marko was significantly higher than it was on NS-6 and Narvik. Our data provide a basis for further research aiming to improve programs of integrated management of greenhouse whitefly.
Ghobadi, Mohammad Eghbal; Ghobadi, Mokhtar; Zebarjadi, Alireza
Excess rainfalls may be the cause of waterlogging in soil, which affects the growth and development of wheat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effects of waterlogging on shoot and root growth and physiological characteristics of wheat. Three experiments were conducted: experiment 1 (E1): evaluation of seedling growth on ten Iranian winter wheat varieties with waterlogging periods (1-4, 4-8, 8-12, and 12-16 days starting from seed germination). Seminal roots and plumule were investigated at seedling. The others are E2: pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and stem elongation stages and its effects on shoot and root growth at anthesis stage and experiment 3 (E3): pretreatment of waterlogging (15 days) at tillering and jointing stages and its effects on yield and yield components and also evaluation of stress tolerance indexes. The results of the seedling growth test (E1) showed that 1-4- and 4-8-day waterlogging severity reduced seminal root length (94.5 to 93.7 %) and plumule length (86.2 to 50.0 %) compared to control. Results of E2 indicated that waterlogging stress decreased shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total secondary root length, and chlorophyll a + b content of flag leaf by 28-31, 44-35, 20-31, and 28-35 %, respectively. Also, result of E3 showed that the grain yields of wheat varieties at two conditions of stress were different in base tolerance indexes. In general, the responses of wheat varieties to waterlogging were different at the three experiments. The varieties that had the most of dry weight and length of the root were tolerant. Thus, it is possible to use these characteristics as an index for selecting the varieties with tolerance to waterlogging.
Laycock, Robin; Chan, Daniel; Crewther, Sheila G.
One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task. Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) was employed to render incongruous hierarchical arrow cues perceptually invisible prior to consciously presented targets. This was achieved via a 10 Hz masking stimulus presented to the dominant eye that suppressed information presented to the non-dominant eye. Non-conscious arrows consisted of local arrow elements pointing in one direction, and forming a global arrow shape pointing in the opposite direction. On each trial, the cue provided either a valid or invalid cue for the spatial location of the subsequent target, depending on which level (global or local) received privileged attention. A significant autism-trait group by global cue validity interaction indicated a difference in the extent of non-conscious local/global cueing between groups. Simple effect analyses revealed that whilst participants with lower autistic traits showed a global arrow cueing effect, those with higher autistic traits demonstrated a small local arrow cueing effect. These results suggest that non-conscious processing biases in local/global attention may be related to individual differences in autistic traits. PMID:28149288
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two diets with different protein/fat ratios (P/F (diet A: P/F 2.26; diet B: P/F 3.36 on the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and some somatic indexes of meagre (Argyrosomus regius. The trial was carried out on two groups of meagre raised in two different sea cages during 15 months. At the end of the production cycle biometric measures as well as chemical-nutritional analysis of the fillets were conducted on 25 fishes per group. Diet A, with a lower P/F, furnished animals with higher percentages of mesenteric fat (0.48 vs 0.41%; P<0.01 and of fillet yield (51.21 vs 48.12; P<0.01. Moreover, the fillets obtained with the diet A showed higher percentage of fat (3.60 vs 2.41%; P< 0.01, lower moisture (74.10 vs 75.42%; P<0.01, lower losses of water under pressure (16.73 vs 20.20%; P<0.01 and after 48 h of refrigeration (3.08 vs 4.23%; P<0.01. The fatty acids profile of fillets was affected by the diet. Diet A resulted in a higher level of saturated fatty acids (26.44 vs 23.17% of total lipid; P<0.01 and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (31.56 vs 36.08%; P<0.01 in the fillet, mainly due to the lower content of linoleic acid (13.63 vs 19.77%; P<0.01. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes, which resulted very low in the fish of Group B (AI=0.48 vs 0.60, P<0.01; TI=0.33 vs 0.37, P<0.01, together with the low lipid content of meat in both groups, confirmed the very high nutritional quality of meagre fillets.
Bafeel, S O
The genetic diversity of Saudi locally growing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the genomic patterns of diversification in Saudi sorghum cultivars (N = 7), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a rapid, inexpensive method for providing information regarding genomic variability below the species level. Six commercially available primers were initially used to select a single primer based on availability, universality, and its use with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. PCR-amplified molecular markers were reproducibly detected in Saudi cultivars. The single primer 2 produced clear bands and revealed variability among the cultivars. Seven tested cultivars were categorized into 2 major groups, indicating 2 genomogroups for the Saudi-cultivars. Five cultivars (S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) showed identical banding patterns and were grouped in the same clade, although their panicles varied in size, shape, and color. Two cultivars (S1 and S7) showed different banding patterns. In this study, a single primer (P2) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of genotype detection among sorghum cultivars. This is the first report describing genetic variation among S. bicolor cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The commercial primer (P2) and PCR reaction mixture used in this study are readily available and can be used in sorghum improvement programs.
María José Fernández-Reiriz
Full Text Available Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F and slow (S growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1 than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1. The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.
Gartstein, Maria A; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan D
Frontal EEG asymmetry patterns represent markers of individual differences in emotion reactivity and regulation, with right hemisphere activation linked with withdrawal behaviors/emotions (e.g., fear), and activation of the left hemisphere associated with approach (e.g., joy, anger). In the present study, gender was examined as a potential moderator of links between infant temperament at 5 months, and frontal EEG asymmetry patterns recorded during an Arm Restraint procedure at 10 months of age. Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Orienting/Regulatory Capacity (ORC) were considered as predictors, with PAS emerging as significant for males; higher levels translating into greater right-frontal activation later in infancy. For females, ORC accounted for a significant portion of the frontal asymmetry scores, with higher ORC being associated with greater right-frontal activation. The moderating influence of gender noted in this study is discussed in the context of implications for discrepancies in rates/symptoms of psychopathology later in childhood.
Karolina M. Lempert
Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.
Hoogerheide, E S S; Azevedo Filho, J A; Vencovsky, R; Zucchi, M I; Zago, B W; Pinheiro, J B
The cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.) displays a wide phenotypic diversity, which is derived from natural mutations and phenotypic plasticity, due to dependence on soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude and cultural practices, leading to a large number of cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability shown by 63 garlic accessions belonging to Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" germplasm collections. We evaluated ten quantitative characters in experimental trials conducted under two localities of the State of São Paulo: Monte Alegre do Sul and Piracicaba, during the agricultural year of 2007, in a randomized blocks design with five replications. The Mahalanobis distance was used to measure genetic dissimilarities. The UPGMA method and Tocher's method were used as clustering procedures. Results indicated significant variation among accessions (P < 0.01) for all evaluated characters, except for the percentage of secondary bulb growth in MAS, indicating the existence of genetic variation for bulb production, and germplasm evaluation considering different environments is more reliable for the characterization of the genotypic variability among garlic accessions, since it diminishes the environmental effects in the clustering of genotypes.
Lejla Redžepagić Vražalica
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Various types of malocclusions present one of the most common dental problems of today’s population. Planning the implementation of orthodontic therapy, especially preventive and interceptive measures is one of many activities of public sector health, and it requires information regarding the prevalence of malocclusion in different parts of our country. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusion of preschool and school children in the city of Sarajevo. Materials and methods: This study was comprised of 373 children out of which 200 preschool and school children were included in the final sample according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria for participation. 100 children were five-year-olds with complete deciduous dentition, and 100 children were 14-year-olds with permanent dentition. The examined variables in the study were: dental status and existence of caries, overjet, depth of overbite, a presence of premature contacts, a presence of diastemas, crowding of teeth in the dental arch (for 14-year-olds and rotation of teeth in the dental arch (for 14-year-olds. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 58% in the group of preschool children and 83% in the group of school children. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrate a need for the implementation of preventive and interceptive orthodontic methods in primary health care, which would reduce the need for expensive and long term orthodontic therapy.
Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fatemeh; Gholami-Borujeni, Fathollah
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitroxin biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the growth, yield, and essential oil composition of dill. The experiment was conducted under field condition in randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors. The first factor was the concentrations of nitroxin biofertilizer (0%, 50%, and 100%) of the recommended amount (1 l of biological fertilizer for 30 kg of seed). The second factor was the following chemical fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (control) and 50 and 100 kg ha(-1) urea along with 300 kg ha(-1) ammonium phosphate. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of umbel per plant, number of umbellet per umbel, number of grain per umbellet, 1,000 seed weight, grain yield, biological yield, and oil percentage were recorded. According to the results, the highest height, biological yield, and grain yield components (except harvest index) were obtained on biological fertilizer. The results showed the highest essential oil content detected in biological fertilizer and chemical fertilizer. Identification of essential oil composition showed that the content of carvone increased with the application of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers. The results indicated that the application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and other plant criteria in this plant. Generally, it seems that the use of biofertilizers or combinations of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer could improve dill performance in addition to reduction of environmental pollution.
Full Text Available Fifty Najdi ram lambs weighing an average of 38.1±0.5 kg were utilized in this study to determine the effects of feed restriction level with or without subsequent realimentation on lamb performance and carcass composition. Lambs were allotted randomly and equally into five groups. The groups were fed a control diet ad libitum; two groups fed 0.90 and 0.80 of ad libitum intake throughout the eight-week period of the trial (R, and two groups fed 0.90 and 0.80 of ad libitum intake for a six-week period followed by two weeks of realimentation (RR. All lambs were slaughtered after eight weeks of experimentation. Average daily gain (ADG for the 0.90 and 0.80 ad libitum groups decreased by 7.6 and 26.9% during restriction, whereas the lambs during realimentation period had 35 and 30.5% faster ADG and 27.5 and 21.8% better feed:gain ratios than the control, respectively. At the end of the trial, final, empty and hot carcass weights and overall ADG of the 0.90 ad libitum RR group did not differ from control. Feeding performance values of the 0.80 ad libitum R group were the lowest among the treatments. The studied feed restriction regimens depressed the weights of empty stomach, tail fat, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat; however, two weeks of realimentation were not enough to induce complete weight recovery in these tissues. The 0.90 ad libitum RR restriction routine can be adopted as a nutritional management practice for fattening Najdi lambs.
Łazarczyk, Joanna B; Urban, Beata; Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Żmudzka, Ewa; Kowzan, Urszula; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Juszczyk-Zajkowska, Karolina
A significant increase in myopia among children and teenagers can be observed all over the world. Yet at the same time, there is still an insignificant number of studies concerning this health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of trait anxiety among myopic group of teenagers in comparison to teenagers with emmetropia, and to confirm whether the level of trait anxiety relates to age and gender. Two hundred thirty-nine students aged 13-17 years were included in the study. The study group comprised 114 persons with myopia (81 girls and 33 boys), while the control group comprised 125 persons without refractive error (79 girls and 46 boys). Volunteers completed a set of questionnaires including: personal data, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) (13-14 year-olds), or State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (15-17 year-olds). The trait anxiety subscales were thus analyzed. Among younger adolescents (13-14 years of age) with myopia there was a significantly higher incidence of pathological intensification of anxiety as a constant trait. After taking into account the distribution of gender, there was a higher level of trait anxiety in the group of boys with myopia than in the control group aged 13-17 years and 13-14 years. There was also a higher level of trait anxiety detected in males than in females. Myopia may affect the level of trait anxiety among 13-14-year-olds. In both age groups of girls, a higher percentage of patients with high level of anxiety was discovered (≥7 sten), as compared to their peers without vision defects. Our results can contribute to a more accurate analysis of young teenagers' psychological problems, especially among boys diagnosed with myopia.
Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.
Crespo, Kimberley; Chauvet, Cristina; Blain, Marilyne; Ménard, Annie; Roy, Julie; Deng, Alan Y
Inbred rodent models simulating essential hypertension and normotension are useful tools in discovering genes controlling blood pressure (BP) homeostasis. An analysis of a F2 population made from crosses of hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) and normotensive Lewis rats did not detect a BP quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 7 (Chr 7). However, false negativity could not be excluded. If a BP QTL could be proven to exist, what gene(s) may be responsible for this QTL. We first constructed reciprocal congenic strains for a Chr 7 segment and determined functional domains of prominent candidate genes. A congenic strain made in the DSS rat background exhibited a BP effect, indicating that a BP QTL, C7QTL, inhabits Chr 7. Contrarily, a congenic strain constructed in the Lewis rat background did not change BP, demonstrating a dependence of C7QTL on the DSS rats environment. Among the candidate genes, tachykinin 2 (Tac2), neurexophilin 4 (Nxph4) and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (Rdh2) bear nonsynonymous changes comparing DSS and Lewis rats, but are the same comparing DSS and Dahl salt-resistant (DSR) rats. In contrast, the Lewis alleles of 11-beta-hydroxylase (Cyp11b1), aldosterone synthase (Cyp11b2) and Cytochrome P-450 11B3 (Cyp11b3) are identical to those of DSS rats, but different from those of DSR rats. Thus, the failure to detect a linkage between a Chr 7 segment and BP in F2(DSS × Lewis) can be attributed to false negativity. Tac2, Nxph4 and Rdh2 are priority candidate genes for C7QTL. Lewis and DSR rats are both normotensive, but their underlying genetic determinants are different.
Jaakkola, Kaisa; Somervuo, Panu; Korkeala, Hannu
Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits of Karayaka lambs slaughtered at different slaughter weights (SWs and to find out optimum SWs. Male Karayaka lambs with 20 kg live weight (n=30 constituted the animal material of the study. Lambs were randomly divided into five SW groups; 30 (GI; n=6, 35 (GII; n=6, 40 (GIII; n=6; 45 (GIV; n=6 and 50 (GV; n=6 kg. Lamb fattening feed (concentrate feed, ad libitum and forage (lentil straw, 100g/lamb/day were used as the feed material. Lambs were sent to slaughter at target SWs. Following the slaughter, non-carcass components, tailless hot and cold carcass weights were taken. Carcasses were separated into six sections as leg, foreleg, back, loin, neck and others. Physical dissection was performed to investigate carcass composition. Only the differences in carcass dressing and skin percentages of slaughter groups were not found to be significant. Increasing carcass fat percentages and decreasing carcass lean and bone percentages were observed with increasing SWs. Considering the consumer preferences, current findings revealed that Karayaka lambs should be sent to slaughter at weights between 30-35 kg. However, considering the red meat deficit of the country, current market conditions and producer preferences, the optimum SW for Karayaka lambs were recommended to be between 40-45 kg.
Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.
Full Text Available The McGurk effect is a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. This effect may be experienced when a visual of the production of a phoneme is dubbed with a sound recording of a different phoneme being spoken wherein the perceived phoneme is often the third intermediate phoneme. In the present study we examined the potential individual differences in the McGurk effect among 51 healthy students. The results suggested that people with higher scores for schizophrenic or autistic traits, respectively, might report less /ka/ responses (visually captured responses but more /ta/ responses (vision-audio mixed responses in the McGurk condition (visually /pa/ but auditor/ka/. This indicates that such people might show a preference for auditory information over visual information. Both schizophrenia and autism might have deficits in social functioning. If an individual has a poor level of interpersonal skills this would reflect in the result since he/she might not be able to read others' lips automatically.
Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Bamaca-Gomez, Mayra Y.
Examined whether Mexican origin adolescents who varied by generational status would differ in their resistance to peer pressure. After controlling for gender, resistance to peer pressure varied significantly by generational status. Adolescents with no familial births in the United States were significantly more resistant to peer pressure than…
Juan M. García Casco
Full Text Available Genotype by environment interaction (G×E is a potential source of reduced efficiency in genetic improvement programs in livestock. The objective of the current work consisted of checking the existence of G×E interaction in carcass traits and in intramuscular fat content (IMF in Iberian pigs fattened in two free-range systems. Genetic component and estimated breeding values (EBV of the percentage of hams, shoulders and loins and IMF in loin were obtained from records of 4,348 and 1,818 pigs fattened in campo (C and montanera (M systems, respectively. A multitrait model where the performances of each system are considered as different traits was implemented. Three selection indexes were built with different treatments about the quality trait, two of them based in the optimal trait theory. The Pearson correlation between EBV and indexes and the Spearman correlation between the rankings of progenies of 21 boars fattened in both systems were calculated. Heritability results were different in both systems (h2 range from 0.43 to 0.66 and from 0.24 to 0.33 in C and M system, respectively and genetic correlation of same traits expressed in the two systems also pointed out to a weak G×E interaction (0.64, 0.67 and 0.66 in hams, shoulders and IMF, respectively. Pearson and Spearman correlations were always significantly different to 1. The obtained results advised to consider this G×E interaction in the analysis model of a breeding program focused on free range production system and to include IMF in the index selection assuming an optimum range for this quality trait, in order to avoid negative effects of selection for carcass performances.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of use organo-mineral fertilizers and poultry manure on yield and quality of seed tubers different potatoes varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study was designed in three replicated completely randomized block factorial design with eight potato cultivars (Madaline, Provento, Marfona, Agata, Arizona, Mustang, Rumba and Saviola and including three different fertilizer as Hexaferm organo-mineral (%20 organics, 8-21-0+Zn, compost (1 t da-1 and fermented poultry manure (1 t da-1. In order to determine the effect of fertilizer forms on the yield and quality characteristics of different varieties of potatoes were examined features like output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill, tuber yield per hill, total tuber yield, cracks tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity. Used fertilizers have no significant effect on output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill, total tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity of varieties. The difference observed in terms of output time of the tuber, output rates, plant height, stem number per hill between the varieties was insignificant. The difference between the average tuber yield per hill, total tuber yield, cracks tuber yield, dry matter content, starch content and specific gravity of varieties were significant. Similarly, the fertilizers had a significant effect on the average tuber yield per hill of varieties . The significant interactions were found on traits average tuber yield per hill and average specific gravity between Fertilizer x Varieties. As a result, considered economically the fermented and compost poultry manure can be used instead of organo-mineral fertilizers in the production of seed potatoes.
Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher;
Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) infect a variety of hosts, including domestic animals and humans. Of considerable interest is the porcine whipworm, T. suis, which is particularly prevalent in outdoor production systems. High infection levels may cause growth retardation, anaemia and haemorrhagic...... a whole-genome scan of an F1 resource population (n=195) trickle-infected with T. suis. A measured genotype analysis revealed a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL) for T. suis FEC on chromosome 13 covering ∼4.5Mbp, although none of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. We tested the hypothesis...
Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic and genetic stress as model stresses
Volker Loeschcke; Jesper G Sørensen; Torsten N Kristensen
We aim at studying adaptation to genetic and environmental stress and its evolutionary implications at different levels of biological organization. Stress influences cellular processes, individual physiology, genetic variation at the population level, and the process of natural selection. To investigate these highly connected levels of stress effects, it is advisable – if not critical – to integrate approaches from ecology, evolution, physiology, molecular biology and genetics. To investigate the mechanisms of stress resistance, how resistance evolves, and what factors contribute to and constrain its evolution, we use the well-defined model systems of Drosophila species, representing both cosmopolitan species such as D. melanogaster with a known genome map, and more specialized and ecologically well described species such as the cactophilic D. buzzatii. Various climate-related stresses are used as model stresses including desiccation, starvation, cold and heat. Genetic stress or genetic load is modelled by studying the consequences of inbreeding, the accumulation of (slightly) deleterious mutations, hybridization or the loss of genetic variability. We present here a research plan and preliminary results combining various approaches: molecular techniques such as microarrays, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses, quantitative PCR, ELISA or Western blotting are combined with population studies of resistance to climatic and genetic stress in natural populations collected across climatic gradients as well as in selection lines maintained in the laboratory.
Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter
Social differences in health and illness are well documented in Denmark. However, little is known about how health practices are manifested in the everyday lives of different social classes. We propose acts of resistance and formation of health subjectivities as helpful concepts to develop our understanding of how dominant health discourses are appropriated by different social classes and transformed into different practices promoting health and preventing illness. Based on fieldwork in two different social classes, we discuss how these practices both overtly and subtly challenge the normative power of the health promotion discourse. These diverse and ambiguous forms of everyday resistance illustrate how and when situated concerns move social actors to subjectively appropriate health promotion messages. Overall, the different forms of resistance elucidate how the standardized awareness and education campaigns may perpetuate the very inequalities they try to diminish.
Goenaga, Julieta; José Fanara, Juan; Hasson, Esteban
Food shortage is a stress factor that commonly affects organisms in nature. Resistance to food shortage or starvation resistance (SR) is a complex quantitative trait with direct implications on fitness. However, surveys of natural genetic variation in SR at different geographic scales are scarce. Here, we have measured variation in SR in sets of lines derived from nine natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected in western Argentina. Our study shows that within population variation explained a larger proportion of overall phenotypic variance (80%) than among populations (7·2%). We also noticed that an important fraction of variation was sex-specific. Overall females were more resistant to starvation than males; however, the magnitude of the sexual dimorphism (SD) in SR varied among lines and explained a significant fraction of phenotypic variance in all populations. Estimates of cross-sex genetic correlations suggest that the genetic architecture of SR is only partially shared between sexes in the populations examined, thus, facilitating further evolution of the SD.
Cunniff, J.; Wilkinson, S.; Charles, M.; G. Jones; Rees, M. van; Osborne, CP
The reasons why some plant species were selected as crops and others were abandoned during the Neolithic emergence of agriculture are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that the traits of Fertile Crescent crop progenitors were advantageous in the fertile, disturbed habitats surrounding early settlements and in cultivated fields. We screened functional traits related to competition and disturbance in a group of grass species that were increasingly exploited by early plant gatherers, a...
Full Text Available This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94 and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131 participated. Students' trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess their state academic emotions experience-sampling method was employed. The results revealed that students' scores on the trait assessment of emotions were generally higher than their scores on the state assessment. Further, as expected, students' academic self-concept in the domain of mathematics was shown to partly explain the discrepancy between scores on trait and state emotions. Our results indicate that there is a belief-driven discrepancy between what students think they feel (trait assessment and what they really feel (state assessment. Implications with regard to the assessment of self-reported emotions in future studies and practical implications for the school context are discussed.
Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A
This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94) and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131) participated. Students' trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess their state academic emotions experience-sampling method was employed. The results revealed that students' scores on the trait assessment of emotions were generally higher than their scores on the state assessment. Further, as expected, students' academic self-concept in the domain of mathematics was shown to partly explain the discrepancy between scores on trait and state emotions. Our results indicate that there is a belief-driven discrepancy between what students think they feel (trait assessment) and what they really feel (state assessment). Implications with regard to the assessment of self-reported emotions in future studies and practical implications for the school context are discussed.
Full Text Available Multivariate statistical techniques were used to compare the relationship between yield and its related traits under noninoculated and inoculated cultivars with mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices; each one consisted of three wheat cultivars and four water regimes. Results showed that, under inoculation conditions, spike weight per plant and total chlorophyll content of the flag leaf were the most important variables contributing to wheat grain yield variation, while, under noninoculated condition, in addition to two mentioned traits, grain weight per spike and leaf area were also important variables accounting for wheat grain yield variation. Therefore, spike weight per plant and chlorophyll content of flag leaf can be used as selection criteria in breeding programs for both inoculated and noninoculated wheat cultivars under different water regimes, and also grain weight per spike and leaf area can be considered for noninoculated condition. Furthermore, inoculation of wheat cultivars showed higher value in the most measured traits, and the results indicated that inoculation treatment could change the relationship among morphological traits of wheat cultivars under drought stress. Also, it seems that the results of stepwise regression as a selecting method together with principal component and factor analysis are stronger methods to be applied in breeding programs for screening important traits.
Suicidal Ideation vs. Suicide Attempts: Clinical and Psychosocial Profile Differences Among Depressed Patients: A Study on Personality Traits, Psychopathological Variables, and Sociodemographic Factors in 228 Patients.
Lewitzka, Ute; Spirling, Sina; Ritter, Dirk; Smolka, Michael; Goodday, Sarah; Bauer, Michael; Felber, Werner; Bschor, Tom
This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39.4/42.6 years) using a comprehensive measurement (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis II disorders, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Beck-Hopelessness Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Impulsivity Rating Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Inventory for the Assessment of Aggression Factors, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Ways of Coping Checklist). Several differences distinguished the two groups, namely, in personality traits such as anxiety or coping strategies and sociodemographics (e.g., education level). Personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors are useful tools for assessing suicidal risk. Our findings encourage us to suggest that clinicians pay particular attention to sociodemographic variables such as separation/divorce and a lower education level when conducting risk assessments on suicidal patients.
Heller, Katharina; Bullerjahn, Claudia; von Georgi, Richard
Most of the existing studies on musical practice are concerned with instrumentalists only. Since singers are seldom considered in research, the present study is based on an online-sample of amateur vocal students (N = 120; 92 female, 28 male). The study investigated the correlations between personality traits, flow-experience and several aspects of practice characteristics. Personality was represented by the three personality dimensions extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, assessed by Eysenck’s Personality Profiler as well as the trait form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. ‘Flow-experience,’ ‘self-congruence’ and ‘fear of losing control over concentration,’ assessed by the Practice Flow Inventory, served as variables for flow-experience. The practice motivation was measured by the Practice Motivation Questionnaire in four categories (‘self,’ ‘group,’ ‘audience,’ ‘teacher’). In addition, the Practice Behavior Questionnaire was used to provide an insight into the practice situation and behavior of singing students. The results show significant correlations: participants with high extraversion-scores experience significantly more flow than less extraverted persons, whereas lesser flow-experience seems to be related to high neuroticism-scores. Nevertheless, there is no influence in flow-experience concerning singing style (‘classical’ or ‘popular’). The longer the practicing time, the more likely students are to achieve flow-experience. However, older singers tend to have less flow-experience. Consequently, singers seem to differ in their personality and practice behavior compared to other musicians. Most of the findings show that having control over one’s instrument is decisive for achieving a performance of high quality, especially for singers. On the other hand, certainty in handling an instrument is essential to arouse a flow-feeling. However, flow-experience seems to be common mainly with amateur singers
Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Schisler, George J.; Antolin, Michael F.
We used a quantitative genetics approach and estimated broad sense heritability (h2b) of myxospore count and the number of genes involved in myxospore formation to gain a better understanding of how resistance to Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite responsible for whirling disease, is inherited in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. An M. cerebralis-resistant strain of rainbow trout, the German Rainbow (GR), and a wild, susceptible strain of rainbow trout, the Colorado River Rainbow (CRR), were spawned to create 3 intermediate crossed populations (an F1 cross, F2 intercross, and a B2 backcross between the F1 and the CRR). Within each strain or cross, h2b was estimated from the between-family variance of myxospore counts using full-sibling families. Estimates of h2b and average myxospore counts were lowest in the GR strain, F1 cross, and F2 intercross (h2b = 0.34, 0.42, and 0.34; myxospores fish−1 = 275, 9566, and 45780, respectively), and highest in the B2 backcross and CRR strain (h2b = 0.93 and 0.89; myxospores fish−1 = 97865 and 187595, respectively). Comparison of means and a joint-scaling test suggest that resistance alleles arising from the GR strain are dominant to susceptible alleles from the CRR strain. Resistance was retained in the intermediate crosses but decreased as filial generation number increased (F2) or backcrossing occurred (B2). The estimated number of segregating loci responsible for differences in myxospore count in the parental strains was 9 ± 5. Our results indicate that resistance to M. cerebralis is a heritable trait within these populations and would respond to either artificial selection in hatcheries or natural selection in the wild.
Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Giambérini, Laure
The zebra mussel is the intermediate host for two digenean trematodes, Phyllodistomum folium and Bucephalus polymorphus, infecting gills and the gonad respectively. Many gray areas exist relating to the host physiological disturbances associated with these infections, and the strategies used by these parasites to exploit their host without killing it. The aim of this study was to examine the host exploitation strategies of these trematodes and the associated host physiological disturbances. We hypothesized that these two parasite species, by infecting two different organs (gills or gonads), do not induce the same physiological changes. Four cellular responses (lysosomal and peroxisomal defence systems, lipidic peroxidation and lipidic reserves) in the host digestive gland were studied by histochemistry and stereology, as well as the energetic reserves available in gonads. Moreover, two indices were calculated related to the reproductive status and the physiological condition of the organisms. Both parasites induced adjustments of zebra mussel life history traits. The host-exploitation strategy adopted by P. folium would occur during a short-term period due to gill deformation, and could be defined as "virulent." Moreover, this parasite had significant host gender-dependent effects: infected males displayed a slowed-down metabolism and energetic reserves more allocated to growth, whereas females displayed better defences and would allocate more energy to reproduction and maintenance. In contrast, B. polymorphus would be a more "prudent" parasite, exploiting its host during a long-term period through the consumption of reserves allocated to reproduction.
Full Text Available The zebra mussel is the intermediate host for two digenean trematodes, Phyllodistomum folium and Bucephalus polymorphus, infecting gills and the gonad respectively. Many gray areas exist relating to the host physiological disturbances associated with these infections, and the strategies used by these parasites to exploit their host without killing it. The aim of this study was to examine the host exploitation strategies of these trematodes and the associated host physiological disturbances. We hypothesized that these two parasite species, by infecting two different organs (gills or gonads, do not induce the same physiological changes. Four cellular responses (lysosomal and peroxisomal defence systems, lipidic peroxidation and lipidic reserves in the host digestive gland were studied by histochemistry and stereology, as well as the energetic reserves available in gonads. Moreover, two indices were calculated related to the reproductive status and the physiological condition of the organisms. Both parasites induced adjustments of zebra mussel life history traits. The host-exploitation strategy adopted by P. folium would occur during a short-term period due to gill deformation, and could be defined as "virulent." Moreover, this parasite had significant host gender-dependent effects: infected males displayed a slowed-down metabolism and energetic reserves more allocated to growth, whereas females displayed better defences and would allocate more energy to reproduction and maintenance. In contrast, B. polymorphus would be a more "prudent" parasite, exploiting its host during a long-term period through the consumption of reserves allocated to reproduction.
Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Russell, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, D S; Paris, Joel
This study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism and dependency respectively moderated the effects of perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity on negative affect during interpersonal interactions in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of 38 patients with BPD and matched community comparison participants completed event-contingent record forms after each significant interaction for a 20-day period. Multilevel models showed that, controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and neuroticism, as well as lagged negative affect, event-level elevations in perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity were related to more negative affect in both groups. Event-level perceived inferiority was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of self-criticism, while event-level perceived emotional insecurity was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of dependency. No significant interactions emerged for the comparison group. These findings further our understanding of differences among patients with BPD and support the application of personality-vulnerability or diathesis-stress models in predicting negative affect in BPD. Results have implications for the design of therapies for patients with BPD.
Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018
Barrett, Frederick S; Janata, Petr
Nostalgia is an emotion that is most commonly associated with personally and socially relevant memories. It is primarily positive in valence and is readily evoked by music. It is also an idiosyncratic experience that varies between individuals based on affective traits. We identified frontal, limbic, paralimbic, and midbrain brain regions in which the strength of the relationship between ratings of nostalgia evoked by music and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal was predicted by affective personality measures (nostalgia proneness and the sadness scale of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales) that are known to modulate the strength of nostalgic experiences. We also identified brain areas including the inferior frontal gyrus, substantia nigra, cerebellum, and insula in which time-varying BOLD activity correlated more strongly with the time-varying tonal structure of nostalgia-evoking music than with music that evoked no or little nostalgia. These findings illustrate one way in which the reward and emotion regulation networks of the brain are recruited during the experiencing of complex emotional experiences triggered by music. These findings also highlight the importance of considering individual differences when examining the neural responses to strong and idiosyncratic emotional experiences. Finally, these findings provide a further demonstration of the use of time-varying stimulus-specific information in the investigation of music-evoked experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel
Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistant plants were introduced thus allowing the application of the herbicide to the crop (post-emergence) to remove emerged weeds without crop damage. This review focuses on the evolution of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate as obtained through natural diversity, the gene shuffling approach to molecular evolution, and a rational, structure-based approach to protein engineering. In addition, we offer rationale for the means by which the modifications made have had their intended effect. PMID:21668647
Pozar, Gilberto; Butruille, David; Silva, Heyder Diniz; McCuddin, Zoe Patterson; Penna, Julio Cesar Viglioni
Breeding for resistance to gray leaf spot, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis (Cz) is paramount for many maize environments, in particular under warm and humid growing conditions. In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the resistance of maize against Cz. We confirmed the impact of the QTL on disease severity using near-isogenic lines (NILs), and estimated their effects on three major agronomic traits using their respective near isogenic hybrids (NIHs), which we obtained by crossing the NILs with an inbred from a complementary heterotic pool. We further validated three of the four QTL that were mapped using the Multiple Interval Mapping approach and showed LOD values>2.5. NILs genotype included all combinations between favorable alleles of the two QTL located in chromosome 1 (Q1 in bin 1.05 and Q2 in bin 1.07), and the allele in chromosome 3 (Q3 in bin 3.07). Each of the three QTL separately significantly reduced the severity of Cz. However, we found an unfavorable epistatic interaction between Q1 and Q2: presence of the favorable allele at one of the QTL allele effectively nullified the effect of the favorable allele at the other. In contrast, the interaction between Q2 and Q3 was additive, promoting the reduction of the severity to a greater extent than the sum of their individual effects. When evaluating the NIH we found significant individual effects for Q1 and Q3 on gray leaf spot severity, for Q2 on stalk lodging and grain yield, and for Q3 on grain moisture and stalk lodging. We detected significant epitasis between Q1 and Q2 for grain moisture and between Q1 and Q3 for stalk lodging. These results suggest that the combination of QTL impacts the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection procedures in commercial product development programs.
毛伟; 李玉霖; 张铜会; 赵学勇; 黄迎新; 宋琳琳
植物叶性状与植物个体、群落、生态系统功能的基本行为和功能具有密切相关性,可反映植物适应环境变化所形成的生存对策。目前有关叶性状的研究非常多,从不同尺度（个体尺度、功能群尺度、群落尺度和区域及全球尺度）对叶的性状进行了研究。个体尺度叶性状的研究着重于揭示单个或多个植物种叶性状对不同环境因子（如温度、土壤水分等）的响应;不同功能群之间植物性状的分异表明环境因子对功能群而言存在选择压力（如低氮）,但在功能群内部,选择压力较弱;随群落结构的改变,群落叶性状平均值和建群种叶性状均存在显著变化;大尺度（区域和全球）的研究有助于定量化阐述叶性状分异规律及其与气候等环境因子之间的相关性。目前的研究没有从机理上阐述清楚植物叶性状对环境因子的响应、群落构建过程中植物叶性状的指示作用、叶性状分异的生物地理格局等,在未来的研究中应予以更多关注。%Plant leaf traits are associated with fundamental behavior and function of plant individual,community,and ecosystem.It can reflect plant survival strategy response to different environmental factors.We synthesize the research advance on leaf traits at different ecology scale,such as individual scale,functional group scale,community scale and global scale.Individual scale focuses on the leaf traits response to environment factor or muti-factors,such as temperature,soil moisture and soil nutrient.The differences of leaf traits occur among different functional groups,it probably is an outcome of environment selection,and the selective pressure is relatively weak within each group.As the community structure changes,the leaf traits average value of the community and the leaf traits of the dominate species also changes.Studies at large-scale reveal that high level of trait disparity is observed within community
Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G.
This study tested differences in personality traits measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a community sample of adolescents with definite or probable conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses that did not progress to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) by early adulthood (n=43), those with definite or probable…
Full Text Available High trait anxiety is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Like the disorders themselves high trait anxiety has marked phenotypic variation at the level of symptomatology and neural circuits, suggesting that there may be different symptoms and distinct neural circuits associated with risk for these disorders. To address these issues, it is essential to develop reliable animal models of trait anxiety in a non-human primate whose brain bears structural and functional similarity to humans. The present study investigated individual variation in responsivity to fearful and anxiety provoking stimuli in the common marmoset monkey. Seven out of 27 animals failed to display discriminative, conditioned cardiovascular and behavioral responses on an auditory fear discrimination task, similar to that seen in high anxious humans and rodents. Their heightened emotionality to a rubber snake was consistent with the hypothesis that they were high in trait-like anxiety. Evidence for phenotypic variation in the high anxiety group was provided by the finding that discrimination failure was predicted early in conditioning by either hyper-vigilant scanning to the cues or a reduction in blood pressure to the context, i.e. test apparatus. Given that high trait anxiety in humans can be associated with altered prefrontal cognitive functioning and previously we implicated the marmoset anterior orbitofrontal (antOFC and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC in negative emotion regulation, we also tested the marmosets on two tests of cognitive flexibility differentially dependent on these two regions. While the high anxious group did not differ overall in their perseverative performance, the two distinct phenotypes were differentially correlated with reduced perseverative responding on the OFC- and vlPFC-dependent flexibility tests. Together, this study provides a new model of trait anxiety in marmosets amenable to analysis of phenotypic variation and
闫春平; 申鲁军; 杜卫; 高红丽; 杨世昌
Objective: To explore the gender differences in characteristics of trait inferences and behavior inferences.Methods: The experiment which used Maass' paradigm was carried out in 30 male and 34 female college students.Results: ①Male subjects' recognition accuracy of trait word was lower than female subjects' (P＜0.001).②Male subjects' reaction time of trait word and behavior information was longer than female subjects' (P＜0.001).③Male subjects' trait inferences were less than female subjects' (P＜0.001).④Male subjects' reaction time of trait inferences was longer than female's (P＜0.001).Conclusion: Females are better at trait inference than male,but there is no significant gender difference in behavior inference.%目的:探讨个体特质推论与行为推论的性别差异.方法:采用Maass等人提出的反应时研究范式对30名男大学生和34名女大学生进行实验研究.结果:①就信息再认正确率而言,男生对特质词的反应显著低于女生(P<0.001) ;②男生对特质词和行为信息的反应时均显著高于女生(P<0.001);③男生特质推论数量显著低于女生(P<0.001);④在反应时上,男生特质推论显著高于女生(P<0.001).结论:在特质推论方面女生好于男生,行为推论上二者没有差异.
Henryon, M.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Nielsen, Jens
It was reasoned that, if we used a large sample of pigs, we could demonstrate that total and differential numbers of leukocytes, expression levels of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) I and II, and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin show additive genetic variation and are, therefore......; 1217 of the Duroc and Landrace pigs were also assessed for expression levels of SLA I and II. We estimated the amount of additive genetic variation by fitting linear animal models to the total and differential numbers of leukocytes and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin. We fitted linear sire...... models to the expression levels of SLA I and II. We detected additive genetic variation for each group of traits. Total and differential numbers of leukocytes were moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.22 to 0.30), expression levels of SLA I and II were moderate-to-highly heritable (h(2) = 0.46 to 1.23), while...
Jahn, Leonie Johanna; Munck, Christian; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim
Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to human health, wherefore it is crucial to study the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance as well as its emergence and dissemination. One way to analyze the acquisition of de novo mutations conferring antibiotic resistance is adaptive laboratory evolution....... However, various evolution methods exist that utilize different population sizes, selection strengths, and bottlenecks. While evolution in increasing drug gradients guarantees high-level antibiotic resistance promising to identify the most potent resistance conferring mutations, other selection regimes...... compare the geno- and phenotypes of Escherichia coli after evolution to Amikacin, Piperacillin, and Tetracycline under four different selection regimes. Interestingly, key mutations that confer antibiotic resistance as well as phenotypic changes like collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance emerge...
Brewster, L M; Taherzadeh, Z; Volger, S; Clark, J F; Rolf, T; Wolf, H; Vanbavel, E; van Montfrans, G A
Black women are at a greater risk to develop hypertension during pregnancy, with a 4.5 times higher rate of fatal preeclampsia than white women. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that may affect this risk. Our group previously proposed that high activity of the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, creatine kinase (CK), may increase ATP-buffering capacity and lead to enhanced vascular contractility and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore, we assessed microvascular contractility characteristics in isolated resistance arteries from self-defined black and white normotensive pregnant women using a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Additionally, morphology was assessed with electron microscopy. Resistance-sized arteries obtained from omentum donated during cesarean sections (11 black women and 20 white women, mean age: 34 yr) studied in series showed similar morphology but significantly greater maximum contractions to norepinephrine (10(-5) M) in blacks [14.0 mN (1.8 SE)] compared with whites [8.9 mN (1.4 SE), P = 0.02]. Furthermore, we found greater residual contractility after the specific CK inhibitor dinitrofluorobenzene (10(-6) M) in black women [55% (6 SE)] compared with white women [28% (4 SE), P = 0.001] and attenuated vasodilation after bradykinin (10(-7) M) in black women [103% (6 SE)] compared with white women [84% (5 SE), P = 0.023], whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (10(-4) M) and amlodipine (10(-6) M) were similar. We conclude that compared with white women, normotensive pregnant black women display greater resistance artery contractility and evidence of higher vascular CK activity with attenuated nitric oxide synthesis. These findings in normotensives may imply that the black population is at risk for a further incline in pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders.
de Faria, Ana Paula; Ritter, Alessandra M V; Sabbatini, Andréa R; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Heitor
Leptin is associated to the lack of blood pressure control as well as target organ damage in resistant hypertensive (RH) subjects. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7799039 and rs1137101 in leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes, respectively, are associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the association of these two SNPs with clinical and biochemical features in 109 apparent treatment-RH subjects (aTRH) and 125 controlled hypertensives. Homozygous genotypes GG (n = 43) vs. AA (n = 14) for rs7799039 and AA (n = 34) vs. GG (n = 26) genotypes for rs1137101 were compared in aTRH subjects. There was no difference in leptin levels among both SNPs. On the other hand, LEP SNP (GG vs. AA) associated with the levels of glycated haemoglobin (6.4 ± 1.4 vs. 7.8 ± 2.3%, p = 0.03), insulin (8.6 ± 4.6 vs. 30.6 ± 27.7 uUI/mL, p = 0.01), HDL-cholesterol (51 ± 16 vs. 39 ± 11 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and PWV (9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 11.2 ± 2.8 m/s, p = 0.03). LEPR SNP (AA vs. GG), associated with heart rate (69 ± 12 vs. 67 ± 12 bpm, p = 0.03), fat mass (31 ± 11 vs. 24 ± 8 kg, p = 0.03) and triglycerides levels (175 ± 69 vs. 135 ± 75 mg/dL, p = 0.03). These findings may be clinically useful for identifying a group of aTRH who may have a LEP and/or LEPR gene variants, which may predispose this specific group to worse or better outcomes.
Antibiotic resistance consists of a dynamic web. In this review, we describe the path by which different antibiotic residues and antibioticresistance genes disseminate among relevant reservoirs (human, animal, and environmental settings), evaluating how these events contribute tothe current scenario of antibiotic resistance. The relationship between the spread of resistance and the contribution of different genetic elementsand events is revisited, exploring examples of the processes by which ...
Ali, Fawad; Kanwal, Naila; Ahsan, Muhammmad; Ali, Qurban; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan
This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P < 0.05) with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.
This study assesses whether oxidative stress, using oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) as a proxy, is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), whether ox-LDL mediates the association between central obesity and MS, and whether insulin resistance mediates the association between ox-LDL and MS. We examined baselin...
Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...
The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.
Bolaji Fatai OYEYEMI
Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. There are contradicting reports on its relationship with ethnicity/race, whereas convincing studies show it is related to obesity. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to demystify ethnic difference in 2D:4D ratio and to analyze its relationship with obesity among adults in Ilorin Nigeria. The cross-sectional study included 701 individuals. Finger lengths were measured with electronic calipers and other anthropometric traits were measured with standard procedure. Student t test and one-way ANOVA were used to detect differences among groups and relationship was computed with Pearson correlation. The receiver operator characteristic curves were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for obesity. The obtained results showed sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D ratio and other anthropometrics at p < 0.01. Obesity was associated with significantly higher mean of 2D:4D in both genders (female 0.9814 ± 0.012:0.9700 ± 0.012; male 0.9700 ± 0.010:0.9592 ± 0.010 at p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.753 (95% CI 0.677-0.829, p < 0.01 and 0.798 (95% CI 0.756-0.804, p < 0.01 in female and male R2D:4D respectively for obesity, implying that 2D:4D might be a surrogate marker for obesity in future. No significant difference was found in 2D:4D among different ethnic groups studied (p >0.05; this result proved that there was no ethnic specificity in 2D:4D ratio among study’ participants. Thus, it can be reported that the digit ratio was related to high 2D:4D, but this cannot be said for different ethnic groups. The results imply that 2D:4D might be a good surrogate indicator for obesity, but not ethnicity.
Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal
The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428
Lu, Yang; Chen, I.-Wei
It is generally impossible in two-terminal devices to separate the resistance of the device material from the parasitic resistance of terminals, interfaces, and serial loads, yet such information is needed to understand device physics. Here, we present an exact resistance-difference analysis, for a library of similarly configured two-terminal devices with self-similar material responses to external perturbations (electric current, temperature, and magnetic field), to obtain the relative conductivity change Δσ/σ in the device material using device-resistance data only. An outstanding example is nanometallic Mo/Si3N4:Pt/Pt resistance memory, in which electrons in Si3N4:Pt—the device material—display entirely different physics from those in the Pt and Mo electrodes. Our method unraveled their individual Δσ/σ, which for Si3N4:Pt exhibits self-similarity over different resistance states and film thicknesses.
Caniça, Manuela; Manageiro, Vera; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Clemente, Lurdes; Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Poeta, Patrícia; Dias, Elsa; Ferreira, Eugénia
Antibiotic resistance consists of a dynamic web. In this review, we describe the path by which different antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance genes disseminate among relevant reservoirs (human, animal, and environmental settings), evaluating how these events contribute to the current scenario of antibiotic resistance. The relationship between the spread of resistance and the contribution of different genetic elements and events is revisited, exploring examples of the processes by which successful mobile resistance genes spread across different niches. The importance of classic and next generation molecular approaches, as well as action plans and policies which might aid in the fight against antibiotic resistance, are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dai, G J; Cheng, S H; Hua, Z T; Zhang, M L; Jiang, H B; Feng, Y; Shen, X H; Su, Y A; He, N; Ma, Z B; Ma, X Q; Hou, S G; Wang, Y R
Genetic improvement is the fundamental basis for improving nitrogen-use efficiency. A better understanding of genetic factors controlling nitrogen uptake and utilization is required for crop genetic improvement. In this study, we identified the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of nitrogen uptake and utilization by using the single-sequence repeat marker method and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a super hybrid Xieyou9308. All the traits investigated were inherited quantitatively by continuous variation and showed normal distribution in phenotype with transgressive segregation in the RIL population. Most of the traits were significantly correlated with each other except for nitrogen absorption ability (NAA) with nitrogen harvest index (NHI) and NHI with agricultural nitrogen-absorption efficiency (ANAE). At logarithmic odds value of 2.3, total 13 candidate QTLs, including 4 for NAA, 2 for NHI, 2 for physiological nitrogen-use efficiency, 1 for agricultural nitrogen-use efficiency (ANUE), and 4 for ANAE, were detected and mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Significant pleiotropic effect or neighboring expression of QTLs was observed among traits. At position 64.8 cM on chromosome 4 near the marker RM5757, there was a QTL cluster of NAA, ANUE, and ANAE, and at chromosome 5 near the marker RM5968, there was a QTL cluster of NAA and ANUE. The QTL clusters might provide partial explanation and genetic mechanism for the observed correlations between nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency traits and might form a basis for future breeding programs.
Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia
The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.
Saeed YOUSEFZADEH; Naser Sabaghnia
evaluate the effects of iron nano-fertilizer rates (0, 1, 2 and 3 g l-1) and planting density levels (10, 15, 20 and 40 cm) on the fresh herb, essential oil content and other traits under the natural conditions. Traits such as number of flowering branches (NFB), height of first flowering branch (HFB), number of secondary branches (NSB), stem diameter (SD), essential oil content (EOC), dry mass (DM), essential oil yield (EOY), total anthocyanins (TA), chlorophyll a (CA), chlorophyll b (CB), fl...
Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman
Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficulties in empirically measuring this at sea where it usually occurs. For 10 years (2003-2012), macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were marked with subcutaneous electronic transponder tags and re-encountered using an automated gateway system fitted at the entrance to the colony. We used multistate mark-recapture modelling to identify the different drivers influencing survival rates and a sensitivity analysis to assess their relative importance across different life stages. Survival rates were low and variable during the fledging year (mean = 0·33), increasing to much higher levels from age 1 onwards (mean = 0·89). We show that survival of macaroni penguins is driven by a combination of individual quality, top-down predation pressure and bottom-up environmental forces. The relative importance of these covariates was age specific. During the fledging year, survival rates were most sensitive to top-down predation pressure, followed by individual fledging mass, and finally bottom-up environmental effects. In contrast, birds older than 1 year showed a similar response to bottom-up environmental effects and top-down predation pressure. We infer from our results that macaroni penguins will most likely be negatively impacted by an increase in the local population size of giant petrels. Furthermore, this population is, at least in the short term, likely to be positively influenced by local warming. More broadly, our results highlight the importance of considering multiple causal effects across
Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson
This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, pinternet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to locate chromosomes for improving water and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance of wheat at the seedling stage. A set of Chinese Spring- Egyptian Red wheat substitution lines and their parent Chinese Spring (recipient and Egyptian Red (donor cultivars were measured to determine the chromosomal locations of genes controlling water use efficiency (WUE and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE under different water and phosphorus conditions. The results underlined that chromosomes 1A, 7A, 7B, and 3A showed higher leaf water use efficiency (WUEl = Pn/Tr; Pn = photosynthetic rate; Tr = transpiration rate under W-P (Hoagland solution with1/2P, -W-P (Hoagland solution with 1/2P and 10% PEG. Chromosomes 7A, 3D, 2B, 3B, and 4B may carry genes for positive effects on individual plant water use efficiency (WUEp = biomass/TWC; TWC = total water consumption under WP (Hoagland solution, W-P and -W-P treatment. Chromosomes 7A and 7D carry genes for PUE enhancement under WP, -WP (Hoagland solution with 10% PEG and W-P treatment. Chromosome 7A possibly has genes for controlling WUE and PUE simultaneously, which indicates that WUE and PUE may share the same genetic background. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of the investigated traits showed that photosynthetic rate (Pn and transpiration rate (Tr, Tr and WUEl showed significant positive and negative correlations under WP, W-P, -WP and -W-P, W-P, -WP treatments, respectively. Dry mass (DM, WUEP, PUT (phosphorus uptake all showed significant positive correlation under WP, W-P and -WP treatment. PUE and phosphorus uptake (PUT = P uptake per plant showed significant negative correlation under the four treatments. The results might provide useful information for improving WUE and PUE in wheat genetics.
Mahé, A; Bannerot, H; Grisvard, J
A suitable experimental model was designed with the aim of investigating the specific effect of different resistance genes in the Phaseolus vulgaris - Colletotrichum lindemuthianum interaction. The four resistance genes examined were chosen because they confer a different phenotype (resistance or susceptibility) to the lines carrying them when challenged by a range of C. lindemuthianum races. These different resistance genes were introgressed independently into the same susceptible recipient line. The isogenicity of the five near-isogenic lines (NILs) thus obtained (four resistant lines, one susceptible line = recipient line) was assessed by a RAPD analysis. The hypersensitive reaction occurred at the same time after infection, whatever the resistance gene present, when the NILs were challenged by the avirulent race 9 of the pathogen. In contrast, the pathogen development was arrested more or less rapidly in the different NILs. At the first stages of the infection process, the transcripts encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were accumulated to a different extent in the different resistant NILs but always to a higher level than in the susceptible recipient line. These results suggest that the different resistance genes operate through more than one way in the production of defense factors.
Rolli, Eleonora; Marasco, Ramona; Vigani, Gianpiero; Ettoumi, Besma; Mapelli, Francesca; Deangelis, Maria Laura; Gandolfi, Claudio; Casati, Enrico; Previtali, Franco; Gerbino, Roberto; Pierotti Cei, Fabio; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Zocchi, Graziano; Daffonchio, Daniele
Although drought is an increasing problem in agriculture, the contribution of the root-associated bacterial microbiome to plant adaptation to water stress is poorly studied. We investigated if the culturable bacterial microbiome associated with five grapevine rootstocks and the grapevine cultivar Barbera may enhance plant growth under drought stress. Eight isolates, over 510 strains, were tested in vivo for their capacity to support grapevine growth under water stress. The selected strains exhibited a vast array of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits, and confocal microscopy observation of gfp-labelled Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas isolates showed their ability to adhere and colonize both the Arabidopsis and grapevine rhizoplane. Tests on pepper plants fertilized with the selected strains, under both optimal irrigation and drought conditions, showed that PGP activity was a stress-dependent and not a per se feature of the strains. The isolates were capable of increasing shoot and leaf biomass, shoot length, and photosynthetic activity of drought-challenged grapevines, with an enhanced effect in drought-sensitive rootstock. Three isolates were further assayed for PGP capacity under outdoor conditions, exhibiting the ability to increase grapevine root biomass. Overall, the results indicate that PGP bacteria contribute to improve plant adaptation to drought through a water stress-induced promotion ability.
Wang, Lihua; Shan, Dan; Zhang, Yueliang; Liu, Xiangdong; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Zhichun; Fang, Jichao
The resistance of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatella, to insecticides has been widely found in China, and has posed serious problems to efforts to control the pest. To determine the costs and benefits of resistance, the life tables of chlorpyrifos-resistant and -susceptible strains were constructed at 24 and 30°C. The results showed the resistant SBPH (YN-CPF) had lower fitness at 24°C, but slightly higher fitness at 30°C compared to the susceptible SBPH. Transcriptomic analysis showed there are five heat shock protein genes changed their expression, and the up-regulated genes are LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2. The deduced amino acid sequences of LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 include three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family signatures, but LsHSC70-1 has the conserved HSP70 carboxyl terminal region of the "EEVD" motif, while LsHSC70-2 has the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal of the "KDEL" motif. The phylogenetic tree further identified LsHsc70-1 has closer evolutionary distances to cytoplasmic/nuclear HSP70s from human and Drosophila melanogaster, while LsHsc70-2 has closer evolutionary distances to HSP70s localized to ER. After treatment at 30-44°C, the expression of LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 was slightly increased in YN-CPF. These results suggested that LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 are members of Hsc70 family, localized to the cytosol/nucleus and ER, respectively. The up-regulated expression of these genes may protect the chlorpyrifos-resistant pest against damage under high temperatures, increasing its relative fitness, but the lower relative fitness of this population under optimal temperature may be the trade-off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.